Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Marcin Szlachetka

37 The Modeling of City Bus Fuel Economy during the JE05 Emission Test Cycle

Authors: Miroslaw Wendeker, Piotr Kacejko, Marcin Szlachetka, Mariusz Duk

Abstract:

This paper discusses a model of fuel economy in a city bus driving in a dynamic urban environment. Rapid changes in speed result in a constantly changing kinetic energy accumulated in a bus mass and an increased fuel consumption due to hardly recuperated kinetic energy. The model is based on the bench test results achieved from chassis dynamometer, airport and city street researches. The verified model was applied to simulate the behavior of a bus during the Japanese JE05 Emission Test Cycle. The fuel consumption was calculated for three separate research stages, i.e. urban, downtown and motorway. The simulations were performed for several values of vehicle mass and electrical load applied to on-board devices. The research results show fuel consumption is impacted by driving dynamics.

Keywords: city bus, heavy duty vehicle, Japanese JE05 test cycle, kinetic energy

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36 Modeling of Combustion Process in the Piston Aircraft Engine Using a MCFM-3Z Model

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Konrad Pietrykowski

Abstract:

Modeling of a combustion process in a 9-cylinder aircraft engine is presented. The simulations of the combustion process in the IC engine have provided the information on the spatial and time distributions of selected quantities within the combustion chamber of the engine. The numerical analysis results have been compared with the results of indication process of the engine on the test stand. Modeling of combustion process an auto-ignited IC engine in the AVL Fire was carried out within the study. For the calculations, a ECFM-3Z model was used. Verification of simulation results was carried out by comparison of the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of indicated pressure, obtained from the simulations and during the engine tests mounted on a test stand were compared. The engine was braked by the propeller, which results in an adequate external power characteristics. The test object is a modified ASz-62IR engine with the injection system. The engine was running at take-off power. To check the optimum ignition timing regarding power, calculations, tests were performed for 7 different moments of ignition. The analyses of temperature distribution in the cylinder depending on the moments of ignition were carried out. Additional the course of pressure in the cylinder at different angles of ignition delays of the second spark plug were examined. The swirling of the mixture in the combustion chamber was also analysed. It has been shown that the largest vortexes occur in the middle of the chamber, and gets smaller, closer to the combustion chamber walls. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, internal combustion engine, aircraft engine

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35 Modeling Loads Applied to Main and Crank Bearings in the Compression-Ignition Two-Stroke Engine

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Mateusz Paszko, Grzegorz Baranski

Abstract:

This paper discusses the AVL EXCITE Designer simulation research into loads applied to main and crank bearings in the compression-ignition two-stroke engine. There was created a model of engine lubrication system which covers the part of this system related to particular nodes of a bearing system, i.e. a connection of main bearings in an engine block with a crankshaft, a connection of crank pins with a connecting rod. The analysis focused on the load given as a distribution of hydrodynamic oil film pressure corresponding different values of radial internal clearance. There was also studied the impact of gas force on minimal oil film thickness in main and crank bearings versus crankshaft rotational speed. Our model calculates oil film parameters, an oil film pressure distribution, an oil temperature change and dimensions of bearings as well as an oil temperature distribution on surfaces of bearing seats. Accordingly, it was possible to select, for example, a correct clearance for each of the node bearings. The research was performed for several values of engine crankshaft speed ranging from 800 RPM to 4000 RPM. Bearing oil pressure was changed according to engine speed ranging between 1 bar and 5 bar and an oil temperature of 90°C. The main bearing clearances made initially for the calculation and research were: 0.015 mm, 0.025 mm, 0.035 mm, 0.05 mm, 0.1 mm. The oil used for the research corresponded the SAE 5W-40 classification. The paper presents the selected research results referring to certain specific operating points and bearing radial internal clearances. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A. and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: crank bearings, diesel engine, oil film, two-stroke engine

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34 Single-Section Fermentation Reactor with Cellular Mixing System

Authors: Marcin Dębowski, Marcin Zieliński, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

This publication presents a reactor designed for methane fermentation of organic substrates. The design is based on rotating cellular cylinders connected to a biomass feeder and an ultrasonic generator. This allows for simultaneous mixing and partial disintegration of the biomass, as well as stimulating higher metabolic rates within the microorganisms. Such a design allows from 2-fold to 14-fold reduction of power usage when compared to conventional mixing systems. The sludge does not undergo mechanical deformation during the mixing process, which improves substrate biodegradation efficiency by 10-15%. Cavitation occurs near the surface of the rods, partially releasing the biomass and separating it from the destroyed microorganisms. Biogas is released further away from the cellular cylinder rods due to the effect of the ultrasonic waves, in addition to increased biochemical activity of the microorganisms and increased exchange of the nutrient medium with metabolic products, which results in biogas production increase by about 15%.

Keywords: methane fermentation, bioreactors, biomass, mixing system

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33 Device for Thermo-Magnetic Depolymerisation of Plant Biomass Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Mirosław Krzemieniewski, Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski

Abstract:

This publication presents a device for depolymerisation of plant substrates applicable to agricultural biogas plants and closed-chamber sewage treatment plants where sludge fermentation is bolstered with plant mass. The device consists of a tank with a cover equipped with a heating system, an inlet for the substrate, and an outlet for the depolymerised substrate. Within the tank, a magnet shaft encased in a spiral casing is attached, equipped on its upper end with an internal magnetic disc. A motoreducer is mounted on an external magnetic disc located on the centre of the cover. Depolymerisation of the plant substrate allows for substrate destruction at much lower power levels than by conventional means. The temperature within the reactor can be lowered by 40% in comparison to existing designs. During the depolymerisation process, free radicals are generated within the magnetic field, oxidizing the conditioned substrate and promoting biodegradation. Thus, the fermentation time in the fermenters is reduced by approximately 20%.

