Search results for: water
7740 Fairly Irrigation Water Distribution between Upstream and Downstream Water Users in Water Shortage Periods
Authors: S. M. Hashemy Shahdany
Abstract:Equitable water delivery becomes one of the main concerns for water authorities in arid regions. Due to water scarcity, providing reliable amount of water is not possible for most of the irrigation districts in arid regions. In this paper, water level difference control is applied to keep the water level errors equal in adjacent reaches. Distant downstream decentralized configurations of the control method are designed and tested under a realistic scenario shows canal operation under water shortage. The simulation results show that the difference controllers share the water level error among all of the users in a fair way. Therefore, water deficit has a similar influence on downstream as well as upstream and water offtakes.
Keywords: equitable water distribution, precise agriculture, sustainable agriculture, water shortageProcedia PDF Downloads 380
7739 Biochemical Evaluation of Air Conditioning West Water in Jeddah City: Concept of Sustainable Water Resources
Authors: D. Alromi, A. Alansari, S. Alghamdi, E. Jambi
Abstract:As the need for water is increasing globally, and the available water resources are barely meeting the current quality of life and economy. Air conditioning (AC) condensate water could be explored as an alternative water source, which could be considered within the global calculations of the water supply. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential for recovery of condensate water from air conditioning systems. The results generated so far showed that the AC produces a high quantity of water, and data analysis revealed that the amount of water is positively and significantly correlated with the humidity (P <= 0.05). In the meantime, the amount of heavy metals has been measuring using ICP-OES. The results, in terms of quantity, clearly show that the AC can be used as an alternative source of water, especially in the regions characterized by high humidity. The results also showed that the amount of produced water depends on the type of AC.
Keywords: air conditioning systems, water quantity, water resources, wastewaterProcedia PDF Downloads 117
7738 Importance of Determining the Water Needs of Crops in the Management of Water Resources in the Province of Djelfa
Authors: Imessaoudene Y., Mouhouche B., Sengouga A., Kadir M.
Abstract:The objective of this work is to determine the virtual water of main crops grown in the province of Djelfa and water use efficiency (W.U.E.), Which is essential to approach the application and better integration with the offer in the region. In the case of agricultural production, virtual water is the volume of water evapo-transpired by crops. It depends on particular on the expertise of its producers and its global production area, warm and dry climates induce higher consumption. At the scale of the province, the determination of the quantities of virtual water is done by calculating the unit water requirements related to water irrigated hectare and total rainfall over the crop using the Cropwat 8.0 F.A.O. software. Quantifying the volume of agricultural virtual water of crops practiced in the study area demonstrates the quantitative importance of these volumes of water in terms of available water resources in the province, so the advantages which can be the concept of virtual water as an analysis tool and decision support for the management and distribution of water in scarcity situation.
Keywords: virtual water, water use efficiency, water requirements, DjelfaProcedia PDF Downloads 359
7737 Water Crisis Management in a Tourism Dependent Community
Authors: Aishath Shakeela
Abstract:At a global level, water stewardship, water stress and water security are crucial factors in tourism planning and development considerations. Challenges associated with water is of particular concern to the Maldives as there is limited availability of freshwater, high dependency on desalinated water, and high unit cost associated with desalinating water. While the Maldives is promoted as an example of sustainable tourism, a key sustainability challenge facing tourism dependent communities is the efficient use and management of available water resources. A water crisis event in the capital island of Maldives highlighted how precarious water related issues are in this tourism dependent destination. Applying netnography, the focus of this working paper is to present community perceptions of how government policies addressed Malé Water and Sewerage Company (MWSC) water crisis event.
Keywords: crisis management, government policies, Maldives, tourism, waterProcedia PDF Downloads 443
7736 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water
Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy
Abstract:As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.
