Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2325

Search results for: dual fuel diesel engine

2175 Hybridization and Dynamic Performance Analysis of Three-Wheeler Electric Auto Rickshaw

Authors: Muhammad Asghar, A. I. Bhatti, T. Izhar

Abstract:

The three-wheeled auto-rickshaw with a two or four-stroke Gasoline, Liquid Petrolium Gas (LPG) or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine is a petite, highly maneuverable vehicle and best suited for the small and heavily-congested roads and is an affordable means of transportation in Pakistan cities. However due to in-efficient engine design, it is a main cause of air-pollution in the shape of white smoke (CO2) (greenhouse gases) at the tail pipe. Due to the environmental pollution, a huge number of battery powered vehicles have been imported from all over the world to fulfill the need of country. Effect of degree of hybridization on fuel economy and acceleration performance has been discussed in this paper. From mild to full hybridization stages have been examined. Optimal level of hybridization ranges depending on the total driving power of vehicle are suggested. The degree of hybridization is varied and fuel economy is seen accordingly by using Advisor (NREL) software. The novel vehicle drive-train is modeled and simulated in the Advisor software.

Keywords: advisor, hybridization, fuel economy, Three-Wheeled Rickshaw

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2174 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro

Abstract:

In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

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2173 The Evaluation of Fuel Desulfurization Performance of Choline-Chloride Based Deep Eutectic Solvents with Addition of Graphene Oxide as Catalyst

Authors: Chiau Yuan Lim, Hayyiratul Fatimah Mohd Zaid, Fai Kait Chong

Abstract:

Deep Eutectic Solvent (DES) is used in various applications due to its simplicity in synthesis procedure, biodegradable, inexpensive and easily available chemical ingredients. Graphene Oxide is a popular catalyst that being used in various processes due to its stacking carbon sheets in layer which theoretically rapid up the catalytic processes. In this study, choline chloride based DESs were synthesized and ChCl-PEG(1:4) was found to be the most effective DES in performing desulfurization, which it is able to remove up to 47.4% of the sulfur content in the model oil in just 10 minutes, and up to 95% of sulfur content after repeat the process for six times. ChCl-PEG(1:4) able to perform up to 32.7% desulfurization on real diesel after 6 multiple stages. Thus, future research works should focus on removing the impurities on real diesel before utilising DESs in petroleum field.

Keywords: choline chloride, deep eutectic solvent, fuel desulfurization, graphene oxide

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2172 Development of Alternative Fuels Technologies for Transportation

Authors: Szymon Kuczynski, Krystian Liszka, Mariusz Laciak, Andrii Oliinyk, Adam Szurlej

Abstract:

Currently, in automotive transport to power vehicles, almost exclusively hydrocarbon based fuels are used. Due to increase of hydrocarbon fuels consumption, quality parameters are tightend for clean environment. At the same time efforts are undertaken for development of alternative fuels. The reasons why looking for alternative fuels for petroleum and diesel are: to increase vehicle efficiency and to reduce the environmental impact, reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and savings in consumption of limited oil resources. Significant progress was performed on development of alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas (CNG / LNG), LPG, dimethyl ether (DME) and biodiesel. In addition, biggest vehicle manufacturers work on fuel cell vehicles and its introduction to the market. Alcohols such as methanol and ethanol create the perfect fuel for spark-ignition engines. Their advantages are high-value antiknock which determines their application as additive (10%) to unleaded petrol and relative purity of produced exhaust gasses. Ethanol is produced in distillation process of plant products, which value as a food can be irrational. Ethanol production can be costly also for the entire economy of the country, because it requires a large complex distillation plants, large amounts of biomass and finally a significant amount of fuel to sustain the process. At the same time, the fermentation process of plants releases into the atmosphere large quantities of carbon dioxide. Natural gas cannot be directly converted into liquid fuels, although such arrangements have been proposed in the literature. Going through stage of intermediates is inevitable yet. Most popular one is conversion to methanol, which can be processed further to dimethyl ether (DME) or olefin (ethylene and propylene) for the petrochemical sector. Methanol uses natural gas as a raw material, however, requires expensive and advanced production processes. In relation to pollution emissions, the optimal vehicle fuel is LPG which is used in many countries as an engine fuel. Production of LPG is inextricably linked with production and processing of oil and gas, and which represents a small percentage. Its potential as an alternative for traditional fuels is therefore proportionately reduced. Excellent engine fuel may be biogas, however, follows to the same limitations as ethanol - the same production process is used and raw materials. Most essential fuel in the campaign of environment protection against pollution is natural gas. Natural gas as fuel may be either compressed (CNG) or liquefied (LNG). Natural gas can also be used for hydrogen production in steam reforming. Hydrogen can be used as a basic starting material for the chemical industry, an important raw material in the refinery processes, as well as a fuel vehicle transportation. Natural gas can be used as CNG which represents an excellent compromise between the availability of the technology that is proven and relatively cheap to use in many areas of the automotive industry. Natural gas can also be seen as an important bridge to other alternative sources of energy derived from fuel and harmless to the environment. For these reasons CNG as a fuel stimulates considerable interest in the worldwide.

