Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2914

Search results for: carbon emissions

2914 Framework Development of Carbon Management Software Tool in Sustainable Supply Chain Management of Indian Industry

Authors: Sarbjit Singh

Abstract:

This framework development explored the status of GSCM in manufacturing SMEs and concluded that there was a significant gap w.r.t carbon emissions measurement in the supply chain activities. The measurement of carbon emissions within supply chains is important green initiative toward its reduction. The majority of the SMEs were facing the problem to quantify the green house gas emissions in its supply chain & to make it a low carbon supply chain or GSCM. Thus, the carbon management initiatives were amalgamated with the supply chain activities in order to measure and reduce the carbon emissions, confirming the GHG protocol scopes. Henceforth, it covers the development of carbon management software (CMS) tool to quantify carbon emissions for effective carbon management. This tool is cheap and easy to use for the industries for the management of their carbon emissions within the supply chain.

Keywords: w.r.t carbon emissions, carbon management software, supply chain management, Indian Industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
2913 Carbon Credits in Voluntary Carbon Markets: A Proposal for Iran

Authors: Saeed Mohammadirad

Abstract:

During the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries were forced to restrict carbon emissions. Although Iran was one of the countries of Kyoto protocol, due to some special conditions, it was not required to restrict its carbon emissions. Flexible mechanisms were developed to assist countries responsible for reducing their carbon emissions, and regulated carbon markets were introduced. Carbon credits which are provided by organizations in countries with no responsibility to restrict their carbon emissions are traded in voluntary markets. This study focuses on how to measure and report the carbon allowances and carbon credits from accounting view point under both regulated and voluntary markets.

Keywords: carbon credits, carbon markets, accounting, flexible mechanisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2912 A Study of Carbon Emissions during Building Construction

Authors: Jonggeon Lee, Sungho Tae, Sungjoon Suk, Keunhyeok Yang, George Ford, Michael E. Smith, Omidreza Shoghli

Abstract:

In recent years, research to reduce carbon emissions through quantitative assessment of building life cycle carbon emissions has been performed as it relates to the construction industry. However, most research efforts related to building carbon emissions assessment have been focused on evaluation during the operational phase of a building’s life span. Few comprehensive studies of the carbon emissions during a building’s construction phase have been performed. The purpose of this study is to propose an assessment method that quantitatively evaluates the carbon emissions of buildings during the construction phase. The study analysed the amount of carbon emissions produced by 17 construction trades, and selected four construction trades that result in high levels of carbon emissions: reinforced concrete work; sheathing work; foundation work; and form work. Building materials, and construction and transport equipment used for the selected construction trades were identified, and carbon emissions produced by the identified materials and equipment were calculated for these four construction trades. The energy consumption of construction and transport equipment was calculated by analysing fuel efficiency and equipment productivity rates. The combination of the expected levels of carbon emissions associated with the utilization of building materials and construction equipment provides means for estimating the quantity of carbon emissions related to the construction phase of a building’s life cycle. The proposed carbon emissions assessment method was validated by case studies.

Keywords: building construction phase, carbon emissions assessment, building life cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 661
2911 The Carbon Emission Seesaw Effect

Authors: Adel Elomri

Abstract:

The notion of carbon footprinting is ever more widespread as companies are becoming increasingly aware that tackling carbon emissions and being seen to do so is a key issue to face governments, customers and other stakeholders’ pressures towards delivering environmentally friendly services and activities. In this contest, many firms are taking self-initiatives to reduce their own carbon emissions while some other are constrained to obey to different regulations/policies (e.g. carbon tax or carbon Cap) designed by higher authorities targeting a low-carbon environment. Using buyer-vendor framework, this paper provides some insights on how effective are these self-initiatives and regulatory policies when only concerning firms at the individual level and not the whole supply chain they are part of. We show that when firms individually engage in reducing their direct carbon emissions either under self-initiatives or regulatory policy, an opposite expected outcome resulting in a higher global supply chain emission can occur. This effect is referred to as the carbon seesaw effect. Moreover, we show that coordinating or centralizing the supply chain -contrary to what one may think at first- is not often the appropriate solution to get rid of this effect.

Keywords: carbon emissions, supply chain coordination, EOQ, sustainable operations

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2910 Analysis of the CO2 Emissions of Public Passenger Transport in Tianjin City of China

Authors: Tao Zhao, Xianshuo Xu

Abstract:

Low-carbon public passenger transport is an important part of low carbon city. The CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin from 1995 to 2010 are estimated with IPCC CO2 counting method, which shows that the total CO2 emissions of Tianjin public passenger transport have gradually become stable at 1,425.1 thousand tons. And then the CO2 emissions of the buses, taxies, and rail transits are calculated respectively. A CO2 emission of 829.9 thousand tons makes taxies become the largest CO2 emissions source among the public passenger transport in Tianjin. Combining with passenger volume, this paper analyzes the CO2 emissions proportion of the buses, taxies, and rail transits compare the passenger transport rate with the proportion of CO2 emissions, as well as the CO2 emissions change of per 10,000 people. The passenger volume proportion of bus among the three public means of transport is 72.62% which is much higher than its CO2 emissions proportion of 36.01%, with the minimum number of CO2 emissions per 10,000 people of 4.90 tons. The countermeasures to reduce CO2 emissions of public passenger transport in Tianjin are to develop rail transit, update vehicles and use alternative fuel vehicles.

