Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 123

Search results for: hybridization

123 Acceleration of DNA Hybridization Using Electroosmotic Flow

Authors: Yun-Hsiang Wang, Huai-Yi Chen, Kin Fong Lei

Abstract:

Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization is a common technique used in genetic assay widely. However, the hybridization ratio and rate are usually limited by the diffusion effect. Here, microfluidic electrode platform producing electroosmosis generated by alternating current signal has been proposed to enhance the hybridization ratio and rate. The electrode was made of aurum fabricated by microfabrication technique. Thiol-modified oligo probe was immobilized on the electrode for specific capture of target, which is modified by fluorescent tag. Alternative electroosmosis can induce local microfluidic vortexes to accelerate DNA hybridization. This study provides a strategy to enhance the rate of DNA hybridization in the genetic assay.

Keywords: DNA hybridization, electroosmosis, electrical enhancement, hybridization ratio

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122 Hybridization and Dynamic Performance Analysis of Three-Wheeler Electric Auto Rickshaw

Authors: Muhammad Asghar, A. I. Bhatti, T. Izhar

Abstract:

The three-wheeled auto-rickshaw with a two or four-stroke Gasoline, Liquid Petrolium Gas (LPG) or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engine is a petite, highly maneuverable vehicle and best suited for the small and heavily-congested roads and is an affordable means of transportation in Pakistan cities. However due to in-efficient engine design, it is a main cause of air-pollution in the shape of white smoke (CO2) (greenhouse gases) at the tail pipe. Due to the environmental pollution, a huge number of battery powered vehicles have been imported from all over the world to fulfill the need of country. Effect of degree of hybridization on fuel economy and acceleration performance has been discussed in this paper. From mild to full hybridization stages have been examined. Optimal level of hybridization ranges depending on the total driving power of vehicle are suggested. The degree of hybridization is varied and fuel economy is seen accordingly by using Advisor (NREL) software. The novel vehicle drive-train is modeled and simulated in the Advisor software.

Keywords: advisor, hybridization, fuel economy, Three-Wheeled Rickshaw

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121 Hybridization as a Process of Refusal of Imposed Popular Architecture

Authors: Jorge Eliseo Muñiz-Gutierrez, Daniel Olvera-García, Cristina Sotelo-Salas

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The objective of this research is to allow the understanding of the hybridization process shown in culture through the architecture of mass production for the purpose of consumption, taking as a case study the mass-built housing of the city of Mexicali, Mexico. The methodology is born from the hermeneutical study of the meta-modified architectural object, which guided the research with a qualitative focus to be carried out in two stages, the first is based on the literature review regarding cultural hybridization, and the second stage is carried out in through an ethnographic study of the cultural exploration of the contextual landscape produced by the houses located in popular neighborhoods of the city of Mexicali, Mexico. The research shows that there is an unconscious hybridization process, the birth of a mixture of impositions guided by the popular and the personal aspirations of the inhabitant. The study presents the possibilities of a home and the relationship with its inhabitant and, in turn, its effects on the context and its contribution to culture through hybridization.

Keywords: hybridization, architectural landscape, architecture, mass housing

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120 Structural Changes Induced in Graphene Oxide Film by Low Energy Ion Beam Irradiation

Authors: Chetna Tyagi, Ambuj Tripathi, Devesh Avasthi

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Graphene oxide consists of sp³ hybridization along with sp² hybridization due to the presence of different oxygen-containing functional groups on its edges and basal planes. However, its sp³ / sp² hybridization can be tuned by various methods to utilize it in different applications, like transistors, solar cells and biosensors. Ion beam irradiation can also be one of the methods to optimize sp² and sp³ hybridization ratio for its desirable properties. In this work, graphene oxide films were irradiated with 100 keV Argon ions at different fluences varying from 10¹³ to 10¹⁶ ions/cm². Synchrotron X-ray diffraction measurements showed an increase in crystallinity at the low fluence of 10¹³ ions/cm². Raman spectroscopy performed on irradiated samples determined the defects induced by the ion beam qualitatively. Also, identification of different groups and their removal with different fluences was done using Fourier infrared spectroscopy technique.

Keywords: graphene oxide, ion beam irradiation, spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction

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119 Interspecific Hybridization in Natural Sturgeon Populations of the Eastern Black Sea: The Consequence of Drastic Population Decline

Authors: Tamar Beridze, Elisa Boscari, Fleur Scheele, Tamari Edisherashvili, Cort Anderson, Leonardo Congiu

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The eastern part of the Black Sea and its tributaries are suitable habitats for several sturgeon species, among which Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, A. stellatus, A. nudiventris, A. persicus, A. sturio, and H. huso are well documented. However, different threats have led these species to a dramatic decline; all of them are currently listed as Critically Endangered and some Locally Extinct in that area. We tested 94 wild sturgeon samples from the Black Sea and Rioni River by analyzing the mitochondrial Control Region and nuclear markers for hybrid identification. The data analyses (1) assessed mitochondrial diversity among samples, (2) identified their species, as well as (3) indicated instances of hybridization. The data collected, besides confirming a sharp decrease of catches of Beluga and Stellate sturgeon in recent years, also revealed four juvenile hybrids between Russian and Stellate sturgeon, providing the first evidence of natural interspecific hybridization in the Rioni. The present communication raises concerns about the status of sturgeon species in this area and underlines the urgent need for conservation programs to restore self-sustaining populations.

