Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 520

Search results for: turbine blades

520 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

Abstract:

Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
519 Analyzing the Feasibility of Low-Cost Composite Wind Turbine Blades for Residential Energy Production

Authors: Aravindhan Nepolean, Chidamabaranathan Bibin, Rajesh K., Gopinath S., Ashok Kumar R., Arun Kumar S., Sadasivan N.

Abstract:

Wind turbine blades are an important parameter for surging renewable energy production. Optimizing blade profiles and developing new materials for wind turbine blades take a lot of time and effort. Even though many standards for wind turbine blades have been developed for large-scale applications, they are not more effective in small-scale applications. We used acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene to make small-scale wind turbine blades in this study (ABS). We chose the material because it is inexpensive and easy to machine into the desired form. They also have outstanding chemical, stress, and creep resistance. The blade measures 332 mm in length and has a 664 mm rotor diameter. A modal study of blades is carried out, as well as a comparison with current e-glass fiber. They were able to balance the output with less vibration, according to the findings. Q blade software is used to simulate rotating output. The modal analysis testing and prototype validation of wind turbine blades were used for experimental validation.

Keywords: acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene, e-glass fiber, modal, renewable energy, q-blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
518 Improvement of Fatigue and Fatigue Corrosion Resistances of Turbine Blades Using Laser Cladding

Authors: Sami I. Jafar, Sami A. Ajeel, Zaman A. Abdulwahab

Abstract:

The turbine blades used in electric power plants are made of low alloy steel type 52. These blades will be subjected to fatigue and also at other times to fatigue corrosion with aging time. Due to their continuous exposure to cyclic rotational stresses in corrosive steam environments, The current research aims to deal with this problem using the laser cladding method for low alloy steel type 52, which works to re-compose the metallurgical structure and improve the mechanical properties by strengthening the resulting structure, which leads to an increase in fatigue and wears resistance, therefore, an increase in the life of these blades is observed.

Keywords: fatigue, fatigue corrosion, turbine blades, laser cladding

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
517 Wind Turbine Powered Car Uses 3 Single Big C-Section Blades

Authors: K. Youssef, Ç. Hüseyin

Abstract:

The blades of a wind turbine have the most important job of any wind turbine component; they must capture the wind and convert it into usable mechanical energy. The objective of this work is to determine the mechanical power of single big C-section of vertical wind turbine for wind car in a two-dimensional model. The wind car has a vertical axis with 3 single big C-section blades mounted at an angle of 120°. Moreover, the three single big C-section blades are directly connected to wheels by using various kinds of links. Gears are used to convert the wind energy to mechanical energy to overcome the load exercised on the main shaft under low speed. This work allowed a comparison of drag characteristics and the mechanical power between the single big C-section blades with the previous work on 3 C-section and 3 double C-section blades for wind car. As a result obtained from the flow chart the torque and power curves of each case study are illustrated and compared with each other. In particular, drag force and torque acting on each types of blade was taken at an airflow speed of 4 m/s, and an angular velocity of 13.056 rad/s.

Keywords: blade, vertical wind turbine, drag characteristics, mechanical power

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
516 Vibration Signals of Small Vertical Axis Wind Turbines

Authors: Aqoul H. H. Alanezy, Ali M. Abdelsalam, Nouby M. Ghazaly

Abstract:

In recent years, progress has been made in increasing the renewable energy share in the power sector particularly in the wind. The experimental study conducted in this paper aims to investigate the effects of number of blades and inflow wind speed on vibration signals of a vertical axis Savonius type wind turbine. The operation of the model of Savonius type wind turbine is conducted to compare two, three and four blades wind turbines to show vibration amplitudes related with wind speed. It is found that the increase of the number of blades leads to decrease of the vibration magnitude. Furthermore, inflow wind speed has reduced effect on the vibration level for higher number of blades.

Keywords: Savonius type wind turbine, number of blades, renewable energy, vibration signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
515 Application of Powder Metallurgy Technologies for Gas Turbine Engine Wheel Production

Authors: Liubov Magerramova, Eugene Kratt, Pavel Presniakov

Abstract:

A detailed analysis has been performed for several schemes of Gas Turbine Wheels production based on additive and powder technologies including metal, ceramic, and stereolithography 3-D printing. During the process of development and debugging of gas turbine engine components, different versions of these components must be manufactured and tested. Cooled blades of the turbine are among of these components. They are usually produced by traditional casting methods. This method requires long and costly design and manufacture of casting molds. Moreover, traditional manufacturing methods limit the design possibilities of complex critical parts of engine, so capabilities of Powder Metallurgy Techniques (PMT) were analyzed to manufacture the turbine wheel with air-cooled blades. PMT dramatically reduce time needed for such production and allow creating new complex design solutions aimed at improving the technical characteristics of the engine: improving fuel efficiency and environmental performance, increasing reliability, and reducing weight. To accelerate and simplify the blades manufacturing process, several options based on additive technologies were used. The options were implemented in the form of various casting equipment for the manufacturing of blades. Methods of powder metallurgy were applied for connecting the blades with the disc. The optimal production scheme and a set of technologies for the manufacturing of blades and turbine wheel and other parts of the engine can be selected on the basis of the options considered.