Keywords: desalination, scarcity of fresh water, water purification, water treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 289
7735 Modeling Water Inequality and Water Security: The Role of Water Governance
Authors: Pius Babuna, Xiaohua Yang, Roberto Xavier Supe Tulcan, Bian Dehui, Mohammed Takase, Bismarck Yelfogle Guba, Chuanliang Han, Doris Abra Awudi, Meishui Lia
Abstract:Water inequality, water security, and water governance are fundamental parameters that affect the sustainable use of water resources. Through policy formulation and decision-making, water governance determines both water security and water inequality. Largely, where water inequality exists, water security is undermined through unsustainable water use practices that lead to pollution of water resources, conflicts, hoarding of water, and poor sanitation. Incidentally, the interconnectedness of water governance, water inequality, and water security has not been investigated previously. This study modified the Gini coefficient and used a Logistics Growth of Water Resources (LGWR) Model to access water inequality and water security mathematically, and discussed the connected role of water governance. We tested the validity of both models by calculating the actual water inequality and water security of Ghana. We also discussed the implications of water inequality on water security and the overarching role of water governance. The results show that regional water inequality is widespread in some parts. The Volta region showed the highest water inequality (Gini index of 0.58), while the central region showed the lowest (Gini index of 0.15). Water security is moderately sustainable. The use of water resources is currently stress-free. It was estimated to maintain such status until 2132 ± 18, when Ghana will consume half of the current total water resources of 53.2 billion cubic meters. Effectively, water inequality is a threat to water security, results in poverty, under-development heightens tensions in water use, and causes instability. With proper water governance, water inequality can be eliminated through formulating and implementing approaches that engender equal allocation and sustainable use of water resources.
Keywords: water inequality, water security, water governance, Gini coefficient, moran index, water resources managementProcedia PDF Downloads 36
7734 Sustainable Water Resource Management and Challenges in Indian Agriculture
Authors: Rajendra Kumar Isaac, Monisha Isaac
Abstract:India, having a vast cultivable area and regional climatic variability, encounters water Resource Management Problems at various levels. The agricultural production of India needs to be increased to meet out projected population growth. Sustainable water resource is the only option to ensure food security, especially in northern Indian states, where the ground and surface water resources are fast depleting. Various tools and technologies available for management of scarce water resources have been discussed. It was concluded that multiple use of water, adopting latest water management options, identification of climate adoptable cropping and farming systems, can enhance water productivity and would encounter the fast growing water management and water shortage problems in Indian agriculture.
Keywords: water resource management, sustainable, water management technologies, water productivity, agricultureProcedia PDF Downloads 328
7733 Modeling Water Resources Carrying Capacity, Optimizing Water Treatment, Smart Water Management, and Conceptualizing a Watershed Management Approach
Authors: Pius Babuna
Abstract:Sustainable water use is important for the existence of the human race. Water resources carrying capacity (WRCC) measures the sustainability of water use; however, the calculation and optimization of WRCC remain challenging. This study used a mathematical model (the Logistics Growth of Water Resources -LGWR) and a linear objective function to model water sustainability. We tested the validity of the models using data from Ghana. Total freshwater resources, water withdrawal, and population data were used in MATLAB. The results show that the WRCC remains sustainable until the year 2132 ±18, when half of the total annual water resources will be used. The optimized water treatment cost suggests that Ghana currently wastes GHȼ 1115.782± 50 cedis (~$182.21± 50) per water treatment plant per month or ~ 0.67 million gallons of water in an avoidable loss. Adopting an optimized water treatment scheme and a watershed management approach will help sustain the WRCC.
Keywords: water resources carrying capacity, smart water management, optimization, sustainable water use, water withdrawalProcedia PDF Downloads 12
7732 Addressing the Water Shortage in Beijing: Increasing Water Use Efficiency in Domestic Sector
Authors: Chenhong Peng
Abstract:Beijing, the capital city of China, is running out of water. The water resource per capita in Beijing is only 106 cubic meter, accounts for 5% of the country’s average level and less than 2% of the world average level. The tension between water supply and demand is extremely serious. For one hand, the surface and ground water have been over-exploited during the last decades; for the other hand, water demand keep increasing as the result of population and economic growth. There is a massive gap between water supply and demand. This paper will focus on addressing the water shortage in Beijing city by increasing water use efficiency in domestic sector. First, we will emphasize on the changing structure of water supply and demand in Beijing under the economic development and restructure during the last decade. Second, by analyzing the water use efficiency in agriculture, industry and domestic sectors in Beijing, we identify that the key determinant for addressing the water crisis is to increase the water use efficiency in domestic sector. Third, this article will explore the two primary causes for the water use inefficiency in Beijing: The ineffective water pricing policy and the poor water education and communication policy. Finally, policy recommendation will offered to improve the water use efficiency in domestic sector by making and implementing an effective water pricing policy and people-engaged water education and communication policy.