Keywords: black sea, sturgeon, Rioni river, interspecific hybridization

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118 Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) Detection of Bacteria and Archaea in Fecal Samples

Authors: Maria Nejjari, Michel Cloutier, Guylaine Talbot, Martin Lanthier

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The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a staining technique that allows the identification, detection and quantification of microorganisms without prior cultivation by means of epifluorescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Oligonucleotide probes have been used to detect bacteria and archaea that colonize the cattle and swine digestive systems. These bacterial strains have been obtained from fecal samples issued from cattle manure and swine slurry. The collection of these samples has been done at 3 different pit’s levels A, B and C with same height. Two collection depth levels have been taken in consideration, one collection level just under the pit’s surface and the second one at the bottom of the pit. Cells were fixed and FISH was performed using oligonucleotides of 15 to 25 nucleotides of length associated with a fluorescent molecule Cy3 or Cy5. The double hybridization using Cy3 probe targeting bacteria (Cy3-EUB338-I) along with a Cy5 probe targeting Archaea (Gy5-ARCH915) gave a better signal. The CLSM images show that there are more bacteria than archaea in swine slurry. However, the choice of fluorescent probes is critical for getting the double hybridization and a unique signature for each microorganism. FISH technique is an easy way to detect pathogens like E. coli O157, Listeria, Salmonella that easily contaminate water streams, agricultural soils and, consequently, food products and endanger human health.

Keywords: archaea, bacteria, detection, FISH, fluorescence

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117 Application of MoM-GEC Method for Electromagnetic Study of Planar Microwave Structures: Shielding Application

Authors: Ahmed Nouainia, Mohamed Hajji, Taoufik Aguili

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In this paper, an electromagnetic analysis is presented for describing the influence of shielding in a rectangular waveguide. A hybridization based on the method of moments combined to the generalized equivalent circuit MoM-GEC is used to model the problem. This is validated by applying the MoM-GEC hybridization to investigate a diffraction structure. It consists of electromagnetic diffraction by an iris in a rectangular waveguide. Numerical results are shown and discussed and a comparison with FEM and Marcuvitz methods is achieved.

Keywords: method MoM-GEC, waveguide, shielding, equivalent circuit

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116 The Effect of Composite Hybridization on the Back Face Deformation of Armor Plates

Authors: Attef Kouadria, Yehya Bouteghrine, Amar Manaa, Tarek Mouats, Djalel Eddine Tria, Hamid Abdelhafid Ghouti

Abstract:

Personal protection systems have been used in several forms for centuries. The need for light-weight composite structures has been in great demand due to their weight and high mechanical properties ratios in comparison to heavy and cumbersome steel plates. In this regard, lighter ceramic plates with a backing plate made of high strength polymeric fibers, mostly aramids, are widely used for protection against ballistic threats. This study aims to improve the ballistic performance of ceramic/composite plates subjected to ballistic impact by reducing the back face deformation (BFD) measured after each test. A new hybridization technique was developed in this investigation to increase the energy absorption capabilities of the backing plates. The hybridization consists of combining different types of aramid fabrics with different linear densities of aramid fibers (Dtex) and areal densities with an epoxy resin to form the backing plate. Therefore, several composite structures architectures were prepared and tested. For better understanding the effect of the hybridization, a serial of tensile, compression, and shear tests were conducted to determine the mechanical properties of the homogeneous composite materials prepared from different fabrics. It was found that the hybridization allows the backing plate to combine between the mechanical properties of the used fabrics. Aramid fabrics with higher Dtex were found to increase the mechanical strength of the backing plate, while those with lower Dtex found to enhance the lateral wave dispersion ratio due to their lower areal density. Therefore, the back face deformation was significantly reduced in comparison to a homogeneous composite plate.

Keywords: aramid fabric, ballistic impact, back face deformation, body armor, composite, mechanical testing

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115 Influence of Language Hybridization on the Environmental Friendliness of Cross-Cultural Communication Parameters

Authors: Elena Kovalevich, Irina Tomasheva

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The research relevance is caused by the importance of studying features of cross-cultural communication in the system of intensive language contacts, on the one hand, and on the other – by the need of control over the language situation as cross-cultural contacts often reflect emotionally intense reality, destructive for national culture and language and also for health and mentality of the individual. The objective consists in systematization of requirements imposed by the globalized society on ethics, aesthetics and emotive component of cross-cultural communication under conditions of language hybridization of modern Russian-speaking society. Problems connected with establishing the criteria differentiating eco-friendly and eco-unfriendly communication; identifying the specifics of the eco-unfriendly communication containing language hybrids; justifying the negative impact of language hybridization on ethics and esthetics of cross-cultural communication are considered, taking into account the category of emotivity. The study makes a contribution to the development of key problems of modern linguistics connected with exploration of basics in the theory of language personality, ecology of language, emotive linguistics. The results can be used by specialists in the fields of sociolinguistics, cross-cultural communication, the national language policy.

Keywords: cross-cultural communication, eco-linguistics, ethics and aesthetics, emotivity, language hybrids

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114 Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Technique for Identification of the Differentially Expressed Genes

Authors: Tuhina-khatun, Mohamed Hanafi Musa, Mohd Rafii Yosup, Wong Mui Yun, Aktar-uz-Zaman, Mahbod Sahebi

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Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method is valuable tool for identifying differentially regulated genes in disease specific or tissue specific genes important for cellular growth and differentiation. It is a widely used method for separating DNA molecules that distinguish two closely related DNA samples. SSH is one of the most powerful and popular methods for generating subtracted cDNA or genomic DNA libraries. It is based primarily on a suppression polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique and combines normalization and subtraction in a solitary procedure. The normalization step equalizes the abundance of DNA fragments within the target population, and the subtraction step excludes sequences that are common to the populations being compared. This dramatically increases the probability of obtaining low-abundance differentially expressed cDNAs or genomic DNA fragments and simplifies analysis of the subtracted library. SSH technique is applicable to many comparative and functional genetic studies for the identification of disease, developmental, tissue specific, or other differentially expressed genes, as well as for the recovery of genomic DNA fragments distinguishing the samples under comparison.