Keywords: public passenger transport, carbon emissions, countermeasures, China

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2909 Supply Chain Coordination under Carbon Trading Mechanism in Case of Conflict

Authors: Fuqiang Wang, Jun Liu, Liyan Cai

Abstract:

This paper investigates the coordination of the conflicting two-stage low carbon supply chain consisting of upstream and downstream manufacturers. The conflict means that the upstream manufacturer takes action for carbon emissions reduction under carbon trading mechanism while the downstream manufacturer’s production cost rises. It assumes for the Stackelberg game that the upstream manufacturer plays as a leader and the downstream manufacturer does as a follower. Four kinds of the situation of decentralized decision making, centralized decision-making, the production cost sharing contract and the carbon emissions reduction revenue sharing contract under decentralized decision making are considered. The backward induction approach is adopted to solve the game. The results show that the more intense the conflict is, the lower the efficiency of carbon emissions reduction and the higher the retail price is. The optimal investment of the decentralized supply chain under the two contracts is unchanged and still lower than that of the centralized supply chain. Both the production cost sharing contract and the carbon emissions reduction revenue sharing contract cannot coordinate the supply chain, because that the sharing cost or carbon emissions reduction sharing revenue will transfer through the wholesale price mechanism. As a result, it requires more complicated contract forms to coordinate such a supply chain.

Keywords: cap-and-trade mechanism, carbon emissions reduction, conflict, supply chain coordination

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2908 An Investigation on the Effect of Railway Track Elevation Project in Taichung Based on the Carbon Emissions

Authors: Kuo-Wei Hsu, Jen-Chih, Chao, Pei-Chen, Wu

Abstract:

With the rapid development of global economy, the increasing population, the highly industrialization, greenhouse gas emission and the ozone layer damage, the Global Warming happens. Facing the impact of global warming, the issue of “green transportation” began to be valued and promoted in each city. Taichung has been elected as the model of low-carbon city in Taiwan. To comply with international trends and the government policy, we tried to promote the energy saving and carbon reduction to create a “low-carbon Taichung with green life and eco-friendly economy”. To cooperate with the “green transportation” project, Taichung has promoted a number of public transports constructions and traffic policy in recent years like BRT, MRT, etc. The elevated railway is one of those important constructions. Cooperating with the green transport policy, elevated railway could help to achieve the carbon reduction for this low-carbon city. The current studies of the carbon emissions associated with railways and roads are focusing on the assessment on paving material, institutional policy and economic benefit. Except for changing the mode of transportation, elevated railways/roads also create space under the bridge. However, there is no research about the carbon emissions of the space underneath the elevated section up until now. This study investigated the effect of railway track elevation project in Taichung based on the carbon emissions and the factors that affect carbon emissions by research related theory and literature analysis. This study concluded that : railway track elevation increased the public transit, the bike lanes, the green areas and walking spaces. In the other hand it reduced the traffic congestions, the use of motorcycles as well as automobiles for carbon emissions.

Keywords: low-carbon city, green transportation, carbon emissions, Taichung, Taiwan

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2907 Analysis of Causality between Economic Growth and Carbon Emissions: The Case of Mexico 1971-2011

Authors: Mario Gómez, José Carlos Rodríguez

Abstract:

This paper analyzes the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis to test the causality relationship between economic activity, trade openness and carbon dioxide emissions in Mexico (1971-2011). The results achieved in this research show that there are three long-run relationships between production, trade openness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. The EKC hypothesis was not verified in this research. Indeed, it was found evidence of a short-term unidirectional causality from GDP and GDP squared to carbon dioxide emissions, from GDP, GDP squared and TO to EC, and bidirectional causality between TO and GDP. Finally, it was found evidence of long-term unidirectional causality from all variables to carbon emissions. These results suggest that a reduction in energy consumption, economic activity, or an increase in trade openness would reduce pollution.

Keywords: causality, cointegration, energy consumption, economic growth, environmental Kuznets curve

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2906 Driving Forces of Net Carbon Emissions in a Tropical Dry Forest, Oaxaca, México

Authors: Rogelio Omar Corona-Núñez, Alma Mendoza-Ponce

Abstract:

The Tropical Dry Forest not only is one of the most important tropical ecosystems in terms of area, but also it is one of the most degraded ecosystems. However, little is known about the degradation impacts on carbon stocks, therefore in carbon emissions. There are different studies which explain its deforestation dynamics, but there is still a lack of understanding of how they correlate to carbon losses. Recently different authors have built current biomass maps for the tropics and Mexico. However, it is not clear how well they predict at the local scale, and how they can be used to estimate carbon emissions. This study quantifies the forest net carbon losses by comparing the potential carbon stocks and the different current biomass maps in the Southern Pacific coast in Oaxaca, Mexico. The results show important differences in the current biomass estimates with not a clear agreement. However, by the aggregation of the information, it is possible to infer the general patterns of biomass distribution and it can identify the driving forces of the carbon emissions. This study estimated that currently ~44% of the potential carbon stock estimated for the region is still present. A total of 6,764 GgC has been emitted due to deforestation and degradation of the forest at a rate of above ground biomass loss of 66.4 Mg ha-1. Which, ~62% of the total carbon emissions can be regarded as being due to forest degradation. Most of carbon losses were identified in places suitable for agriculture, close to rural areas and to roads while the lowest losses were accounted in places with high water stress and within the boundaries of the National Protected Area. Moreover, places not suitable for agriculture, but close to the coast showed carbon losses as a result of urban settlements.

