Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 239

Search results for: urea

239 Numerical Study on the Urea Melting and Induced Natural Convection in a Urea Sender Module

Authors: Doo Ki Lee, Man Young Kim


The Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system is considered to be the most promising technology to fulfill the stringent emission regulation. In the Urea-SCR system, the urea solutions are used as the reducing agent, which is a eutectic composition (32.5wt% of urea). The advantage of this eutectic compositions is that it has a low freezing point approximately at -11 ℃, however, the problem of freezing occurs at low-temperature levels below that freezing point. To prevent freezing of urea solutions, we need heating systems that can melt by heating the frozen urea solutions in urea storage tank at low-temperature environment. In this study, therefore, a numerical investigation of three-dimensional unsteady heating problems analyzed to find the melting characteristics of the urea solutions on melting process. In this work, it can be found that the urea melting initiated by heat conduction from the heater is enhanced by the natural convection inside the melted liquid urea solutions due to the temperature difference. Also, liquid urea solutions are initially concentrated on the upper parts of the urea sender module.

Keywords: urea solution, melting, heat conduction, natural convection, liquid fraction, phase change

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
238 Preconcentration and Determination of Lead Ion in Environmental Samples by Poly Urea-Formaldehyde

Authors: Elham Moniri, Parvane Bozorgniya, Hamidreza Shahbazi


In this research, poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The poly urea-formaldehyde was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on Pb(II) sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of Pb(II) was 5. The sorption capacity of poly urea-formaldehyde for Pb(II) were 40 mg g−1. A Pb(II) removal of 90% was obtained. The profile of Pb(II) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Pb(II) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly urea-formaldehyde, lead Ion, environmental sample, determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
237 Urea Treatment of Low Dry Matter Oat Silage

Authors: Noor-ul-Ain, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Kashif Khan, Adeela Ajmal, Hamid Mustafa


The objective of this study was to evaluate the preservative and upgrading potential of urea (70g/kg DM) added to high moisture oat silage at laboratory scale trial and urea was hydrolysed 95%. Microbial activity measured by pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) and lactate production was reduced (p<0.001) by the urea addition. The pH of oat silage (without treated) was measured 5.7 and increased up to 8.00 on average while; volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was decreased. Relative proportions of fermentation acids changed after urea addition, increasing the acetate and butyrate and decreasing the propionate and lactate proportions. The addition of urea to oat silages increased (P<0.001) water soluble and ammonium nitrogen of the forage. These nitrogen fractions represented more than 40% of total nitrogen. After urea addition, total nitrogen content of oat silages increased from 21.0 g/kg DM to 28 g/kg DM. Application of urea at a rate of 70 g/kg DM significantly increased (P<0.001) the in situ degradation of neutral-detergent fibre after 48h of rumen incubation (NDF-situ). The NDF-situ was 200 g/kg NDF higher on oat forages ensiled with urea than on oat forages ensiled without urea. Oat silages can be effectively preserved and upgraded by ensiling with 70 g urea/kg dry matter. Further studies are required to evaluate voluntary intake of this forage.

Keywords: oat, silage, urea, pH, forage

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
236 Poly Urea-Formaldehyde for Preconcentration and Determination of Cadmium Ion in Environmental Samples

Authors: Homayon Ahmad Panahi, Samira Tajik, Mohamad Hadi Dehghani, Mostafa Khezri, Elham Moniri


In this research, poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The poly urea-formaldehyde was characterized by fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Then the effects of various parameters on Cd (II) sorption such as pH, contact time were studied. The optimum pH value for sorption of Cd(II) was 5.5. The sorption capacity of poly urea-formaldehyde for Cd (II) were 76.3 mg g−1. A Cd (II) removal of 55% was obtained. The profile of Cd (II) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Cd (II) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: poly urea-formaldehyde, cadmium ion, environmental sample, determination

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
235 Spray Characteristics of a Urea Injector Chamber to Improve NOx Conversion Efficiency for Diesel Engines Fueled with Biodiesels

Authors: Kazem Bashirnezhad, Seyed Ahmad Kebriyaee, saeed hoseyngholizadeh moghadam


The urea–SCR catalyst system has the advantages of high NOx conversion efficiency and a wide range of operating conditions. The key factors for successful implementation of urea–SCR technology is good mixing of urea (ammonia) and gas to reduce ammonia slip. Urea mixer components are required to facilitate evaporation and mixing, because it is difficult to evaporate urea in the liquid state; the injection parameters are the most critical factors affecting mixer performance. In this study, The effect of urea injection on NOx emissions in a six-cylinder, four-stroke internal combustion engine fueled with B80 biodiesel has been experimentally investigated. The results reveal that urea injection leads to a reduction of NOx emissions of B80 biodiesel fuel. Moreover, the influence of injection parameters on NOx reductions has been studied. The findings show that by increasing the injection temperature, more reduction in NOx emissions has been occurred. Also, urea mass flow rate increment leads to more NOx reduction. The same result has been obtained by an increase in spray angle.