Keywords: suppression subtractive hybridization, differentially expressed genes, disease specific genes, tissue specific genes

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113 Mode II Fracture Toughness of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: H. S. S Abou El-Mal, A. S. Sherbini, H. E. M. Sallam

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Mode II fracture toughness (KIIc) of fiber reinforced concrete has been widely investigated under various patterns of testing geometries. The effect of fiber type, concrete matrix properties, and testing mechanisms were extensively studied. The area of hybrid fiber addition shows a lake of reported research data. In this paper an experimental investigation of hybrid fiber embedded in high strength concrete matrix is reported. Three different types of fibers; namely steel (S), glass (G), and polypropylene (PP) fibers were mixed together in four hybridization patterns, (S/G), (S/PP), (G/PP), (S/G/PP) with constant cumulative volume fraction (Vf) of 1.5%. The concrete matrix properties were kept the same for all hybrid fiber reinforced concrete patterns. In an attempt to estimate a fairly accepted value of fracture toughness KIIc, four testing geometries and loading types are employed in this investigation. Four point shear, Brazilian notched disc, double notched cube, and double edge notched specimens are investigated in a trial to avoid the limitations and sensitivity of each test regarding geometry, size effect, constraint condition, and the crack length to specimen width ratio a/w. The addition of all hybridization patterns of fiber reduced the compressive strength and increased mode II fracture toughness in pure mode II tests. Mode II fracture toughness of concrete KIIc decreased with the increment of a/w ratio for all concretes and test geometries. Mode II fracture toughness KIIc is found to be sensitive to the hybridization patterns of fiber. The (S/PP) hybridization pattern showed higher values than all other patterns, while the (S/G/PP) showed insignificant enhancement on mode II fracture toughness (KIIc). Four point shear (4PS) test set up reflects the most reliable values of mode II fracture toughness KIIc of concrete. Mode II fracture toughness KIIc of concrete couldn’t be assumed as a real material property.

Keywords: fiber reinforced concrete, Hybrid fiber, Mode II fracture toughness, testing geometry

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112 Study on Hybridization between Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822) and Heterobranchus bidorsalis (Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, 1809)

Authors: Wasiu Olaniyi, Ofelia Omitogun

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Hybridization has been of importance in both research and commercial aquaculture due to its benefits such as increased growth rate, sex ratio manipulation, production of sterile species and many other desirable economic traits. In this study, we successfully produced hybrids between crosses of Clariid catfish species of Clarias gariepinus and Heterobranchus bidorsalis for stock improvement. Milt and eggs from parent broodstock of C. gariepinus and H. bidorsalis were collected for both intrageneric and interspecific hybridization, viz: same parent species crosses (♀C. gariepinus ×♂C. gariepinus; ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis) and inter-specific crosses (♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus; ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis). These crosses were made in triplicates whereby the data on latency period, fertility, hatchability, deformity, and survival were recorded. A phenotypic form of distinction was registered in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis that was smooth-greyed while its reciprocal cross was marpatic. The parent species C. gariepinus had greyed-marpatic color while the H. bidorsalis was yellowish-brown. Fertility data revealed the significant difference (p < 0.05) between the hybrid cross ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (88.00 ± 1.00%) compared to its reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (71.67 ± 10.41%) which further had carried over effects to hatchability. The reciprocal ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus recorded the highest deformity (11.67 ± 3.06%) that was significantly different (p < 0.05) from the rest of the crosses. Also, an outcome of equal sex ratio in the hybrids compared with the two parent species was shown. Specific growth rate (SGR) data revealed highest significant difference (p < 0.05) in the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.64 ± 0.09%), followed by the cross of ♀C. gariepinus × ♂ C. gariepinus (1.91 ± 0.02%) while there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between the reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (2.20 ± 0.57%) and ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂H. bidorsalis (2.19 ± 0.19%). The SGR analysis proved that the crosses ♀C. gariepinus × ♂C. gariepinus had slow growth performance compared to its hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. Critical evaluation based on survival and specific growth performance showed the superiority of the hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis. The least survival in reciprocal hybrid ♀H. bidorsalis × ♂C. gariepinus (27.33%) can be explained by significant deformity (11.67%) recorded due to maternal effects. Hence, the survival of hybrid ♀C. gariepinus × ♂H. bidorsalis was better.

