Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3285

Search results for: pressure regulator

3285 Pressure Regulator Optimization in LPG Fuel Injection Systems

Authors: M. Akif Ceviz, Alirıza Kaleli, Erdoğan Güner


LPG pressure regulator is a device which is used to change the phase of LPG from liquid to gas by decreasing the pressure. During the phase change, it is necessary to supply the latent heat of LPG to prevent excessive low temperature. Engine coolant is circulated in the pressure regulator for this purpose. Therefore, pressure regulator is a type of heat exchanger that should be designed for different engine operating conditions. The design of the regulator should ensure that the flow of LPG is in gaseous phase to the injectors during the engine steady state and transient operating conditions. The pressure regulators in the LPG gaseous injection systems currently used can easily change the phase of LPG, however, there is no any control on the LPG temperature in conventional LPG injection systems. It is possible to increase temperature excessively. In this study, a control unit has been tested to keep the LPG temperature in a band. Result of the study showed that the engine performance characteristics can be increased by using the system.

Keywords: temperature, pressure regulator, LPG, PID

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
3284 PSRR Enhanced LDO Regulator Using Noise Sensing Circuit

Authors: Min-ju Kwon, Chae-won Kim, Jeong-yun Seo, Hee-guk Chae, Yong-seo Koo


In this paper, we presented the LDO (low-dropout) regulator which enhanced the PSRR by applying the constant current source generation technique through the BGR (Band Gap Reference) to form the noise sensing circuit. The current source through the BGR has a constant current value even if the applied voltage varies. Then, the noise sensing circuit, which is composed of the current source through the BGR, operated between the error amplifier and the pass transistor gate of the LDO regulator. As a result, the LDO regulator has a PSRR of -68.2 dB at 1k Hz, -45.85 dB at 1 MHz and -45 dB at 10 MHz. the other performance of the proposed LDO was maintained at the same level of the conventional LDO regulator.

Keywords: LDO regulator, noise sensing circuit, current reference, pass transistor

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
3283 Control of Doubly Star Induction Motor Using Direct Torque DTC Based To on RST Regulator

Authors: Nadia Akkari


This paper presents the analysis and simulation of the control of double star induction motor, using direct torque control (DTC) based on RST regulator. The DTC is an excellent solution for general- purpose induction drives in very wide range the short sampling time required by the TC schemes makes them suited to a very fast torque and flux controlled drives as well the simplicity of the control algorithm. DTC is inherently a motion sensorless control method. The RST regulator can improve the double star induction motor performance in terms of overshoot, rapidity, cancellation of disturbance, and capacity to maintain a high level of performance. Simulation results indicate that the proposed regulator has better performance responses. The implementation of the DTC applied to a double star induction motor based on RST regulator is validated with simulated results.

Keywords: Direct Torque Control (DTC), Double Star Induction Motor (DSIM), RST Regulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
3282 Effect of Plant Growth Regulator on Vegetative Growth and Yield Components of Winter Wheat under Different Levels of Irrigation

Authors: Mohammed Ahmed Alghamdi


Field experiment were carried out to investigate the effect of the plant growth regulator on vegetative growth and yield components of reduced height isogenic lines of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar Mercia. The Field experiment compared the growth regulator response of seven isogenic lines of Mercia. Growth regulators reduced plant height significantly in all lines. Growth regulator decreased total dry matter and grain yield with greatest reduction generally for the control and Rht8 lines. Rht1 was the least affected. There were few significant effects of growth regulator on gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence but the trend was for greater values with growth regulator. In this field experiment, a rate of 2.0 l ha-1 applied just before the third node detectable stage under non water stressed and water stressed conditions gave slight increases in yield of up to 14% except for line Rht10 which increased significantly in non-stressed conditions. In the second glasshouse experiment, a rate of 2.5 l ha-1 applied at the start of stem elongation under 30% FC and 100% FC gave reductions in yield up to 16% for the growth regulator and 55% under water stress. In the field experiment, rates of 2.5 and 3.0 l ha-1 applied at the start of stem elongation gave reductions in yield up to 20% mainly through individual seed weight. In the final glasshouse experiment, rates of 2.5 and 3.0 l ha-1 applied at 6 leaves unfolded and 1st node detectable both reduced grain yield.