Keywords: urea, NOx emissions, diesel engines, biodiesels

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
234 Combination Urea and KCl with Powder Coal Sub-Bituminous to Increase Nutrient Content of Ultisols in Limau Manis Padang West Sumatra

Authors: Amsar Maulana, Rafdea Syafitri, Topanal Gustiranda, Natasya Permatasari, Herviyanti


Coal as an alternative source of humic material that has the potential of 973.92 million tons (sub-bituminous amounted to 673.70 million tons) in West Sumatera. The purpose of this research was to study combination Urea and KCl with powder coal Sub-bituminous to increase nutrient content of Ultisols In Limau Manis Padang West Sumatera. The experiment was designed in Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications, those were T1) 0.5% (50g plot-1) of powder coal Sub-bituminous; T2) T1 and 125% (7.03g plot-1 ) of Urea recommendation; T3) T1 and 125% (5.85g plot-1) of KCl recommendation; T4) 1.0% (100g plot-1) of powder coal Sub-bituminous; T5) T4 and 125% (7.03g plot-1 ) of Urea recommendation; T6) T4 and 125% (5.85g plot-1) of KCl recommendation; T7) 1.5% (150g plot-1) of powder coal Sub-bituminous; T8) T7 and 125% (7.03g plot-1 ) of Urea recommendation; T9) T7 and 125% (5.85g plot-1) of KCl recommendation. The results showed that application 1.5% of powder coal Sub-bituminous and 125% of Urea recommendation could increase nutrient content of Ultisols such as pH by 0.33 unit, Organic – C by 2.03%, total – N by 0.31%, Available P by 14.16 ppm and CEC by 19.38 me 100g-1 after 2 weeks of incubation process.

Keywords: KCl, sub-bituminous, ultisols, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
233 Numerical Simulation of Urea Water Solution Evaporation Behavior inside the Diesel Selective Catalytic Reduction System

Authors: Kumaresh Selvakumar, Man Young Kim


Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) converts the nitrogen oxides with the aid of a catalyst by adding aqueous urea into the exhaust stream. In this work, the urea water droplets are sprayed over the exhaust gases by treating with Lagrangian particle tracking. The evaporation of ammonia from a single droplet of urea water solution is investigated computationally by convection-diffusion controlled model. The conversion to ammonia due to thermolysis of urea water droplets is measured downstream at different sections using finite rate/eddy dissipation model. In this paper, the mixer installed at the upstream enhances the distribution of ammonia over the entire domain which is calculated for different time steps. Calculations are made within the respective duration such that the complete decomposition of urea is possible at a much shorter residence time.

Keywords: convection-diffusion controlled model, lagrangian particle tracking, selective catalytic reduction, thermolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
232 Investigation of Influence of Maize Stover Components and Urea Treatment on Dry Matter Digestibility and Fermentation Kinetics Using in vitro Gas Techniques

Authors: Anon Paserakung, Chaloemphon Muangyen, Suban Foiklang, Yanin Opatpatanakit


Improving nutritive values and digestibility of maize stover is an alternative way to increase their utilization in ruminant and reduce air pollution from open burning of maize stover in the northern Thailand. The present study, 2x3 factorial arrangements in completely randomized design was conducted to investigate the effect of maize stover components (whole and upper stover; cut above 5th node). Urea treatment at levels 0, 3, and 6% DM on dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics of maize stover using in vitro gas production. After 21 days of urea treatment, results illustrated that there was no interaction between maize stover components and urea treatment on 48h in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD). IVDMD was unaffected by maize stover components (P > 0.05), average IVDMD was 55%. However, using whole maize stover gave higher cumulative gas and gas kinetic parameters than those of upper stover (P<0.05). Treating maize stover by ensiling with urea resulted in a significant linear increase in IVDMD (P<0.05). IVDMD increased from 42.6% to 53.9% when increased urea concentration from 0 to 3% and maximum IVDMD (65.1%) was observed when maize stover was ensiled with 6% urea. Maize stover treated with urea at levels of 0, 3, and 6% linearly increased cumulative gas production at 96h (31.1 vs 50.5 and 59.1 ml, respectively) and all gas kinetic parameters excepted the gas production from the immediately soluble fraction (P<0.50). The results indicate that maize stover treated with 6% urea enhance in vitro dry matter digestibility and fermentation kinetics. This study provides a practical approach to increasing utilization of maize stover in feeding ruminant animals.

Keywords: maize stover, urea treatment, ruminant feed, gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
231 Synthesis of Ion Imprinted Polymer for Removal of Chromium(III) Ion in Environmental Samples

Authors: Elham Moniri, Zohre Moradi


In this study, ion imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde was prepared. The morphology imprinted polymer was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Then, the effects of various parameters on Cr(III) sorption such as pH, contact time were investigated. The optimum pH value for sorption of Cr(III) was 6. The sorption capacity of imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde for Cr(III) were 4 mg.g−1. A Cr(III) removal of 97-98% was obtained. The profile of Cr(III) uptake on this sorbent reflects good accessibility of the chelating sites in the imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde. The developed method was utilized for determination of Cr(III) in environmental water samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with satisfactory results.