Keywords: additive technologies, gas turbine engine, powder technology, turbine wheel

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
514 Calculus of Turbojet Performances for Ideal Case

Authors: S. Bennoud, S. Hocine, H. Slme

Abstract:

Developments in turbine cooling technology play an important role in increasing the thermal efficiency and the power output of recent gas turbines, in particular the turbojets. Advanced turbojets operate at high temperatures to improve thermal efficiency and power output. These temperatures are far above the permissible metal temperatures. Therefore, there is a critical need to cool the blades in order to give theirs a maximum life period for safe operation. The focused objective of this work is to calculate the turbojet performances, as well as the calculation of turbine blades cooling. The developed application able the calculation of turbojet performances to different altitudes in order to find a point of optimal use making possible to maintain the turbine blades at an acceptable maximum temperature and to limit the local variations in temperatures in order to guarantee their integrity during all the lifespan of the engine.

Keywords: brayton cycle, turbine blades cooling, turbojet cycle, turbojet performances

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
513 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi

Abstract:

Effect of 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in the study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and the stall characteristics. The aim of the use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e. the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, wells turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
512 Aerodynamics of Nature Inspired Turbine Blade Using Computational Simulation

Authors: Seung Ki Lee, Richard Kyung

Abstract:

In the airfoil analysis, as the camber is greater, the minimal angle of attack causing the stall and maximum lift force increases. The shape of the turbine blades is similar to the shape of the wings of planes. After major wars, many remarkable blade shapes are made through researches about optimal blade shape. The blade shapes developed by National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, NACA, is well known. In this paper, using computational and numerical analysis, the NACA airfoils are analyzed. This research shows that the blades vary with their thickness, which thinner blades are expected to be better. There is no significant difference of coefficient of lift due to the difference in thickness, but the coefficient of drag increases as the thickness increases.

Keywords: blades, drag force, national advisory committee for aeronautics airfoils, turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
511 Design and Analysis of Blade Length and Number of Blades of Small Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Ali Gul, Bhart Kumar, Samiullah Ansari

Abstract:

The current research is focused on the study of various lengths of blades (i.e. 1 to 5m) and several bladed rotors (3,5,7 & 9) of small horizontal axis wind turbine under low wind conditions usingQBlade software. Initially, the rotor was designed using airfoil SG6043 with five different lengths of the blades. Subsequently, simulations were carried out in which, under low wind regimes, the power output was observed. Further, four rotors having 3,5,7 & 9 blades were analyzed. However, the most promising coefficient of performance (CP) was observed at the 3-bladed rotor. Both studies established a clear view of harvesting wind energy at low wind speeds that can be mobilized in the energy sector. That suggests the utilization of wind energy at the domestic levelwhich is acceleratory growing in the last few decades.

Keywords: small HAWT, QBlade, BEM, CFD

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
510 Mistuning in Radial Inflow Turbines

Authors: Valentina Futoryanova, Hugh Hunt

Abstract:

One of the common failure modes of the diesel engine turbochargers is high cycle fatigue of the turbine wheel blades. Mistuning of the blades due to the casting process is believed to contribute to the failure mode. Laser vibrometer is used to characterize mistuning for a population of turbine wheels through the analysis of the blade response to piezo speaker induced noise. The turbine wheel design under investigation is radial and is typically used in 6-12 L diesel engine applications. Amplitudes and resonance frequencies are reviewed and summarized. The study also includes test results for a paddle wheel that represents a perfectly tuned system and acts as a reference. Mass spring model is developed for the paddle wheel and the model suitability is tested against the actual data. Randomization is applied to the stiffness matrix to model the mistuning effect in the turbine wheels. Experimental data is shown to have good agreement with the model.

