Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8022

Search results for: energy transfer

8022 Forster Energy Transfer and Optoelectronic Properties of (PFO/TiO2)/Fluorol 7GA Hybrid Thin Films

Authors: Bandar Ali Al-Asbahi, Mohammad Hafizuddin Haji Jumali


Forster energy transfer between poly (9,9'-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl) (PFO)/TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a donor and Fluorol 7GA as an acceptor has been studied. The energy transfer parameters were calculated by using mathematical models. The dominant mechanism responsible for the energy transfer between the donor and acceptor molecules was Forster-type, as evidenced by large values of quenching rate constant, energy transfer rate constant and critical distance of energy transfer. Moreover, these composites which were used as an emissive layer in organic light emitting diodes, were investigated in terms of current density–voltage and electroluminescence spectra.

Keywords: energy transfer parameters, forster-type, electroluminescence, organic light emitting diodes

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8021 Nonlinear Triad Interactions in Magnetohydrodynamic Plasma Turbulence

Authors: Yasser Rammah, Wolf-Christian Mueller


Nonlinear triad interactions in incompressible three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D-MHD) turbulence are studied by analyzing data from high-resolution direct numerical simulations of decaying isotropic (5123 grid points) and forced anisotropic (10242 x256 grid points) turbulence. An accurate numerical approach toward analyzing nonlinear turbulent energy transfer function and triad interactions is presented. It involves the direct numerical examination of every wavenumber triad that is associated with the nonlinear terms in the differential equations of MHD in the inertial range of turbulence. The technique allows us to compute the spectral energy transfer and energy fluxes, as well as the spectral locality property of energy transfer function. To this end, the geometrical shape of each underlying wavenumber triad that contributes to the statistical transfer density function is examined to infer the locality of the energy transfer. Results show that the total energy transfer is local via nonlocal triad interactions in decaying macroscopically isotropic MHD turbulence. In anisotropic MHD, turbulence subject to a strong mean magnetic field the nonlinear transfer is generally weaker and exhibits a moderate increase of nonlocality in both perpendicular and parallel directions compared to the isotropic case. These results support the recent mathematical findings, which also claim the locality of nonlinear energy transfer in MHD turbulence.

Keywords: magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, transfer density function, locality function, direct numerical simulation (DNS)

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8020 Demonstration of Powering up Low Power Wireless Sensor Network by RF Energy Harvesting System

Authors: Lim Teck Beng, Thiha Kyaw, Poh Boon Kiat, Lee Ngai Meng


This work presents discussion on the possibility of merging two emerging technologies in microwave; wireless power transfer (WPT) and RF energy harvesting. The current state of art of the two technologies is discussed and the strength and weakness of the two technologies is also presented. The equivalent circuit of wireless power transfer is modeled and explained as how the range and efficiency can be further increased by controlling certain parameters in the receiver. The different techniques of harvesting the RF energy from the ambient are also extensive study. Last but not least, we demonstrate that a low power wireless sensor network (WSN) can be power up by RF energy harvesting. The WSN is designed to transmit every 3 minutes of information containing the temperature of the environment and also the voltage of the node. One thing worth mention is both the sensors that are used for measurement are also powering up by the RF energy harvesting system.

Keywords: energy harvesting, wireless power transfer, wireless sensor network and magnetic coupled resonator

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8019 A Simple Heat and Mass Transfer Model for Salt Gradient Solar Ponds

Authors: Safwan Kanan, Jonathan Dewsbury, Gregory Lane-Serff


A salinity gradient solar pond is a free energy source system for collecting, converting and storing solar energy as heat. In this paper, the principles of solar pond are explained. A mathematical model is developed to describe and simulate heat and mass transfer behavior of salinity gradient solar pond. Matlab codes are programmed to solve the one dimensional finite difference method for heat and mass transfer equations. Temperature profiles and concentration distributions are calculated. The numerical results are validated with experimental data and the results are found to be in good agreement.