Keywords: chromium ion, environmental sample, elimination, imprinted poly urea-formaldehyde, polymeric sorbent

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
230 Assessment of Sex Differences in Serum Urea and Creatinine Level in Response to Spinal Cord Injury Using Albino Rat Models

Authors: Waziri B. I., Elkhashab M. M.


Background: One of the most serious consequences of spinal cord injury (SCI) is progressive deterioration of renal function mostly as a result of urine stasis and ascending infection of the paralyzed bladder. This necessitates for investigation of early changes in serum urea and creatinine and associated sex related differences in response to SCI. Methods: A total of 24 adult albino rats weighing above 150g were divided equally into two groups, a control and experimental group (n = 12) each containing an equal number of male and female rats. The experimental group animals were paralyzed by complete transection of spinal cord below T4 level after deep anesthesia with ketamine 75mg/kg. Blood samples were collected from both groups five days post SCI for analysis. Mean values of serum urea (mmol/L) and creatinine (µmol/L) for both groups were compared. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results showed significantly higher levels (P < 0.05) of serum urea and creatinine in the male SCI models with mean values of 92.12 ± 0.98 and 2573 ± 70.97 respectively compared with their controls where the mean values for serum urea and creatinine were 6.31 ± 1.48 and 476. 95 ± 4.67 respectively. In the female SCI models, serum urea 13.11 ± 0.81 and creatinine 519.88 ± 31.13 were not significantly different from that of female controls with serum urea and creatinine levels of 11.71 ± 1.43 and 493.69 ± 17.10 respectively (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Spinal cord injury caused a significant increase in serum Urea and Creatinine levels in the male models compared to the females. This indicated that males might have higher risk of renal dysfunction following SCI.

Keywords: albino rats, creatinine, spinal cord injury (SCI), urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
229 Effect of Injector Installation Angle on the Thermal Behaviors of UWS in a Diesel SCR Catalytic Muffler Systems

Authors: Man Young Kim


To reduce the NOx emission in a Diesel vehicle, such various after treatment systems as SCR, LNC, and LNT are frequently visited as promising systems. Among others, urea-based SCR systems are known to be stable, effective technologies that can reduce NOx emissions most efficiently from diesel exhaust systems. In this study, therefore, effect of urea injector installation angle on the evaporation and mixing characteristics is investigated to find optimum operation conditions. It can be found that the injection angle significantly affects the thermal behavior of the urea-water solution in the diesel exhaust gases.

Keywords: selective catalytic reduction (SCR), evaporation, thermolysis, urea-water solution (UWS), injector installation angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
228 Optimization of Urea Water Solution Injector for NH3 Uniformity Improvement in Urea-SCR System

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Gil Dong Kim, Seong Joon Moon, Ho Kil Lee


The Urea-SCR is one of the most efficient technologies to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. In the present work, the computational prediction of internal flow and spray characteristics in the Urea-SCR system was carried out by using 3D-CFD simulation to evaluate NH3 uniformity index (NH3 UI) and its activation time according to the official New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The number of nozzle and its diameter, two types of injection directions, and penetration length were chosen as the design variables. The optimal solutions were obtained by coupling the CFD analysis with Taguchi method. The L16 orthogonal array and small-the-better characteristics of the Taguchi method were used, and the optimal values were confirmed to be valid with 95% confidence and 5% significance level through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that the optimal solutions for the NH3 UI and activation time (NH3 UI 0.22) are obtained by 0.41 and 0,125 second, respectively, and their values are improved by 85.0% and 10.7%, respectively, compared with those of the base model.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, NH3 uniformity index, optimization, Taguchi method, Urea-SCR system, UWS injector

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
227 Regenerated Cellulose Prepared by Using NaOH/Urea

Authors: Lee Chiau Yeng, Norhayani Othman


Regenerated cellulose fiber is fabricated in the NaOH/urea aqueous solution. In this work, cellulose is dissolved in 7 .wt% NaOH/12 .wt% urea in the temperature of -12 °C to prepare regenerated cellulose. Thermal and structure properties of cellulose and regenerated cellulose was compared and investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FeSEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Results of FeSEM revealed that the regenerated cellulose fibers showed a more circular shape with irregular size due to fiber agglomeration. FTIR showed the difference in between the structure of cellulose and the regenerated cellulose fibers. In this case, regenerated cellulose fibers have a cellulose II crystalline structure with lower degree of crystallinity. Regenerated cellulose exhibited better thermal stability than the cellulose.