Keywords: alternative fuels, CNG (Compressed Natural Gas), LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas), NGVs (Natural Gas Vehicles)

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2171 Pressure Regulator Optimization in LPG Fuel Injection Systems

Authors: M. Akif Ceviz, Alirıza Kaleli, Erdoğan Güner

Abstract:

LPG pressure regulator is a device which is used to change the phase of LPG from liquid to gas by decreasing the pressure. During the phase change, it is necessary to supply the latent heat of LPG to prevent excessive low temperature. Engine coolant is circulated in the pressure regulator for this purpose. Therefore, pressure regulator is a type of heat exchanger that should be designed for different engine operating conditions. The design of the regulator should ensure that the flow of LPG is in gaseous phase to the injectors during the engine steady state and transient operating conditions. The pressure regulators in the LPG gaseous injection systems currently used can easily change the phase of LPG, however, there is no any control on the LPG temperature in conventional LPG injection systems. It is possible to increase temperature excessively. In this study, a control unit has been tested to keep the LPG temperature in a band. Result of the study showed that the engine performance characteristics can be increased by using the system.

Keywords: temperature, pressure regulator, LPG, PID

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2170 Opposed Piston Engine Crankshaft Strength Calculation Using Finite Element Method

Authors: Konrad Pietrykowski, Michał Gęca, Michał Bialy

Abstract:

The paper presents the results of the crankshaft strength simulation. The crankshaft was taken from the opposed piston engine. Calculations were made using finite element method (FEM) in Abaqus software. This program allows to perform strength tests of individual machine parts as well as their assemblies. The crankshaft that was used in the calculations will be used in the two-stroke aviation research aircraft engine. The assumptions for the calculations were obtained from the AVL Boost software, from one-dimensional engine cycle model and from the multibody model using the method developed in the MSC Adams software. The research engine will be equipped with 3 combustion chambers and two crankshafts. In order to shorten the calculation time, only one crankcase analysis was performed. The cut of the shaft has been selected with the greatest forces resulting from the engine operation. Calculations were made for two cases. For maximum piston force when maximum bending load occurs and for the maximum torque. Cast iron material was adopted. For this material, Poisson's number, density, and Young's modulus were determined. The computational grid contained of 1,977,473 Tet elements. This type of elements was chosen because of the complex design of the crankshaft. Results are presented in the form of stress distributions maps and displacements on the surface and inside the geometry of the shaft. The results show the places of tension stresses, however, no stresses are exceeded at any place. The shaft can thus be applied to the engine in its present form. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK 'PZL-KALISZ’ S.A. and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: aircraft diesel engine, crankshaft, finite element method, two-stroke engine

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2169 Failure Analysis of Fuel Pressure Supply from an Aircraft Engine

Authors: M. Pilar Valles-gonzalez, Alejandro Gonzalez Meije, Ana Pastor Muro, Maria Garcia-Martinez, Beatriz Gonzalez Caballero

Abstract:

This paper studies a failure case of a fuel pressure supply tube from an aircraft engine. Multiple fracture cases of the fuel pressure control tube from aircraft engines have been reported. The studied set was composed of the mentioned tube, a welded connecting pipe, where the fracture has been produced, and a union nut. The fracture has been produced in one most critical zones of the tube, in a region next to the supporting body of the union nut to the connector. The tube material was X6CrNiTi18-10, an austenitic stainless steel. Chemical composition was determined using an X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) and combustion equipment. Furthermore, the material has been mechanical, by hardness test, and microstructural characterized using a stereomicroscope and an optical microscope. The results confirmed that it is within specifications. To determine the macrofractographic features, a visual examination and a stereo microscope of the tube fracture surface have been carried out. The results revealed a tube plastic macrodeformation, surface damaged, and signs of a possible corrosion process. Fracture surface was also inspected by scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), equipped with a microanalysis system by X-ray dispersive energy (EDX), to determine the microfractographic features in order to find out the failure mechanism involved in the fracture. Fatigue striations, which are typical from a progressive fracture by a fatigue mechanism, have been observed. The origin of the fracture has been placed in defects located on the outer wall of the tube, leading to a final overload fracture.

Keywords: aircraft engine, fatigue, FE-SEM, fractography, fracture, fuel tube, microstructure, stainless steel

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2168 Modeling Loads Applied to Main and Crank Bearings in the Compression-Ignition Two-Stroke Engine

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Mateusz Paszko, Grzegorz Baranski

Abstract:

This paper discusses the AVL EXCITE Designer simulation research into loads applied to main and crank bearings in the compression-ignition two-stroke engine. There was created a model of engine lubrication system which covers the part of this system related to particular nodes of a bearing system, i.e. a connection of main bearings in an engine block with a crankshaft, a connection of crank pins with a connecting rod. The analysis focused on the load given as a distribution of hydrodynamic oil film pressure corresponding different values of radial internal clearance. There was also studied the impact of gas force on minimal oil film thickness in main and crank bearings versus crankshaft rotational speed. Our model calculates oil film parameters, an oil film pressure distribution, an oil temperature change and dimensions of bearings as well as an oil temperature distribution on surfaces of bearing seats. Accordingly, it was possible to select, for example, a correct clearance for each of the node bearings. The research was performed for several values of engine crankshaft speed ranging from 800 RPM to 4000 RPM. Bearing oil pressure was changed according to engine speed ranging between 1 bar and 5 bar and an oil temperature of 90°C. The main bearing clearances made initially for the calculation and research were: 0.015 mm, 0.025 mm, 0.035 mm, 0.05 mm, 0.1 mm. The oil used for the research corresponded the SAE 5W-40 classification. The paper presents the selected research results referring to certain specific operating points and bearing radial internal clearances. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A. and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: crank bearings, diesel engine, oil film, two-stroke engine