Keywords: Beijing, water use efficiency, domestic sector, water pricing policy, water education policyProcedia PDF Downloads 473
7731 An Approach to Spatial Planning for Water Conservation: The Case of Kovada Sub-Watershed (Turkey)
Authors: Aybike Ayfer Karadağ
Abstract:Today, the amount of water available is decreasing day by day due to global warming, environmental problems and population increase. To protect water resources, it is necessary to take a lot of measures from the global scale to the local scale. Some of these measures are related to spatial planning studies. In this study, the impact of water process analysis was assessed in the development of spatial planning for water conservation. The study was conducted in the Kovada sub-watershed (Isparta, Turkey). By means of water process analysis, the way to reach underground water of surface water in the study area is mapped. In this context, plant cover, soil and rock permeability were evaluated holistically with geographic information systems technologies. Then, on the map, water permeability is classified and this is spatially expressed. The findings show that the permeability of the water is different in the study case. As a result, the water permeability map needs to be included in the planning for water conservation planning.
Keywords: water, conservation, spatial planning, water process analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 144
7730 The Affect of Water Quality on the Ultrasonic Attenuation of Bone Mimic
Authors: A. Elsariti, T. Evans
Abstract:The propagation mechanisms in the trabecular bone are poorly understood and have been the subject of extended debate; also, steel wool has been evaluated as a potential bone mimic, Its advantages are ready availability, low cost and a wide range of sizes. In this study, both distilled and tap water were used to estimate the ultrasonic attenuation in coarse steel wool. It is clear from the results that the attenuation of coarse steel wool increased as the distance between the transducers decreased, and it is higher in tap water than distilled water. At 9cm distance between the transducers the attenuation was approximately 0.97 and 4.7 dB in distilled and tap water respectively. While it is 6.97 and 12.2 dB in distilled and tap water respectively at distance 4cm. This change in the attenuation between both distilled and tap water is probably due to gas bubbles in the tap water.
Keywords: bone mimic, porosity, tap water, distilled water, ultrasonic attenuationProcedia PDF Downloads 471
7729 Spatial Distribution of Cellular Water in Pear Fruit: An Experimental Investigation
Authors: Md. Imran H. Khan, T. Farrell, M. A. Karim
Abstract:Highly porous and hygroscopic characteristics of pear make it complex to understand the cellular level water distribution. In pear tissue, water is mainly distributed in three different spaces namely, intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water. Understanding of these three types of water in pear tissue is crucial for predicting actual heat and mass transfer during drying. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the proportion of intercellular water, intracellular water, and cell wall water inside the pear tissue. During this study, Green Anjou Pear was taken for the investigation. The experiment was performed using 1H-NMR- T2 relaxometry. Various types of water component were calculated by using multi-component fits of the T2 relaxation curves. The experimental result showed that in pear tissue 78-82% water exist in intracellular space; 12-16% water in intercellular space and only 2-4% water exist in the cell wall space. The investigated results quantify different types of water in plant-based food tissue. The highest proportion of water exists in intracellular spaces. It was also investigated that the physical properties of pear and the proportion of the different types of water has a strong relationship. Cell wall water depends on the proportion of solid in the sample tissue whereas free water depends on the porosity of the material.
Keywords: intracellular water, intercellular water, cell wall water, physical property, pearProcedia PDF Downloads 188
7728 Minimizing Fresh and Wastewater Using Water Pinch Technique in Petrochemical Industries
Authors: Wasif Mughees, Malik Al-Ahmad, Muhammad Naeem
Abstract:This research involves the design and analysis of pinch-based water/wastewater networks to minimize water utility in the petrochemical and petroleum industries. A study has been done on Tehran Oil Refinery to analyze feasibilities of regeneration, reuse and recycling of water network. COD is considered as a single key contaminant. Amount of freshwater was reduced about 149m3/h (43.8%) regarding COD. Re-design (or retrofitting) of water allocation in the networks was undertaken. The results were analyzed through graphical method and mathematical programming technique which clearly demonstrated that amount of required water would be determined by mass transfer of COD.