Keywords: depolymerisation, pre-treatment, biomass, fermentation

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32 Numerical Analysis of Heat Transfer in Water Channels of the Opposed-Piston Diesel Engine

Authors: Michal Bialy, Marcin Szlachetka, Mateusz Paszko

Abstract:

This paper discusses the CFD results of heat transfer in water channels in the engine body. The research engine was a newly designed Diesel combustion engine. The engine has three cylinders with three pairs of opposed pistons inside. The engine will be able to generate 100 kW mechanical power at a crankshaft speed of 3,800-4,000 rpm. The water channels are in the engine body along the axis of the three cylinders. These channels are around the three combustion chambers. The water channels transfer combustion heat that occurs the cylinders to the external radiator. This CFD research was based on the ANSYS Fluent software and aimed to optimize the geometry of the water channels. These channels should have a maximum flow of heat from the combustion chamber or the external radiator. Based on the parallel simulation research, the boundary and initial conditions enabled us to specify average values of key parameters for our numerical analysis. Our simulation used the average momentum equations and turbulence model k-epsilon double equation. There was also used a real k-epsilon model with a function of a standard wall. The turbulence intensity factor was 10%. The working fluid mass flow rate was calculated for a single typical value, specified in line with the research into the flow rate of automotive engine cooling pumps used in engines of similar power. The research uses a series of geometric models which differ, for instance, in the shape of the cross-section of the channel along the axis of the cylinder. The results are presented as colourful distribution maps of temperature, speed fields and heat flow through the cylinder walls. Due to limitations of space, our paper presents the results on the most representative geometric model only. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A. and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: Ansys fluent, combustion engine, computational fluid dynamics CFD, cooling system

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31 The Effect of Microwave Radiation on Biogas Production Efficiency Using Different Plant Substrates

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work was to assess the impact of using electromagnetic microwave radiation as a means of stimulating the thermal conditions in anaerobic reactors on biomethanation efficiency of different plant substrates, as measured by the quantity and quality of the resultant biogas. Using electromagnetic microwave radiation to maintain optimal thermal conditions during biomethanation allows for achievement of much higher technological effects in comparison with a conventional heating system. After subjecting different plant substrates to fermentation in the model fermentation chambers, the largest improvements in regard to biogas production efficiency and biogas quality were recorded in the series with corn silage and grass silage. In the first case, the quantity of methane produced in the microwave-stimulated technological system exceeded by 15.26% the quantities produced in reactors heated conventionally. When grass silage was utilized as the organic substrate in the process of biomethanation, anaerobic reactors treated with microwave radiation produced 12.62% more methane.

Keywords: microwave radiation, biogas, methane fermentation, biomass

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30 Analysis of Power Demand for the Common Rail Pump Drive in an Aircraft Engine

Authors: Rafal Sochaczewski, Marcin Szlachetka, Miroslaw Wendeker

Abstract:

Increasing requirements to reduce exhaust emissions and fuel consumption while increasing the power factor is increasingly becoming applicable to internal combustion engines intended for aircraft applications. As a result, intensive research work is underway to develop a diesel-powered unit for aircraft propulsion. Due to a number of advantages, such as lack of the head (lower heat loss) and timing system, opposite movement of pistons conducive to balancing the engine, the two-stroke compression-ignition engine with the opposite pistons has been developed and upgraded. Of course, such construction also has drawbacks. The main one is the necessity of using a gear connecting two crankshafts or a complicated crank system with one shaft. The peculiarity of the arrangement of pistons with sleeves, as well as the fulfillment of rigorous requirements, makes it necessary to apply the most modern technologies and constructional solutions. In the case of the fuel supply system, it was decided to use common rail system elements. The paper presents an analysis of the possibility of using a common rail pump to supply an aircraft compression-ignition engine. It is an engine with a two-stroke cycle, three cylinders, opposing pistons, and 100 kW power. Each combustion chamber is powered by two injectors controlled by electromagnetic valves. In order to assess the possibility of using a common rail pump, four high-pressure pumps were tested on a bench. They are piston pumps differing in the number and geometry of the pumping sections. The analysis included the torque on the pump drive shaft and the power needed to drive the pump depending on the rotational speed, pumping pressure and fuel dispenser settings. The research allowed to optimize the engine power supply system depending on the fuel demand and the way the pump is mounted on the engine. Acknowledgment: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish Nation-al Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, fuel pump, opposing pistons, two-stroke

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29 A Modelling of Main Bearings in the Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

Authors: Marcin Szlachetka, Rafal Sochaczewski, Lukasz Grabowski

Abstract:

This paper presents the results of the load simulations of main bearings in a two-stroke Diesel engine. A model of an engine lubrication system with connections of its main lubrication nodes, i.e., a connection of its main bearings in the engine block with the crankshaft, a connection of its crankpins with its connecting rod and a connection of its pin and its piston has been created for our calculations performed using the AVL EXCITE Designer. The analysis covers the loads given as a pressure distribution in a hydrodynamic oil film, a temperature distribution on the main bush surfaces for the specified radial clearance values as well as the impact of the force of gas on the minimum oil film thickness in the main bearings depending on crankshaft rotational speeds and temperatures of oil in the bearings. One of the main goals of the research has been to determine whether the minimum thickness of the oil film at which fluid friction occurs can be achieved for each value of crankshaft speed. Our model calculates different oil film parameters, i.e., its thickness, a pressure distribution there, the change in oil temperature. Additional enables an analysis of an oil temperature distribution on the surfaces of the bearing seats. It allows verifying the selected clearances in the bearings of the main engine under normal operation conditions and extremal ones that show a significant increase in temperature above the limit value. The research has been conducted for several engine crankshaft speeds ranging from 1000 rpm to 4000 rpm. The oil pressure in the bearings has ranged 2-5 bar according to engine speeds and the oil temperature has ranged 90-120 °C. The main bearing clearance has been adopted for the calculation and analysis as 0.025 mm. The oil classified as SAE 5W-30 has been used for the simulations. The paper discusses the selected research results referring to several specific operating points and different temperatures of the lubricating oil in the bearings. The received research results show that for the investigated main bearing bushes of the shaft, the results fall within the ranges of the limit values despite the increase in the oil temperature of the bearings reaching 120˚C. The fact that the bearings are loaded with the maximum pressure makes no excessive temperature rise on the bush surfaces. The oil temperature increases by 17˚C, reaching 137˚C at a speed of 4000 rpm. The minimum film thickness at which fluid friction occurs has been achieved for each of the operating points at each of the engine crankshaft speeds. Acknowledgement: This work has been realized in the cooperation with The Construction Office of WSK ‘PZL-KALISZ’ S.A.’ and is part of Grant Agreement No. POIR.01.02.00-00-0002/15 financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development.