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2167 Design Manufacture and Testing of a Combined Alpha-Beta Double Piston Stirling Engine

Authors: A. Calvin Antony, Sakthi Kumar Arul Prakash, V. R. Sanal Kumar

Abstract:

In this paper a unique alpha-beta double piston 'stirling engine' is designed, manufactured and conducted laboratory test to ameliorate the efficiency of the stirling engine. The paper focuses on alpha and beta type engines, capturing their benefits and eradicating their short comings; along with the output observed from the flywheel. In this model alpha engine is kinematically with a piston cylinder arrangement which works quite like a beta engine. The piston of the new cylinder is so designed that it replicates a glued displacer and power piston as similar to that of beta engine. The bigger part of the piston is the power piston, which has a gap around it, while the smaller part of the piston is tightly fit in the cylinder and acts like the displacer piston. We observed that the alpha-beta double piston stirling engine produces 25% increase in power compare to a conventional alpha stirling engine. This working model is a pointer towards for the design and development of an alpha-beta double piston Stirling engine for industrial applications for producing electricity from the heat producing exhaust gases.

Keywords: alpha-beta double piston stirling engine , alpha stirling engine , beta double piston stirling engine , electricity from stirling engine

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2166 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin

Abstract:

A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion

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2165 Numerical Studies on Bypass Thrust Augmentation Using Convective Heat Transfer in Turbofan Engine

Authors: R. Adwaith, J. Gopinath, Vasantha Kohila B., R. Chandru, Arul Prakash R.

Abstract:

The turbofan engine is a type of air breathing engine that is widely used in aircraft propulsion produces thrust mainly from the mass-flow of air bypassing the engine core. The present research has developed an effective method numerically by increasing the thrust generated from the bypass air. This thrust increase is brought about by heating the walls of the bypass valve from the combustion chamber using convective heat transfer method. It is achieved computationally by the use external heat to enhance the velocity of bypass air of turbofan engines. The bypass valves are either heated externally using multicell tube resistor which convert electricity generated by dynamos into heat or heat is transferred from the combustion chamber. This increases the temperature of the flow in the valves and thereby increase the velocity of the flow that enters the nozzle of the engine. As a result, mass-flow of air passing the core engine for producing more thrust can be significantly reduced thereby saving considerable amount of Jet fuel. Numerical analysis has been carried out on a scaled down version of a typical turbofan bypass valve, where the valve wall temperature has been increased to 700 Kelvin. It is observed from the analysis that, the exit velocity contributing to thrust has significantly increased by 10 % due to the heating of by-pass valve. The degree of optimum increase in the temperature, and the corresponding effect in the increase of jet velocity is calculated to determine the operating temperature range for efficient increase in velocity. The technique used in the research increases the thrust by using heated by-pass air without extracting much work from the fuel and thus improve the efficiency of existing turbofan engines. Dimensional analysis has been carried to prove the accuracy of the results obtained numerically.

Keywords: turbofan engine, bypass valve, multi-cell tube, convective heat transfer, thrust

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2164 Dual-Layer Microporous Layer of Gas Diffusion Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells under Various RH Conditions

Authors: Grigoria Athanasaki, Veerarajan Vimala, A. M. Kannan, Louis Cindrella

Abstract:

Energy usage has been increased throughout the years, leading to severe environmental impacts. Since the majority of the energy is currently produced from fossil fuels, there is a global need for clean energy solutions. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) offer a very promising solution for transportation applications because of their solid configuration and low temperature operations, which allows them to start quickly. One of the main components of PEMFCs is the Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL), which manages water and gas transport and shows direct influence on the fuel cell performance. In this work, a novel dual-layer GDL with gradient porosity was prepared, using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as pore former, to improve the gas diffusion and water management in the system. The microporous layer (MPL) of the fabricated GDL consists of carbon powder PUREBLACK, sodium dodecyl sulfate as a surfactant, 34% wt. PTFE and the gradient porosity was created by applying one layer using 30% wt. PEG on the carbon substrate, followed by a second layer without using any pore former. The total carbon loading of the microporous layer is ~ 3 mg.cm-2. For the assembly of the catalyst layer, Nafion membrane (Ion Power, Nafion Membrane NR211) and Pt/C electrocatalyst (46.1% wt.) were used. The catalyst ink was deposited on the membrane via microspraying technique. The Pt loading is ~ 0.4 mg.cm-2, and the active area is 5 cm2. The sample was ex-situ characterized via wetting angle measurement, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Pore Size Distribution (PSD) to evaluate its characteristics. Furthermore, for the performance evaluation in-situ characterization via Fuel Cell Testing using H2/O2 and H2/air as reactants, under 50, 60, 80, and 100% relative humidity (RH), took place. The results were compared to a single layer GDL, fabricated with the same carbon powder and loading as the dual layer GDL, and a commercially available GDL with MPL (AvCarb2120). The findings reveal high hydrophobic properties of the microporous layer of the GDL for both PUREBLACK based samples, while the commercial GDL demonstrates hydrophilic behavior. The dual layer GDL shows high and stable fuel cell performance under all the RH conditions, whereas the single layer manifests a drop in performance at high RH in both oxygen and air, caused by catalyst flooding. The commercial GDL shows very low and unstable performance, possibly because of its hydrophilic character and thinner microporous layer. In conclusion, the dual layer GDL with PEG appears to have improved gas diffusion and water management in the fuel cell system. Due to its increasing porosity from the catalyst layer to the carbon substrate, it allows easier access of the reactant gases from the flow channels to the catalyst layer, and more efficient water removal from the catalyst layer, leading to higher performance and stability.