Keywords: minimization, water pinch, water management, pollution preventionProcedia PDF Downloads 380
7727 Review on Optimization of Drinking Water Treatment Process
Authors: M. Farhaoui, M. Derraz
Abstract:In the drinking water treatment processes, the optimization of the treatment is an issue of particular concern. In general, the process consists of many units as settling, coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, filtration and disinfection. The optimization of the process consists of some measures to decrease the managing and monitoring expenses and improve the quality of the produced water. The objective of this study is to provide water treatment operators with methods and practices that enable to attain the most effective use of the facility and, in consequence, optimize the of the cubic meter price of the treated water. This paper proposes a review on optimization of drinking water treatment process by analyzing all of the water treatment units and gives some solutions in order to maximize the water treatment performances without compromising the water quality standards. Some solutions and methods are performed in the water treatment plant located in the middle of Morocco (Meknes).
Keywords: coagulation process, optimization, turbidity removal, water treatmentProcedia PDF Downloads 350
7726 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane
Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha
Abstract:Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.
Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purificationProcedia PDF Downloads 289
7725 Study on Practice of Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers by Diverting Clean Water
Authors: Manjie Li, Xiangju Cheng, Yongcan Chen
Abstract:With rapid development of industrialization and urbanization, water environmental deterioration is widespread in majority of urban rivers, which seriously affects city image and life satisfaction of residents. As an emergency measure to improve water quality, clean water diversion is introduced for water environmental management. Lubao River and Southwest River, two urban rivers in typical plain tidal river network, are identified as technically and economically feasible for the application of clean water diversion. One-dimensional hydrodynamic-water quality model is developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of water level and water quality, with satisfactory accuracy. The mathematical model after calibration is applied to investigate hydrodynamic and water quality variations in rivers as well as determine the optimum operation scheme of water diversion. Assessment system is developed for evaluation of positive and negative effects of water diversion, demonstrating the effectiveness of clean water diversion and the necessity of pollution reduction.
Keywords: assessment system, clean water diversion, hydrodynamic-water quality model, tidal river network, urban rivers, water environment improvementProcedia PDF Downloads 171
7724 The Effect of Water Droplets Size in Fire Fighting Systems
Authors: Tassadit Tabouche
Abstract:Water sprays pattern, and water droplets size (different droplets diameter) are a key factors in the success of the suppression by water spray. The effects of the two important factors are investigated in this study. However, the fire extinguishing mechanism in such devices is not well understood due to the complexity of the physical and chemical interactions between water spray and fire plume. in this study, 3D, unsteady, two phase flow CFD simulation approach is introduced to provide a quantitative analysis of the complex interactions occurring between water spray and fire plume. Lagrangian Discrete Phase Model (DPM) was used for water droplets and a global one-step reaction mechanism in combustion model was used for fire plume.
Keywords: droplets, water spray, water droplets size, 3DProcedia PDF Downloads 444
7723 Greywater Water Reuse in South Africa
Authors: Onyeka Nkwonta, Christopher Iheukwumere
Abstract:It is a waste to irrigate with great quantities of drinking water when plants thrive on used water containing small bits of compost. Unlike a lot of ecological stopgap measures, greywater reuse is a part of the fundamental solution to many ecological problems and will probably remain essentially unchanged in the distant future. Water is abused and wasted by both the wealthy and the poor. Education about water conservation is also needed. This study gives an outline of the sources of grey water in our home and provides a process of creating awareness on the importance of re-using grey water in our home, in order to achieve the 7th aim of the millennium development goals by 2015, which is ensuring environmental sustainability.