Keywords: aquaculture, hybridization, Clarias gariepinus, Heterobranchus bidorsalis

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111 Bean in Turkey: Characterization, Inter Gene Pool Hybridization Events, Breeding, Utilizations

Authors: Faheem Shahzad Baloch, Muhammad Azhar Nadeem, Muhammad Amjad Nawaz, Ephrem Habyarimana, Gonul Comertpay, Tolga Karakoy, Rustu Hatipoglu, Mehmet Zahit Yeken, Vahdettin Ciftci

Abstract:

Turkey is considered a bridge between Europe, Asia, and Africa and possibly played an important role in the distribution of many crops including common bean. Hundreds of common bean landraces can be found in Turkey, particularly in farmers’ fields, and they consistently contribute to the overall production. To investigate the existing genetic diversity and hybridization events between the Andean and Mesoamerican gene pools in the Turkish common bean, 188 common bean accessions (182 landraces and 6 modern cultivars as controls) were collected from 19 different Turkish geographic regions. These accessions were characterized using phenotypic data (growth habit and seed weight), geographic provenance, 12557 high-quality whole-genome DArTseq markers, and 3767 novel DArTseq loci were also identified. The clustering algorithms resolved the Turkish common bean landrace germplasm into the two recognized gene pools, the Mesoamerican and Andean gene pools. Hybridization events were observed in both gene pools (14.36% of the accessions) but mostly in the Mesoamerican (7.97% of the accessions), and was low relative to previous European studies. The lower level of hybridization witnessed the existence of Turkish common bean germplasm in its original form as compared to Europe. Mesoamerican gene pool reflected a higher level of diversity, while the Andean gene pool was predominant (56.91% of the accessions), but genetically less diverse and phenotypically more pure, reflecting farmers greater preference for the Andean gene pool. We also found some genetically distinct landraces and overall, a meaningful level of genetic variability which can be used by the scientific community in breeding efforts to develop superior common bean strains.

Keywords: bean germplasm, DArTseq markers, genotyping by sequencing, Turkey, whole genome diversity

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110 Contestation of Local and Non-Local Knowledge in Developing Bali Cattle at Barru Regency, Province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: A. Amidah Amrawaty, M. Saleh S. Ali, Darmawan Salman

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The aim of this study was to identify local and non local knowledge in Bali cattle development, to analyze the contestation between local and non-local knowledge. The paradigm used was constructivism paradigm with a qualitative approach. descriptive type of research using case study method. The study was conducted in four villages subjected to Agropolitan Program, i.e. Palakka, Tompo, Galung and Anabanua in Barru District, province of South Sulawesi. The results indicated that the local knowledge of the farmers were: a) knowledge of animal housing, b) knowledge of the prevention and control disease, c) knowledge of the feed, d) knowledge of breed selection, e) knowledge of sharing arrangement, f) knowledge of marketing, Generally, there are three patterns of knowledge contestation namely coexistence, ‘zero sum game’ and hybridization but in this research only coexistence and zero sum game patterns took place, while the pattern of hybridization did not occur.

Keywords: contestation, local knowledge, non-local knowledge, developing of Bali cattle

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109 Hybridization and Evaluation of Jatropha to Improve High Yield Varieties in Indonesia

Authors: Rully D. Purwati, Tantri D.A. Anggraeni, Bambang Heliyanto, M. Machfud, Joko Hartono

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The availability of fuel in the world will be reduced in next few years, it is necessary to find alternative energy sources. Jatropha curcas L. is one of oil crops producing non-edible oil which is potential for bio-diesel. Jatropha cultivation and development program in Indonesia is facing several problems especially low seed yield resulting in inefficient crop cultivation cost. To cope with the problem, development of high yielding varieties is necessary. Development of new varieties to improve seed yield was conducted by hybridization and selection and resulted in fourteen potential genotypes. The yield potential of the fourteen genotypes were evaluated and compared with two check varieties. The objective of the evaluation was to find Jatropha hybrids with some characters i.e. their productivity was higher than check varieties, oil content > 40% and harvesting age ≤ 110 days. Hybridization and individual plant selection were carried out from 2010 to 2014. Evaluation of high yield was conducted in Asembagus experimental station, Situbondo, East Java in three years (2015-2017). The experimental designed was Randomized Complete Block Design with three replication, and plot size 10 m x 8 m. The characters observed were number of capsules per plant, dry seed yield (kg/ha) and seed oil content (%). The results of this experiment indicated that all the hybrids evaluated have higher productivity than check variety IP-3A. There were two superior hybrids i.e. HS-49xSP-65/32 and HS-49xSP-19/28 with highest seed yield per hectare and number of capsules per plant for three years.

Keywords: Jatropha, bio energy, hybrid, high seed yield

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108 Spin-Polarized Investigation of Ferromagnetism on Magnetic Semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the Rock-salt Phase

Authors: B. Ghebouli, M. A. Ghebouli, H. Choutri, M. Fatmi, L. Louail

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The structural, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the rock-salt phase have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Features such as lattice constant, bulk modulus, elastic constants, spin-polarized band structure, total and local densities of states have been computed. We predict the values of the exchange constants and the band edge spin splitting of the valence and conduction bands. The hybridization between S-3p and Mn-3d produces small local magnetic moment on the nonmagnetic Ca and S sites. The ferromagnetism is induced due to the exchange splitting of S-3p and Mn-3d hybridized bands. The total magnetic moment per Mn of MnxCa1-xS is 4.4µB and is independent of the Mn concentration. The unfilled Mn -3d levels reduce the local magnetic moment of Mn from its free space charge value of 5µB to 4.4µB due to 3p–3d hybridization.