Keywords: gas diffusion layer, microporous layer, proton exchange membrane fuel cells, relative humidity

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2163 The Effect of Bearing Surface Finish on the Engine's Lubrication System Performance

Authors: Kudakwashe Diana Nyamugure

Abstract:

Engine design has evolved to suit new industry standards of smaller compact designs that operate at high temperatures and even higher stress loads. Research has proven that the interaction of the bearing surface and the lubrication film is affected by the bearing's surface texture, geometry, and dimensional tolerances. The challenge now for the automotive manufacturing industry is to understand which processes can be applied on bearing surfaces to reduce the 65% energy loss in engines, 15% of which is caused by friction. This paper will discuss a post grinding process known as microfinishing which optimises the characteristics of a manufactured surface such as roughness, profile, and waviness. Microfinishing is becoming an increasing trend within the automotive industry and has so far been applied on high performance and mass production crank or cam bearing surfaces in bid of friction reduction and extended engine service life. In the near future, microfinishing will be applied to more engine components because of the stringent environmental regulations demands on fuel consumption, reliability, power, and service life of engine components.

Keywords: bearings, tribology, friction reduction, energy efficiency

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2162 Effect of Hydrogen on the Performance of a Methanol SI-Engine at City Driving Conditions

Authors: Junaid Bin Aamir, Ma Fanhua

Abstract:

Methanol is one of the most suitable alternative fuels for replacing gasoline in present and future spark-ignited engines. However, for pure methanol engines, cold start problems and misfires are observed under certain operating conditions. Hydrogen provides a solution for such problems. This paper experimentally investigated the effect of hydrogen on the performance of a pure methanol SI-engine at city driving conditions (1500 rpm speed and 1.18 excess air ratio). Hydrogen was used as a part of methanol reformed syngas (67% hydrogen by volume). 4% by mass of the total methanol converted to hydrogen and other constituent gases, was used in each cycle. Port fuel injection was used to inject methanol and hydrogen-rich syngas into the 4-cylinder engine. The results indicated an increase in brake thermal efficiency up to 5% with the addition of hydrogen, a decrease in brake specific fuel consumption up to 200 g/kWh, and a decrease in exhaust gas temperature by 100°C for all mean effective pressures. Hydrogen addition also decreased harmful exhaust emissions significantly. There was a reduction in THC emissions up to 95% and CO emissions up to 50%. NOx emissions were slightly increased (up to 15%), but they can be reduced to zero by lean burn strategy.

Keywords: alternative fuels, hydrogen, methanol, performance, spark ignition engines

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2161 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi

Abstract:

One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Optically Accessible Engine, Spark-Ignition Engine, Sparl Orientation, Kernel Growth

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2160 The Charge Exchange and Mixture Formation Model in the ASz-62IR Radial Aircraft Engine

Authors: Pawel Magryta, Tytus Tulwin, Paweł Karpiński

Abstract:

The ASz62IR engine is a radial aircraft engine with 9 cylinders. This object is produced by the Polish company WSK "PZL-KALISZ" S.A. This is engine is currently being developed by the above company and Lublin University of Technology. In order to provide an effective work of the technological development of this unit it was decided to made the simulation model. The model of ASz-62IR was developed with AVL BOOST software which is a tool dedicated to the one-dimensional modeling of internal combustion engines. This model can be used to calculate parameters of an air and fuel flow in an intake system including charging devices as well as combustion and exhaust flow to the environment. The main purpose of this model is the analysis of the charge exchange and mixture formation in this engine. For this purpose, the model consists of elements such: as air inlet, throttle system, compressor connector, charging compressor, inlet pipes and injectors, outlet pipes, fuel injection and model of fuel mixing and evaporation. The model of charge exchange and mixture formation was based on the model of mass flow rate in intake and exhaust pipes, and also on the calculation of gas properties values like gas constant or thermal capacity. This model was based on the equations to describe isentropic flow. The energy equation to describe flow under steady conditions was transformed into the mass flow equation. In the model the flow coefficient μσ was used, that varies with the stroke/valve opening and was determined in a steady flow state. The geometry of the inlet channels and other key components was mapped with reference to the technical documentation of the engine and empirical measurements of the structure elements. The volume of elements on the charge flow path between the air inlet and the exhaust outlet was measured by the CAD mapping of the structure. Taken from the technical documentation, the original characteristics of the compressor engine was entered into the model. Additionally, the model uses a general model for the transport of chemical compounds of the mixture. There are 7 compounds used, i.e. fuel, O2, N2, CO2, H2O, CO, H2. A gasoline fuel of a calorific value of 43.5 MJ/kg and an air mass fraction for stoichiometric mixture of 14.5 were used. Indirect injection into the intake manifold is used in this model. The model assumes the following simplifications: the mixture is homogenous at the beginning of combustion, accordingly, mixture stoichiometric coefficient A/F remains constant during combustion, combusted and non-combusted charges show identical pressures and temperatures although their compositions change. As a result of the simulation studies based on the model described above, the basic parameters of combustion process, charge exchange, mixture formation in cylinders were obtained. The AVL Boost software is very useful for the piston engine performance simulations. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: aviation propulsion, AVL Boost, engine model, charge exchange, mixture formation