Keywords: growth regulator, irrigation, isogenic lines, yield, winter wheat

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
3281 Developing a Regulator for Improving the Operation Modes of the Electrical Drive Motor

Authors: Baghdasaryan Marinka


The operation modes of the synchronous motors used in the production processes are greatly conditioned by the accidentally changing technological and power indices.  As a result, the electrical drive synchronous motor may appear in irregular operation regimes. Although there are numerous works devoted to the development of the regulator for the synchronous motor operation modes, their application for the motors working in the irregular modes is not expedient. In this work, to estimate the issues concerning the stability of the synchronous electrical drive system, the transfer functions of the electrical drive synchronous motors operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained.  For that purpose, a model for investigating the frequency characteristics has been developed in the LabView environment. Frequency characteristics for assessing the transient process of the electrical drive system, operating in the synchronous and induction modes have been obtained, and based on their assessment, a regulator for improving the operation modes of the motor has been proposed. The proposed regulator can be successfully used to prevent the irregular modes of the electrical drive synchronous motor, as well as to estimate the operation state of the drive motor of the mechanism with a changing load.

Keywords: electrical drive system, synchronous motor, regulator, stability, transition process

Procedia PDF Downloads 32
3280 Valuation on MEMS Pressure Sensors and Device Applications

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Ong Kai Sheng


The MEMS pressure sensor has been introduced and presented in this paper. The types of pressure sensor and its theory of operation are also included. The latest MEMS technology, the fabrication processes of pressure sensor are explored and discussed. Besides, various device applications of pressure sensor such as tire pressure monitoring system, diesel particulate filter and others are explained. Due to further miniaturization of the device nowadays, the pressure sensor with nanotechnology (NEMS) is also reviewed. The NEMS pressure sensor is expected to have better performance as well as lower in its cost. It has gained an excellent popularity in many applications.

Keywords: pressure sensor, diaphragm, MEMS, automotive application, biomedical application, NEMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
3279 Comparison of the Dynamic Characteristics of Active and Passive Hybrid Bearings

Authors: Denis V. Shutin, Alexander Yu. Babin, Leonid A. Savin


One of the ways of reducing vibroactivity of rotor systems is to apply active hybrid bearings. Their design allows correction of the rotor’s location by means of separately controlling the supply pressure of the lubricant into the friction area. In a most simple case, the control system is based on a P-regulator. Increase of the gain coefficient allows decreasing the amplitude of rotor’s vibrations. The same effect can be achieved by means of increasing the pressure in the collector of a traditional passive hybrid bearing. However, these approaches affect the dynamic characteristics of the bearing differently. Theoretical studies show that the increase of the gain coefficient of an active bearing increases the stiffness of the bearing, as well as the increase of the pressure in the collector. Nevertheless, in case of a passive bearing, the damping properties deteriorate, whereas the active hybrid bearings obtain higher damping properties, which allow effectively providing the energy dissipation of the rotor vibrations and reducing the load on the constructional elements of a machine.

Keywords: active bearings, control system, damping, hybrid bearings, stiffness

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
3278 An Image Based Visual Servoing (IBVS) Approach Using a Linear-Quadratic Regulator (LQR) for Quadcopters

Authors: C. Gebauer, C. Henke, R. Vossen


Within the Mohamed Bin Zayed International Robotics Challenge (MBZIRC) 2020, a team of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is used to capture intruder drones by physical interaction. The challenge is motivated by UAV safety. The purpose of this work is to investigate the agility of a quadcopter being controlled visually. The aim is to track and follow a highly dynamic target, e.g., an intruder quadcopter. The following is realized in close range and the opponent has a velocity of up to 10 m/s. Additional limitations are given by the hardware itself, where only monocular vision is present, and no additional knowledge about the targets state is available. An image based visual servoing (IBVS) approach is applied in combination with a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR). The IBVS is integrated into the LQR and an optimal trajectory is computed within the projected three-dimensional image-space. The approach has been evaluated on real quadcopter systems in different flight scenarios to demonstrate the system's stability.