Keywords: above ground biomass, deforestation, degradation, driving forces, tropical deciduous forest

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2905 A Review on Aviation Emissions and Their Role in Climate Change Scenarios

Authors: J. Niemisto, A. Nissinen, S. Soimakallio

Abstract:

Aviation causes carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and other climate forcers which increase the contribution of aviation on climate change. Aviation industry and number of air travellers are constantly increasing. Aviation industry has an ambitious goal to strongly cut net CO2 emissions. Modern fleet, alternative jet fuels technologies and route optimisation are important technological tools in the emission reduction. Faster approaches are needed as well. Emission trade systems, voluntary carbon offset compensation schemes and taxation are already in operation. Global scenarios of aviation industry and its greenhouse gas emissions and other climate forcers are discussed in this review study based on literature and other published data. The focus is on the aviation in Nordic countries, but also European and global situation are considered. Different emission reduction technologies and compensation modes are examined. In addition, the role of aviation in a single passenger’s (a Finnish consumer) annual carbon footprint is analysed and a comparison of available emission calculators and carbon offset systems is performed. Long-haul fights have a significant role in a single consumer´s and company´s carbon footprint, but remarkable change in global emission level would need a huge change in attitudes towards flying.

Keywords: aviation, climate change, emissions, environment

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2904 Green Supply Chain Design: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

Authors: Nusrat T. Chowdhury

Abstract:

Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) is becoming a key to success for profitable businesses. The various activities contributing to carbon emissions in a supply chain are transportation, ordering and holding of inventory. This research work develops a mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) model that considers the scenario of a supply chain with multiple periods, multiple products and multiple suppliers. The model assumes that the demand is deterministic, the buyer has a limited storage space in each period, the buyer is responsible for the transportation cost, a supplier-dependent ordering cost applies for each period in which an order is placed on a supplier and inventory shortage is permissible. The model provides an optimal decision regarding what products to order, in what quantities, with which suppliers, and in which periods in order to maximize the profit. For the purpose of evaluating the carbon emissions, three different carbon regulating policies i.e., carbon cap-and-trade, the strict cap on carbon emission and carbon tax on emissions, have been considered. The proposed MINLP has been validated using a randomly generated data set.

Keywords: green supply chain, carbon emission, mixed integer non-linear program, inventory shortage, carbon cap-and-trade

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2903 A Comparative Study on the Impact of Global Warming of Applying Low Carbon Factor Concrete Products

Authors: Su-Hyun Cho, Chang-U Chae

Abstract:

Environmental impact assessment techniques have been developed as a result of the worldwide efforts to reduce the environmental impact of global warming. By using the quantification method in the construction industry, it is now possible to manage the greenhouse gas is to systematically evaluate the impact on the environment over the entire construction process. In particular, the proportion of greenhouse gas emissions at the production stage of construction material occupied is high, and efforts are needed in particular in the construction field. In this study, intended for concrete products for the construction materials, by using the LCA evaluation method, we compared the results of environmental impact assessment and carbon emissions of developing products that have been applied low-carbon technologies compared to existing products. As a results, by introducing a raw material of industrial waste, showed carbon reduction. Through a comparison of the carbon emission reduction effect of low-carbon technologies, it is intended to provide academic data for the evaluation of greenhouse gases in the construction sector and the development of low-carbon technologies of the future.

Keywords: CO₂ emissions, CO₂ reduction, ready-mixed concrete, environmental impact assessment

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2902 Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Sugarcane Plantation Soil in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Continuous measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted from soils are required to understand diurnal and seasonal variations in soil emissions and related mechanism. This understanding plays an important role in appropriate quantification and assessment of the overall change in soil carbon flow and budget. This study proposes to monitor GHGs emissions from soil under sugarcane cultivation in Thailand. The measurements were conducted over 379 days. The results showed that the total net amount of GHGs emitted from sugarcane plantation soil amounts to 36 Mg CO2eq ha-1. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were found to be the main contributors to the emissions. For methane (CH4), the net emission was found to be almost zero. The measurement results also confirmed that soil moisture content and GHGs emissions are positively correlated.