Keywords: diesel engine, main bearings, opposing pistons, two-stroke

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28 Device for Thermal Depolymerisation of Organic Substrates Prior to Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski, Marcin Zieliński

Abstract:

This publication presents a device designed to depolymerise and structurally change organic substrate, for use in agricultural biogas plants or sewage treatment plants. The presented device consists of a heated tank equipped with an inlet valve for the crude substrate and an outlet valve for the treated substrate. The system also includes a gas conduit, which is at its tip equipped with a high-pressure solenoid valve and a vacuum relief solenoid valve. A conduit behind the high-pressure solenoid valve connects to the vacuum tank equipped with the outlet valve. The substrate introduced into the device is exposed to agents such as high temperature and cavitation produced by abrupt, short-term reduction of pressure within the heated tank. The combined effect of these processes is substrate destruction rate increase of about 20% when compared to using high temperature alone, and about 30% when compared to utilizing only cavitation. Energy consumption is greatly reduced, as the pressure increase is generated by heating the substrate. Thus, there is a 18% reduction of energy consumption when compared to a device designed to destroy substrate through high temperature alone, and a 35% reduction if compared to using cavitation as the only means of destruction.

Keywords: thermal depolymerisation, organic substrate, biogas, pre-treatment

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27 Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) Injector Research for Dual Fuel Engine

Authors: Adam Majczak, Grzegorz Barański, Marcin Szlachetka

Abstract:

Environmental considerations necessitate the search for new energy sources. One of the available solutions is a partial replacement of diesel fuel by compressed natural gas (CNG) in the compression ignition engines. This type of the engines is used mainly in vans and trucks. These units are also gaining more and more popularity in the passenger car market. In Europe, this part of the market share reaches 50%. Diesel engines are also used in industry in such vehicles as ship or locomotives. Diesel engines have higher emissions of nitrogen oxides in comparison to spark ignition engines. This can be currently limited by optimizing the combustion process and the use of additional systems such as exhaust gas recirculation or AdBlue technology. As a result of the combustion process of diesel fuel also particulate matter (PM) that are harmful to the human health are emitted. Their emission is limited by the use of a particulate filter. One of the method for toxic components emission reduction may be the use of liquid gas fuel such as propane and butane (LPG) or compressed natural gas (CNG). In addition to the environmental aspects, there are also economic reasons for the use of gaseous fuels to power diesel engines. A total or partial replacement of diesel gas is possible. Depending on the used technology and the percentage of diesel fuel replacement, it is possible to reduce the content of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas even by 30%, particulate matter (PM) by 95 % carbon monoxide and by 20%, in relation to original diesel fuel. The research object is prototype gas injector designed for direct injection of compressed natural gas (CNG) in compression ignition engines. The construction of the injector allows for it positioning in the glow plug socket, so that the gas is injected directly into the combustion chamber. The cycle analysis of the four-cylinder Andoria ADCR engine with a capacity of 2.6 dm3 for different crankshaft rotational speeds allowed to determine the necessary time for fuel injection. Because of that, it was possible to determine the required mass flow rate of the injector, for replacing as much of the original fuel by gaseous fuel. To ensure a high value of flow inside the injector, supply pressure equal to 1 MPa was applied. High gas supply pressure requires high value of valve opening forces. For this purpose, an injector with hydraulic control system, using a liquid under pressure for the opening process was designed. On the basis of air pressure measurements in the flow line after the injector, the analysis of opening and closing of the valve was made. Measurements of outflow mass of the injector were also carried out. The results showed that the designed injector meets the requirements necessary to supply ADCR engine by the CNG fuel.

Keywords: CNG, diesel engine, gas flow, gas injector

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26 Device for Mechanical Fragmentation of Organic Substrates Before Methane Fermentation

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

This publication presents a device designed for mechanical fragmentation of plant substrate before methane fermentation. The device is equipped with a perforated rotary cylindrical drum coated with a thermal layer, connected to a substrate feeder and driven by a motoreducer. The drum contains ball- or cylinder-shaped weights of different diameters, while its interior is mounted with lateral permanent magnets with an attractive force ranging from 100 kg to 2 tonnes per m2 of the surface. Over the perforated rotary drum, an infrared radiation generator is mounted, producing 0.2 kW to 1 kW of infrared radiation per 1 m2 of the perforated drum surface. This design reduces the energy consumption required for the biomass destruction process by 10-30% in comparison to the conventional ball mill. The magnetic field generated by the permanent magnets situated within the perforated rotary drum promotes this process through generation of free radicals that act as powerful oxidants, accelerating the decomposition rate. Plant substrate shows increased susceptibility to biodegradation when subjected to magnetic conditioning, reducing the time required for biomethanation by 25%. Additionally, the electromagnetic radiation generated by the radiator improves substrate destruction by 10% and the efficiency of the process. The magnetic field and the infrared radiation contribute synergically to the increased efficiency of destruction and conversion of the substrate.

