Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

Search results for: Renaud Dalaunay

9 Study of Buried Interfaces in Fe/Si Multilayer by Hard X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: Hina Verma, Karine Le Guen, Renaud Dalaunay, Iyas Ismail, Vita Ilakovac, Jean Pascal Rueff, Yunlin Jacques Zheng, Philippe Jonnard

Abstract:

To the extent of our knowledge, X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) has been applied in the soft x-ray region (photon energy ≤ 2 keV) to study the buried layers and interfaces of stacks of nanometer-thin films. Now we extend the methodology to study the buried interfaces in the hard X-ray region (i.e., ≥ five keV). The emission spectra allow us to study the interactions between elements in the buried layers from the analysis of their valence states, thereby providing sensitive information about the physical-chemical environment of the emitting element in multilayers. We exploit the chemical sensitivity of XES to study the interfaces between Fe and Si layers in the Fe/Si multilayer from the Fe Kβ₂,₅ emission spectra (7108 eV). The Fe Kβ₅ emission line results from the electronic transition from occupied 3d to 1s levels (i.e., valence to core transition) and is hence sensitive to the chemical state of emitting Fe atoms. The comparison of emission spectra recorded for Fe/Si multilayer with Fe and FeSi₂ references reveal the formation of FeSi₂ at the Fe-Si interfaces inside the multilayer stack. The interfacial thickness was calculated to be 1.4 ± 0.2 nm by taking into consideration the intensity of Fe atoms emitted from the interface and the Fe layer. The formation of FeSi₂ at the interface was further confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy done on the Fe/Si multilayer. Hence, we can conclude that the XES in the hard X-ray range could be used to study multilayers and their interfaces and obtain information both qualitatively and quantitatively.

Keywords: buried interfaces, hard X-ray emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

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8 The Finance of Happiness: Thinking Finance from the Science of Happiness Perspective

Authors: Renaud Gaucher

Abstract:

Research on happiness has developed significantly in the past fifty years and economics and the political science are starting to be influenced by advances in the field. Until recently, finance has stayed outside this movement. The goal of our research is to integrate finance into this movement conceptually. We explain the why, the what and the how of the finance of happiness. We then study the relationship between corporate finance and happiness. We discuss the optimization of the relationship between the financial performance of a firm and the happiness at work of its employees, and the reduction of financial risk by developing goods that foster the happiness of their users. Finally we look at the development of happiness investment funds, that is investment funds founded on happiness research, and the best ways to share risks and earnings to build a happier society.

Keywords: finance, happiness, investment fund, risk

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7 A Framework for SQL Learning: Linking Learning Taxonomy, Cognitive Model and Cross Cutting Factors

Authors: Huda Al Shuaily, Karen Renaud

Abstract:

Databases comprise the foundation of most software systems. System developers inevitably write code to query these databases. The de facto language for querying is SQL and this, consequently, is the default language taught by higher education institutions. There is evidence that learners find it hard to master SQL, harder than mastering other programming languages such as Java. Educators do not agree about explanations for this seeming anomaly. Further investigation may well reveal the reasons. In this paper, we report on our investigations into how novices learn SQL, the actual problems they experience when writing SQL, as well as the differences between expert and novice SQL query writers. We conclude by presenting a model of SQL learning that should inform the instructional material design process better to support the SQL learning process.

Keywords: pattern, SQL, learning, model

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6 Users’ Information Disclosure Determinants in Social Networking Sites: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Wajdan Al Malwi, Karen Renaud, Lewis Mackenzie

Abstract:

The privacy paradox describes a phenomenon whereby there is no connection between stated privacy concerns and privacy behaviours. We need to understand the underlying reasons for this paradox if we are to help users to preserve their privacy more effectively. In particular, the Social Networking System (SNS) domain offers a rich area of investigation due to the risks of unwise information disclosure decisions. Our study thus aims to untangle the complicated nature and underlying mechanisms of online privacy-related decisions in SNSs. In this paper, we report on the findings of a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) that revealed a number of factors that are likely to influence online privacy decisions. Our deductive analysis approach was informed by Communicative Privacy Management (CPM) theory. We uncovered a lack of clarity around privacy attitudes and their link to behaviours, which makes it challenging to design privacy-protecting SNS platforms and to craft legislation to ensure that users’ privacy is preserved.