Keywords: soil, GHG emission, sugarcane, agriculture, Thailand

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2901 Investigation of Main Operating Parameters Affecting Gas Turbine Efficiency and Gas Releases

Authors: Farhat Hajer, Khir Tahar, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

This work presents a study on the influence of the main operating variables on the gas turbine cycle. A numerical simulation of a gas turbine cycle is performed for a real net power of 100 MW. A calculation code is developed using EES software. The operating variables are taken in conformity with the local environmental conditions adopted by the Tunisian Society of Electricity and Gas. Results show that the increase of ambient temperature leads to an increase of Tpz and NOx emissions rate and a decrease of cycle efficiency and UHC emissions. The CO emissions decrease with the raise of residence time, while NOx emissions rate increases and UHC emissions rate decreases. Furthermore, both of cycle efficiency and NOx emissions increase with the increase of the pressure ratio.

Keywords: Carbon monoxide, Efficiency, Emissions, Gas Turbine, Nox, UHC

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2900 Economic Growth and Transport Carbon Dioxide Emissions in New Zealand: A Co-Integration Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Authors: Mingyue Sheng, Basil Sharp

Abstract:

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from national transport account for the largest share of emissions from energy use in New Zealand. Whether the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship exists between environmental degradation indicators from the transport sector and economic growth in New Zealand remains unclear. This paper aims at exploring the causality relationship between CO₂ emissions from the transport sector, fossil fuel consumption, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in New Zealand, using annual data for the period 1977 to 2013. First, conventional unit root tests (Augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillips–Perron tests), and a unit root test with the breakpoint (Zivot-Andrews test) are employed to examine the stationarity of the variables. Second, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test for co-integration, followed by Granger causality investigated causality among the variables. Empirical results of the study reveal that, in the short run, there is a unidirectional causality between economic growth and transport CO₂ emissions with direction from economic growth to transport CO₂ emissions, as well as a bidirectional causality from transport CO₂ emissions to road energy consumption.

Keywords: economic growth, transport carbon dioxide emissions, environmental Kuznets curve, causality

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2899 Digitalized Cargo Coordination to Eliminate Emissions in the Shipping Ecosystem: A System Dynamical Approach

Authors: Henry Schwartz, Bogdan Iancu, Magnus Gustafsson, Johan Lilius

Abstract:

The shipping sector generates significant amounts of carbon emissions on annual basis. The excess amount of carbon dioxide is harmful for both the environment and the society, and partly for that reason, there is acute interest to decrease the volume of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in shipping. The usage of the existing cargo carrying capacity can be maximized, and the share of time used in actual transportation operations could be increased if the whole transportation and logistics chain was optimized with the aid of information sharing done through a centralized marketplace and an information-sharing platform. The outcome of this change would be decreased carbon dioxide emission volumes produced per each metric ton of cargo transported by a vessel. Cargo coordination is a platform under development that matches the need for waterborne transportation services with the ships that operate at a given moment in time. In this research, the transition towards adopting cargo coordination is modelled with system dynamics. The model encompasses the complex supply-demand relationships of ship operators and cargo owners. The built scenarios predict the pace at which different stakeholders start using the digitalized platform and by doing so reduce the amount of annual CO2 emissions generated. To improve the reliability of the results, various sensitivity analyses considering the pace of transition as well as the overall impact on the environment (carbon dioxide emissions per amount of cargo transported) are conducted. The results of the study can be used to support investors and politicians in decision making towards more environmentally sustainable solutions. In addition, the model provides concepts and ideas for a wider discussion considering the paths towards carbon neutral transportation.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, energy efficiency, sustainable transportation, system dynamics

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2898 The Current Situation and Perspectives of Electricity Demand and Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Efficiency

Authors: F. Ahwide, Y. Aldali

Abstract:

This article presents a current and future energy situation in Libya. The electric power efficiency and operating hours in power plants are evaluated from 2005 to 2010. Carbon dioxide emissions in most of power plants are estimated. In 2005, the efficiency of steam power plants achieved a range of 20% to 28%. While, the gas turbine power plants efficiency ranged between 9% and 25%, this can be considered as low efficiency. However, the efficiency improvement has clearly observed in some power plants from 2008 to 2010, especially in the power plant of North Benghazi and west Tripoli. In fact, these power plants have modified to combine cycle. The efficiency of North Benghazi power plant has increased from 25% to 46.6%, while in Tripoli it is increased from 22% to 34%. On the other hand, the efficiency improvement is not observed in the gas turbine power plants. When compared to the quantity of fuel used, the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from electricity generation plants were very high. Finally, an estimation of the energy demand has been done to the maximum load and the annual load factor (i.e., the ratio between the output power and installed power).