Keywords: regenerated cellulose, cellulose, NaOH, urea

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
226 Effects of Application of Rice Husk Charcoal-Coated Urea and Rice Straw Compost on Growth, Yield, and Properties of Lowland Rice

Authors: D. A. S. Gamage, B. F. A. Basnayake, W.A.J.M. De Costa


Rice is the staple food of Sri Lankans thus; rice cultivation is the major agricultural activity of the country. The application of inorganic fertilizer has become a burden to the country. The excessive application of organic and inorganic fertilizers can potentially lead to deterioration of the quality of water. In mixing both urea and rice husk charcoal and rice straw compost in soils causes a slow release of nitrogen fertilizer, thus reducing the cost of importations of nitrogen based fertilizers per unit area of cultivation. Objective of this study was to evaluate rice husk charcoal coated urea as a slow releasing fertilizer and compare the total N,P, K, organic matter in soil and yield of rice production. Five treatments were used for twenty pots (pot size 30 cm diameter and 45 cm height) each replicated four times as: inorganic fertilizer only (Urea, TSP and MOP) (Treatment 1); rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP (Treatment 2); inorganic fertilizer (Urea, TSP and MOP) with rice straw compost only (Treatment 3); rice husk charcoal urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost (Treatment 4); and no fertilizer as the control (Treatment 5). Rice grain yield was significantly higher in treatment 4 where rice husk charcoal coated urea, TSP and MOP with rice straw compost. The lowest yield was observed in control (treatment 5). The lower the value of the nitrogen to phosphorous ratio in soil, it indicates higher uptake of phosphorous. Charcoal can be used as a soil amendment and organic fertilizer, but adjustment of pH was required at high application rates. K content of soil of treatment 3 and 4 were the highest with compared to the treatment 1. Rice husk charcoal coated urea can potentially be used as a slow releasing nitrogen fertilizer.

Keywords: charcoal, rice husk, nitrogen to phosphorous ratio, soil amendment

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
225 COSMO-RS Prediction for Choline Chloride/Urea Based Deep Eutectic Solvent: Chemical Structure and Application as Agent for Natural Gas Dehydration

Authors: Tayeb Aissaoui, Inas M. AlNashef


In recent years, green solvents named deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been found to possess significant properties and to be applicable in several technologies. Choline chloride (ChCl) mixed with urea at a ratio of 1:2 and 80 °C was the first discovered DES. In this article, chemical structure and combination mechanism of ChCl: urea based DES were investigated. Moreover, the implementation of this DES in water removal from natural gas was reported. Dehydration of natural gas by ChCl:urea shows significant absorption efficiency compared to triethylene glycol. All above operations were retrieved from COSMOthermX software. This article confirms the potential application of DESs in gas industry.

Keywords: COSMO-RS, deep eutectic solvents, dehydration, natural gas, structure, organic salt

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
224 Numerical Investigation of the Evaporation and Mixing of UWS in a Diesel Exhaust Pipe

Authors: Tae Hyun Ahn, Gyo Woo Lee, Man Young Kim


Because of high thermal efficiency and low CO2 emission, diesel engines are being used widely in many industrial fields although it makes many PM and NOx which give both human health and environment a negative effect. NOx regulations for diesel engines, however, are being strengthened and it is impossible to meet the emission standard without NOx reduction devices such as SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction), LNC (Lean NOx Catalyst), and LNT (Lean NOx Trap). Among the NOx reduction devices, urea-SCR system is known as the most stable and efficient method to solve the problem of NOx emission. But this device has some issues associated with the ammonia slip phenomenon which is occurred by shortage of evaporation and thermolysis time, and that makes it difficult to achieve uniform distribution of the injected urea in front of monolith. Therefore, this study has focused on the mixing enhancement between urea and exhaust gases to enhance the efficiency of the SCR catalyst equipped in catalytic muffler by changing inlet gas temperature and spray conditions to improve the spray uniformity of the urea water solution. Finally, it can be found that various parameters such as inlet gas temperature and injector and injection angles significantly affect the evaporation and mixing of the urea water solution with exhaust gases, and therefore, optimization of these parameters are required.

Keywords: UWS (Urea-Water-Solution), selective catalytic reduction (SCR), evaporation, thermolysis, injection

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
223 Improvement of Plantain Leaves Nutritive Value in Goats by Urea Treatment and Nitrogen Supplements

Authors: Marie Lesly Fontin, Audalbert Bien-Aimé, Didier Marlier, Yves Beckers


Fecal digestibility of mature plantain leaves was determined in castrated Creolegoatsin order to better assess them. Five diets made from plantain leaves were used in an in vivo digestibility study on 20 castrated Creole goats over three periods using a completely random design in order to assess their apparent fecal digestibility (Dg). These diets consisted of sun-dried leaves (DL), sun-dried urea treated leaves (DUTL, 5kg of urea per 100kg of raw product ensilaged during 90 days with 60 kg of water), sun-dried leaves + hoopvine (Trichostigma octandrum, L)(DLH, DL: 61.4% + Hoopvine: 38.6%), sun-dried leaves + urea (DLU, DL: 98.2%+ U: 1.8%), and fresh leaves. (FL).0.5% of salt diluted with water was added to diets before distribution to the goats. A mineral lick block was available for each goat in its digestibility cage. During each period, diets were distributed to meet the maintenance needs of the goats for 21 days, including 14 days of adaptation and 7 days of measurement. Offered and refused diets and feces were weighed every day, and samples were taken for laboratory analysis. Results showed that the urea treatment increasedCP (Crude Protein) content of DL by 44% (from 10.4% for DL to 15.0% for DUTL) and decreased their NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) content (55.5% to 52.4%). Large amounts of refused feed (around 40%) were observed in goats fed with FL, DLU, and DL diets, for which no significant difference was observed for DM (Dry Matter) intakes (40.3; 36.6 and 35.1g/kg0.75 respectively) (p>0.05). DM intakes of DUTL (59.9 g/kg0.75) were significantly (p<0.05) greater than DLH (50.2 g/kg0.75). DM Dg of DL was very low (29.2%). However, supplementation with hoopvine and urea treatment resulted in a significant increase of DM Dg (40.3% and 42.1%, respectively), but the addition of urea (DLU) had no effect on it. FL showed a DM Dg similar to DHL and DUTL diets (39.0%). OM (Organic Matter)Dg was higher for the DUTL diet (45.1%), followed by DLH (40.9%), then by DLU and FL (32.9% and 40.7% respectively) and finally by DL (29.8%). CP Dg was higher for the FL diet (65.7%) and lower for the DL diet (39.9%). NDF Dg was also increased with urea treatment (54.8% for DUTL) and with the addition of hoopvine (41.4%) compared to the DL diet (31.0% for DLH). In conclusion, urea treatment and complementation with hoopvine of plantain leaves are the best treatments among those tested for increasing the nutritive value of this foragein the castrated Creole goats.