Keywords: vibration, radial turbines, mistuning, turbine blades, modal analysis, periodic structures, finite element

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
509 Evaluation of an Air Energy Recovery System in Greenhouse Fed by an Axial Air Extractor

Authors: Eugueni Romantchik, Gilbero Lopez, Diego Terrazas

Abstract:

The residual wind energy recovery from axial air extractors in greenhouses represents a constant source of clean energy production, which reduces production costs by reducing energy consumption costs. The objective of this work is to design, build and evaluate a residual wind energy recovery system. This system consists of a wind turbine placed at an optimal distance, a cone in the air discharge and a mechanism to vary the blades angle of the wind turbine. The system energy balance was analyzed, measuring the main energy parameters such as voltage, amperage, air velocities and angular speeds of the rotors. Tests were carried in a greenhouse with extractor Multifan 130 (1.2 kW, 550 rpm and 1.3 m of diameter) without cone and with cone, with the wind turbine (3 blades with 1.2 m in diameter). The implementation of the system allowed recovering up to 55% of the motor's energy. With the cone installed, the electric energy recovered was increased by 10%. Experimentally, it was shown that changing in 3 degrees the original angle of the wind turbine blades, the angular velocity increases 17.7%.

Keywords: air energy, exhaust fan, greenhouse, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
508 The High Temperature Damage of DV–2 Turbine Blade Made from Ni–Base Superalloy

Authors: Juraj Belan, Lenka Hurtalová, Eva Tillová, Alan Vaško, Milan Uhríčik

Abstract:

High-pressure turbine (HPT) blades of DV–2 jet engines are made from Ni–base superalloy, a former Soviet Union production, specified as ŽS6K. For improving its high-temperature resistance are blades covered with Al–Si diffusion layer. A regular operation temperature of HPT blades vary from 705°C to 750°C depending on jet engine regime. An over-crossing working temperature range causes degradation of protective alitize layer as well as base material–gamma matrix and gamma prime particles what decreases turbine blade lifetime. High-temperature degradation has mainly diffusion mechanism and causes coarsening of strengthening phase gamma prime and protective alitize layer thickness growing. All changes have a significant influence on high-temperature properties of base material.

Keywords: alitize layer, gamma prime phase, high-temperature degradation, Ni–base superalloy ŽS6K, turbine blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
507 Phase Composition Analysis of Ternary Alloy Materials for Gas Turbine Applications

Authors: Mayandi Ramanathan

Abstract:

Gas turbine blades see the most aggressive thermal stress conditions within the engine, due to high Turbine Entry Temperatures in the range of 1500 to 1600°C. The blades rotate at very high rotation rates and remove a significant amount of thermal power from the gas stream. At high temperatures, the major component failure mechanism is a creep. During its service over time under high thermal loads, the blade will deform, lengthen and rupture. High strength and stiffness in the longitudinal direction up to elevated service temperatures are certainly the most needed properties of turbine blades and gas turbine components. The proposed advanced Ti alloy material needs a process that provides a strategic orientation of metallic ordering, uniformity in composition and high metallic strength. The chemical composition of the proposed Ti alloy material (25% Ta/(Al+Ta) ratio), unlike Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, has less excess Al that could limit the service life of turbine blades. Properties and performance of Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb and Ti-6Al-4V materials will be compared with that of the proposed Ti alloy material to generalize the performance metrics of various gas turbine components. This paper will involve the summary of the effects of additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions on the changes in the phase composition, grain structure, lattice structure of the material, tensile strength, creep strain rate, thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness at different temperatures. Based on these results, additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions will be optimized to fabricate turbine blade with Ti-43Al matrix alloyed with an optimized amount of refractory Ta metal. Improvement in service temperature of the turbine blades and corrosion resistance dependence on the coercivity of the alloy material will be reported. A correlation of phase composition and creep strain rate will also be discussed.

Keywords: high temperature materials, aerospace, specific strength, creep strain, phase composition

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
506 Investigations of Flow Field with Different Turbulence Models on NREL Phase VI Blade

Authors: T. Y. Liu, C. H. Lin, Y. M. Ferng

Abstract:

Wind energy is one of the clean renewable energy. However, the low frequency (20-200HZ) noise generated from the wind turbine blades, which bothers the residents, becomes the major problem to be developed. It is useful for predicting the aerodynamic noise by flow field and pressure distribution analysis on the wind turbine blades. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to use different turbulence models to analyse the flow field and pressure distributions of the wing blades. Three-dimensional Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of the flow field was used to calculate the flow phenomena for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Phase VI horizontal axis wind turbine rotor. Two different flow cases with different wind speeds were investigated: 7m/s with 72rpm and 15m/s with 72rpm. Four kinds of RANS-based turbulence models, Standard k-ε, Realizable k-ε, SST k-ω, and v2f, were used to predict and analyse the results in the present work. The results show that the predictions on pressure distributions with SST k-ω and v2f turbulence models have good agreements with experimental data.