Keywords: finite difference method, salt-gradient solar-pond, solar energy, transient heat and mass transfer

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8018 Numerical Investigation of Al2O3/Water Nanofluid Heat Transfer in a Microtube with Viscous Dissipation Effect

Authors: Misagh Irandoost Shahrestani, Hossein Shokouhmand, Mohammad Kalteh, Behrang Hasanpour


In this paper, nanofluid conjugate heat transfer through a microtube with viscous dissipation effect is investigated numerically. The fluid flow is considered as a laminar regime. A constant heat flux is applied on the microtube outer wall and the two ends of its wall are considered adiabatic. Conjugate heat transfer problem is solved and investigated for this geometry. It is shown that viscous dissipation effect which is induced by shear stresses can not be neglected in microtubes. Viscous heating behaves as an energy source in the fluid and affects the temperature distribution. The effect of Reynolds number, particle volume fraction and the nanoparticles diameter on the energy source are investigated and an attempt on establishing suitable equations for assessing the value of the energy source based on Re, Dp and Φ is performed and they are depicted as 3D diagrams. Finally, the significance of viscous dissipation and the influence of these parameters on convective heat transfer coefficient are studied.

Keywords: convective heat transfer coefficient, heat transfer, microtube, nanofluid, viscous dissipation

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
8017 Transfer of Electrical Energy by Magnetic Induction

Authors: Carlos Oliveira Santiago Filho, Ciro Egoavil, Eduardo Oliveira, Jéferson Galdino, Moises Galileu, Tiago Oliveira Correa


Transfer of Electrical Energy through resonant inductive magnetic coupling is demonstrated experimentally in a system containing coil primary for transmission and secondary reception. The topology used in the prototype of the Class-E amplifier, has been identified as optimal for power transfer applications. Characteristic of the inductor and the load are defined by the requirements of the resonant inductive system. The frequency limitation the of circuit restricts unloaded “Q-Factor”, quality factor of the coils and thus the link efficiency. With a suitable circuit, copper coil unloaded Q-Factors of over 1,000 can be achieved in the low Mhz region, enabling a cost-effective high Q coil assembly. The circuit is capable system capable of transmitting energy with direct current to load efficiency above 60% at 2 Mhz.

Keywords: magnetic induction, transfer of electrical energy, magnetic coupling, Q-Factor

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8016 Lanthanide Incorporated Dendron Based White Light Emitting Material

Authors: Prashant Kumar, Edamana Prasad


The White light emitting material has an emerging field in recent years due to their widespread application in the field of optoelectronics and cellular display. In the present study, we have achieved white light emission in gel medium through partial resonance energy transfer from different donors (naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) to lanthanides {Eu(III) and Tb(III)}. The gel was formed by the self- assembly of glucose cored poly(aryl ether) dendrons in DMSO-Water mixture (1:9 v/v). The white light emission was further confirmed by the CIE coordinates (Commission Internationale d’ Eclairage). Moreover, we have developed three different white light emitting system by utilizing three different donor moiety namely, naphthalene-Tb(III)-Eu(III) {I}, phenanthrene-Tb(III)-Eu(III) {II}, and pyrene-Tb(III)-Eu(III) {III}. The CIE coordinates for I, II and III were (0.35, 0.37), (0.33, 0.32) and (0.35, 0.33) respectively. Furthermore, we have investigated the energy transfer from different donors (phenanthrene, naphthalene, and pyrene) to lanthanide {Eu(III)}. The efficiency of energy transfer from phenanthrene-Eu(III), naphthalene-Eu(III) and pyrene-Eu(III) systems was 11.9%, 3.9%, and 3.6%, respectively. Detailed mechanistic aspects will be displayed in the poster.

Keywords: dendron, lanthanide, resonance energy transfer, white light emission

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8015 Hohmann Transfer and Bi-Elliptic Hohmann Transfer in TRAPPIST-1 System

Authors: Jorge L. Nisperuza, Wilson Sandoval, Edward. A. Gil, Johan A. Jimenez


In orbital mechanics, an active research topic is the calculation of interplanetary trajectories efficient in terms of energy and time. In this sense, this work concerns the calculation of the orbital elements for sending interplanetary probes in the extrasolar system TRAPPIST-1. Specifically, using the mathematical expressions of the circular and elliptical trajectory parameters, expressions for the flight time and the orbital transfer rate increase between orbits, the orbital parameters and the graphs of the trajectories of Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic for sending a probe from the innermost planet to all the other planets of the studied system, are obtained. The relationship between the orbital transfer rate increments and the relationship between the flight times for the two transfer types is found. The results show that, for all cases under consideration, the Hohmann transfer results to be the least energy and temporary cost, a result according to the theory associated with Hohmann and Hohmann bi-elliptic transfers. Saving in the increase of the speed reaches up to 87% was found, and it happens for the transference between the two innermost planets, whereas the time of flight increases by a factor of up to 6.6 if one makes use of the bi-elliptic transfer, this for the case of sending a probe from the innermost planet to the outermost.