Keywords: biomass pretreatment, mechanical fragmentation, biomass, methane fermentation

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25 Thermal Imaging of Aircraft Piston Engine in Laboratory Conditions

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Marcin Szlachetka, Tytus Tulwin

Abstract:

The main task of the engine cooling system is to maintain its average operating temperatures within strictly defined limits. Too high or too low average temperatures result in accelerated wear or even damage to the engine or its individual components. In order to avoid local overheating or significant temperature gradients, leading to high stresses in the component, the aim is to ensure an even flow of air. In the case of analyses related to heat exchange, one of the main problems is the comparison of temperature fields because standard measuring instruments such as thermocouples or thermistors only provide information about the course of temperature at a given point. Thermal imaging tests can be helpful in this case. With appropriate camera settings and taking into account environmental conditions, we are able to obtain accurate temperature fields in the form of thermograms. Emission of heat from the engine to the engine compartment is an important issue when designing a cooling system. Also, in the case of liquid cooling, the main sources of heat in the form of emissions from the engine block, cylinders, etc. should be identified. It is important to redesign the engine compartment ventilation system. Ensuring proper cooling of aircraft reciprocating engine is difficult not only because of variable operating range but mainly because of different cooling conditions related to the change of speed or altitude of flight. Engine temperature also has a direct and significant impact on the properties of engine oil, which under the influence of this parameter changes, in particular, its viscosity. Too low or too high, its value can be a result of fast wear of engine parts. One of the ways to determine the temperatures occurring on individual parts of the engine is the use of thermal imaging measurements. The article presents the results of preliminary thermal imaging tests of aircraft piston diesel engine with a maximum power of about 100 HP. In order to perform the heat emission tests of the tested engine, the ThermaCAM S65 thermovision monitoring system from FLIR (Forward-Looking Infrared) together with the ThermaCAM Researcher Professional software was used. The measurements were carried out after the engine warm up. The engine speed was 5300 rpm The measurements were taken for the following environmental parameters: air temperature: 17 °C, ambient pressure: 1004 hPa, relative humidity: 38%. The temperatures distribution on the engine cylinder and on the exhaust manifold were analysed. Thermal imaging tests made it possible to relate the results of simulation tests to the real object by measuring the rib temperature of the cylinders. The results obtained are necessary to develop a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model of heat emission from the engine bay. The project/research was financed in the framework of the project Lublin University of Technology-Regional Excellence Initiative, funded by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract no. 030/RID/2018/19).

Keywords: aircraft, piston engine, heat, emission

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24 The Analysis of Own Signals of PM Electrical Machines – Example of Eccentricity

Authors: Marcin Baranski

Abstract:

This article presents a vibration diagnostic method designed for permanent magnets (PM) traction motors. Those machines are commonly used in traction drives of electrical vehicles. Specific structural properties of machines excited by permanent magnets are used in this method - electromotive force (EMF) generated due to vibrations. This work presents: field-circuit model, results of static tests, results of calculations and simulations.

Keywords: electrical vehicle, permanent magnet, traction drive, vibrations, electrical machine, eccentricity

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23 Problems of Boolean Reasoning Based Biclustering Parallelization

Authors: Marcin Michalak

Abstract:

Biclustering is the way of two-dimensional data analysis. For several years it became possible to express such issue in terms of Boolean reasoning, for processing continuous, discrete and binary data. The mathematical backgrounds of such approach — proved ability of induction of exact and inclusion–maximal biclusters fulfilling assumed criteria — are strong advantages of the method. Unfortunately, the core of the method has quite high computational complexity. In the paper the basics of Boolean reasoning approach for biclustering are presented. In such context the problems of computation parallelization are risen.

Keywords: Boolean reasoning, biclustering, parallelization, prime implicant

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22 Possibility of Membrane Filtration to Treatment of Effluent from Digestate

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Magdalena Zielinska, Paulina Rusanowska

Abstract:

The problem with digestate management is one of the most important factors influencing on the development and operation of biogas plant. Turbidity and bacterial contamination negatively affect the growth of algae, which can limit the use of the effluent in the production of algae biomass on a large scale. These problems can be overcome by cultivating of algae species resistant to environmental factors, such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., or reducing load of organic compounds to prevent bacterial contamination. The effluent requires dilution and/or purification. One of the methods of effluent treatment is the use of a membrane technology such as microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), depending on the membrane pore size and the cut off point. Membranes are a physical barrier to solids and particles larger than the size of the pores. MF membranes have the largest pores and are used to remove turbidity, suspensions, bacteria and some viruses. UF membranes remove also color, odor and organic compounds with high molecular weight. In treatment of wastewater or other waste streams, MF and UF can provide a sufficient degree of purification. NF membranes are used to remove natural organic matter from waters, water disinfection products and sulfates. RO membranes are applied to remove monovalent ions such as Na⁺ or K⁺. The effluent was used in UF for medium to cultivation of two microalgae: Chlorella sp. and Phaeodactylum tricornutum. Growth rates of Chlorella sp. and P. tricornutum were similar: 0.216 d⁻¹ and 0.200 d⁻¹ (Chlorella sp.); 0.128 d⁻¹ and 0.126 d⁻¹ (P. tricornutum), on synthetic medium and permeate from UF, respectively. The final biomass composition was also similar, regardless of the medium. Removal of nitrogen was 92% and 71% by Chlorella sp. and P. tricornutum, respectively. The fermentation effluents after UF and dilution were also used for cultivation of algae Scenedesmus sp. that is resistant to environmental conditions. The authors recommended the development of biorafinery based on the production of algae for the biogas production. There are examples of using a multi-stage membrane system to purify the liquid fraction from digestate. After the initial UF, RO is used to remove ammonium nitrogen and COD. To obtain a permeate with a concentration of ammonium nitrogen allowing to discharge it into the environment, it was necessary to apply three-stage RO. The composition of the permeate after two-stage RO was: COD 50–60 mg/dm³, dry solids 0 mg/dm³, ammonium nitrogen 300–320 mg/dm³, total nitrogen 320–340 mg/dm³, total phosphorus 53 mg/dm³. However compostion of permeate after three-stage RO was: COD < 5 mg/dm³, dry solids 0 mg/dm³, ammonium nitrogen 0 mg/dm³, total nitrogen 3.5 mg/dm³, total phosphorus < 0,05 mg/dm³. Last stage of RO might be replaced by ion exchange process. The negative aspect of membrane filtration systems is the fact that the permeate is about 50% of the introduced volume, the remainder is the retentate. The management of a retentate might involve recirculation to a biogas plant.