Keywords: horizontal axis wind turbine, turbulence model, noise, fluid dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
505 Design a Small-Scale Irrigation Wind-Powered Water Pump Using a Savonius Type VAWT

Authors: Getnet Ayele Kebede, Tasew Tadiwose Zewdie

Abstract:

In this study, a novel design of a wind-powered water pump for small-scale irrigation application by using the Savonius wind turbine of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine(VAWT) with 2 blades has been used. Calculations have been made on the energy available in the wind and an energy analysis was then performed to see what wind speed is required for the system to work. The rotor has a radius of 0.53 m giving a swept area of 1.27 m2 and this gives a solidity of 0.5, which is the minimum theoretical optimum value for wind turbine. The average extracted torque of the wind turbine is 0.922 Nm and Tip speed ratio is one this shows, the tips are moving at equal the speed of the wind and by 2 rotating of blades. This is sufficient to sustain the desired flow rate of (0.3125X 10-3) m3 per second with a maximum head of 10m and the expected working is 4hr/day, and also overcome other barriers to motion such as friction. Based on this novel design, we are able to achieve a cost-effective solution and simultaneously effective in self-starting under low wind speeds and it can catch the wind from all directions.

Keywords: Savonius wind turbine, Small-scale irrigation, Vertical Axis Wind Turbine, Water pump

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
504 The Characteristics of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for the Selected Wind Speed

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz

Abstract:

The paper discusses the results of the research into a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation which was performed with the open return wind tunnel, Gunt HM 170, at the laboratory of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Propulsion Aviation Systems of Lublin University of Technology. Wind tunnel experiments are a necessary step to construct any new type of wind turbine, to validate design assumptions and numerical results. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The study was performed on scaled and geometrically similar models with the criteria of similarity relevant for the type of research preserved. The rotors with varied angular apertures of their blades were printed for the research with a powder 3D printer, ZPrinter® 450. This paper presents the research results for the selected flow speed of 6.5 m/s for the three angular apertures of the rotor blades, i.e. 30°, 60°, 90° at varied speeds. The test stand enables the turbine rotor to be braked to achieve the required speed and airflow speed and torque to be recorded. Accordingly, the torque and power as a function of airflow were plotted. The rotor with its adjustable blades enables turbine power to be adjusted within a wide range of wind speeds. A variable angular aperture of blade working surfaces α in a wind turbine enables us to control the speed of the turbine and consequently its output power. Reducing the angular aperture of working surfaces results in reduced speed, and if a special current generator applied, electrical output power is reduced, too. Speed adjusted by changing angle α enables the maximum load acting on rotor blades to be controlled. The solution under study is a kind of safety against a damage of a turbine due to possible high wind speed.

Keywords: drive torque, renewable energy, power, wind turbine, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
503 Stochastic Modelling for Mixed Mode Fatigue Delamination Growth of Wind Turbine Composite Blades

Authors: Chi Zhang, Hua-Peng Chen

Abstract:

With the increasingly demanding resources in the word, renewable and clean energy has been considered as an alternative way to replace traditional ones. Thus, one of practical examples for using wind energy is wind turbine, which has gained more attentions in recent research. Like most offshore structures, the blades, which is the most critical components of the wind turbine, will be subjected to millions of loading cycles during service life. To operate safely in marine environments, the blades are typically made from fibre reinforced composite materials to resist fatigue delamination and harsh environment. The fatigue crack development of blades is uncertain because of indeterminate mechanical properties for composite and uncertainties under offshore environment like wave loads, wind loads, and humid environments. There are three main delamination failure modes for composite blades, and the most common failure type in practices is subjected to mixed mode loading, typically a range of opening (mode 1) and shear (mode 2). However, the fatigue crack development for mixed mode cannot be predicted as deterministic values because of various uncertainties in realistic practical situation. Therefore, selecting an effective stochastic model to evaluate the mixed mode behaviour of wind turbine blades is a critical issue. In previous studies, gamma process has been considered as an appropriate stochastic approach, which simulates the stochastic deterioration process to proceed in one direction such as realistic situation for fatigue damage failure of wind turbine blades. On the basis of existing studies, various Paris Law equations are discussed to simulate the propagation of the fatigue crack growth. This paper develops a Paris model with the stochastic deterioration modelling according to gamma process for predicting fatigue crack performance in design service life. A numerical example of wind turbine composite materials is investigated to predict the mixed mode crack depth by Paris law and the probability of fatigue failure by gamma process. The probability of failure curves under different situations are obtained from the stochastic deterioration model for comparisons. Compared with the results from experiments, the gamma process can take the uncertain values into consideration for crack propagation of mixed mode, and the stochastic deterioration process shows a better agree well with realistic crack process for composite blades. Finally, according to the predicted results from gamma stochastic model, assessment strategies for composite blades are developed to reduce total lifecycle costs and increase resistance for fatigue crack growth.