Keywords: bi-elliptic Hohmann transfer, exoplanet, extrasolar system, Hohmann transfer, TRAPPIST-1

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8014 Heat Transfer and Friction Factor Study for Triangular Duct Solar Air Heater Having Discrete V-Shaped Ribs

Authors: Varun Goel


Solar energy is a good option among renewable energy resources due to its easy availability and abundance. The simplest and most efficient way to utilize solar energy is to convert it into thermal energy and this can be done with the help of solar collectors. The thermal performance of such collectors is poor due to less heat transfer from the collector surface to air. In this work, experimental investigations of single pass solar air heater having triangular duct and provided with roughness element on the underside of the absorber plate. V-shaped ribs are used for investigation having three different values of relative roughness pitch (p/e) ranges from 4-16 for a fixed value of angle of attack (α), relative roughness height (e/Dh) and a relative gap distance (d/x) values are 60°, 0.044 and 0.60 respectively. Result shows that considerable augmentation in heat transfer has been obtained by providing roughness.

Keywords: artificial roughness, solar air heater, triangular duct, V-shaped ribs

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8013 A Novel Comparison Scheme for Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of Heat Transfer

Authors: Islam Tarek, Moataz Soliman


With the amazing development of nanoscience’s and the discovery of the unique properties of nanometric materials, the ideas of scientists and researchers headed to take advantage of this progress in various fields, and one of the most important of these areas is the field of heat transfer and benefit from it in saving energy used for heat transfer, so nanometric materials were used to improve the properties of heat transfer fluids and increase the efficiency of the liquid. In this paper, we will compare two types of heat transfer fluid, one industrial type (the base fluid is a mix of ethylene glycol and deionized water ) and another natural oils(the base fluid is a mix of jatropha oil and expired olive oil), explaining the method of preparing each of them, starting from the method of preparing CNT, collecting and sorting jatropha seeds, and the most appropriate method for extracting oil from them, and characterization the both of two fluids and when to use both.

Keywords: nanoscience, heat transfer, thermal conductivity, jatropha oil

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8012 Impact of Social Transfers on Energy Poverty in Turkey

Authors: Julide Yildirim, Nadir Ocal


Even though there are many studies investigating the extent and determinants of poverty, there is paucity of research investigating the issue of energy poverty in Turkey. The aim of this paper is threefold: First to investigate the extend of energy poverty in Turkey by using Household Budget Survey datasets belonging to 2005 - 2016 period. Second, to examine the risk factors for energy poverty. Finally, to assess the impact of social assistance program participation on energy poverty. Existing literature employs alternative methods to measure energy poverty. In this study energy poverty is measured by employing expenditure approach, where people are considered as energy poor if they disburse more than 10 per cent of their income to meet their energy requirements. Empirical results indicate that energy poverty rate is around 20 per cent during the time period under consideration. Since Household Budget Survey panel data is not available for 2005 - 2016 period, a pseudo panel has been constructed. Panel logistic regression method is utilized to determine the risk factors for energy poverty. The empirical results demonstrate that there is a statistically significant impact of work status and education level on energy poverty likelihood. In the final part of the paper the impact of social transfers on energy poverty has been examined by utilizing panel biprobit model, where social transfer participation and energy poverty incidences are jointly modeled. The empirical findings indicate that social transfer program participation reduces energy poverty. The negative association between energy poverty and social transfer program participation is more pronounced in urban areas compared with the rural areas.