Keywords: apparent fecal digestibility, nitrogen supplements, plantain leaves, urea treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
222 The Effect of Aerobic Exercises on the Amount of Urea, Uric Acid and Creatine in Blood of Iranian Soccer Players

Authors: Abdolrasoul Daneshjoo


The purpose of this research was to study the effect of aerobic exercises with 75% heart beats on the amount of urea, uric acid and creatine in blood of Iranian soccer national U-23 players. 27 players were selected according to the following demographic specifications: age: 21.4±1.60 years old; weight: 68±9.4 kg; height: 174.2±8.6 cm. Urea, uric acid and creatine in blood are considered as dependent variations where as 40 minutes running on a track with maximum 75% heart beats are independent variations. Heart beat and blood pressure in rest time, age, height, and weight are considered as the controlled variations. Maximum heart beats are recorded under maximum exercises (8 minutes and 150-250 watt energy) on ergo meter. Then, in order to determine independent variations, 75% maximum heart beats are considered for each player. Blood is taken twice (before and after determining independence variation). Moreover, the players are given a few instructions to be fulfilled 24 hours before the main exercises. Laboratory analysis method for blood urea sample is deacetyl ammoniom, for uric acid Karvy test and for creatine pyric acid. 'T' formula is applied for analyzing statistical data in dependent groups with degree of freedom 7 (d.f=7) urea and uric acid contain P>0.01 and P>0.05 for creatine. 1. Aerobic exercise can effect on the concentration of urea of blood as well as uric acid and creatine in blood serum and increase the amount of them. 2. Urea of blood serum increases from 26.75±2.59 to 28.9±2.67 (25%) with 40 minutes running and 75% heart beat. 3. Aerobic exercise causes uric acid increase 12.5% from 5.7±0.52 (before exercise) to 6.1±0.71 (after exercise). Creatine of blood serum increases from 1.36±0.27 (before exercise) to 1.85±0.49 (after exercise). We came to this result that during aerobic exercise catabolism of protein substrate increases. Moreover, augmentation of urea, uric acid and creatine in blood serum as metabolic poisons causes disorder in kidney. Also, tendons and joints are affected by these poisons. Appropriate diet and exercise can prevent production of these poisons resulted from heavy exercise.

Keywords: aerobic exercise, urea, uric acid, creatine, blood, soccer national players

Procedia PDF Downloads 422
221 The Nutritive Value of Fermented Sago Pith (Metroxylon sago Rottb) Enriched with Micro Nutrients for Poultry Feed

Authors: Wizna, Helmi Muis, Hafil Abbas


An experiment was conducted to improve the nutrient value of sago pith (Metroxylon sago Rottb) supplemented with Zn, Sulfur and urea through fermentation by using cellulolytic bacteria (Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) as inoculums. The experiment was determination of the optimum dose combination (dosage of Zn, S and urea) for sago pith fermentation based on nutrient quality and quantity of these fermented products. The study was conducted in experimental method, using the completely randomized design in factorial with 3 treatments consist of: factor A (Dose of urea: A1 = 2.0%, A2 = 3.0%), factor B (Dose of S: B1 = 0.2%, B2 = 0.4%) and factor C (Dose of Zn: C1 = 0.0025%, C2 = 0.005%). Results of study showed that optimum condition for fermentation process of sago pith with B. amyloliquefaciens caused a change of nutrient content was obtained at urea (3%), S (0,2%), and Zn (0,0025%). This fermentation process was able to increase amino acid average, reduce crude fiber content by 67% and increase crude protein by 433%, which made the nutritional value of the product based on dry matter was 18.22% crude protein, 12.42% crude fiber, 2525 Kcal/kg metabolic energy and 65.73% nitrogen retention.