Keywords: semiconductors, Ab initio calculations, band-structure, magnetic properties

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107 Copy Number Variants in Children with Non-Syndromic Congenital Heart Diseases from Mexico

Authors: Maria Lopez-Ibarra, Ana Velazquez-Wong, Lucelli Yañez-Gutierrez, Maria Araujo-Solis, Fabio Salamanca-Gomez, Alfonso Mendez-Tenorio, Haydeé Rosas-Vargas

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Congenital heart diseases (CHD) are the most common congenital abnormalities. These conditions can occur as both an element of distinct chromosomal malformation syndromes or as non-syndromic forms. Their etiology is not fully understood. Genetic variants such copy number variants have been associated with CHD. The aim of our study was to analyze these genomic variants in peripheral blood from Mexican children diagnosed with non-syndromic CHD. We included 16 children with atrial and ventricular septal defects and 5 healthy subjects without heart malformations as controls. To exclude the most common heart disease-associated syndrome alteration, we performed a fluorescence in situ hybridization test to identify the 22q11.2, responsible for congenital heart abnormalities associated with Di-George Syndrome. Then, a microarray based comparative genomic hybridization was used to identify global copy number variants. The identification of copy number variants resulted from the comparison and analysis between our results and data from main genetic variation databases. We identified copy number variants gain in three chromosomes regions from pediatric patients, 4q13.2 (31.25%), 9q34.3 (25%) and 20q13.33 (50%), where several genes associated with cellular, biosynthetic, and metabolic processes are located, UGT2B15, UGT2B17, SNAPC4, SDCCAG3, PMPCA, INPP6E, C9orf163, NOTCH1, C20orf166, and SLCO4A1. In addition, after a hierarchical cluster analysis based on the fluorescence intensity ratios from the comparative genomic hybridization, two congenital heart disease groups were generated corresponding to children with atrial or ventricular septal defects. Further analysis with a larger sample size is needed to corroborate these copy number variants as possible biomarkers to differentiate between heart abnormalities. Interestingly, the 20q13.33 gain was present in 50% of children with these CHD which could suggest that alterations in both coding and non-coding elements within this chromosomal region may play an important role in distinct heart conditions.

Keywords: aCGH, bioinformatics, congenital heart diseases, copy number variants, fluorescence in situ hybridization

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106 Shaping Traditional Chinese Culture in Contemporary Fashion: ‘Guochao’ as a Rising Aesthetic and the Case Study of the Designer Brand Angel Chen

Authors: Zhe Ginnie Wang

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Recent cultural design studies have begun to shed light on the discussion of Western-Eastern cultural and aesthetic hybridization, especially in the field of fashion. With the unprecedented spread of cultural Chinese fashion design in the global fashion system, the under-identified ‘Guochao’ aesthetic that has emerged in the global market needs to be academically emphasized with a methodological approach looking at the Western-Eastern cultural hybridization present in fashion visualization. Through an in-depth and comprehensive investigation of a representative international-based Chinese designer, Angel Chen's fashion show 'Madam Qing', this paper provides a methodological approach on how a form of traditional culture can be effectively extracted and applied to modern design using the most effective techniques. The central approach examined in this study involves creating aesthetic revolutions by addressing Chinese cultural identity through re-creating and modernizing traditional Chinese culture in design.

Keywords: style modernization, Chinese culture, guochao, design identity, fashion show, Angel Chen

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105 Synthesis and Pharmaco-Potential Evaluation of Quinoline Hybrids

Authors: Paul Awolade, Parvesh Singh

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The global threat of pathogenic resistance to available therapeutic agents has become a menace to clinical practice, public health and man’s existence inconsequential. This has therefore led to an exigency in the development of new molecular scaffolds with profound activity profiles. In this vein, a versatile synthetic tool for accessing new molecules by incorporating two or more pharmacophores into a single entity with the unique ability to be recognized by multiple receptors hence leading to an improved bioactivity, known as molecular hybridization, has been explored with tremendous success. Accordingly, aware of the similarity in pharmacological activity spectrum of quinoline and 1,2,3-triazole pharmacophores such as; anti-Alzheimer, anticancer, anti-HIV, antimalarial and antimicrobial to mention but a few, the present study sets out to synthesize hybrids of quinoline and 1,2,3-triazole. The hybrids were accessed via click chemistry using copper catalysed azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. All synthesized compounds were evaluated for their pharmaco-potential in an antimicrobial assay out of which the 3-OH derivative emerged as the most active with MIC value of 4 μg/mL against Cryptococcus neoformans; a value superior to standard Fluconazole and comparable to Amphotericin B. Structures of synthesized hybrids were elucidated using appropriate spectroscopic techniques (1H, 13C and 2D NMR, FT-IR and HRMS).

Keywords: bioisostere, click chemistry, molecular hybridization, quinoline, 1, 2, 3-triazole

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104 Effect of Hybridization of Composite Material on Buckling Analysis with Elastic Foundation Using the High Order Theory

Authors: Benselama Khadidja, El Meiche Noureddine

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This paper presents the effect of hybridization material on the variation of non-dimensional critical buckling load with different cross-ply laminates plate resting on elastic foundations of Winkler and Pasternak types subjected to combine uniaxial and biaxial loading by using two variable refined plate theories. Governing equations are derived from the Principle of Virtual Displacement; the formulation is based on a new function of shear deformation theory taking into account transverse shear deformation effects vary parabolically across the thickness satisfying shear stress-free surface conditions. These equations are solved analytically using the Navier solution of a simply supported. The influence of the various parameters geometric and material, the thickness ratio, and the number of layers symmetric and antisymmetric hybrid laminates material has been investigated to find the critical buckling loads. The numerical results obtained through the present study with several examples are presented to verify and compared with other models with the ones available in the literature.