Keywords: energy poverty, social transfers, panel data models, Turkey

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8011 Investigation of Heat Transfer Mechanism Inside Shell and Tube Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage Systems

Authors: Saeid Seddegh, Xiaolin Wang, Alan D. Henderson, Dong Chen, Oliver Oims


The main objective of this research is to study the heat transfer processes and phase change behaviour of a phase change material (PCM) in shell and tube latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) systems. The thermal behaviour in a vertical and horizontal shell-and-tube heat energy storage system using a pure thermal conduction model and a combined conduction-convection heat transfer model is compared in this paper. The model is first validated using published experimental data available in literature and then used to study the temperature variation, solid-liquid interface, phase distribution, total melting and solidification time during melting and solidification processes of PCMs. The simulated results show that the combined convection and conduction model can better describe the energy transfer in PCMs during melting process. In contrast, heat transfer by conduction is more significant during the solidification process since the two models show little difference. Also, it was concluded that during the charging process for the horizontal orientation, convective heat transfer has a strong effect on melting of the upper part of the solid PCM and is less significant during melting of the lower half of the solid PCM. However, in the vertical orientation, convective heat transfer is the same active during the entire charging process. In the solidification process, the thermal behavior does not show any difference between horizontal and vertical systems.

Keywords: latent heat thermal energy storage, phase change material, natural convection, melting, shell and tube heat exchanger, melting, solidification

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8010 Numerical and Experimental Study on Bed-Wall Heat Transfer in Conical Fluidized Bed Combustor

Authors: Ik–Tae Im, H. M. Abdelmotalib, M. A. Youssef, S. B. Young


In this study the flow characteristics and bed-to-wall heat transfer in a gas-solid conical fluidized bed combustor were investigated using both experimental and numerical methods. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations were carried out using a commercial software, Fluent V6.3. A two-fluid Eulerian-Eulerian model was applied in order to simulate the gas–solid flow and heat transfer in a conical sand-air bed with 30o con angle and 22 cm static bed height. Effect of different fluidizing number varying in the range of 1.5 - 2.3, drag models namely (Syamlal-O’Brien and Gidaspow), and friction viscosity on flow and bed-to-wall heat transfer were analyzed. Both bed pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient increased with increasing inlet gas velocity. The Gidaspow drag model showed a better agreement with experimental results than other drag model. The friction viscosity had no clear effect on both hydrodynamics and heat transfer.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, heat transfer coefficient, hydrodynamics, renewable energy

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8009 An Elegant Technique to Achieve ZCS in a Boost Converter Incorporating Complete Energy Transfer

Authors: Nagesh Vangala, Rayudu Mannam


Soft switching has attracted the interest of various researchers constantly. Many techniques are in vogue to achieve soft switching (ZVS and/or ZCS) in Boost converters. These techniques utilize an auxiliary switch to incorporate the ZCS/ZVS. Such schemes require additional control circuit and induce complexity in design. This paper proposes an elegant fly back approach which guarantees zero current switching of the main Switch without the need for any additional active device. A simple flyback transformer scheme is implemented which absorbs the initial turn ON energy (or the Reverse recovery energy of Boost diode) and delivers to the output.

Keywords: boost converter, complete energy transfer, flyback, zero current switching

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8008 Synthesis and Spectrophotometric Study of Omeprazole Charge Transfer Complexes with Bromothymol Blue, Methyl Orange, and Picric Acid

Authors: Saeeda Nadir Ali, Najma Sultana, Muhammad Saeed Arayne


Charge transfer complexes of omeprazole with bromothymol blue, methyl orange, and picric acid in the Beer’s law ranges 7-56, 6-48, and 10-80 µg mL-1, exhibiting stoichiometric ratio 1:1, and maximum wavelength 400, 420 and 373 nm respectively have been studied in aqueous medium. ICH guidelines were followed for validation study. Spectroscopic parameters including oscillator’s strength, dipole moment, ionization potential, energy of complexes, resonance energy, association constant and Gibb’s free energy changes have also been investigated and Benesi-Hildebrand plot in each case has been obtained. In addition, the methods were fruitfully employed for omeprazole determination in pharmaceutical formulations with no excipients obstruction during analysis. Solid omeprazole complexes with all the acceptors were synthesized and then structure was elucidated by IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy.