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2159 Control Strategy for Two-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle by Using Fuzzy Controller

Authors: Jia-Shiun Chen, Hsiu-Ying Hwang

Abstract:

Hybrid electric vehicles can reduce pollution and improve fuel economy. Power-split hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) provide two power paths between the internal combustion engine (ICE) and energy storage system (ESS) through the gears of an electrically variable transmission (EVT). EVT allows ICE to operate independently from vehicle speed all the time. Therefore, the ICE can operate in the efficient region of its characteristic brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) map. The two-mode powertrain can operate in input-split or compound-split EVT modes and in four different fixed gear configurations. Power-split architecture is advantageous because it combines conventional series and parallel power paths. This research focuses on input-split and compound-split modes in the two-mode power-split powertrain. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) for an internal combustion engine (ICE) and PI control for electric machines (EMs) are derived for the urban driving cycle simulation. These control algorithms reduce vehicle fuel consumption and improve ICE efficiency while maintaining the state of charge (SOC) of the energy storage system in an efficient range.

Keywords: hybrid electric vehicle, fuel economy, two-mode hybrid, fuzzy control

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2158 Monte Carlo Neutronic Calculations on Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE)

Authors: Adem Acır

Abstract:

In this study, time dependent neutronic analysis of incineration of minor actinides of a Laser Fusion Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) engine was performed. The calculations were carried out by using MCNP codes with ENDF/B.VI neutron data library. In the neutronic calculations, TRISO particles fueled with minor actinides with natural lithium coolant were performed. The natural lithium cooled LIFE engine used 10 % TRISO fuel minor actinides composition. Tritium breeding ratios (TBR) and energy multiplication factor (M) burnup values were computed as 1.46 and 3.75, respectively. The reactor operation time was calculated as ~ 21 years. The burnup values were obtained as ~1060 GWD/MT, respectively. As a result, the very higher burnup were achieved of LIFE engine.

Keywords: Monte Carlo, minor actinides, nuclear waste, LIFE engine

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2157 Investigation of the Flow Characteristics in a Catalytic Muffler with Perforated Inlet Cone

Authors: Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim

Abstract:

Emission regulations for diesel engines are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the standards without exhaust after-treatment systems. Lack of the space in many diesel vehicles, however, make it difficult to design and install stand-alone catalytic converters such as DOC, DPF, and SCR in the vehicle exhaust systems. Accordingly, those have been installed inside the muffler to save the space, and referred to the catalytic muffler. However, that has complex internal structure with perforated plate and pipe for noise and monolithic catalyst for emission reduction. For this reason, flow uniformity and pressure drop, which affect efficiency of catalyst and engine performance, respectively, should be examined when the catalytic muffler is designed. In this work, therefore, the flow uniformity and pressure drop to improve the performance of the catalytic converter and the engine have been numerically investigated by changing various design parameters such as inlet shape, porosity, and outlet shape of the muffler using the three-dimensional turbulent flow of the incompressible, non-reacting, and steady state inside the catalytic muffler. Finally, it can be found that the shape, in which the muffler has perforated pipe inside the inlet part, has higher uniformity index and lower pressure drop than others considered in this work.

Keywords: catalytic muffler, perforated inlet cone, catalysts, perforated pipe, flow uniformity, pressure drop

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2156 A Review on the Potential of Electric Vehicles in Reducing World CO2 Footprints

Authors: S. Alotaibi, S. Omer, Y. Su

Abstract:

The conventional Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) based vehicles are a threat to the environment as they account for a large proportion of the overall greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the world. Hence, it is required to replace these vehicles with more environment-friendly vehicles. Electric Vehicles (EVs) are promising technologies which offer both human comfort “noise, pollution” as well as reduced (or no) emissions of GHGs. In this paper, different types of EVs are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages are identified. It is found that in terms of fuel economy, Plug-in Hybrid EVs (PHEVs) have the best fuel economy, followed by Hybrid EVs (HEVs) and ICE vehicles. Since Battery EVs (BEVs) do not use any fuel, their fuel economy is estimated as price per kilometer. Similarly, in terms of GHG emissions, BEVs are the most environmentally friendly since they do not result in any emissions while HEVs and PHEVs produce less emissions compared to the conventional ICE based vehicles. Fuel Cell EVs (FCEVs) are also zero-emission vehicles, but they have large costs associated with them. Finally, if the electricity is provided by using the renewable energy technologies through grid connection, then BEVs could be considered as zero emission vehicles.