Keywords: tickling filter, education, grey water, environmental sustainabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 279
7722 Contrasting The Water Consumption Estimation Methods
Authors: Etienne Alain Feukeu, L. W. Snyman
Abstract:Water scarcity is becoming a real issue nowadays. Most countries in the world are facing it in their own way based on their own geographical coordinate and condition. Many countries are facing a challenge of a growing water demand as a result of not only an increased population, economic growth, but also as a pressure of the population dynamic and urbanization. In view to mitigate some of this related problem, an accurate method of water estimation and future prediction, forecast is essential to guarantee not only the sufficient quantity, but also a good water distribution and management system. Beside the fact that several works have been undertaken to address this concern, there is still a considerable disparity between different methods and standard used for water prediction and estimation. Hence this work contrast and compare two well-defined and established methods from two countries (USA and South Africa) to demonstrate the inconsistency when different method and standards are used interchangeably.
Keywords: water scarcity, water estimation, water prediction, water forecast.Procedia PDF Downloads 124
7721 Water Quality Assessment of Owu Falls for Water Use Classification
Authors: Modupe O. Jimoh
Abstract:Waterfalls create an ambient environment for tourism and relaxation. They are also potential sources for water supply. Owu waterfall located at Isin Local Government, Kwara state, Nigeria is the highest waterfall in the West African region, yet none of its potential usefulness has been fully exploited. Water samples were taken from two sections of the fall and were analyzed for various water quality parameters. The results obtained include pH (6.71 ± 0.1), Biochemical oxygen demand (4.2 ± 0.5 mg/l), Chemical oxygen demand (3.07 ± 0.01 mg/l), Dissolved oxygen (6.59 ± 0.6 mg/l), Turbidity (4.43 ± 0.11 NTU), Total dissolved solids (8.2 ± 0.09 mg/l), Total suspended solids (18.25 ± 0.5 mg/l), Chloride ion (0.48 ± 0.08 mg/l), Calcium ion (0.82 ± 0.02 mg/l)), Magnesium ion (0.63 ± 0.03 mg/l) and Nitrate ion (1.25 ± 0.01 mg/l). The results were compared to the World Health Organisations standard for drinking water and the Nigerian standard for drinking water. From the comparison, it can be deduced that due to the Biochemical oxygen demand value, the water is not suitable for drinking unless it undergoes treatment. However, it is suitable for other classes of water usage.
Keywords: Owu falls, waterfall, water quality, water quality parameters, water useProcedia PDF Downloads 110
7720 Ecological-Economics Evaluation of Water Treatment Systems
Authors: Hwasuk Jung, Seoi Lee, Dongchoon Ryou, Pyungjong Yoo, Seokmo Lee
Abstract:The Nakdong River being used as drinking water sources for Pusan metropolitan city has the vulnerability of water management due to the fact that industrial areas are located in the upper Nakdong River. Most citizens of Busan think that the water quality of Nakdong River is not good, so they boil or use home filter to drink tap water, which causes unnecessary individual costs to Busan citizens. We need to diversify water intake to reduce the cost and to change the weak water source. Under this background, this study was carried out for the environmental accounting of Namgang dam water treatment system compared to Nakdong River water treatment system by using emergy analysis method to help making reasonable decision. Emergy analysis method evaluates quantitatively both natural environment and human economic activities as an equal unit of measure. The emergy transformity of Namgang dam’s water was 1.16 times larger than that of Nakdong River’s water. Namgang Dam’s water shows larger emergy transformity than that of Nakdong River’s water due to its good water quality. The emergy used in making 1 m3 tap water from Namgang dam water treatment system was 1.26 times larger than that of Nakdong River water treatment system. Namgang dam water treatment system shows larger emergy input than that of Nakdong river water treatment system due to its construction cost of new pipeline for intaking Namgang daw water. If the Won used in making 1 m3 tap water from Nakdong river water treatment system is 1, Namgang dam water treatment system used 1.66. If the Em-won used in making 1 m3 tap water from Nakdong river water treatment system is 1, Namgang dam water treatment system used 1.26. The cost-benefit ratio of Em-won was smaller than that of Won. When we use emergy analysis, which considers the benefit of a natural environment such as good water quality of Namgang dam, Namgang dam water treatment system could be a good alternative for diversifying intake source.