Keywords: omeprazole, bromothymol blue, methyl orange and picric acid, charge transfer complexes

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8007 Meeting India's Energy Demand: U.S.-India Energy Cooperation under Trump

Authors: Merieleen Engtipi


India's total share of global population is nearly 18%; however, its per capita energy consumption is only one-third of global average. The demand and supply of electricity are uneven in the country; around 240 million of the population have no access to electricity. However, with India's trajectory for modernisation and economic growth, the demand for energy is only expected to increase. India is at a crossroad, on the one hand facing the increasing demand for energy and on the other hand meeting the Paris climate policy commitments, and further the struggle to provide efficient energy. This paper analyses the policies to meet India’s need for energy, as the per capita energy consumption is likely to be double in 6-7 years period. Simultaneously, India's Paris commitment requires curbing of carbon emission from fossil fuels. There is an increasing need for renewables to be cheaply and efficiently available in the market and for clean technology to extract fossil fuels to meet climate policy goals. Fossil fuels are the most significant generator of energy in India; with the Paris agreement, the demand for clean energy technology is increasing. Finally, the U.S. decided to withdraw from the Paris Agreement; however, the two countries plan to continue engaging bilaterally on energy issues. The U.S. energy cooperation under Trump administration is significantly vital for greater energy security, transfer of technology and efficiency in energy supply and demand.

Keywords: energy demand, energy cooperation, fossil fuels, technology transfer

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8006 Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Aluminium Oxide Nanofluid: Effect of the Base Fluid

Authors: M. Amoura, M. Benmoussa, N. Zeraibi


The flow and heat transfer is an important phenomenon in engineering systems due to its wide application in electronic cooling, heat exchangers, double pane windows etc.. The enhancement of heat transfer in these systems is an essential topic from an energy saving perspective. Lower heat transfer performance when conventional fluids, such as water, engine oil and ethylene glycol are used hinders improvements in performance and causes a consequent reduction in the size of such systems. The use of solid particles as an additive suspended into the base fluid is a technique for heat transfer enhancement. Therefore, the heat transfer enhancement in a horizontal circular tube that is maintained at a constant temperature under laminar regime has been investigated numerically. A computational code applied to the problem by use of the finite volume method was developed. Nanofluid was made by dispersion of Al2O3 nanoparticles in pure water and ethylene glycol. Results illustrate that the suspended nanoparticles increase the heat transfer with an increase in the nanoparticles volume fraction and for a considered range of Reynolds numbers. On the other hand, the heat transfer is very sensitive to the base fluid.

Keywords: Al2O3 nanoparticles, circular tube, heat transfert enhancement, numerical simulation

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8005 University-Industry Technology Transfer and Technology Transfer Offices in Emerging Economies

Authors: José Carlos Rodríguez, Mario Gómez


The aim of this paper is to get insight on the nature of university-industry technology transfer (UITT) and technology transfer offices (TTOs) activity at universities in the case of emerging economies. In relation to the process of transferring knowledge/technology in the case of emerging economies, knowledge/technology transfer in these economies are more reactive than in developed economies due to differences in maturity of technologies. It is assumed in this paper that knowledge/technology transfer is a complex phenomenon, and thus the paper contributes to get insight on the nature of UITT and TTOs creation in the case of emerging economies by using a system dynamics model of knowledge/technology transfer in these countries. The paper recognizes the differences between industrialized countries and emerging economies on these phenomena.

Keywords: university-industry technology transfer, technology transfer offices, technology transfer models, emerging economies

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8004 Analysis and Modeling of the Building’s Facades in Terms of Different Convection Coefficients

Authors: Enes Yasa, Guven Fidan


Building Simulation tools need to better evaluate convective heat exchanges between external air and wall surfaces. Previous analysis demonstrated the significant effects of convective heat transfer coefficient values on the room energy balance. Some authors have pointed out that large discrepancies observed between widely used building thermal models can be attributed to the different correlations used to calculate or impose the value of the convective heat transfer coefficients. Moreover, numerous researchers have made sensitivity calculations and proved that the choice of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient values can lead to differences from 20% to 40% of energy demands. The thermal losses to the ambient from a building surface or a roof mounted solar collector represent an important portion of the overall energy balance and depend heavily on the wind induced convection. In an effort to help designers make better use of the available correlations in the literature for the external convection coefficients due to the wind, a critical discussion and a suitable tabulation is presented, on the basis of algebraic form of the coefficients and their dependence upon characteristic length and wind direction, in addition to wind speed. Many research works have been conducted since early eighties focused on the convection heat transfer problems inside buildings. In this context, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) program has been used to predict external convective heat transfer coefficients at external building surfaces. For the building facades model, effects of wind speed and temperature differences between the surfaces and the external air have been analyzed, showing different heat transfer conditions and coefficients. In order to provide further information on external convective heat transfer coefficients, a numerical work is presented in this paper, using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) commercial package (CFX) to predict convective heat transfer coefficients at external building surface.