Keywords: fermentation, sago pith, sulfur, Zn, urea, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

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220 Beef Cattle Farmers Perception toward Urea Mineral Molasses Block

Authors: Veronica Sri Lestari, Djoni Prawira Rahardja, Tanrigiling Rasyid, Aslina Asnawi, Ikrar Muhammad Saleh, Ilham Rasyid


Urea Mineral Molasses Block is very important for beef cattle, because it can increase beef production. The purpose of this research was to know beef cattle farmers’ perception towards Urea Mineral Molasses Block (UMMB). This research was conducted in Gowa Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia in 2016. The population of this research were all beef cattle farmers. Sample was chosen through purposive sampling. Data were collected through observation and face to face with deep interview using questionnaire. Variables of perception consisted of relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, observability and triability. There were 10 questions. The answer for each question was scored by 1, 2, 3 which refer to disagree, agree enough, strongly agree. The data were analyzed descriptively using frequency distribution. The research revealed that beef cattle farmers’ perception towards UMMB was categorized as strongly agree.

Keywords: beef cattle, farmers, perception, urea mineral molasses block

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
219 Antioxidant Activity of Avocado Puree on Blood Urea Nitrogen and Creatinine Level in White Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Induced with Toxic Doses of Meloxicam

Authors: Amelia R. Anshar, Dini Kurnia, Muh A. Bahar


Nowadays, there are so many incidences had been reported in pet animals regarding drug overdose caused by incorrect doses of a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), for instance, meloxicam. As supporting treatment, the avocado is used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent some health cases. The study was aimed at providing the basis for the antioxidant activity of avocado puree in animal medicine. Experimental animals used in this study were 24 male rats that were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=6). Control Group I got 1 ml CMC 1% and control II got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and 1 ml CMC 1%. Treatment group I got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and avocado 5 g/kgBB/day and treatment II got meloxicam 30 mg/kgBB and avocado 10 g/kgBB/day. The study was conducted over 8 days, then the level of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine of the white rats were examined in 1st day and 8th day. The results were analyzed by ANOVA Two Way With Replication, then followed by T-test (α = 0,05) if there were a difference. Comparison test among the four groups after treatment with avocado using Anova Two Way With Replication test showed that there were significant differences between the mean of the four groups either decreased levels of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine with p < 0,05. Treatment group I and II received treatment showed remarkable (p < 0,05) decreases ini Blood Urea Nitrogen level by 27,17 mg/dl and 17,83 mg/dl respectively. There was also significant decrease in the values of creatinine in Treatment group I and treatment group II by 0,983 mg/dl and 0,713 mg/dl respectively. The conclusion of this study was that avocado decreases level of Blood Urea Nitrogen and creatinine in white rats which are exposed to toxic doses of meloxicam.

Keywords: avocado, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, meloxicam

Procedia PDF Downloads 134
218 Seed Yield and Quality of Late Planted Rabi Wheat Crop as Influenced by Basal and Foliar Application of Urea

Authors: Omvati Verma, Shyamashrre Roy


A field experiment was conducted with three basal nitrogen levels (90, 120 and 150 kg N/ha) and five foliar application of urea (absolute control, water spray, 3% urea spray at anthesis, 7 and 14 days after anthesis) at G.B. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar, U.S. Nagar (Uttarakhand) during rabi season in a factorial randomized block design with three replications. Results revealed that nitrogen application of 150 kg/ha produced the highest seed yield, straw and biological yield and it was significantly superior to 90 kg N/ha and was at par with 120 kg N/ha. The number of tillers increased significantly with increase in nitrogen doses up to 150 kg N/ha. Spike length, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike and thousand seed weight showed significantly higher values with 120 kg N/ha than 90 kg N/ha and were at par with that of 150 kg N/ha. Also, plant height showed similar trend. Leaf area index and chlorophyll content showed significant increase with an increase in nitrogen levels at different stages. In the case of foliar spray treatments, urea spray at anthesis showed highest value for yield and yield attributes. In case of spike length and thousand seed weight, it was similar with the urea spray at 7 and 14 days after anthesis, but for rest of the yield attributes, it was significantly higher than rest of the treatments. Among seed quality parameters protein and sedimentation value showed significant increase due to increase in nitrogen rates whereas, starch and hectolitre weight had a decreasing trend. Wet gluten content was not influenced by nitrogen levels. Foliar urea spray at anthesis resulted in highest value of protein and hectolitre weight whereas, urea spray at 7 days after anthesis showed highest value of sedimentation value and wet gluten content.

Keywords: foliar application, nitrogenous fertilizer, seed quality, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
217 Fabrication of Eco-Friendly Pigment Printed Textiles by Reducing Formaldehyde Content

Authors: Sidra Saleemi, Raja Fahad Qureshi, Farooq Ahmed, Rabia Almas, Tahir Jameel


This research aimed to decrease formaldehyde content in substrates printed by pigments using different fixation temperature and concentration of urea in order to produce eco-friendly textiles. Substrates were printed by hand screen printing method as per recipe followed by drying and curing. Standard test methods were adapted to measure formaldehyde content washing and rubbing fastness. Formaldehyde content is instantaneously decreased by raising the temperature during curing printed fabric. Good results of both dry and wet rubbing fastness were found at 160˚C slightly improved dry rubbing results are achieved with 2% urea at a curing temperature of 150˚C.