Keywords: emergy, emergy transformity, Em-won, water treatment systemProcedia PDF Downloads 235
7719 Water Self Sufficient: Creating a Sustainable Water System Based on Urban Harvest Approach in La Serena, Chile
Authors: Zulfikar Dinar Wahidayat Putra
Abstract:Water scarcity become a major challenge in an arid area. One of the arid areas is La Serena city in the Northern Chile which become a case study of this paper. Based on that, this paper tries to identify a sustainable water system by using urban harvest approach as a method to achieve water self-sufficiency for a neighborhood area in the La Serena city. By using the method, it is possible to create sustainable water system in the neighborhood area by reducing up to 38% of water demand and 94% of wastewater production even though water self-sufficient cannot be fully achieved, because of its dependency to the drinking water supply from water treatment plant of La Serena city.
Keywords: arid area, sustainable water system, urban harvest approach, self-sufficiencyProcedia PDF Downloads 193
7718 Technical and Economical Feasibility Analysis of Solar Water Pumping System - Case Study in Iran
Abstract:The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate. Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with a storage battery, AC solar water pumping with a storage tank, and DC direct solar water pumping.
Keywords: technical and economic feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, solar water pumping systemProcedia PDF Downloads 485
7717 Pollution-Sources, Controls, and Impact Analysis
Authors: Aditi Acharya
Abstract:Environmental pollution is threatening the environmental and human health in the most drastic way. This paper provides insight about the affects of environmental pollution in the perspective of water pollution. Sewage in drinking water, the increasing contamination of water bodies and water resources and the human beings are the major contributors, increasing the harsh activities of pollution. The research presents information about the sources of pollution, its impacts and control activities to be undertaken to make our environment free from water pollution.
Keywords: environmental pollution, water pollution, nanotechnology, nanomaterialsProcedia PDF Downloads 299
7716 Evaluation of the Potability Qualities of Pretreated Distilled Water Produced from Biomass Fuelled Water Distiller
Authors: E. I. Oluwasola, J. A. V. Famurewa, R. Aboloma, K. Adesina
Abstract:Water samples with pretreatment and without pretreatment were obtained from locally constructed biomass fuelled stainless steel water distiller. The water samples were subjected to Microbial, Physicochemical and Minerals analyses for comparison with NAFDAC and WHO Standards for potable water. The results of the physicochemical and microbiological properties of the raw water(A), and the two distilled water samples (B; distill water without pretreatment) and (C; distill water with pretreatment) showed reduction in most of the quality parameters evaluated in the distilled water samples to the level that conforms to the W.H.O standards for drinking water however, lower values were obtained for the pretreated distilled water sample. The values of 0.0016mg/l, 0.0052mg/l and 0.0528mg/l for the arsenic, chromium and lead content respectively in the raw water were within the permissible limit specified by WHO however; the values of cadmium (0.067mg/l) and mercury (0.0287mg/l) are above the maximum tolerable for drinking water thus, making the raw water unsafe for human consumption. Similarly, the high total plate count (278cfu /ml) and coliform count (1100/100ml) indicate that the raw water is potentially harmful while the distilled water samples showed nil coliform count and low total plate count (35cfu/ml,18cfu/ml) for B and C respectively making the distilled water microbiologically safer for human consumption.
Keywords: biomass, distillation, mineral, potable, physicochemicalProcedia PDF Downloads 425
7715 Innovative Method for Treating Oil-Produced Water with Low Operating Cost
Authors: Maha Salman, Gada Al-Nuwaibit, Ahmed Al-Haji, Saleh Al-Haddad, Abbas Al-Mesri, Mansour Al-Rugeeb
Abstract:The high salinity of oil-produced water and its complicated chemical composition, makes designing a suitable treatment system for oil-produced water is extremely difficult and costly. On the current study, a new innovative method was proposed to treat the complicated oil-produced water through a simple mixing with brine stream produced from waste water treatment plant. The proposal will investigate the scaling potential of oil-produce water, seawater and the selected brine water (BW) produced from Sulaibiya waste water treatment and reclamation plant (SWWTRP) before and after the mixing with oil-produced water, and will calculate the scaling potential of all expected precipitated salts using different conversion and different % of mixing to optimize the % of mixing between the oil-produced water and the selected stream. The result shows a great, feasible and economic solution to treat oil produced with a very low capital cost.