Keywords: digestate, membrane filtration, microalgae cultivation, Chlorella sp.

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21 Application of a SubIval Numerical Solver for Fractional Circuits

Authors: Marcin Sowa

Abstract:

The paper discusses the subinterval-based numerical method for fractional derivative computations. It is now referred to by its acronym – SubIval. The basis of the method is briefly recalled. The ability of the method to be applied in time stepping solvers is discussed. The possibility of implementing a time step size adaptive solver is also mentioned. The solver is tested on a transient circuit example. In order to display the accuracy of the solver – the results have been compared with those obtained by means of a semi-analytical method called gcdAlpha. The time step size adaptive solver applying SubIval has been proven to be very accurate as the results are very close to the referential solution. The solver is currently able to solve FDE (fractional differential equations) with various derivative orders for each equation and any type of source time functions.

Keywords: numerical method, SubIval, fractional calculus, numerical solver, circuit analysis

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20 Combining the Dynamic Conditional Correlation and Range-GARCH Models to Improve Covariance Forecasts

Authors: Piotr Fiszeder, Marcin Fałdziński, Peter Molnár

Abstract:

The dynamic conditional correlation model of Engle (2002) is one of the most popular multivariate volatility models. However, this model is based solely on closing prices. It has been documented in the literature that the high and low price of the day can be used in an efficient volatility estimation. We, therefore, suggest a model which incorporates high and low prices into the dynamic conditional correlation framework. Empirical evaluation of this model is conducted on three datasets: currencies, stocks, and commodity exchange-traded funds. The utilisation of realized variances and covariances as proxies for true variances and covariances allows us to reach a strong conclusion that our model outperforms not only the standard dynamic conditional correlation model but also a competing range-based dynamic conditional correlation model.

Keywords: volatility, DCC model, high and low prices, range-based models, covariance forecasting

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19 Influence of Disintegration of Sida hermaphrodita Silage on Methane Fermentation Efficiency

Authors: Marcin Zielinski, Marcin Debowski, Paulina Rusanowska, Magda Dudek

Abstract:

As a result of sonification, the destruction of complex biomass structures results in an increase in the biogas yield from the conditioned material. First, the amount of organic matter released into the solution due to disintegration was determined. This parameter was determined by changes in the carbon content in liquid phase of the conditioned substrate. The amount of carbon in the liquid phase increased with the prolongation of the sonication time to 16 min. Further increase in the duration of sonication did not cause a statistically significant increase in the amount of organic carbon in the liquid phase. The disintegrated material was then used for respirometric measurements for determination of the impact of the conditioning process used on methane fermentation effectiveness. The relationship between the amount of energy introduced into the lignocellulosic substrate and the amount of biogas produced has been demonstrated. Statistically significant increase in the amount of biogas was observed until sonication of 16 min. Further increase in energy in the conditioning process did not significantly increase the production of biogas from the treated substrate. The biogas production from the conditioned substrate was 17% higher than from the reference biomass at that time. The ultrasonic disintegration method did not significantly affect the observed biogas composition. In all series, the methane content in the produced biogas from the conditioned substrate was similar to that obtained with the raw substrate sample (51.1%). Another method of substrate conditioning was hydrothermal depolymerization. This method consists in application of increased temperature and pressure to substrate. These phenomena destroy the structure of the processed material, the release of organic compounds to the solution, which should lead to increase the amount of produced biogas from such treated biomass. The hydrothermal depolymerization was conducted using an innovative microwave heating method. Control measurements were performed using conventional heating. The obtained results indicate the relationship between depolymerization temperature and the amount of biogas. Statistically significant value of the biogas production coefficients increased as the depolymerization temperature increased to 150°C. Further raising the depolymerization temperature to 180°C did not significantly increase the amount of produced biogas in the respirometric tests. As a result of the hydrothermal depolymerization obtained using microwave at 150°C for 20 min, the rate of biogas production from the Sida silage was 780 L/kg VS, which accounted for nearly 50% increase compared to 370 L/kg VS obtained from the same silage but not depolymerised. The study showed that by microwave heating it is possible to effectively depolymerized substrate. Significant differences occurred especially in the temperature range of 130-150ºC. The pre-treatment of Sida hermaphrodita silage (biogas substrate) did not significantly affect the quality of the biogas produced. The methane concentration was about 51.5% on average. The study was carried out in the framework of the project under program BIOSTRATEG funded by the National Centre for Research and Development No. 1/270745/2/NCBR/2015 'Dietary, power, and economic potential of Sida hermaphrodita cultivation on fallow land'.