Keywords: power plant, efficiency improvement, carbon dioxide emissions, energy situation in Libya

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2897 Life Cycle Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Construction Phase of Highway Sector in China

Authors: Yuanyuan Liu, Yuanqing Wang, Di Li

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions mitigation from road construction activities is one of the potential pathways to deal with climate change due to its higher use of materials, machinery energy consumption, and high quantity of vehicle and equipment fuels for transportation and on-site construction activities. Aiming to assess the environmental impact of the road infrastructure construction activities and to identify hotspots of emissions sources, this study developed a life-cycle CO2 emissions assessment framework covering three stages of material production, to-site and on-site transportation under the guidance of the principle of LCA ISO14040. Then streamlined inventory analysis on sub-processes of each stage was conducted based on the budget files from cases of highway projects in China. The calculation results were normalized into functional unit represented as ton per km per lane. Then a comparison between the amount of emissions from each stage, and sub-process was made to identify the major contributor in the whole highway lifecycle. In addition, the calculating results were used to be compared with results in other countries for understanding the level of CO2 emissions associated with Chinese road infrastructure in the world. The results showed that materials production stage produces the most of the CO2 emissions (for more than 80%), and the production of cement and steel accounts for large quantities of carbon emissions. Life cycle CO2 emissions of fuel and electric energy associated with to-site and on-site transportation vehicle and equipment are a minor component of total life cycle CO2 emissions from highway project construction activities. Bridges and tunnels are dominant large carbon contributor compared to the road segments. The life cycle CO2 emissions of road segment in highway project in China are slightly higher than the estimation results of highways in European countries and USA, about 1500 ton per km per lane. In particularly, the life cycle CO2 emissions of road pavement in majority cities all over the world are about 500 ton per km per lane. However, there is obvious difference between the cities when the estimation on life cycle CO2 emissions of highway projects included bridge and tunnel. The findings of the study could offer decision makers a more comprehensive reference to understand the contribution of road infrastructure to climate change, especially understand the contribution from road infrastructure construction activities in China. In addition, the identified hotspots of emissions sources provide the insights of how to reduce road carbon emissions for development of sustainable transportation.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, construction activities, highway, life cycle assessment

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2896 Analyzing the Effects of Real Income and Biomass Energy Consumption on Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions: Empirical Evidence from the Panel of Biomass-Consuming Countries

Authors: Eyup Dogan

Abstract:

This empirical aims to analyze the impacts of real income and biomass energy consumption on the level of emissions in the EKC model for the panel of biomass-consuming countries over the period 1980-2011. Because we detect the presence of cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity across countries for the analyzed data, we use panel estimation methods robust to cross-sectional dependence and heterogeneity. The CADF and the CIPS panel unit root tests indicate that carbon emissions, real income and biomass energy consumption are stationary at the first-differences. The LM bootstrap panel cointegration test shows that the analyzed variables are cointegrated. Results from the panel group-mean DOLS and the panel group-mean FMOLS estimators show that increase in biomass energy consumption decreases CO2 emissions and the EKC hypothesis is validated. Therefore, countries are advised to boost their production and increase the use of biomass energy for lower level of emissions.

Keywords: biomass energy, CO2 emissions, EKC model, heterogeneity, cross-sectional dependence

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2895 Evaluation of Strategies to Mitigate the Carbon Emissions from MSW: A Case Study

Authors: N. Anusree, P. Sughosh, G. L. Sivakumar Babu

Abstract:

Municipalities throughout the world are marred with serious issues related to the Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) collection, treatment, and safe disposal. While the Waste Management sector contributes around 3-9 % of the overall anthropogenic methane emission, measures towards mitigating these emissions are rarely given attention in developing countries. In the case of Bangalore, India, around 5680 tons of MSW is generated in a day, and its collection and treatment efficiency are around 90-95 % and 26.4 %, respectively. About 33.4 % of the waste collected is directly landfilled without any treatment, further aggravating the situation. The potential of reducing the emissions emanating from the MSW of Bangalore city without any severe consequences on the current MSW management practices is evaluated in this study. Three emission scenarios consisting of the baseline condition (current practices – Case-1), the application of biocovers for methane oxidation in the dumpsites (case-2), and the diversion of Organic Fraction of MSW (OFMSW) along with the application of biocovers (case-3) are evaluated and compared with each other. The emissions are calculated based on the aerobic and anaerobic stochiometric relations for the three scenarios. Laboratory scale column studies are carried out to determine the methane oxidation potential of three different biocover material (digested MBT (mechanically biologically treated) waste, Fresh MBT waste, and charcoal amended with fresh MBT waste). The results shown that around 40 % and 83 % reduction in carbon emissions can be achieved in case 3 and 2 in comparison to the baseline condition. The study clearly shows that with minor changes in the waste management practices, substantial reductions in the carbon emissions can be attained in Bangalore City.

Keywords: MSW, biocover, composting, carbon emission

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2894 Influence of Digestate Fertilization on Soil Microbial Activity, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Yield

Authors: M. Doyeni, S. Suproniene, V. Tilvikiene

Abstract:

Agricultural wastes contribute significantly to global climate change through greenhouse gas emissions if not adequately recycled and sustainably managed. A recurring agricultural waste is livestock wastes that have consistently served as feedstock for biogas systems. The objective of this study was to access the influence of digestate fertilization on soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural fields. Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) was fertilized with different types of animal wastes digestates (organic fertilizers) and mineral nitrogen (inorganic fertilizer) for three years. The 170 kg N ha⁻¹ presented in digestates were split fertilized at an application rate of 90 and 80 kg N ha⁻¹. The soil microorganism activity could be predicted significantly using the dehydrogenase activity and soil microbial biomass carbon. By combining the two different monitoring approaches, the different methods applied in this study were sensitive to enzymatic activities and organic carbon in the living component of the soil organic matter. The emissions of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄), and nitrous oxide (N₂O) were monitored directly by a static chamber system. The soil and environmental variables were measured to determine their influence on greenhouse gas emissions. Emission peaks was observed in N₂O and CO₂ after the first application of fertilizers with the emissions flattening out over the cultivating season while CH₄ emission was negligible with no apparent patterns observed. Microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were affected by the fertilized organic digestates. A significant difference was recorded between the control and the digestate treated soils for the microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase. Results also showed individual and cumulative emissions of CO₂, CH₄ and N₂O from the digestates were relatively low suggesting the digestate fertilization can be an efficient method for improving soil quality and reducing greenhouse gases from agricultural sources in temperate climate conditions.