Keywords: privacy paradox, self-disclosure, privacy attitude, privacy behavior, social networking sites

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5 Psychological Contract and Job Embeddedness Perspectives to Understand Cynicism as a Behavioural Response to Pressures in the Workplace

Authors: Merkouche Wassila, Marchand Alain, Renaud Stéphane

Abstract:

Organizations are facing competitive pressures constraining them to modify their practices and change initial work conditions of employees, however, these modifications have to sustain initial quality of work and engagements toward the workforce. We focus on the importance of promises in the perspective of psychological contract. According to this perspective, employees perceiving a breach of the expected obligations from the employer may become unsatisfied at work and develop organizational withdrawal behaviors. These are negative counterproductive behaviours aiming to damage the organisation according to the principle of reciprocity and social exchange. We present an integrative model of the determinants and manifestations of organizational withdrawal (OW), a set of behaviors allowing the employee to leave his job or avoid his assigned work. OW contains two main components often studied in silos: work withdrawal (delays, absenteeism and other adverse behaviors) and job withdrawal (turnover). We use the systemic micro, meso and macro sociological approach designing the individual at the heart of a system containing individual, organizational, and environmental determinants. Under the influence of these different factors, the individual assesses the type of behavior to adopt. We provide better lighting for understanding OW using both psychological contract approach through the perception of its respect by the organization and job embeddedness approach which explains why the employee does not leave the organization and then remains in his post while practicing negative and counterproductive behaviors such as OW. We study specifically cynicism as a type of OW as it is a dimension of burnout. We focus on the antecedents of cynicism to try to prevent it in the workplace.

Keywords: burnout, cynicism, job embeddedness, organizational withdrawal, psychological contract

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4 Effect of Water Addition on Catalytic Activity for CO2 Purification from Oxyfuel Combustion

Authors: Joudia Akil, Stephane Siffert, Laurence Pirault-Roy, Renaud Cousin, Christophe Poupin

Abstract:

Oxyfuel combustion is a promising method that enables to obtain a CO2 rich stream, with water vapor ( ̴10%), unburned components such as CO and NO, which must be cleaned before the use of CO2. Our objective is then the final treatment of CO and NO by catalysis. Three-way catalysts are well-developed material for simultaneous conversion of NO, CO and hydrocarbons. Pt and/or Rh ensure a quasi-complete removal of NOx, CO and HC and there is also a growing interest in partly replacing Pt with less-expensive Pd. The use of alumina and ceria as support ensures, respectively, the stabilization of such species in active state and discharging or storing oxygen to control the oxidation of CO and HC and the reduction of NOx. In this work, we will compare different metals (Pd, Rh and Pt) supported on Al2O3 and CeO2, for CO2 purification from oxyfuel combustion. The catalyst must reduce NO by CO in an oxidizing environment, in the presence of CO2 rich stream and resistant to water. In this study, Al2O3 and CeO2 were used as support materials of the catalysts. 1wt% M/Support where M = Pd, Rh or Pt catalysts were obtained by wet impregnation on supports with a precursor of palladium [Pd(acac)2], rhodium [Rh(NO3)3] and platinum [Pt(NO2)2(NO3)2]. Materials were characterized by BET surface area, H2 chemisorption, and TEM. Catalytic activity was evaluated in CO2 purification which is carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor containing 150 mg of catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The flow of the reactant gases is composed of: 20% CO2, 10% O2, 0.5% CO, 0.02% NO and 8.2% H2O (He as eluent gas) with a total flow of 200 mL.min−1, with same GHSV (2.24x104 h-1). The catalytic performances of the samples were investigated with and without water. It shows that the total oxidation of CO occurred over the different materials. This study evidenced an important effect of the nature of the metals, supports and the presence or absence of H2O during the reduction of NO by CO in oxyfuel combustions conditions. Rh based catalysts show that the addition of water has a very positive influence especially on the Rh catalyst on CeO2. Pt based catalysts keep a good activity despite the addition of water on the both supports studied. For the NO reduction, addition of water act as a poison with Pd catalysts. The interesting results of Rh based catalysts with water can be explained by a production of hydrogen through the water gas shift reaction. The produced hydrogen acts as a more effective reductant than CO for NO removal. Furthermore, in TWCs, Rh is the main component responsible for NOx reduction due to its especially high activity for NO dissociation. Moreover, cerium oxide is a promotor for WGSR.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, environmental chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis

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3 Abatement of NO by CO on Pd Catalysts: Influence of the Support in Oxyfuel Combustion Conditions

Authors: Joudia Akil, Stephane Siffert, Laurence Pirault-Roy, Renaud Cousin, Christophe Poupin

Abstract:

The CO2 emitted from anthropic activities is perceived as a constraint in industrial activity due to taxes, stringent environmental regulations, impact on global warming… To limit these CO2 emissions, reuse of CO2 represents a promising alternative, with important applications in chemical industry and for power generation. However, CO2 valorization process requires a gas as pure as possible Oxyfuel-combustion that enables obtaining a CO2 rich stream, with water vapor (10%) is then interesting. Nevertheless to decrease the amount of the by-products found with the CO2 (especially CO and NOx which are harmful to the environment) a catalytic treatment must be applied. Nowadays three-way catalysts are well-developed material for simultaneous conversion of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). The use of Pd attracted considerable attention on the basis of economic factors (the high cost and scarcity of Pt and Rh). This explains the large number of studies concerning the CO-NO reaction on Pd in the recent years. In the present study, we will compare a series of Pd materials supported on different oxides for CO2 purification from the oxyfuel combustion system, by reducing NO with CO in an oxidizing environment containing CO2 rich stream and presence of 8.2% of water. Al2O3, CeO2, MgO, SiO2 and TiO2 were used as support materials of the catalysts. 1wt% Pd/Support catalysts were obtained by wet impregnation on supports with a precursor of palladium [Pd(acac)2]. The obtained samples were subsequently characterized by H2 chemisorption, BET surface area and TEM. Finally, their catalytic performances were evaluated in CO2 purification which is carried out in a fixed-bed flow reactor containing 150 mg of catalyst at atmospheric pressure. The flow of the reactant gases is composed of: 20% CO2, 10% O2, 0.5% CO, 0.02% NO and 8.2% H2O (He as eluent gas) with a total flow of 200mL.min−1, in the same GHSV. The catalytic performance of the Pd catalysts for CO2 purification revealed that: -The support material has a strong influence on the catalytic activity of 1wt.% Pd supported catalysts. depending of the nature of support, the Pd-based catalysts activity changes. -The highest reduction of NO with CO is obtained in the following ranking: TiO2>CeO2>Al2O3. -The supports SiO2 and MgO should be avoided for this reaction, -Total oxidation of CO occurred over different materials, -CO2 purification can reach 97%, -The presence of H2O has a positive effect on the NO reduction due to the production of the reductant H2 from WGS reaction H2O+CO → H2+CO2

Keywords: carbon dioxide, environmental chemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, oxyfuel combustion

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2 Li2S Nanoparticles Impact on the First Charge of Li-ion/Sulfur Batteries: An Operando XAS/XES Coupled With XRD Analysis

Authors: Alice Robba, Renaud Bouchet, Celine Barchasz, Jean-Francois Colin, Erik Elkaim, Kristina Kvashnina, Gavin Vaughan, Matjaz Kavcic, Fannie Alloin

Abstract:

With their high theoretical energy density (~2600 Wh.kg-1), lithium/sulfur (Li/S) batteries are highly promising, but these systems are still poorly understood due to the complex mechanisms/equilibria involved. Replacing S8 by Li2S as the active material allows the use of safer negative electrodes, like silicon, instead of lithium metal. S8 and Li2S have different conductivity and solubility properties, resulting in a profoundly changed activation process during the first cycle. Particularly, during the first charge a high polarization and a lack of reproducibility between tests are observed. Differences observed between raw Li2S material (micron-sized) and that electrochemically produced in a battery (nano-sized) may indicate that the electrochemical process depends on the particle size. Then the major focus of the presented work is to deepen the understanding of the Li2S material charge mechanism, and more precisely to characterize the effect of the initial Li2S particle size both on the mechanism and the electrode preparation process. To do so, Li2S nanoparticles were synthetized according to two ways: a liquid path synthesis and a dissolution in ethanol, allowing Li2S nanoparticles/carbon composites to be made. Preliminary chemical and electrochemical tests show that starting with Li2S nanoparticles could effectively suppress the high initial polarization but also influence the electrode slurry preparation. Indeed, it has been shown that classical formulation process - a slurry composed of Polyvinylidone Fluoride polymer dissolved in N-methyle-2-pyrrolidone - cannot be used with Li2S nanoparticles. This reveals a complete different Li2S material behavior regarding polymers and organic solvents when going at the nanometric scale. Then the coupling between two operando characterizations such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Absorption and Emission Spectroscopy (XAS/XES) have been carried out in order to interpret the poorly understood first charge. This study discloses that initial particle size of the active material has a great impact on the working mechanism and particularly on the different equilibria involved during the first charge of the Li2S based Li-ion batteries. These results explain the electrochemical differences and particularly the polarization differences observed during the first charge between micrometric and nanometric Li2S-based electrodes. Finally, this work could lead to a better active material design and so to more efficient Li2S-based batteries.

Keywords: Li-ion/Sulfur batteries, Li2S nanoparticles effect, Operando characterizations, working mechanism

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1 Emotion-Convolutional Neural Network for Perceiving Stress from Audio Signals: A Brain Chemistry Approach

Authors: Anup Anand Deshmukh, Catherine Soladie, Renaud Seguier

Abstract:

Emotion plays a key role in many applications like healthcare, to gather patients’ emotional behavior. Unlike typical ASR (Automated Speech Recognition) problems which focus on 'what was said', it is equally important to understand 'how it was said.' There are certain emotions which are given more importance due to their effectiveness in understanding human feelings. In this paper, we propose an approach that models human stress from audio signals. The research challenge in speech emotion detection is finding the appropriate set of acoustic features corresponding to an emotion. Another difficulty lies in defining the very meaning of emotion and being able to categorize it in a precise manner. Supervised Machine Learning models, including state of the art Deep Learning classification methods, rely on the availability of clean and labelled data. One of the problems in affective computation is the limited amount of annotated data. The existing labelled emotions datasets are highly subjective to the perception of the annotator. We address the first issue of feature selection by exploiting the use of traditional MFCC (Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients) features in Convolutional Neural Network. Our proposed Emo-CNN (Emotion-CNN) architecture treats speech representations in a manner similar to how CNN’s treat images in a vision problem. Our experiments show that Emo-CNN consistently and significantly outperforms the popular existing methods over multiple datasets. It achieves 90.2% categorical accuracy on the Emo-DB dataset. We claim that Emo-CNN is robust to speaker variations and environmental distortions. The proposed approach achieves 85.5% speaker-dependant categorical accuracy for SAVEE (Surrey Audio-Visual Expressed Emotion) dataset, beating the existing CNN based approach by 10.2%. To tackle the second problem of subjectivity in stress labels, we use Lovheim’s cube, which is a 3-dimensional projection of emotions. Monoamine neurotransmitters are a type of chemical messengers in the brain that transmits signals on perceiving emotions. The cube aims at explaining the relationship between these neurotransmitters and the positions of emotions in 3D space. The learnt emotion representations from the Emo-CNN are mapped to the cube using three component PCA (Principal Component Analysis) which is then used to model human stress. This proposed approach not only circumvents the need for labelled stress data but also complies with the psychological theory of emotions given by Lovheim’s cube. We believe that this work is the first step towards creating a connection between Artificial Intelligence and the chemistry of human emotions.

Keywords: deep learning, brain chemistry, emotion perception, Lovheim's cube

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