Keywords: disintegration, biogas, methane fermentation, Virginia fanpetals, biomass

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18 Technology for Biogas Upgrading with Immobilized Algae Biomass

Authors: Marcin Debowski, Marcin Zielinski, Miroslaw Krzemieniewski, Agata Glowacka-Gil, Paulina Rusanowska, Magdalena Zielinska, Agnieszka Cydzik-Kwiatkowska

Abstract:

Technologies of biogas upgrading are now perceived as competitive solution combustion and production of electricity and heat. Biomethane production will ensure broader application as energy carrier than biogas. Biomethane can be used as fuel in internal combustion engines or introduced into the natural gas transmission network. Therefore, there is a need to search for innovative, economically and technically justified methods for biogas enrichment. The aim of this paper is to present a technology solution for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass. Reactor for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass can be used for removing CO₂ from the biogas, flue gases and the waste gases especially coming from different industry sectors, e.g. from the food industry from yeast production process, biogas production systems, liquid and gaseous fuels combustion systems, hydrocarbon processing technology. The basis for the technological assumptions of presented technology were laboratory works and analyses that tested technological variants of biogas upgrading. The enrichment of biogas with a methane content of 90-97% pointed to technological assumptions for installation on a technical scale. Reactor for biogas upgrading with algae biomass is characterized by a significantly lower cubature in relation to the currently used solutions which use CO₂ removal processes. The invention, by its structure, assumes achieving a very high concentration of biomass of algae through its immobilization in capsules. This eliminates the phenomenon of lowering the pH value, i.e. acidification of the environment in which algae grow, resulting from the introduction of waste gases at a high CO₂ concentration. The system for introducing light into algae capsules is characterized by a higher degree of its use, due to lower losses resulting from the phenomenon of absorption of light energy by water. The light from the light source is continuously supplied to the formed biomass of algae or cyanobacteria in capsules by the light tubes. The light source may be sunlight or a light generator of a different wavelength of light from 300 nm to 800 nm. A portion of gas containing CO₂, accumulated in the tank and conveyed by the pump is periodically introduced into the housing of the photobioreactor tank. When conveying the gas that contains CO₂, it penetrates the algal biomass in capsules through the outer envelope, displacing, from the algal biomass, gaseous metabolic products which are discharged by the outlet duct for gases. It contributes to eliminating the negative impact of this factor on CO₂ binding processes. As a result of the cyclic dosing of gases containing carbon dioxide, gaseous metabolic products of algae are displaced and removed outside the technological system. Technology for biogas upgrading with immobilized algae biomass is suitable for the small biogas plant. The advantages of this technology are high efficiency as well as useful algae biomass which can be used mainly as animal feed, fertilizers and in the power industry. The construction of the device allows effective removal of carbon dioxide from gases at a high CO₂ concentration.

Keywords: biogas, carbon dioxide, immobilised biomass, microalgae, upgrading

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17 The Development of Chinese Film Market as Factor of Change in Global Hollywood

Authors: Marcin Adamczak

Abstract:

The growth of Chinese film market and its dynamic incomparable to any other historical phenomenon has already made China the second world market and potential future leader in 2-3 years period. The growing power of Chines box-office and its future prospects is then the crucial and potentially disturbing factor for persistence of global Hollywood reality. The paper is based on market statistical data. The main findings of the analysis are defining of essential obstacles for the development of Chinese market and its foreign expansion. However, the new strategies employed by the industry (acquisitions of cinema chains abroad, blockbuster made with the involvement of figures from Hollywood star system, coproduction ties within Pacific basin) could be a successful remedy for current shortcomings. The main factor for development will be wider economical framework and maintenance of growth pace. The future state of Chinese film market will be one of the main factors shaping global film culture and film market in following decades of XXI century.

Keywords: production studies, film market, Chinese film market, distribution

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16 Ultrasound Disintegration as a Potential Method for the Pre-Treatment of Virginia Fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) Biomass before Methane Fermentation Process

Authors: Marcin Dębowski, Marcin Zieliński, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

As methane fermentation is a complex series of successive biochemical transformations, its subsequent stages are determined, to a various extent, by physical and chemical factors. A specific state of equilibrium is being settled in the functioning fermentation system between environmental conditions and the rate of biochemical reactions and products of successive transformations. In the case of physical factors that influence the effectiveness of methane fermentation transformations, the key significance is ascribed to temperature and intensity of biomass agitation. Among the chemical factors, significant are pH value, type, and availability of the culture medium (to put it simply: the C/N ratio) as well as the presence of toxic substances. One of the important elements which influence the effectiveness of methane fermentation is the pre-treatment of organic substrates and the mode in which the organic matter is made available to anaerobes. Out of all known and described methods for organic substrate pre-treatment before methane fermentation process, the ultrasound disintegration is one of the most interesting technologies. Investigations undertaken on the ultrasound field and the use of installations operating on the existing systems result principally from very wide and universal technological possibilities offered by the sonication process. This physical factor may induce deep physicochemical changes in ultrasonicated substrates that are highly beneficial from the viewpoint of methane fermentation processes. In this case, special role is ascribed to disintegration of biomass that is further subjected to methane fermentation. Once cell walls are damaged, cytoplasm and cellular enzymes are released. The released substances – either in dissolved or colloidal form – are immediately available to anaerobic bacteria for biodegradation. To ensure the maximal release of organic matter from dead biomass cells, disintegration processes are aimed to achieve particle size below 50 μm. It has been demonstrated in many research works and in systems operating in the technical scale that immediately after substrate supersonication the content of organic matter (characterized by COD, BOD5 and TOC indices) was increasing in the dissolved phase of sedimentation water. This phenomenon points to the immediate sonolysis of solid substances contained in the biomass and to the release of cell material, and consequently to the intensification of the hydrolytic phase of fermentation. It results in a significant reduction of fermentation time and increased effectiveness of production of gaseous metabolites of anaerobic bacteria. Because disintegration of Virginia fanpetals biomass via ultrasounds applied in order to intensify its conversion is a novel technique, it is often underestimated by exploiters of agri-biogas works. It has, however, many advantages that have a direct impact on its technological and economical superiority over thus far applied methods of biomass conversion. As for now, ultrasound disintegrators for biomass conversion are not produced on the mass-scale, but by specialized groups in scientific or R&D centers. Therefore, their quality and effectiveness are to a large extent determined by their manufacturers’ knowledge and skills in the fields of acoustics and electronic engineering.