Keywords: formaldehyde content, pigment printing, urea, washing fastness, rubbing fastness

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216 Synthesis and Properties of Oxidized Corn Starch Based Wood Adhesive

Authors: Salise Oktay, Nilgun Kizilcan, Basak Bengu


At present, formaldehyde-based adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde (UF), melamine-formaldehyde (MF), melamine – urea-formaldehyde (MUF), etc. are mostly used in wood-based panel industry because of their high reactivity, chemical versatility, and economic competitiveness. However, formaldehyde-based wood adhesives are produced from non- renewable resources and also formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group B1) by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Therefore, there has been a growing interest in the development of environment-friendly, economically competitive, bio-based wood adhesives to meet wood-based panel industry requirements. In this study, like a formaldehyde-free adhesive, oxidized starch – urea wood adhesives was synthesized. In this scope, firstly, acid hydrolysis of corn starch was conducted and then acid thinned corn starch was oxidized by using hydrogen peroxide and CuSO₄ as an oxidizer and catalyst, respectively. Secondly, the polycondensation reaction between oxidized starch and urea conducted. Finally, nano – TiO₂ was added to the reaction system to strengthen the adhesive network. Solid content, viscosity, and gel time analyses of the prepared adhesive were performed to evaluate the adhesive processability. FTIR, DSC, TGA, SEM characterization techniques were used to investigate chemical structures, thermal, and morphological properties of the adhesive, respectively. Rheological analysis of the adhesive was also performed. In order to evaluate the quality of oxidized corn starch – urea adhesives, particleboards were produced in laboratory scale and mechanical and physical properties of the boards were investigated such as an internal bond, modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, formaldehyde emission, etc. The obtained results revealed that oxidized starch – urea adhesives were synthesized successfully and it can be a good potential candidate to use the wood-based panel industry with some developments.

Keywords: nano-TiO₂, corn starch, formaldehyde emission, wood adhesives

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215 Reaction Kinetics for the Pyrolysis of Urea Phosphate

Authors: P. A. Broodryk, A. F. Van Der Merwe, H. W. J. P. Neomagus


The production of the clear liquid fertilizer ammonium polyphosphate (APP) is best achieved by the pyrolysis of urea phosphate, as it produces a product that is free from any of the impurities present in the raw phosphoric acid it was made from. This is a multiphase, multi-step reaction that produces carbon dioxide and ammonia as gasses and ammonium polyphosphate as liquid products. The polyphosphate chain length affects the solubility and thus the applicability of the product as liquid fertiliser, thus proper control of the reaction conditions is thus required for the use of this reaction in the production of fertilisers. This study investigates the reaction kinetics of the aforementioned reaction, describing a mathematical model for the kinetics of the reaction along with the accompanying rate constants. The reaction is initially exothermic, producing only carbon dioxide as a gas product and ammonium diphosphate, at higher temperatures the reaction becomes endothermic, producing ammonia gas as an additional by-product and longer chain polyphosphates, which when condensed too far becomes highly water insoluble. The aim of this study was to (i) characterise the pyrolysis reaction of urea phosphate by determining the mechanisms and the associated kinetic constants, and (ii) to determine the optimum conditions for ammonium diphosphate production. A qualitative investigation was also done to find the rate of hydrolysis of APP as this provides an estimate of the shelf life of an APP clear liquid fertiliser solution.

Keywords: ammonium polyphosphate, kinetics, pyrolysis, urea phosphate

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214 Producing and Mechanical Testing of Urea-Formaldehyde Resin Foams Reinforced by Waste Phosphogypsum

Authors: Krasimira Georgieva, Yordan Denev


Many of thermosetting resins have application only in filled state, reinforced with different mineral fillers. The co-filling of polymers with mineral filler and gases creates a possibility for production of polymer composites materials with low density. This processing leads to forming of new materials – gas-filled plastics (polymer foams). The properties of these materials are determined mainly by the shape and size of internal structural elements (pores). The interactions on the phase boundaries have influence on the materials properties too. In the present work, the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins were reinforced by waste phosphogypsum. The waste phosphogypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is a solid by-product in wet phosphoric acid production processes. The values of the interactions polymer-filler were increased by using two modifying agents: polyvinyl acetate for polymer matrix and sodium metasilicate for filler. Technological methods for gas-filling and recipes of urea-formaldehyde based materials with apparent density 20-120 kg/m3 were developed. The heat conductivity of the samples is between 0.024 and 0.029 W/moK. Tensile analyses were carried out at 10 and 50% deformation and show values 0.01-0.14 MPa and 0.01-0.09 MPa, respectively. The apparent density of obtained materials is between 20 and 92 kg/m3. The changes in the tensile properties and density of these materials according to sodium metasilicate content were studied too. The mechanism of phosphogypsum adsorption modification was studied using methods of FT-IR spectroscopy. The structure of the gas-filled urea-formaldehyde resins was described by results of electron scanning microscopy at three different magnification ratios – x50, x150 and x 500. The aim of present work is to study the possibility of the usage of phosphogypsum as mineral filler for urea-formaldehyde resins and development of a technology for the production of gas-filled reinforced polymer composite materials. The structure and the properties of obtained composite materials are suitable for thermal and sound insulation applications.