Keywords: brine water, oil-produced water, scaling potential, Sulaibiyah waste water and reclaminatin plantProcedia PDF Downloads 370
7714 Risk Management of Water Derivatives: A New Commodity in The Market
Authors: Daniel Mokatsanyane, Johnny Jansen Van Rensburg
Abstract:This paper is a concise introduction of the risk management on the water derivatives market. Water, a new commodity in the market, is one of the most important commodity on earth. As important to life and planet as crops, metals, and energy, none of them matters without water. This paper presents a brief overview of water as a tradable commodity via a new first of its kind futures contract on the Nasdaq Veles California Water Index (NQH2O) derivative instrument, TheGeneralised Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) statistical model will be the used to measure the water price volatility of the instrument and its performance since it’s been traded. describe the main products and illustrate their usage in risk management and also discuss key challenges with modeling and valuation of water as a traded commodity and finally discuss how water derivatives may be taken as an alternative asset investment class.
Keywords: water derivatives, commodity market, nasdaq veles california water Index (NQH2O, water price, risk managementProcedia PDF Downloads 34
7713 Field Scale Simulation Study of Miscible Water Alternating CO2 Injection Process in Fractured Reservoirs
Authors: Hooman Fallah
Abstract:Vast amounts of world oil reservoirs are in natural fractured reservoirs. There are different methods for increasing recovery from fractured reservoirs. Miscible injection of water alternating CO2 is a good choice among this methods. In this method, water and CO2 slugs are injected alternatively in reservoir as miscible agent into reservoir. This paper studies water injection scenario and miscible injection of water and CO2 in a two dimensional, inhomogeneous fractured reservoir. The results show that miscible water alternating CO2¬ gas injection leads to 3.95% increase in final oil recovery and total water production decrease of 3.89% comparing to water injection scenario.
Keywords: simulation study, CO2, water alternating gas injection, fractured reservoirsProcedia PDF Downloads 225
7712 Power Generation through Water Vapour: An Approach of Using Sea/River/Lake Water as Renewable Energy Source
Abstract:As present world needs more and more energy in a low cost way, it needs to find out the optimal way of power generation. In the sense of low cost, renewable energy is one of the greatest sources of power generation. Water vapour of sea/river/lake can be used for power generation by using the greenhouse effect in a large flat type water chamber floating on the water surface. The water chamber will always be kept half filled. When water evaporates by sunlight, the high pressured gaseous water will be stored in the chamber. By passing through a pipe and by using aerodynamics it can be used for power generation. The water level of the chamber is controlled by some means. As a large amount of water evaporates, an estimation can be highlighted, approximately 3 to 4 thousand gallons of water evaporates from per acre of surface (this amount will be more by greenhouse effect). This large amount of gaseous water can be utilized for power generation by passing through a pipe. This method can be a source of power generation.
Keywords: renewable energy, greenhouse effect, water chamber, water vapourProcedia PDF Downloads 285
7711 A Study on Water Quality Parameters of Pond Water for Better Management of Pond
Authors: Dona Grace Jeyaseeli
Abstract:Water quality conditions in a pond are controlled by both natural processes and human influences. Natural factors such as the source of the pond water and the types of rock and soil in the pond watershed will influence some water quality characteristics. These factors are difficult to control but usually cause few problems. Instead, most serious water quality problems originate from land uses or other activities near or in the pond. The effects of these activities can often be minimized through proper management and early detection of problems through testing. In the present study a survey of three ponds in Coimbatore city, Tamilnadu, India were analyzed and found that water quality problems in their ponds, ranging from muddy water to fish kills. Unfortunately, most pond owners have never tested their ponds, and water quality problems are usually only detected after they cause a problem. Hence the present study discusses some common water quality parameters that may cause problems in ponds and how to detect through testing for better management of pond.
Keywords: water quality, pond, test, problemProcedia PDF Downloads 399