Keywords: buckling, hybrid cross-ply laminates, Winkler and Pasternak, elastic foundation, two variables plate theory

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103 Design and Fabrication of Optical Nanobiosensors for Detection of MicroRNAs Involved in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Authors: Mahdi Rahaie

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MicroRNAs are a novel class of small RNAs which regulate gene expression by translational repression or degradation of messenger RNAs. To produce sensitive, simple and cost-effective assays for microRNAs, detection is in urgent demand due to important role of these biomolecules in progression of human disease such as Alzheimer’s, Multiple sclerosis, and some other neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we report several novel, sensitive and specific microRNA nanobiosensors which were designed based on colorimetric and fluorescence detection of nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction amplification as an enzyme-free amplification. These new strategies eliminate the need for enzymatic reactions, chemical changes, separation processes and sophisticated equipment whereas less limit of detection with most specify are acceptable. The important features of these methods are high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate between perfectly matched, mismatched and non-complementary target microRNAs and also decent response in the real sample analysis with blood plasma. These nanobiosensors can clinically be used not only for the early detection of neuro diseases but also for every sickness related to miRNAs by direct detection of the plasma microRNAs in real clinical samples, without a need for sample preparation, RNA extraction and/or amplification.

Keywords: hybridization chain reaction, microRNA, nanobiosensor, neurodegenerative diseases

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102 An Investigation on Hybrid Composite Drive Shaft for Automotive Industry

Authors: Gizem Arslan Özgen, Kutay Yücetürk, Metin Tanoğlu, Engin Aktaş

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Power transmitted from the engine to the final drive where useful work is applied through a system consisting of a gearbox, clutch, drive shaft and a differential in the rear-wheel-drive automobiles. It is well-known that the steel drive shaft is usually manufactured in two pieces to increase the fundamental bending natural frequency to ensure safe operation conditions. In this work, hybrid one-piece propeller shafts composed of carbon/epoxy and glass/epoxy composites have been designed for a rear wheel drive automobile satisfying three design specifications, such as static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling and the fundamental natural bending frequency. Hybridization of carbon and glass fibers is being studied to optimize the cost/performance requirements. Composites shaft materials with various fiber orientation angles and stacking sequences are being fabricated and analyzed using finite element analysis (FEA).

Keywords: composite propeller shaft, hybridization, epoxy matrix, static torque transmission capability, torsional buckling strength, fundamental natural bending frequency.

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101 Characteristics of Oak Mushroom Cultivar, Bambithyang Developed by Golden Seed Project

Authors: Yeongseon Jang, Rhim Ryoo, Young-Ae Park, Kang-Hyeon Ka, Donha Choi, Sung-Suk Lee

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Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, oak mushroom, is one of the most largely produced mushrooms in the world. To increase the competitiveness of Korean oak mushroom, golden seed project is ongoing. In this project, we develop new oak mushroom varieties to increase its productivity, quality, disease resistance, and so on. Through the project, new oak mushroom cultivar, Bambithyang was developed by mono-mono hybridization method. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was at 25°C on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. For the mass production test, it was cultivated using sawdust media with sawdust block type for 100 days. The temperature for primordia formation and fruit body production was broad (between 11°C and 20°C) which is good for spring and fall. Each flush period lasted for 6-7 days and the highest fruit body production was recorded in the first flush. The fruiting is sporadic. The pileus was deep brown. Its diameter was 69.2 mm and width was 17.8 mm. The stipe was ivory. It was 14.7 mm thick and 54.7 mm long. We would continue to develop new varieties while increasing the market share of domestic spawn with this variety.

Keywords: Lentinula edodes, mono-mono hybridization, new cultivar, oak mushroom

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100 Plasmonic Biosensor for Early Detection of Environmental DNA (eDNA) Combined with Enzyme Amplification

Authors: Monisha Elumalai, Joana Guerreiro, Joana Carvalho, Marta Prado

Abstract:

DNA biosensors popularity has been increasing over the past few years. Traditional analytical techniques tend to require complex steps and expensive equipment however DNA biosensors have the advantage of getting simple, fast and economic. Additionally, the combination of DNA biosensors with nanomaterials offers the opportunity to improve the selectivity, sensitivity and the overall performance of the devices. DNA biosensors are based on oligonucleotides as sensing elements. These oligonucleotides are highly specific to complementary DNA sequences resulting in the hybridization of the strands. DNA biosensors are not only an advantage in the clinical field but also applicable in numerous research areas such as food analysis or environmental control. Zebra Mussels (ZM), Dreissena polymorpha are invasive species responsible for enormous negative impacts on the environment and ecosystems. Generally, the detection of ZM is made when the observation of adult or macroscopic larvae's is made however at this stage is too late to avoid the harmful effects. Therefore, there is a need to develop an analytical tool for the early detection of ZM. Here, we present a portable plasmonic biosensor for the detection of environmental DNA (eDNA) released to the environment from this invasive species. The plasmonic DNA biosensor combines gold nanoparticles, as transducer elements, due to their great optical properties and high sensitivity. The detection strategy is based on the immobilization of a short base pair DNA sequence on the nanoparticles surface followed by specific hybridization in the presence of a complementary target DNA. The hybridization events are tracked by the optical response provided by the nanospheres and their surrounding environment. The identification of the DNA sequences (synthetic target and probes) to detect Zebra mussel were designed by using Geneious software in order to maximize the specificity. Moreover, to increase the optical response enzyme amplification of DNA might be used. The gold nanospheres were synthesized and characterized by UV-visible spectrophotometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The obtained nanospheres present the maximum localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak position are found to be around 519 nm and a diameter of 17nm. The DNA probes modified with a sulfur group at one end of the sequence were then loaded on the gold nanospheres at different ionic strengths and DNA probe concentrations. The optimal DNA probe loading will be selected based on the stability of the optical signal followed by the hybridization study. Hybridization process leads to either nanoparticle dispersion or aggregation based on the presence or absence of the target DNA. Finally, this detection system will be integrated into an optical sensing platform. Considering that the developed device will be used in the field, it should fulfill the inexpensive and portability requirements. The sensing devices based on specific DNA detection holds great potential and can be exploited for sensing applications in-loco.