Keywords: urea formaldehyde resins, gas-filled thermostes, phosphogypsum, mechanical properties

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213 Urea Amperometric Biosensor Based on Entrapment Immobilization of Urease onto a Nanostructured Polypyrrol and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube

Authors: Hamide Amani, Afshin FarahBakhsh, Iman Farahbakhsh


In this paper, an amprometric biosensor based on surface modified polypyrrole (PPy) has been developed for the quantitative estimation of urea in aqueous solutions. The incorporation of urease (Urs) into a bipolymeric substrate consisting of PPy was performed by entrapment to the polymeric matrix, PPy acts as amperometric transducer in these biosensors. To increase the membrane conductivity, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) were added to the PPy solution. The entrapped MWCNT in PPy film and the bipolymer layers were prepared for construction of Pt/PPy/MWCNT/Urs. Two different configurations of working electrodes were evaluated to investigate the potential use of the modified membranes in biosensors. The evaluation of two different configurations of working electrodes suggested that the second configuration, which was composed of an electrode-mediator-(pyrrole and multi-walled carbon nanotube) structure and enzyme, is the best candidate for biosensor applications.

Keywords: urea biosensor, polypyrrole, multi-walled carbon nanotube, urease

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212 Synthesis of Rare Earth Doped Nano-Phosphors through the Use of Isobutyl Nitrite and Urea Fuels: Study of Microstructure and Luminescence Properties

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Rafiaei


In this investigation, red emitting Eu³⁺ doped YVO₄ nano-phosphors have been synthesized via the facile combustion method using isobutyl nitrite and urea fuels, individually. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) images, high resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra reveal that the mentioned fuels can be used successfully to synthesis YVO₄: Eu³⁺ nano-particles. Interestingly, the fuels have a large effect on the size and morphology of nano-phosphors as well as luminescence properties. Noteworthy the use of isobutyl nitrite provides an average particle size of 65 nm, while the employment of urea, results in the formation of larger particles and also provides higher photoluminescence emission intensity. The improved luminescence performance is attributed to the condition of chemical reaction via the combustion synthesis and the size of synthesized phosphors.

Keywords: phosphors, combustion, fuels, luminescence, nanostructure

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211 Production of a Sustainable Slow-Release Urea Fertilizer Using Starch and Poly-Vinyl Alcohol

Authors: A. M. H. Shokry, N. S. M. El-Tayeb


The environmental impacts caused by fertilizers call for the adaptation of more sustainable technologies in order to increase agricultural production and reduce pollution due to high nutrient emissions. One particular technique has been to coat urea fertilizer granules with less-soluble chemicals that permit the gradual release of nutrients in a slow and controlled manner. The aim of this research is to develop a biodegradable slow-release fertilizer (SRF) with materials that come from sustainable sources; starch and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). The slow-release behavior and water retention capacity of the coated granules were determined. In addition, the aqueous release and absorbency rates were also tested. Results confirmed that the release rate from coated granules was slower than through plain membranes; and that the water absorption capacity of the coated urea decreased as PVA content increased. The SRF was also tested and gave positive results that confirmed the integrity of the product.

Keywords: biodegradability, nitrogen-use efficiency, poly-vinyl alcohol, slow-release fertilizer, sustainability

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210 Leaching Losses of Fertilizer Nitrogen as Affected by Sulfur and Nitrification Inhibitor Applications

Authors: Abdel Khalek Selim, Safaa Mahmoud


Experiments were designed to study nitrogen loss through leaching in soil columns treated with different nitrogen sources and elemental sulfur. The soil material (3 kg alluvial or calcareous soil) were packed in Plexiglas columns (10 cm diameter). The soil columns were treated with 2 g N in the form of Ca(NO3)2, urea, urea + inhibitor (Nitrapyrin), another set of these treatments was prepared to add elemental sulfur. During incubation period, leaching was performed by applying a volume of water that allows the percolation of 250-ml water throughout the soil column. The leachates were analyzed for NH4-N and N03-N. After 10 weeks, soil columns were cut into four equal segments and analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, and total nitrogen. Results indicated the following: Ca(NO3)2 treatment showed a rapid NO3 leaching, especially in the first 3 weeks, in both clay and calcareous soils. This means that soil texture did not play any role in this respect. Sulfur addition also did not affect the rate of NO3 leaching. In urea treatment, there was a steady increase of NH4- and NO3–N from one leachate to another. Addition of sulfur with urea slowed down the nitrification process and decreased N losses. Clay soil contained residual N much more than calcareous soil. Almost one-third of added nitrogen might have been immobilized by soil microorganisms or lost through other loss paths. Nitrification inhibitor can play a role in preserving added nitrogen from being lost through leaching. Combining the inhibitor with elemental sulfur may help to stabilize certain preferred ratio of NH4 to NO3 in the soil for the benefit of the growing plants.

Keywords: alluvial soil, calcareous soil, elemental sulfur, nitrate leaching

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