Keywords: CFD in buildings, external convective heat transfer coefficients, building facades, thermal modelling

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8003 Experimental Investigation of Nanofluid Heat Transfer in a Plate Type Heat Exchanger

Authors: Eyuphan Manay


In this study, it was aimed to determine the convective heat transfer characteristics of water-based silicon dioxide nanofluids (SiO₂) with particle volume fractions of 0.2 and 0.4% vol. Nanofluids were tested in a plate type heat exchanger with six plates. Plate type heat exchanger was manufactured from stainless steel. Water was driven in the hot flow side, and nanofluids were driven in the cold flow side. The thermal energy of the hot water was taken by nanofluids. Effect of the inlet temperature of the hot water was investigated on heat transfer performance of the nanofluids while the inlet temperature of the nanofluids was fixed. In addition, the effects of the particle volume fraction and the cold flow rate on the performance of the system were tested. Results showed that increasing inlet temperature of the hot flow caused heat transfer to enhance. The suspended solid particles into the carrier fluid also remarkably enhanced heat transfer, and, an increase in the particle volume fraction resulted in an increase in heat transfer.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, SiO₂-water, nanofluid, plate heat exchanger

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8002 3D Simulation for Design and Predicting Performance of a Thermal Heat Storage Facility using Sand

Authors: Nadjiba Mahfoudi, Abdelhafid Moummi , Mohammed El Ganaoui


Thermal applications are drawing increasing attention in the solar energy research field, due to their high performance in energy storage density and energy conversion efficiency. In these applications, solar collectors and thermal energy storage systems are the two core components. This paper presents a thermal analysis of the transient behavior and storage capability of a sensible heat storage device in which sand is used as a storage media. The TES unit with embedded charging tubes is connected to a solar air collector. To investigate it storage characteristics a 3D-model using no linear coupled partial differential equations for both temperature of storage medium and heat transfer fluid (HTF), has been developed. Performances of thermal storage bed of capacity of 17 MJ (including bed temperature, charging time, energy storage rate, charging energy efficiency) have been evaluated. The effect of the number of charging tubes (3 configurations) is presented.

Keywords: design, thermal modeling, heat transfer enhancement, sand, sensible heat storage

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8001 Synthesis, Characterization, Optical and Photophysical Properties of Pyrene-Labeled Ruthenium(Ii) Trisbipyridine Complex Cored Dendrimers

Authors: Mireille Vonlanthen, Pasquale Porcu, Ernesto Rivera


Dendritic macromolecules are presenting unique physical and chemical properties. One of them is the faculty of transferring energy from a donor moiety introduced at the periphery to an acceptor moiety at the core, mimicking the antenna effect of the process of photosynthesis. The mechanism of energy transfer is based on the Förster resonance energy exchange and requires some overlap between the emission spectrum of the donor and the absorption spectrum of the acceptor. Since it requires a coupling of transition dipole but no overlap of the physical wavefunctions, the energy transfer by Förster mechanism can occur over quite long distances from 1 to a maximum of 10 nm. However, the efficiency of the transfer depends strongly on distance. The Förster radius is the distance at which 50% of the donor’s emission is deactivated by FRET. In this work, we synthesized and characterized a novel series of dendrimers bearing pyrene moieties at the periphery and a Ru (II) complex at the core. The optical and photophysical properties of these compounds were studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. Pyrene is a well-studied chromophore that has the particularity to present monomer as well as excimer fluorescence emission. The coordination compounds of Ru (II) are red emitters with low quantum yield and long excited lifetime. We observed an efficient singulet to singulet energy transfer in such constructs. Moreover, it is known that the energy of the MLCT emitting state of Ru (II) can be tuned to become almost isoenegetic with respect to the triplet state of pyrene, leading to an extended phosphorescence lifetime. Using dendrimers bearing pyrene moieties as ligands for Ru (II), we could combine the antenna effect of dendrimers as well as its protection effect to the quenching by dioxygen with lifetime increase due to triplet-triplet equilibrium.