Keywords: Reinforced fibre composite, Wind turbine blades, Fatigue delamination, Mixed failure mode, Stochastic process.

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
502 Stability Analysis of a Low Power Wind Turbine for the Simultaneous Generation of Energy through Two Electric Generators

Authors: Daniel Icaza, Federico Córdova, Chiristian Castro, Fernando Icaza, Juan Portoviejo

Abstract:

In this article, the mathematical model is presented, and simulations were carried out using specialized software such as MATLAB before the construction of a 900-W wind turbine. The present study was conducted with the intention of taking advantage of the rotation of the blades of the wind generator after going through a process of amplification of speed by means of a system of gears to finally mechanically couple two electric generators of similar characteristics. This coupling allows generating a maximum voltage of 6 V in DC for each generator and putting in series the 12 V DC is achieved, which is later stored in batteries and used when the user requires it. Laboratory tests were made to verify the level of power generation produced based on the wind speed at the entrance of the blades.

Keywords: smart grids, wind turbine, modeling, renewable energy, robust control

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
501 Phase Optimized Ternary Alloy Material for Gas Turbines

Authors: Mayandi Ramanathan

Abstract:

Gas turbine blades see the most aggressive thermal stress conditions within the engine, due to Turbine Entry Temperatures in the range of 1500 to 1600°C, but in synchronization with other functional components, they must readily deliver efficient performance, whilst incurring minimal overhaul and repair costs during its service life up to 5 million flying miles. The blades rotate at very high rotation rates and remove significant amount of thermal power from the gas stream. At high temperatures the major component failure mechanism is creep. During its service over time under high temperatures and loads, the blade will deform, lengthen and rupture. High strength and stiffness in the longitudinal direction up to elevated service temperatures are certainly the most needed properties of turbine blades. The proposed advanced Ti alloy material needs a process that provides strategic orientation of metallic ordering, uniformity in composition and high metallic strength. 25% Ta/(Al+Ta) ratio ensures TaAl3 phase formation, where as 51% Al/(Al+Ti) ratio ensures formation of α-Ti3Al and γ-TiAl mixed phases fand the three phase combination ensures minimal Al excess (~1.4% Al excess), unlike Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb which has significant excess Al (~5% Al excess) that could affect the service life of turbine blades. This presentation will involve the summary of additive manufacturing and heat treatment process conditions to fabricate turbine blade with Ti-43Al matrix alloyed with optimized amount of refractory Ta metal. Summary of thermo-mechanical test results such as high temperature tensile strength, creep strain rate, thermal expansion coefficient and fracture toughness will be presented. Improvement in service temperature of the turbine blades and corrosion resistance dependence on coercivity of the alloy material will be reported. Phase compositions will be quantified, and a summary of its correlation with creep strain rate will be presented.

Keywords: gas turbine, aerospace, specific strength, creep, high temperature materials, alloys, phase optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
500 CFD Simulation on Gas Turbine Blade and Effect of Twisted Hole Shape on Film Cooling Effectiveness

Authors: Thulodin Mat Lazim, Aminuddin Saat, Ammar Fakhir Abdulwahid, Zaid Sattar Kareem

Abstract:

Film cooling is one of the cooling systems investigated for the application to gas turbine blades. Gas turbines use film cooling in addition to turbulence internal cooling to protect the blades outer surface from hot gases. The present study concentrates on the numerical investigation of film cooling performance for a row of twisted cylindrical holes in modern turbine blade. The adiabatic film effectiveness and the heat transfer coefficient are determined numerical on a flat plate downstream of a row of inclined different cross section area hole exit by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The swirling motion of the film coolant was induced the twisted angle of film cooling holes, which inclined an angle of α toward the vertical direction and surface of blade turbine. The holes angle α of the impingement mainstream was changed from 90°, 65°, 45°, 30° and 20°. The film cooling effectiveness on surface of blade turbine wall was measured by using 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Results showed that the effectiveness of rectangular twisted hole has the effectiveness among other cross section area of the hole at blowing ratio (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2).