Keywords: ZM DNA, DNA probes, nicking enzyme, gold nanoparticles

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99 Serological and Molecular Detection of Alfalfa Mosaic Virus in the Major Potato Growing Areas of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Khalid Alhudaib

Abstract:

Potato is considered as one of the most important and potential vegetable crops in Saudi Arabia. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), genus Alfamovirus, family Bromoviridae is among the broad spread of viruses in potato. During spring and fall growing seasons of potato in 2015 and 2016, several field visits were conducted in the four major growing areas of potato cultivation (Riyadh-Qaseem-Hail-Hard). The presence of AMV was detected in samples using ELISA, dot blot hybridization and/or RT-PCR. The highest occurrence of AMV was observed as 18.6% in Qaseem followed by Riyadh with 15.2% while; the lowest infection rates were recorded in Hard and Hail, 8.3 and 10.4%, respectively. The sequences of seven isolates of AMV obtained in this study were determined and the sequences were aligned with the other sequences available in the GenBank database. Analyses confirmed the low variability among AMV isolated in this study, which means that all AMV isolates may originate from the same source. Due to high incidence of AMV, other economic susceptible crops may become affected by high incidence of this virus in potato crops. This requires accurate examination of potato seed tubers to prevent the spread of the virus in Saudi Arabia. The obtained results indicated that the hybridization and ELISA are suitable techniques in the routine detection of AMV in a large number of samples while RT-PCR is more sensitive and essential for molecular characterization of AMV.

Keywords: Alfamovirus, AMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus, PCR, potato

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98 Modified Gold Screen Printed Electrode with Ruthenium Complex for Selective Detection of Porcine DNA

Authors: Siti Aishah Hasbullah

Abstract:

Studies on identification of pork content in food have grown rapidly to meet the Halal food standard in Malaysia. The used mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) approaches for the identification of pig species is thought to be the most precise marker due to the mtDNA genes are present in thousands of copies per cell, the large variability of mtDNA. The standard method commonly used for DNA detection is based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method combined with gel electrophoresis but has major drawback. Its major drawbacks are laborious, need longer time and toxic to handle. Therefore, the need for simplicity and fast assay of DNA is vital and has triggered us to develop DNA biosensors for porcine DNA detection. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop electrochemical DNA biosensor based on ruthenium (II) complex, [Ru(bpy)2(p-PIP)]2+ as DNA hybridization label. The interaction of DNA and [Ru(bpy)2(p-HPIP)]2+ will be studied by electrochemical transduction using Gold Screen-Printed Electrode (GSPE) modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and succinimide acrylic microspheres. The electrochemical detection by redox active ruthenium (II) complex was measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). The results indicate that the interaction of [Ru(bpy)2(PIP)]2+ with hybridization complementary DNA has higher response compared to single-stranded and mismatch complementary DNA. Under optimized condition, this porcine DNA biosensor incorporated modified GSPE shows good linear range towards porcine DNA.

Keywords: gold, screen printed electrode, ruthenium, porcine DNA

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
97 Expression of Slit Diaphragm Genes of Chicken Embryo Mesonephros

Authors: Mohammed Abdelsabour-Khalaf, F. Yusuf , B Brand-Saberi

Abstract:

Purpose: Applications of nanotechnology nowadays extended to include a wide range of scientific areas such electron micrscopy and gene expression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the developmental expression pattern of genes involved in human glomerulo-nephropathies associated with massive proteinuria and podocyte differentiation using the chicken mesonephros as a model system. Method: We performed in situ hybridization using chicken specific mRNA probes for genes expressed in the early nephron and slit diaphragm genes. The probes used were cNeph1, cNeph2, cSim1, cLmx1b, and cAtoh8. Chicken embryos from Hamburger Hamilton developmental stage HH19 (E3) to HH 34 (E9) were used for the in situ hybridization (ISH). ISH was performed on whole mount embryos which were sectioned by vibratome. Results: Our result show that Neph1, Neph2, Sim1. Lmx1b and Atoh8 genes are dynamically expressed during nephron morphogenesis and Neph1 and Atoh8 are also specifically expressed in the podocytes during late stages of differentiation. Conclusion: We conclude from our results that the genes implicated in congenital and acquired glomerulo-nephropathies like Neph1 and Neph2 are dynamically expressed during mesonephros development pointing towards a role in the formation of the filtration barrier and the differentiation of the mesonephric podocytes. Thus the avian mesonephros could serve as a model to study human kidney diseases.