Keywords: dendritic molecules, energy transfer, pyrene, ru-trisbipyridine complex

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8000 Optimization of Pumping Power of Water between Reservoir Using Ant Colony System

Authors: Thiago Ribeiro De Alencar, Jacyro Gramulia Junior, Patricia Teixeira Leite Asano


The area of the electricity sector that deals with energy needs by the hydropower and thermoelectric in a coordinated way is called Planning Operating Hydrothermal Power Systems. The aim of this area is to find a political operative to provide electrical power to the system in a specified period with minimization of operating cost. This article proposes a computational tool for solving the planning problem. In addition, this article will be introducing a methodology to find new transfer points between reservoirs increasing energy production in hydroelectric power plants cascade systems. The computational tool proposed in this article applies: i) genetic algorithms to optimize the water transfer and operation of hydroelectric plants systems; and ii) Ant Colony algorithm to find the trajectory with the least energy pumping for the construction of pipes transfer between reservoirs considering the topography of the region. The computational tool has a database consisting of 35 hydropower plants and 41 reservoirs, which are part of the southeastern Brazilian system, which has been implemented in an individualized way.

Keywords: ant colony system, genetic algorithms, hydroelectric, hydrothermal systems, optimization, water transfer between rivers

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7999 Theoretical Approach to Kinetic of Heat Transfer under Irradiation

Authors: Pavlo Selyshchev


A theoretical approach to describe kinetic of heat transfer between an irradiated sample and environment is developed via formalism of the Complex systems and kinetic equations. The irradiated material is a metastable system with non-linear feedbacks, which can give rise to different regimes of buildup and annealing of radiation-induced defects, heating and heat transfer with environment. Irradiation with energetic particles heats the sample and produces defects of the crystal lattice of the sample. The crystal with defects accumulates extra (non-thermal) energy, which is transformed into heat during the defect annealing. Any increase of temperature leads to acceleration of defect annealing, to additional transformation of non-thermal energy into heat and to further growth of the temperature. Thus a non-linear feedback is formed. It is shown that at certain conditions of irradiation this non-linear feedback leads to self-oscillations of the defect density, the temperature of the irradiated sample and the heat transfer between the sample and environment. Simulation and analysis of these phenomena is performed. The frequency of the self-oscillations is obtained. It is determined that the period of the self-oscillations is varied from minutes to several hours depending on conditions of irradiation and properties of the sample. Obtaining results are compared with experimental ones.

Keywords: irradiation, heat transfer, non-linear feed-back, self-oscillations

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7998 Jet Impingement Heat Transfer on a Rib-Roughened Flat Plate

Authors: A. H. Alenezi


Cooling by impingement jet is known to have a significant high local and average heat transfer coefficient which make it widely used in industrial cooling systems. The heat transfer characteristics of an impinging jet on rib-roughened flat plate has been investigated numerically. This paper was set out to investigate the effect of rib height on the heat transfer rate. Since the flow needs to have enough spacing after passing the rib to allow reattachment especially for high Reynolds numbers, this study focuses on finding the optimum rib height which would be the best to maximize the heat transfer rate downstream the plate. This investigation employs a round nozzle with hydraulic diameter (Dh) of 13.5 mm, Jet-to-target distance of (H/D) of 4, rib location=1.5D and and finally jet angels of 45˚ and 90˚ under the influence of Re =10,000.

Keywords: jet impingement, CFD, turbulence model, heat transfer

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7997 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Protruded Rectangular Fin

Authors: Tarique Jamil Khan, Swapnil Pande


The investigation deals with the study of heat transfer enhancement using protruded square fin. This study is enough to determine whether protrusion in forced convection is enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. It includes the results after performing experiments by using a plane rectangular fin of aluminum material and the same dimension rectangular fin of the same material but having protruded circular shape extended normally. The fins made by a sand casting method. The results clearly mentioned that the protruded surface is effective enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. This research investigates a modern fin topologies heat transfer characteristics that will clearly outdated the conventional fin to increase the rate of heat transfer. Protruded fins improve the rate of heat transfer compared to solid fin by varying shape of the protrusion in diameter and height.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, forced convection, protruted fin, rectangular fin

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7996 Conduction Transfer Functions for the Calculation of Heat Demands in Heavyweight Facade Systems