Keywords: turbine blade cooling, film cooling, geometry shape of hole, turbulent flow

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499 The Role of Strategic Metals in Cr-Al-Pt-V Composition of Protective Bond Coats

Authors: A. M. Pashayev, A. S. Samedov, T. B. Usubaliyev, N. Sh. Yusifov

Abstract:

Different types of coating technologies are widely used for gas turbine blades. Thermal barrier coatings, consisting of ceramic top coat, thermally grown oxide and a metallic bond coat are used in applications for thermal protection of hot section components in gas turbine engines. Operational characteristics and longevity of high-temperature turbine blades substantially depend on a right choice of composition of the protective thermal barrier coatings. At a choice of composition of a coating and content of the basic elements it is necessary to consider following factors, as minimum distinctions of coefficients of thermal expansions of elements, level of working temperatures and composition of the oxidizing environment, defining the conditions for the formation of protective layers, intensity of diffusive processes and degradation speed of protective properties of elements, extent of influence on the fatigue durability of details during operation, using of elements with high characteristics of thermal stability and satisfactory resilience of gas corrosion, density, hardness, thermal conduction and other physical characteristics. Forecasting and a choice of a thermal barrier coating composition, all above factors at the same time cannot be considered, as some of these characteristics are defined by experimental studies. The implemented studies and investigations show that one of the main failures of coatings used on gas turbine blades is related to not fully taking the physical-chemical features of elements into consideration during the determination of the composition of alloys. It leads to the formation of more difficult spatial structure, composition which also changes chaotically in some interval of concentration that doesn't promote thermal and structural firmness of a coating. For the purpose of increasing the thermal and structural resistant of gas turbine blade coatings is offered a new approach to forecasting of composition on the basis of analysis of physical-chemical characteristics of alloys taking into account the size factor, electron configuration, type of crystal lattices and Darken-Gurry method. As a result, of calculations and experimental investigations is offered the new four-component metallic bond coat on the basis of chrome for the gas turbine blades.

Keywords: gas turbine blades, thermal barrier coating, metallic bond coat, strategic metals, physical-chemical features

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
498 Experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Saim Iftikhar Awan, Farhan Ali

Abstract:

Wind power has now become one of the most important resources of renewable energy. The machine which extracts kinetic energy from wind is wind turbine. This work is all about the electrical power analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine to check the efficiency of different configurations of wind turbines to get maximum output and comparison of experimental and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) results. Different experiments have been performed to obtain that configuration with the help of which we can get the maximum electrical power output by changing the different parameters like the number of blades, blade shape, wind speed, etc. in first step experimentation is done, and then the similar configuration is designed in 3D CAD software. After a series of experiments, it has been found that the turbine with four blades at an angle of 75° gives maximum power output and increase in wind speed increases the power output. The models designed on CAD software are imported on ANSYS-FLUENT to predict mechanical power. This mechanical power is then converted into electrical power, and the results were approximately the same in both cases. In the end, a comparison has been done to compare the results of experiments and ANSYS-FLUENT.

Keywords: computational analysis, power efficiency, wind energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
497 Structural Performance Evaluation of Segmented Wind Turbine Blade Through Finite Element Simulation

Authors: Chandrashekhar Bhat, Dilifa Jossley Noronha, Faber A. Saldana

Abstract:

Transportation of long turbine blades from one place to another is a difficult process. Hence a feasibility study of modularization of wind turbine blade was taken from structural standpoint through finite element analysis. Initially, a non-segmented blade is modeled and its structural behavior is evaluated to serve as reference. The resonant, static bending and fatigue tests are simulated in accordance with IEC61400-23 standard for comparison purpose. The non-segmented test blade is separated at suitable location based on trade off studies and the segments are joined with an innovative double strap bonded joint configuration. The adhesive joint is modeled by adopting cohesive zone modeling approach in ANSYS. The developed blade model is analyzed for its structural response through simulation. Performances of both the blades are found to be similar, which indicates that, efficient segmentation of the long blade is possible which facilitates easy transportation of the blades and on site reassembling. The location selected for segmentation and adopted joint configuration has resulted in an efficient segmented blade model which proves the methodology adopted for segmentation was quite effective. The developed segmented blade appears to be the viable alternative considering its structural response specifically in fatigue within considered assumptions.