Keywords: mesonephros, chicken embryo, gene expression, immunohistochemistry

Procedia PDF Downloads 544
96 Cytogenetic Investigation of Patients with Disorder of Sexual Development Using G-Banding Karyotype and Fluorescence In situ Hybridization

Authors: Riksa Parikrama, Bremmy Laksono, Dadang S. H. Effendi

Abstract:

Disorder of sexual development (DSD) covers various conditions with a specific term such as Klinefelter syndrome, Turner syndrome, androgen insensitivity syndrome, and many more. The techniques to accurately diagnose those conditions has developed extensively. However, conventional karyotype and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) are still widely used in many genetic laboratories as the basic method to determine chromosomal condition of DSD patients. Cytogenetic study was conducted on 36 DSD patients in Cell Culture and Cytogenetics Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran, Indonesia. Most of the patients referred to the laboratory diagnosed with primary amenorrhea, hypospadias, micropenis, genitalia ambiguity, or congenital adrenal hyperplasia. The study used G-banding technique to acquire complete karyotype and followed by FISH as either confirmation or comparison method. Among 36 patients, G-banding karyotype and FISH results showed that two were diagnosed with 45, X (Turner syndrome); three with 47, XXY (Klinefelter syndrome); five with 46, XX DSD; 22 with 46, XY DSD; and four with 46,XY complete androgen insensitivity syndrome. G-banding karyotype analysis were paired with FISH using X and Y chromosome probe produced similar results. The present analysis showed that FISH is a reliable method to attain a rapid and accurate chromosome analysis result of DSD patients. Nevertheless, conventional karyotype technique is still vital if other condition appeared in DSD patients in order to get more detailed karyotype result which FISH method cannot achieve.

Keywords: chromosome, DSD, FISH, karyotype

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
95 C-Coordinated Chitosan Metal Complexes: Design, Synthesis and Antifungal Properties

Authors: Weixiang Liu, Yukun Qin, Song Liu, Pengcheng Li

Abstract:

Plant diseases can cause the death of crops with great economic losses. Particularly, those diseases are usually caused by pathogenic fungi. Metal fungicides are a type of pesticide that has advantages of a low-cost, broad antimicrobial spectrum and strong sterilization effect. However, the frequent and wide application of traditional metal fungicides has caused serious problems such as environmental pollution, the outbreak of mites and phytotoxicity. Therefore, it is critically necessary to discover new organic metal fungicides alternatives that have a low metal content, low toxicity, and little influence on mites. Chitosan, the second most abundant natural polysaccharide next to cellulose, was proved to have broad-spectrum antifungal activity against a variety of fungi. However, the use of chitosan was limited due to its poor solubility and weaker antifungal activity compared with commercial fungicide. Therefore, in order to improve the water solubility and antifungal activity, many researchers grafted the active groups onto chitosan. The present work was to combine free metal ions with chitosan, to prepare more potent antifungal chitosan derivatives, thus, based on condensation reaction, chitosan derivative bearing amino pyridine group was prepared and subsequently followed by coordination with cupric ions, zinc ions and nickel ions to synthesize chitosan metal complexes. The calculations by density functional theory (DFT) show that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp2 hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp3 hybridization, and all of them are coordinated by the carbon atom in the p-π conjugate group and the oxygen atoms in the acetate ion. The antifungal properties of chitosan metal complexes against Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici), Gibberella zeae (G. zeae), Fusarium oxysporum (F. oxysporum) and Botrytis cinerea (B. cinerea) were also assayed. In addition, a plant toxicity experiment was carried out. The experiments indicated that the derivatives have significantly enhanced antifungal activity after metal ions complexation compared with the original chitosan. It was shown that 0.20 mg/mL of O-CSPX-Cu can 100% inhibit the growth of P. capsici and 0.20 mg/mL of O-CSPX-Ni can 87.5% inhibit the growth of B. cinerea. In general, their activities are better than the positive control oligosaccharides. The combination of the pyridine formyl groups seems to favor biological activity. Additionally, the ligand fashion was precisely analyzed, and the results revealed that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp2 hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp3 hybridization, and the carbon atoms of the p-π conjugate group and the oxygen atoms of acetate ion are involved in the coordination of metal ions. The phytotoxicity assay of O-CSPX-M was also conducted, unlike the traditional metal fungicides, the metal complexes were not significantly toxic to the leaves of wheat. O-CSPX-Zn can even increase chlorophyll content in wheat leaves at 0.40 mg/mL. This is mainly because chitosan itself promotes plant growth and counteracts the phytotoxicity of metal ions. The chitosan derivative described here may lend themselves to future applicative studies in crop protection.

Keywords: coordination, chitosan, metal complex, antifungal properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
94 Analysis of Saudi Breast Cancer Patients’ Primary Tumors using Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization

Authors: L. M. Al-Harbi, A. M. Shokry, J. S. M. Sabir, A. Chaudhary, J. Manikandan, K. S. Saini

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death worldwide and is the most common malignancy among Saudi females. During breast carcinogenesis, a wide-array of cytogenetic changes involving deletions, or amplification, or translocations, of part or whole of chromosome regions have been observed. Because of the limitations of various earlier technologies, newer tools are developed to scan for changes at the genomic level. Recently, Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (aCGH) technique has been applied for detecting segmental genomic alterations at molecular level. In this study, aCGH was performed on twenty breast cancer tumors and their matching non-tumor (normal) counterparts using the Agilent 2x400K. Several regions were identified to be either amplified or deleted in a tumor-specific manner. Most frequent alterations were amplification of chromosome 1q, chromosome 8q, 20q, and deletions at 16q were also detected. The amplification of genetic events at 1q and 8q were further validated using FISH analysis using probes targeting 1q25 and 8q (MYC gene). The copy number changes at these loci can potentially cause a significant change in the tumor behavior, as deletions in the E-Cadherin (CDH1)-tumor suppressor gene as well as amplification of the oncogenes-Aurora Kinase A. (AURKA) and MYC could make these tumors highly metastatic. This study validates the use of aCGH in Saudi breast cancer patients and sets the foundations necessary for performing larger cohort studies searching for ethnicity-specific biomarkers and gene copy number variations.

Keywords: breast cancer, molecular biology, ecology, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 277