Keywords: ultrasound disintegration, biomass, methane fermentation, biogas, Virginia fanpetals

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15 Modelling of Powered Roof Supports Work

Authors: Marcin Michalak

Abstract:

Due to the increasing efforts on saving our natural environment a change in the structure of energy resources can be observed - an increasing fraction of a renewable energy sources. In many countries traditional underground coal mining loses its significance but there are still countries, like Poland or Germany, in which the coal based technologies have the greatest fraction in a total energy production. This necessitates to make an effort to limit the costs and negative effects of underground coal mining. The longwall complex is as essential part of the underground coal mining. The safety and the effectiveness of the work is strongly dependent of the diagnostic state of powered roof supports. The building of a useful and reliable diagnostic system requires a lot of data. As the acquisition of a data of any possible operating conditions it is important to have a possibility to generate a demanded artificial working characteristics. In this paper a new approach of modelling a leg pressure in the single unit of powered roof support. The model is a result of the analysis of a typical working cycles.

Keywords: machine modelling, underground mining, coal mining, structure

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14 Feasibility of Applying a Hydrodynamic Cavitation Generator as a Method for Intensification of Methane Fermentation Process of Virginia Fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) Biomass

Authors: Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Mirosław Krzemieniewski

Abstract:

The anaerobic degradation of substrates is limited especially by the rate and effectiveness of the first (hydrolytic) stage of fermentation. This stage may be intensified through pre-treatment of substrate aimed at disintegration of the solid phase and destruction of substrate tissues and cells. The most frequently applied criterion of disintegration outcomes evaluation is the increase in biogas recovery owing to the possibility of its use for energetic purposes and, simultaneously, recovery of input energy consumed for the pre-treatment of substrate before fermentation. Hydrodynamic cavitation is one of the methods for organic substrate disintegration that has a high implementation potential. Cavitation is explained as the phenomenon of the formation of discontinuity cavities filled with vapor or gas in a liquid induced by pressure drop to the critical value. It is induced by a varying field of pressures. A void needs to occur in the flow in which the pressure first drops to the value close to the pressure of saturated vapor and then increases. The process of cavitation conducted under controlled conditions was found to significantly improve the effectiveness of anaerobic conversion of organic substrates having various characteristics. This phenomenon allows effective damage and disintegration of cellular and tissue structures. Disintegration of structures and release of organic compounds to the dissolved phase has a direct effect on the intensification of biogas production in the process of anaerobic fermentation, on reduced dry matter content in the post-fermentation sludge as well as a high degree of its hygienization and its increased susceptibility to dehydration. A device the efficiency of which was confirmed both in laboratory conditions and in systems operating in the technical scale is a hydrodynamic generator of cavitation. Cavitators, agitators and emulsifiers constructed and tested worldwide so far have been characterized by low efficiency and high energy demand. Many of them proved effective under laboratory conditions but failed under industrial ones. The only task successfully realized by these appliances and utilized on a wider scale is the heating of liquids. For this reason, their usability was limited to the function of heating installations. Design of the presented cavitation generator allows achieving satisfactory energy efficiency and enables its use under industrial conditions in depolymerization processes of biomass with various characteristics. Investigations conducted on the laboratory and industrial scale confirmed the effectiveness of applying cavitation in the process of biomass destruction. The use of the cavitation generator in laboratory studies for disintegration of sewage sludge allowed increasing biogas production by ca. 30% and shortening the treatment process by ca. 20 - 25%. The shortening of the technological process and increase of wastewater treatment plant effectiveness may delay investments aimed at increasing system output. The use of a mechanical cavitator and application of repeated cavitation process (4-6 times) enables significant acceleration of the biogassing process. In addition, mechanical cavitation accelerates increases in COD and VFA levels.

Keywords: hydrodynamic cavitation, pretreatment, biomass, methane fermentation, Virginia fanpetals

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13 Technology of Electrokinetic Disintegration of Virginia Fanpetals (Sida hermaphrodita) Biomass in a Biogas Production System

Authors: Mirosław Krzemieniewski, Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski

Abstract:

Electrokinetic disintegration is one of the high-voltage electric methods. The design of systems is exceptionally simple. Biomass flows through a system of pipes with alongside mounted electrodes that generate an electric field. Discharges in the electric field deform cell walls and lead to their successive perforation, thereby making their contents easily available to bacteria. The spark-over occurs between electrode surface and pipe jacket which is the second pole and closes the circuit. The value of voltage ranges from 10 to 100kV. Electrodes are supplied by normal “power grid” monophase electric current (230V, 50Hz). Next, the electric current changes into direct current of 24V in modules serving for particular electrodes, and this current directly feeds the electrodes. The installation is completely safe because the value of generated current does not exceed 250mA and because conductors are grounded. Therefore, there is no risk of electric shock posed to the personnel, even in the case of failure or incorrect connection. Low values of the electric current mean small energy consumption by the electrode which is extremely low – only 35W per electrode – compared to other methods of disintegration. Pipes with electrodes with diameter of DN150 are made of acid-proof steel and connected from both sides with 90º elbows ended with flanges. The available S and U types of pipes enable very convenient fitting with system construction in the existing installations and rooms or facilitate space management in new applications. The system of pipes for electrokinetic disintegration may be installed horizontally, vertically, askew, on special stands or also directly on the wall of a room. The number of pipes and electrodes is determined by operating conditions as well as the quantity of substrate, type of biomass, content of dry matter, method of disintegration (single or circulatory), mounting site etc. The most effective method involves pre-treatment of substrate that may be pumped through the disintegration system on the way to the fermentation tank or recirculated in a buffered intermediate tank (substrate mixing tank). Biomass structure destruction in the process of electrokinetic disintegration causes shortening of substrate retention time in the tank and acceleration of biogas production. A significant intensification of the fermentation process was observed in the systems operating in the technical scale, with the greatest increase in biogas production reaching 18%. The secondary, but highly significant for the energetic balance, effect is a tangible decrease of energy input by agitators in tanks. It is due to reduced viscosity of the biomass after disintegration, and may result in energy savings reaching even 20-30% of the earlier noted consumption. Other observed phenomena include reduction in the layer of surface scum, reduced sewage capability for foaming and successive decrease in the quantity of bottom sludge banks. Considering the above, the system for electrokinetic disintegration seems a very interesting and valuable solutions meeting the offer of specialist equipment for the processing of plant biomass, including Virginia fanpetals, before the process of methane fermentation.