Keywords: greenhouse gas emission, manure digestate, soil microbial activity, yield

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2893 Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Pakistan: A Decomposition Analysis Using LMDI

Authors: Arsalan Khan, Faisal Jamil

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The unprecedented increase in anthropogenic gases in recent decades has led to climatic changes worldwide. CO2 emissions are the most important factors responsible for greenhouse gases concentrations. This study decomposes the changes in overall CO2 emissions in Pakistan for the period 1990-2012 using Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI). LMDI enables to decompose the changes in CO2 emissions into five factors namely; activity effect, structural effect, intensity effect, fuel-mix effect, and emissions factor effect. This paper confirms an upward trend of overall emissions level of the country during the period. The study finds that activity effect, structural effect and intensity effect are the three major factors responsible for the changes in overall CO2 emissions in Pakistan with activity effect as the largest contributor to overall changes in the emissions level. The structural effect is also adding to CO2 emissions, which indicates that the economic activity is shifting towards more energy-intensive sectors. However, intensity effect has negative sign representing energy efficiency gains, which indicate a good relationship between the economy and environment. The findings suggest that policy makers should encourage the diversification of the output level towards more energy efficient sub-sectors of the economy.

Keywords: energy consumption, CO2 emissions, decomposition analysis, LMDI, intensity effect

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2892 Climate Change and the Role of Foreign-Invested Enterprises

Authors: Xuemei Jiang, Kunfu Zhu, Shouyang Wang

Abstract:

In this paper, we selected China as a case and employ a time-series of unique input-output tables distinguishing firm ownership and processing exports, to evaluate the role of foreign-invested enterprises (FIEs) in China’s rapid carbon dioxide emission growth. The results suggested that FIEs contributed to 11.55% of the economic outputs’ growth in China between 1992-2010, but accounted for only 9.65% of the growth of carbon dioxide emissions. In relative term, until 2010 FIEs still emitted much less than Chinese-owned enterprises (COEs) when producing the same amount of outputs, although COEs experienced much faster technology upgrades. In an ideal scenario where we assume the final demands remain unchanged and COEs completely mirror the advanced technologies of FIEs, more than 2000 Mt of carbon dioxide emissions would be reduced for China in 2010. From a policy perspective, the widespread FIEs are very effective and efficient channel to encourage technology transfer from developed to developing countries.

Keywords: carbon dioxide emissions, foreign-invested enterprises, technology transfer, input–output analysis, China

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2891 An Approach to Integrated Water Resources Management, a Plan for Action to Climate Change in India

Authors: H. K. Ramaraju

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World is in deep trouble and deeper denial. Worse, the denial is now entirely on the side of action. It is well accepted that climate change is a reality. Scientists say we need to cap temperature increases at 2°C to avoid catastrophe, which means capping emissions at 450 ppm .We know global average temperatures have already increased by 0.8°C and there is enough green house gas in the atmosphere to lead to another 0.8°C increase. There is still a window of opportunity, a tiny one, to tackle the crisis. But where is the action? In the 1990’s, when the world did even not understand, let alone accept, the crises, it was more willing to move to tackle climate change. Today we are in reverse in gear. The rich world has realized it is easy to talk big, but tough to take steps to actually reduce emissions. The agreement was that these countries would reduce so that the developing World could increase. Instead, between 1990 and 2006, their carbon dioxide emissions increased by a whopping 14.5 percent, even green countries of Europe are unable to match words with action. Stop deforestation and take a 20 percent advantage in our carbon balance sheet, with out doing anything at home called REDD (reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation) and push for carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. There are warning signs elsewhere and they need to be read correctly and acted up on , if not the cases like flood –act of nature or manmade disaster. The full length paper orient in proper understanding of the issues and identifying the most appropriate course of action.