Keywords: electric vehicles, zero emission car, fuel economy, CO₂ footprint

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2155 Systems Approach on Thermal Analysis of an Automatic Transmission

Authors: Sinsze Koo, Benjin Luo, Matthew Henry

Abstract:

In order to increase the performance of an automatic transmission, the automatic transmission fluid is required to be warm up to an optimal operating temperature. In a conventional vehicle, cold starts result in friction loss occurring in the gear box and engine. The stop and go nature of city driving dramatically affect the warm-up of engine oil and automatic transmission fluid and delay the time frame needed to reach an optimal operating temperature. This temperature phenomenon impacts both engine and transmission performance but also increases fuel consumption and CO2 emission. The aim of this study is to develop know-how of the thermal behavior in order to identify thermal impacts and functional principles in automatic transmissions. Thermal behavior was studied using models and simulations, developed using GT-Suit, on a one-dimensional thermal and flow transport. A power train of a conventional vehicle was modeled in order to emphasis the thermal phenomena occurring in the various components and how they impact the automatic transmission performance. The simulation demonstrates the thermal model of a transmission fluid cooling system and its component parts in warm-up after a cold start. The result of these analyses will support the future designs of transmission systems and components in an attempt to obtain better fuel efficiency and transmission performance. Therefore, these thermal analyses could possibly identify ways that improve existing thermal management techniques with prioritization on fuel efficiency.

Keywords: thermal management, automatic transmission, hybrid, and systematic approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
2154 The Effect of Combustion Chamber Deposits (CCD) on Homogeneous Change Compression Ignition (HCCI)

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablus, Osama Ab. M. Shafah

Abstract:

The goal of this work is to understand how the thermal influence of combustion chamber deposits can be utilized to expand the operating range of HCCI combustion. In order to do this, two main objectives must first be met; tracking deposit formation trends in an HCCI engine and determining the sensitivity of HCCI combustion to CCD. This requires testing that demonstrates the differences in combustion between a clean engine and one with deposits coating the chamber. This will involve a long-term test that tracks the effects of CCD on combustion. The test will start with a clean engine. One baseline HCCI operating point is maintained for the duration of the test during which gradual combustion chamber deposit formation will occur. Combustion parameters, including heat release rates and emissions will be tracked for the duration and compared to the case of a clean engine. This work will begin by detailing the specifics of the test procedure and measurements taken throughout the test. Then a review of the effects of the gradual formation of deposits in the engine will be given.

Keywords: fuels, fuel atomization, pattern factor, alternate fuels combustion, efficiency gas turbine combustion, lean blow out, exhaust and liner wall temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
2153 Modeling and Optimization of Performance of Four Stroke Spark Ignition Injector Engine

Authors: A. A. Okafor, C. H. Achebe, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. G. Ozoegwu

Abstract:

The performance of an engine whose basic design parameters are known can be predicted with the assistance of simulation programs into the less time, cost and near value of actual. This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine. The essence of this research work is to develop a mathematical model for the analysis of engine performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine before embarking on full scale construction, this will ensure that only optimal parameters are in the design and development of an engine and also allow to check and develop the design of the engine and it’s operation alternatives in an inexpensive way and less time, instead of using experimental method which requires costly research test beds. To achieve this, equations were derived which describe the performance parameters (sfc, thermal efficiency, mep and A/F). The equations were used to simulate and optimize the engine performance of the model for various engine speeds. The optimal values obtained for the developed bivariate mathematical models are: sfc is 0.2833kg/kwh, efficiency is 28.77% and a/f is 20.75.

Keywords: bivariate models, engine performance, injector engine, optimization, performance parameters, simulation, spark ignition

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
2152 A Computational Study of the Effect of Intake Design on Volumetric Efficiency for Best Performance in Motorsport

Authors: Dominic Wentworth-Linton, Shian Gao

Abstract:

This project was aimed at investigating the effect of velocity stacks on the intakes of internal combustion engines for motorsport applications. The intake systems in motorsport are predominantly fuel injection with a plate mounted for the stacks. Using Computational Fluid Dynamics software, the relationship between the stack length and power and torque delivery across the engine’s rev range was investigated and the results were used to choose the best option for its intended motorsport discipline. The test results are expected to vary with engine geometry and its natural manufacturer characteristics. The test was also relevant in bridging between computational data and real simulation as the results show flow, pressure and velocity readings but the behaviour of the engine is inferred from the nature of each test. The results of the data analysis were tested in a real-life simulation on a dynamometer to prove the theory of stack length on power and torque delivery, which helps determine the most suitable stack for the Vauxhall engine for rallying in the Caribbean.

Keywords: CFD simulation, Internal combustion engine, Intake system, Dynamometer test

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
2151 Design Improvement of Aircraft Turbofan Engine Following Bird Ingestion Testing

Authors: Ahmed H. Elkholy

Abstract:

Aircraft gas turbine engines are subject to damage by airborne foreign objects such as birds and garbage dumps. In order to assess their effect on engine performance, a complete foreign object damage (FOD) test was carried out and a component failure analysis was used to verify airworthiness standards (AWS) requirements for engine certification as set by international regulations. Ingestion damage due to 1.8 Kg (4 lb.) bird strike on an engine is presented in some detail. Based on the observed damage, improvements to the engine design were suggested in two different locations: the front bearing housing and the low compressor shaft. When these improvements were implemented, the engine showed an acceptable containment capability that meets AWS requirements.