Keywords: electrokinetic disintegration, biomass, biogas production, fermentation, Virginia fanpetals

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12 Magnetic (Ethylene-Octene) Polymer Composites Reinforced With Carbon Black

Authors: Marcin Maslowski, Marian Zaborski

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to receive magnetorheological elastomer composites (MRE) with the best mechanical characteristics. MRE based on different magnetoactive fillers in ethylene-octene rubber are reported and studied. To improve mechanical properties of polymer mixtures, also carbon black (N550) was added during the composites preparation process. Micro and nan-sized magnetites (Fe3O4), as well as gamma iron oxide (gamma-Fe2O3) and carbonyl iron powder (CIP) are added together with carbon black (N550) were found to be an active fillers systems improving both static and dynamic mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties of composites. Dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA) indicates the presence of strongly developed secondary structure in vulcanizates. Reinforcing character of applied different fillers systems results in an increased stress at 100% elongation, tensile strength and cross-linking density of the vulcanizates. Studies investigated by vibration sample magnetometer (VSM) proved that all composites exhibit good magnetic properties.

Keywords: carbon black, mechanical properties, magnetorheological composites, magnetic fillers

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11 The Influence of Water and Salt Crystals Content on Thermal Conductivity Coefficient of Red Clay Brick

Authors: Dalia Bednarska, Marcin Koniorczyk

Abstract:

This paper presents results of experiments aimed at studying hygro-thermal properties of red clay brick. The main objective of research was to investigate the relation between thermal conductivity coefficient of brick and its water or Na2SO4 solution content. The research was conducted using stationary technique for the totally dried specimens, as well as the ones 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% imbued with water or sodium sulfate solution. Additionally, a sorption isotherm test was conducted for seven relative humidity levels. Furthermore the change of red clay brick pore structure before and after imbuing with water and salt solution was investigated by multi-cycle mercury intrusion test. The experimental results confirm negative influence of water or sodium sulphate on thermal properties of material. The value of thermal conductivity coefficient increases along with growth of water or Na₂SO₄ solution content. The study shows that the presence of Na₂SO₄ solution has less negative influence on brick’s thermal conductivity coefficient than water.

Keywords: building materials, red clay brick, sodium sulfate, thermal conductivity coefficient

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10 Using Trip Planners in Developing Proper Transportation Behavior

Authors: Grzegorz Sierpiński, Ireneusz Celiński, Marcin Staniek

Abstract:

The article discusses multi modal mobility in contemporary societies as a main planning and organization issue in the functioning of administrative bodies, a problem which really exists in the space of contemporary cities in terms of shaping modern transport systems. The article presents classification of available resources and initiatives undertaken for developing multi modal mobility. Solutions can be divided into three groups of measures–physical measures in the form of changes of the transport network infrastructure, organizational ones (including transport policy) and information measures. The latter ones include in particular direct support for people travelling in the transport network by providing information about ways of using available means of transport. A special measure contributing to this end is a trip planner. The article compares several selected planners. It includes a short description of the Green Travelling Project, which aims at developing a planner supporting environmentally friendly solutions in terms of transport network operation. The article summarizes preliminary findings of the project.

Keywords: mobility, modal split, multimodal trip, multimodal platforms, sustainable transport

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9 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties

Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach

Abstract:

The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were: water, SBF, and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathione

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8 Changes in Global DNA Methylation and DNA Damage in Two Tumor Cell Lines Treated with Silver and Gold Nanoparticles

Authors: Marcin Kruszewski, Barbara Sochanowicz, Sylwia Męczyńska-Wielgosz, Maria Wojewódzka, Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

Abstract:

Metallic NPs are widely used in a number of applications in industry, science and medicine. Among metallic NPs foreseen to be widely used in medicine are gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) due to their low toxicity, and silver NPs (AgNPs) due to their strong antimicrobial activity. In this study, we compared an effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on the formation of DNA damage and global DNA methylation and in A2780 and 4T1 cell lines, widely used models of human ovarian carcinoma and murine mammary carcinoma, respectively. The cells were treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. A global DNA methylation was investigated with ELISA, whereas the formation of DNA damage was investigated by a comet +/- FPG. AgNPs decreased global DNA methylation and increased the formation of DNA lesions in both cell lines. The effect was dependent on the type of NPs used, it's coating, and cell line used. In conclusion, the epigenetic and genotoxic effects of NPs strongly depends on NP nature and cellular context. Epigenetic changes observed upon the action of AgNPs may play a crucial role in NPs-induced changes in protein expression.

Keywords: DNA damage, gold nanoparticles, methylation, silver nanoparticles

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