Keywords: catastrophe, deforestation, emissions, waste water

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2890 The Impact of PM-Based Regulations on the Concentration and Sources of Fine Organic Carbon in the Los Angeles Basin from 2005 to 2015

Authors: Abdulmalik Altuwayjiri, Milad Pirhadi, Sina Taghvaee, Constantinos Sioutas

Abstract:

A significant portion of PM₂.₅ mass concentration is carbonaceous matter (CM), which majorly exists in the form of organic carbon (OC). Ambient OC originates from a multitude of sources and plays an important role in global climate effects, visibility degradation, and human health. In this study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was utilized to identify and quantify the long-term contribution of PM₂.₅ sources to total OC mass concentration in central Los Angeles (CELA) and Riverside (i.e., receptor site), using the chemical speciation network (CSN) database between 2005 and 2015, a period during which several state and local regulations on tailpipe emissions were implemented in the area. Our PMF resolved five different factors, including tailpipe emissions, non-tailpipe emissions, biomass burning, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and local industrial activities for both sampling sites. The contribution of vehicular exhaust emissions to the OC mass concentrations significantly decreased from 3.5 µg/m³ in 2005 to 1.5 µg/m³ in 2015 (by about 58%) at CELA, and from 3.3 µg/m³ in 2005 to 1.2 µg/m³ in 2015 (by nearly 62%) at Riverside. Additionally, SOA contribution to the total OC mass, showing higher levels at the receptor site, increased from 23% in 2005 to 33% and 29% in 2010 and 2015, respectively, in Riverside, whereas the corresponding contribution at the CELA site was 16%, 21% and 19% during the same period. The biomass burning maintained an almost constant relative contribution over the whole period. Moreover, while the adopted regulations and policies were very effective at reducing the contribution of tailpipe emissions, they have led to an overall increase in the fractional contributions of non-tailpipe emissions to total OC in CELA (about 14%, 28%, and 28% in 2005, 2010 and 2015, respectively) and Riverside (22%, 27% and 26% in 2005, 2010 and 2015), underscoring the necessity to develop equally effective mitigation policies targeting non-tailpipe PM emissions.

Keywords: PM₂.₅, organic carbon, Los Angeles megacity, PMF, source apportionment, non-tailpipe emissions

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2889 Synthesis of Magnesium Oxide in Spinning Disk Reactor and Its Applications in Cycloaddition of Carbon Dioxide to Epoxides

Authors: Tzu-Wen Liu, Yi-Feng Lin, Yu-Shao Chen

Abstract:

CO_2 is believed to be partly responsible for changes to the global climates. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one way to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the past. Recently, how to convert the captured CO_2 into fine chemicals gets lots of attention owing to reducing carbon dioxide emissions and providing greener feedstock for the chemicals industry. A variety of products can be manufactured from carbon dioxide and the most attractive products are cyclic carbonates. Therefore, the kind of catalyst plays an important role in cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides. Magnesium oxide can be an efficiency heterogeneous catalyst for the cycloaddition of carbon dioxide to epoxides because magnesium oxide has both acid and base active sites and can provide the adsorption of carbon dioxide, promoting ring-opening reaction. Spinning disk reactor (SDR) is one of the device of high-gravity technique and has successfully used for synthesis of nanoparticles by precipitation methods because of the high mass transfer rate. Synthesis of nanoparticles in SDR has advantages of low energy consumption and easy to scale up. The aim of this research is to synthesize magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles in SDR as precursors for magnesium oxide. Experimental results showed that the calcination temperature of magnesium hydroxide to magnesium oxide, and the pressure and temperature of cycloaddition reaction had significantly effect on the conversion and selectivity of the reaction.

Keywords: magnesium oxide, catalyst, cycloaddition, spinning disk reactor, carbon dioxide

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2888 Climate Change Effects of Vehicular Carbon Monoxide Emission from Road Transportation in Part of Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria

Authors: H. M. Liman, Y. M. Suleiman A. A. David

Abstract:

Poor air quality often considered one of the greatest environmental threats facing the world today is caused majorly by the emission of carbon monoxide into the atmosphere. The principal air pollutant is carbon monoxide. One prominent source of carbon monoxide emission is the transportation sector. Not much was known about the emission levels of carbon monoxide, the primary pollutant from the road transportation in the study area. Therefore, this study assessed the levels of carbon monoxide emission from road transportation in the Minna, Niger State. The database shows the carbon monoxide data collected. MSA Altair gas alert detector was used to take the carbon monoxide emission readings in Parts per Million for the peak and off-peak periods of vehicular movement at the road intersections. Their Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates were recorded in the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM). Bar chart graphs were plotted by using the emissions level of carbon dioxide as recorded on the field against the scientifically established internationally accepted safe limit of 8.7 Parts per Million of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere. Further statistical analysis was also carried out on the data recorded from the field using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software and Microsoft excel to show the variance of the emission levels of each of the parameters in the study area. The results established that emissions’ level of atmospheric carbon monoxide from the road transportation in the study area exceeded the internationally accepted safe limits of 8.7 parts per million. In addition, the variations in the average emission levels of CO between the four parameters showed that morning peak is having the highest average emission level of 24.5PPM followed by evening peak with 22.84PPM while morning off peak is having 15.33 and the least is evening off peak 12.94PPM. Based on these results, recommendations made for poor air quality mitigation via carbon monoxide emissions reduction from transportation include Introduction of the urban mass transit would definitely reduce the number of traffic on the roads, hence the emissions from several vehicles that would have been on the road. This would also be a cheaper means of transportation for the masses and Encouraging the use of vehicles using alternative sources of energy like solar, electric and biofuel will also result in less emission levels as the these alternative energy sources other than fossil fuel originated diesel and petrol vehicles do not emit especially carbon monoxide.