Keywords: modularization, fatigue, cohesive zone modeling, wind turbine blade

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
496 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Calculations of the Wind Turbine with an Adjustable Working Surface

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz, Krzysztof Skiba

Abstract:

This paper discusses the CFD simulation of a flow around a rotor of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Numerical simulation, unlike experiments, enables us to validate project assumptions when it is designed and avoid a costly preparation of a model or a prototype for a bench test. CFD simulation enables us to compare characteristics of aerodynamic forces acting on rotor working surfaces and define operational parameters like torque or power generated by a turbine assembly. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angular aperture α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The operation of turbines is characterized by parameters like the angular aperture of blades, power, torque, speed for a given wind speed. These parameters have an impact on the efficiency of assemblies. The distribution of forces acting on the working surfaces in our turbine changes according to the angular velocity of the rotor. Moreover, the resultant force from the force acting on an advancing blade and retreating blade should be as high as possible. This paper is part of the research to improve an efficiency of a rotor assembly. Therefore, using simulation, the courses of the above parameters were studied in three full rotations individually for each of the blades for three angular apertures of blade working surfaces, i.e. 30 °, 60 °, 90 °, at three wind speeds, i.e. 4 m / s, 6 m / s, 8 m / s and rotor speeds ranging from 100 to 500 rpm. Finally, there were created the characteristics of torque coefficients and power as a function of time for each blade separately and for the entire rotor. Accordingly, the correlation between the turbine rotor power as a function of wind speed for varied values of rotor rotational speed. By processing this data, the correlation between the power of the turbine rotor and its rotational speed for each of the angular aperture of the working surfaces was specified. Finally, the optimal values, i.e. of the highest output power for given wind speeds were read. The research results in receiving the basic characteristics of turbine rotor power as a function of wind speed for the three angular apertures of the blades. Given the nature of rotor operation, the growth in the output turbine can be estimated if angular aperture of the blades increases. The controlled adjustment of angle α enables a smooth adjustment of power generated by a turbine rotor. If wind speed is significant, this type of adjustment enables this output power to remain at the same level (by reducing angle α) with no risk of damaging a construction. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, numerical analysis, renewable energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
495 Hybrid Intelligent Optimization Methods for Optimal Design of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine Blades

Authors: E. Tandis, E. Assareh

Abstract:

Designing the optimal shape of MW wind turbine blades is provided in a number of cases through evolutionary algorithms associated with mathematical modeling (Blade Element Momentum Theory). Evolutionary algorithms, among the optimization methods, enjoy many advantages, particularly in stability. However, they usually need a large number of function evaluations. Since there are a large number of local extremes, the optimization method has to find the global extreme accurately. The present paper introduces a new population-based hybrid algorithm called Genetic-Based Bees Algorithm (GBBA). This algorithm is meant to design the optimal shape for MW wind turbine blades. The current method employs crossover and neighborhood searching operators taken from the respective Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Bees Algorithm (BA) to provide a method with good performance in accuracy and speed convergence. Different blade designs, twenty-one to be exact, were considered based on the chord length, twist angle and tip speed ratio using GA results. They were compared with BA and GBBA optimum design results targeting the power coefficient and solidity. The results suggest that the final shape, obtained by the proposed hybrid algorithm, performs better compared to either BA or GA. Furthermore, the accuracy and speed convergence increases when the GBBA is employed

Keywords: Blade Design, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm, Bees Algorithm, Genetic-Based Bees Algorithm, Large Wind Turbine

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494 Model the Off-Shore Ocean-Sea Waves to Generate Electric Power by Design of a Converting Device

Authors: Muthana A. M. Jameel Al-Jaboori

Abstract:

In this paper, we will present a mathematical model to design a system able to generate electricity from ocean-sea waves. We will use the basic principles of the transfer of the energy potential of waves in a chamber to force the air inside a vertical or inclined cylindrical column, which is topped by a wind turbine to rotate the electric generator. The present mathematical model included a high number of variables such as the wave, height, width, length, velocity, and frequency, as well as others for the energy cylindrical column, like varying diameters and heights, and the wave chamber shape diameter and height. While for the wells wind turbine the variables included the number of blades, length, width, and clearance, as well as the rotor and tip radius. Additionally, the turbine rotor and blades must be made from the light and strong material for a smooth blade surface. The variables were too vast and high in number. Then the program was run successfully within the MATLAB and presented very good modeling results.

Keywords: water wave, models, Wells turbine, MATLAB program

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493 Improving the Technology of Assembly by Use of Computer Calculations

Authors: Mariya V. Yanyukina, Michael A. Bolotov

Abstract:

Assembling accuracy is the degree of accordance between the actual values of the parameters obtained during assembly, and the values specified in the assembly drawings and technical specifications. However, the assembling accuracy depends not only on the quality of the production process but also on the correctness of the assembly process. Therefore, preliminary calculations of assembly stages are carried out to verify the correspondence of real geometric parameters to their acceptable values. In the aviation industry, most calculations involve interacting dimensional chains. This greatly complicates the task. Solving such problems requires a special approach. The purpose of this article is to carry out the problem of improving the technology of assembly of aviation units by use of computer calculations. One of the actual examples of the assembly unit, in which there is an interacting dimensional chain, is the turbine wheel of gas turbine engine. Dimensional chain of turbine wheel is formed by geometric parameters of disk and set of blades. The interaction of the dimensional chain consists in the formation of two chains. The first chain is formed by the dimensions that determine the location of the grooves for the installation of the blades, and the dimensions of the blade roots. The second dimensional chain is formed by the dimensions of the airfoil shroud platform. The interaction of the dimensional chain of the turbine wheel is the interdependence of the first and second chains by means of power circuits formed by a plurality of middle parts of the turbine blades. The timeliness of the calculation of the dimensional chain of the turbine wheel is the need to improve the technology of assembly of this unit. The task at hand contains geometric and mathematical components; therefore, its solution can be implemented following the algorithm: 1) research and analysis of production errors by geometric parameters; 2) development of a parametric model in the CAD system; 3) creation of set of CAD-models of details taking into account actual or generalized distributions of errors of geometrical parameters; 4) calculation model in the CAE-system, loading of various combinations of models of parts; 5) the accumulation of statistics and analysis. The main task is to pre-simulate the assembly process by calculating the interacting dimensional chains. The article describes the approach to the solution from the point of view of mathematical statistics, implemented in the software package Matlab. Within the framework of the study, there are data on the measurement of the components of the turbine wheel-blades and disks, as a result of which it is expected that the assembly process of the unit will be optimized by solving dimensional chains.

Keywords: accuracy, assembly, interacting dimension chains, turbine

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492 Optimal Design of Wind Turbine Blades Equipped with Flaps

Authors: I. Kade Wiratama

Abstract:

As a result of the significant growth of wind turbines in size, blade load control has become the main challenge for large wind turbines. Many advanced techniques have been investigated aiming at developing control devices to ease blade loading. Amongst them, trailing edge flaps have been proven as effective devices for load alleviation. The present study aims at investigating the potential benefits of flaps in enhancing the energy capture capabilities rather than blade load alleviation. A software tool is especially developed for the aerodynamic simulation of wind turbines utilising blades equipped with flaps. As part of the aerodynamic simulation of these wind turbines, the control system must be also simulated. The simulation of the control system is carried out via solving an optimisation problem which gives the best value for the controlling parameter at each wind turbine run condition. Developing a genetic algorithm optimisation tool which is especially designed for wind turbine blades and integrating it with the aerodynamic performance evaluator, a design optimisation tool for blades equipped with flaps is constructed. The design optimisation tool is employed to carry out design case studies. The results of design case studies on wind turbine AWT 27 reveal that, as expected, the location of flap is a key parameter influencing the amount of improvement in the power extraction. The best location for placing a flap is at about 70% of the blade span from the root of the blade. The size of the flap has also significant effect on the amount of enhancement in the average power. This effect, however, reduces dramatically as the size increases. For constant speed rotors, adding flaps without re-designing the topology of the blade can improve the power extraction capability as high as of about 5%. However, with re-designing the blade pretwist the overall improvement can be reached as high as 12%.

Keywords: flaps, design blade, optimisation, simulation, genetic algorithm, WTAero

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
491 Numerical Investigation of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Zdzislaw Kaminski, Zbigniew Czyz, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

This paper describes the geometrical model, algorithm and CFD simulation of an airflow around a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine rotor. A solver, ANSYS Fluent, was applied for the numerical simulation. Numerical simulation, unlike experiments, enables us to validate project assumptions when it is designed to avoid a costly preparation of a model or a prototype for a bench test. This research focuses on the rotor designed according to patent no PL 219985 with its blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on a regulation of blade angle α between the top and bottom parts of blades mounted on an axis. If angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. CFD calculations enable us to compare aerodynamic characteristics of forces acting on rotor working surfaces and specify rotor operation parameters like torque or turbine assembly power output. This paper is part of the research to improve an efficiency of a rotor assembly and it contains investigation of the impact of a blade angle of wind turbine working blades on the power output as a function of rotor torque, specific rotational speed and wind speed. The simulation was made for wind speeds ranging from 3.4 m/s to 6.2 m/s and blade angles of 30°, 60°, 90°. The simulation enables us to create a mathematical model to describe how aerodynamic forces acting each of the blade of the studied rotor are generated. Also, the simulation results are compared with the wind tunnel ones. This investigation enables us to estimate the growth in turbine power output if a blade angle changes. The regulation of blade angle α enables a smooth change in turbine rotor power, which is a kind of safety measures if the wind is strong. Decreasing blade angle α reduces the risk of damaging or destroying a turbine that is still in operation and there is no complete rotor braking as it is in other Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, mathematical model, numerical analysis, power, renewable energy, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 254