Authors: Mergim Gasia, Bojan Milovanovica, Sanjin Gumbarevic


Better energy performance of the building envelope is one of the most important aspects of energy savings if the goals set by the European Union are to be achieved in the future. Dynamic heat transfer simulations are being used for the calculation of building energy consumption because they give more realistic energy demands compared to the stationary calculations that do not take the building’s thermal mass into account. Software used for these dynamic simulation use methods that are based on the analytical models since numerical models are insufficient for longer periods. The analytical models used in this research fall in the category of the conduction transfer functions (CTFs). Two methods for calculating the CTFs covered by this research are the Laplace method and the State-Space method. The literature review showed that the main disadvantage of these methods is that they are inadequate for heavyweight façade elements and shorter time periods used for the calculation. The algorithms for both the Laplace and State-Space methods are implemented in Mathematica, and the results are compared to the results from EnergyPlus and TRNSYS since these software use similar algorithms for the calculation of the building’s energy demand. This research aims to check the efficiency of the Laplace and the State-Space method for calculating the building’s energy demand for heavyweight building elements and shorter sampling time, and it also gives the means for the improvement of the algorithms used by these methods. As the reference point for the boundary heat flux density, the finite difference method (FDM) is used. Even though the dynamic heat transfer simulations are superior to the calculation based on the stationary boundary conditions, they have their limitations and will give unsatisfactory results if not properly used.

Keywords: Laplace method, state-space method, conduction transfer functions, finite difference method

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7995 Alternative Mathematical form for Determining the Effectiveness of High-LET Radiations at Lower Doses Region

Authors: Abubaker A. Yousif, Muhamad S. Yasir


The Effectiveness of lower doses of high-LET radiations is not accurately determined by using energy-based physical parameters such as absorbed dose and radio-sensitivity parameters. Therefore, an attempt has been carried out in this research to propose alternative parameter that capable to quantify the effectiveness of these high LET radiations at lower doses regions. The linear energy transfer and mean free path are employed to achieve this objective. A new mathematical form of the effectiveness of high-LET radiations at lower doses region has been formulated. Based on this parameter, the optimized effectiveness of high-LET radiations occurs when the energy of charged particles is deposited at spacing of 2 nm for primary ionization.

Keywords: effectiveness, low dose, radiation mean free path, linear energy transfer

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7994 Exergy Losses Relation with Driving Forces in Heat Transfer Process

Authors: S. Ali Ashrafizadeh, M. Amidpour, N. Hedayat


Driving forces along with transfer coefficient affect on heat transfer rate, on the other hand, with regard to the relation of these forces with irriversibilities they are effective on exergy losses. Therefore, the driving forces can be used as a relation between heat transfer rate, transfer coefficients and exergy losses. In this paper, first, the relation of the exergetic efficiency and resistant forces is obtained, next the relation between exergy efficiency, relative driving force, heat transfer rate and heat resistances is considered. In all cases, results are argued graphically. Finally, a case study inspected by obtained results.

Keywords: heat transfer, exergy losses, exergetic efficiency, driving forces

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7993 Solving Transient Conduction and Radiation using Finite Volume Method

Authors: Ashok K. Satapathy, Prerana Nashine


Radiative heat transfer in participating medium was anticipated using the finite volume method. The radiative transfer equations are formulated for absorbing and anisotropically scattering and emitting medium. The solution strategy is discussed and the conditions for computational stability are conferred. The equations have been solved for transient radiative medium and transient radiation incorporated with transient conduction. Results have been obtained for irradiation and corresponding heat fluxes for both the cases. The solutions can be used to conclude incident energy and surface heat flux. Transient solutions were obtained for a slab of heat conducting in slab by thermal radiation. The effect of heat conduction during the transient phase is to partially equalize the internal temperature distribution. The solution procedure provides accurate temperature distributions in these regions. A finite volume procedure with variable space and time increments is used to solve the transient energy equation. The medium in the enclosure absorbs, emits, and anisotropically scatters radiative energy. The incident radiations and the radiative heat fluxes are presented in graphical forms. The phase function anisotropy plays a significant role in the radiation heat transfer when the boundary condition is non-symmetric.

Keywords: participating media, finite volume method, radiation coupled with conduction, heat transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 246