Keywords: carbon monoxide, climate change emissions, road transportation, vehicular

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2887 Energy Consumption, Emission Absorption and Carbon Emission Reduction on Semarang State University Campus

Authors: Dewi Liesnoor Setyowati, Puji Hardati, Tri Marhaeni Puji Astuti, Muhammad Amin

Abstract:

Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) is a university with a vision of conservation. The impact of the UNNES conservation is the existence of a positive response from the community for the effort of greening the campus and the planting of conservation value in the academic community. But in reality,  energy consumption in UNNES campus tends to increase. The objectives of the study were to analyze the energy consumption in the campus area, to analyze the absorption of emissions by trees and the awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing emissions. Research focuses on energy consumption, carbon emissions, and awareness of citizens in reducing emissions. Research subjects in this study are UNNES citizens (lecturers, students and employees). The research area covers 6 faculties and one administrative center building. Data collection is done by observation, interview and documentation. The research used a quantitative descriptive method to analyze the data. The number of trees in UNNES is 10,264. Total emission on campus UNNES is 7.862.281.56 kg/year, the tree absorption is 6,289,250.38 kg/year. In UNNES campus area there are still 1,575,031.18 kg/year of emissions, not yet absorbed by trees. There are only two areas of the faculty whose trees are capable of absorbing emissions. The awareness of UNNES citizens in reducing energy consumption is seen in change the habit of: using energy-saving equipment (65%); reduce energy consumption per unit (68%); do energy literacy for UNNES citizens (74%). UNNES leaders always provide motivation to the citizens of UNNES, to reduce and change patterns of energy consumption.

Keywords: energy consumption, carbon emission absorption, emission reduction, energy literation

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
2886 How to Reach Net Zero Emissions? On the Permissibility of Negative Emission Technologies and the Danger of Moral Hazards

Authors: Hanna Schübel, Ivo Wallimann-Helmer

Abstract:

In order to reach the goal of the Paris Agreement to not overshoot 1.5°C of warming above pre-industrial levels, various countries including the UK and Switzerland have committed themselves to net zero emissions by 2050. The employment of negative emission technologies (NETs) is very likely going to be necessary for meeting these national objectives as well as other internationally agreed climate targets. NETs are methods of removing carbon from the atmosphere and are thus a means for addressing climate change. They range from afforestation to technological measures such as direct air capture and carbon storage (DACCS), where CO2 is captured from the air and stored underground. As all so-called geoengineering technologies, the development and deployment of NETs are often subject to moral hazard arguments. As these technologies could be perceived as an alternative to mitigation efforts, so the argument goes, they are potentially a dangerous distraction from the main target of mitigating emissions. We think that this is a dangerous argument to make as it may hinder the development of NETs which are an essential element of net zero emission targets. In this paper we argue that the moral hazard argument is only problematic if we do not reflect upon which levels of emissions are at stake in order to meet net zero emissions. In response to the moral hazard argument we develop an account of which levels of emissions in given societies should be mitigated and not be the target of NETs and which levels of emissions can legitimately be a target of NETs. For this purpose, we define four different levels of emissions: the current level of individual emissions, the level individuals emit in order to appear in public without shame, the level of a fair share of individual emissions in the global budget, and finally the baseline of net zero emissions. At each level of emissions there are different subjects to be assigned responsibilities if societies and/or individuals are committed to the target of net zero emissions. We argue that all emissions within one’s fair share do not demand individual mitigation efforts. The same holds with regard to individuals and the baseline level of emissions necessary to appear in public in their societies without shame. Individuals are only under duty to reduce their emissions if they exceed this baseline level. This is different for whole societies. Societies demanding more emissions to appear in public without shame than the individual fair share are under duty to foster emission reductions and are not legitimate to reduce by introducing NETs. NETs are legitimate for reducing emissions only below the level of fair shares and for reaching net zero emissions. Since access to NETs to achieve net zero emissions demands technology not affordable to individuals there are also no full individual responsibilities to achieve net zero emissions. This is mainly a responsibility of societies as a whole.

Keywords: climate change, mitigation, moral hazard, negative emission technologies, responsibility

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2885 The Investigation of LPG Injector Control Circuit on a Motorcycle

Authors: Bin-Wen Lan, Ying-Xin Chen, Hsueh-Cheng Yang

Abstract:

Liquefied petroleum gas is a fuel that has high octane number and low carbon number. This paper uses MSC-51 controller to investigate the effect of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on exhaust emissions for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke and spark ignition engine. The results indicate that CO, CO2 and NOX exhaust emissions are lower with the use of LPG compared to the use of unleaded gasoline by using the developed controller. The open-loop in the LPG injection system was controlled by MCS-51 single chip. The results show that if a SI engine is operated with LPG fuel rather than gasoline fuel under the same conditions, significant reduction in exhaust emissions can be achieved. In summary, LPG has positive effects on main exhaust emissions such as CO, CO2 and NOX.

Keywords: LPG, control circuit, emission, MCS-51

Procedia PDF Downloads 381