Keywords: aircraft engine, airworthiness standards, bird ingestion, foreign object damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
2150 Performance and Specific Emissions of an SI Engine Using Anhydrous Ethanol–Gasoline Blends in the City of Bogota

Authors: Alexander García Mariaca, Rodrigo Morillo Castaño, Juan Rolón Ríos

Abstract:

The government of Colombia has promoted the use of biofuels in the last 20 years through laws and resolutions, which regulate their use, with the objective to improve the atmospheric air quality and to promote Colombian agricultural industry. However, despite the use of blends of biofuels with fossil fuels, the air quality in large cities does not get better, this deterioration in the air is mainly caused by mobile sources that working with spark ignition internal combustion engines (SI-ICE), operating with a mixture in volume of 90 % gasoline and 10 % ethanol called E10, that for the case of Bogota represent 84 % of the fleet. Another problem is that Colombia has big cities located above 2200 masl and there are no accurate studies on the impact that the E10 mixture could cause in the emissions and performance of SI-ICE. This study aims to establish the optimal blend between gasoline ethanol in which an SI engine operates more efficiently in urban centres located at 2600 masl. The test was developed on SI engine four-stroke, single cylinder, naturally aspirated and with carburettor for the fuel supply using blends of gasoline and anhydrous ethanol in different ratios E10, E15, E20, E40, E60, E85 and E100. These tests were conducted in the city of Bogota, which is located at 2600 masl, with the engine operating at 3600 rpm and at 25, 50, 75 and 100% of load. The results show that the performance variables as engine brake torque, brake power and brake thermal efficiency decrease, while brake specific fuel consumption increases with the rise in the percentage of ethanol in the mixture. On the other hand, the specific emissions of CO2 and NOx present increases while specific emissions of CO and HC decreases compared to those produced by gasoline. From the tests, it is concluded that the SI-ICE worked more efficiently with the E40 mixture, where was obtained an increases of the brake power of 8.81 % and a reduction on brake specific fuel consumption of 2.5 %, coupled with a reduction in the specific emissions of CO2, HC and CO in 9.72, 52.88 and 76.66 % respectively compared to the results obtained with the E10 blend. This behaviour is because the E40 mixture provides the appropriate amount of the oxygen for the combustion process, which leads to better utilization of available energy in this process, thus generating a comparable power output to the E10 mixing and producing lower emissions CO and HC with the other test blends. Nevertheless, the emission of NOx increases in 106.25 %.

Keywords: emissions, ethanol, gasoline, engine, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
2149 A Study on the Performance Improvement of Zeolite Catalyst for Endothermic Reaction

Authors: Min Chang Shin, Byung Hun Jeong, Jeong Sik Han, Jung Hoon Park

Abstract:

In modern times, as flight speeds have increased due to improvements in aircraft and missile engine performance, thermal loads have also increased. Because of the friction heat of air flow with high speed on the surface of the vehicle, it is not easy to cool the superheat of the vehicle by the simple air cooling method. For this reason, a cooling method through endothermic heat is attracting attention by using a fuel that causes an endothermic reaction in a high-speed vehicle. There are two main ways of cooling the fuel through the endothermic reaction. The first is physical heat absorption. When the temperature rises, there is a sensible heat that accompanies it. The second is the heat of reaction corresponding to the chemical heat absorption, which absorbs heat during the fuel decomposes. Generally, since the decomposition reaction of the fuel proceeds at a high temperature, it does not achieve a great efficiency in cooling the high-speed flight body. However, when the catalyst is used, decomposition proceeds at a low temperature thereby increasing the cooling efficiency. However, when the catalyst is used as a powder, the catalyst enters the engine and damages the engine or the catalyst can deteriorate the performance due to the sintering. On the other hand, when used in the form of pellets, catalyst loss can be prevented. However, since the specific surface of pellet is small, the efficiency of the catalyst is low. And it can interfere with the flow of fuel, resulting in pressure loss and problems with fuel injection. In this study, we tried to maximize the performance of the catalyst by preparing a hollow fiber type pellet for zeolite ZSM-5, which has a higher amount of heat absorption, than other conventional pellets. The hollow fiber type pellet was prepared by phase inversion method. The hollow fiber type pellet has a finger-like pore and sponge-like pore. So it has a higher specific surface area than conventional pellets. The crystal structure of the prepared ZSM-5 catalyst was confirmed by XRD, and the characteristics of the catalyst were analyzed by TPD/TPR device. This study was conducted as part of the Basic Research Project (Pure-17-20) of Defense Acquisition Program Administration.

Keywords: catalyst, endothermic reaction, high-speed vehicle cooling, zeolite, ZSM-5

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
2148 Development of Alternative Fuels Technologies: Compressed Natural Gas Home Refueling Station

Authors: Szymon Kuczynski, Krystian Liszka, Mariusz Laciak, Andrii Oliinyk, Adam Szurlej

Abstract:

Compressed natural gas (CNG) represents an excellent compromise between the availability of a technology that is proven and relatively easy to use in many areas of the automotive industry and incurred costs. This fuel causes a lower corrosion effect due to the lower content of products causing the potential difference on the walls of the engine system. Natural gas powered vehicles (NGVs) do not emit any substances that can contaminate water or land. The absence of carcinogenic substances in gaseous fuel extends the life of the engine. In the longer term, it contributes positively to waste management as well as waste disposal. Popularization of propulsion systems powered by natural gas CNG positively affects the reduction of heavy duty transport. For these reasons, CNG as a fuel stimulates considerable interest around the world. Over the last few years, technologies related to use of natural gas as an engine fuel have been developed and improved. These solutions have evolved from the prototype phase to the industrial scale implementation. The widespread availability of gaseous fuels has led to the development of a technology that allows the CNG fuel to be refueled directly from the urban gas network to the vehicle tank (ie. HYGEN - CNGHRS). Home refueling installations, although they have been known for many years, are becoming increasingly important in the present day. The major obstacle in the sale of this technology was, until recently, quite high capital expenditure compared to the later benefits. Home refueling systems allow refueling vehicle tank, with full control of fuel costs and refueling time. CNG Home Refueling Stations (such as HYGEN) allow gas value chain to overcome the dogma that there is a lack of refueling infrastructure allowing companies in gas value chain to participate in transportation market. Technology is based on one stage hydraulic compressor (instead of multistage mechanical compressor technology) which provides the possibility to compress low pressure gas from distribution gas network to 200 bar for its further usage as a fuel for NGVs. This boosts revenues and profits of gas companies by expanding its presence in higher margin of energy sector.

Keywords: alternative fuels, CNG (compressed natural gas), CNG stations, NGVs (natural gas vehicles), gas value chain

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
2147 The Effect of Micro-Arc Oxidation Coated Piston Crown on Engine Characteristics in a Spark Ignited Engine

Authors: A.Velavan, C. G. Saravanan, M. Vikneswaran, E. James Gunasekaran

Abstract:

In present investigation, experiments were carried out to compare the effect of the ceramic coated piston crown and uncoated piston on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a port injected Spark Ignited engine. The piston crown was coated with aluminium alloy in the form ceramic oxide layer of thickness 500 µm using micro-arc oxidation technique. This ceramic coating will act as a thermal barrier which reduces in-cylinder heat rejection and increases the durability of the piston by withstanding high temperature and pressure produced during combustion. Flame visualization inside the combustion chamber was carried out using AVL Visioscope combustion analyzer to predict the type of combustion occurs at different load condition. Based on the experimental results, it was found that the coated piston shows an improved thermal efficiency when compared to uncoated piston. This is because more heat presents in the combustion chamber which helps efficient combustion of the fuel. The CO and HC emissions were found to be reduced due to better combustion of the fuel whereas NOx emission was increased due to increase in combustion temperature for ceramic coated piston.

Keywords: coated piston, micro-arc oxidation, thermal barrier, thermal efficiency, visioscope

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
2146 Ultrasonic Atomizer for Turbojet Engines

Authors: Aman Johri, Sidhant Sood, Pooja Suresh

Abstract:

This paper suggests a new and more efficient method of atomization of fuel in a combustor nozzle of a high bypass turbofan engine, using ultrasonic vibrations. Since atomization of fuel just before the fuel spray is injected into the combustion chamber is an important and crucial aspect related to functioning of a propulsion system, the technology suggested by this paper and the experimental analysis on the system components eventually proves to assist in complete and rapid combustion of the fuel in the combustor module of the engine. Current propulsion systems use carburetors, atomization nozzles and apertures in air intake pipes for atomization. The idea of this paper is to deploy new age hybrid technology, namely the Ultrasound Field Effect (UFE) to effectively atomize fuel before it enters the combustion chamber, as a viable and effective method to increase efficiency and improve upon existing designs. The Ultrasound Field Effect is applied axially, on diametrically opposite ends of an atomizer tube that gloves onto the combustor nozzle, where the fuel enters and exits under a pre-defined pressure. The Ultrasound energy vibrates the fuel particles to a breakup frequency. At reaching this frequency, the fuel particles start disintegrating into smaller diameter particles perpendicular to the axis of application of the field from the parent boundary layer of fuel flow over the baseplate. These broken up fuel droplets then undergo swirling effect as per the original nozzle design, with a higher breakup ratio than before. A significant reduction of the size of fuel particles eventually results in an increment in the propulsive efficiency of the engine. Moreover, the Ultrasound atomizer operates within a control frequency such that effects of overheating and induced vibrations are least felt on the overall performance of the engine. The design of an electrical manifold for the multiple-nozzle system over a typical can-annular combustor is developed along with this study, such that the product can be installed and removed easily for maintenance and repairing, can allow for easy access for inspections and transmits least amount of vibrational energy to the surface of the combustor. Since near-field ultrasound is used, the vibrations are easily controlled, thereby successfully reducing vibrations on the outer shell of the combustor. Experimental analysis is carried out on the effect of ultrasonic vibrations on flowing jet turbine fuel using an ultrasound generator probe and results of an effective decrease in droplet size across a constant diameter, away from the boundary layer of flow is noted using visual aid by observing under ultraviolet light. The choice of material for the Ultrasound inducer tube and crystal along with the operating range of temperatures, pressures, and frequencies of the Ultrasound field effect are also studied in this paper, while taking into account the losses incurred due to constant vibrations and thermal loads on the tube surface.

Keywords: atomization, ultrasound field effect, titanium mesh, breakup frequency, parent boundary layer, baseplate, propulsive efficiency, jet turbine fuel, induced vibrations

Procedia PDF Downloads 116