Keywords: image based visual servoing, quadcopter, dynamic object tracking, linear-quadratic regulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
3277 Improving the Design of Blood Pressure and Blood Saturation Monitors

Authors: L. Parisi


A blood pressure monitor or sphygmomanometer can be either manual or automatic, employing respectively either the auscultatory method or the oscillometric method. The manual version of the sphygmomanometer involves an inflatable cuff with a stethoscope adopted to detect the sounds generated by the arterial walls to measure blood pressure in an artery. An automatic sphygmomanometer can be effectively used to monitor blood pressure through a pressure sensor, which detects vibrations provoked by oscillations of the arterial walls. The pressure sensor implemented in this device improves the accuracy of the measurements taken.

Keywords: blood pressure, blood saturation, sensors, actuators, design improvement

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
3276 Hardware-in-the-Loop Test for Automatic Voltage Regulator of Synchronous Condenser

Authors: Ha Thi Nguyen, Guangya Yang, Arne Hejde Nielsen, Peter Højgaard Jensen


Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) plays an important role in volt/var control of synchronous condenser (SC) in power systems. Test AVR performance in steady-state and dynamic conditions in real grid is expensive, low efficiency, and hard to achieve. To address this issue, we implement hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) test for the AVR of SC to test the steady-state and dynamic performances of AVR in different operating conditions. Startup procedure of the system and voltage set point changes are studied to evaluate the AVR hardware response. Overexcitation, underexcitation, and AVR set point loss are tested to compare the performance of SC with the AVR hardware and that of simulation. The comparative results demonstrate how AVR will work in a real system. The results show HiL test is an effective approach for testing devices before deployment and is able to parameterize the controller with lower cost, higher efficiency, and more flexibility.

Keywords: automatic voltage regulator, hardware-in-the-loop, synchronous condenser, real time digital simulator

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
3275 Signal Processing of the Blood Pressure and Characterization

Authors: Hadj Abd El Kader Benghenia, Fethi Bereksi Reguig


In clinical medicine, blood pressure, raised blood hemodynamic monitoring is rich pathophysiological information of cardiovascular system, of course described through factors such as: blood volume, arterial compliance and peripheral resistance. In this work, we are interested in analyzing these signals to propose a detection algorithm to delineate the different sequences and especially systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the wave and dicrotic to do their analysis in order to extract the cardiovascular parameters.

Keywords: blood pressure, SBP, DBP, detection algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
3274 Radio Frequency Energy Harvesting Friendly Self-Clocked Digital Low Drop-Out for System-On-Chip Internet of Things

Authors: Christos Konstantopoulos, Thomas Ussmueller


Digital low drop-out regulators, in contrast to analog counterparts, provide an architecture of sub-1 V regulation with low power consumption, high power efficiency, and system integration. Towards an optimized integration in the ultra-low-power system-on-chip Internet of Things architecture that is operated through a radio frequency energy harvesting scheme, the D-LDO regulator should constitute the main regulator that operates the master-clock and rest loads of the SoC. In this context, we present a D-LDO with linear search coarse regulation and asynchronous fine regulation, which incorporates an in-regulator clock generation unit that provides an autonomous, self-start-up, and power-efficient D-LDO design. In contrast to contemporary D-LDO designs that employ ring-oscillator architecture which start-up time is dependent on the frequency, this work presents a fast start-up burst oscillator based on a high-gain stage with wake-up time independent of coarse regulation frequency. The design is implemented in a 55-nm Global Foundries CMOS process. With the purpose to validate the self-start-up capability of the presented D-LDO in the presence of ultra-low input power, an on-chip test-bench with an RF rectifier is implemented as well, which provides the RF to DC operation and feeds the D-LDO. Power efficiency and load regulation curves of the D-LDO are presented as extracted from the RF to regulated DC operation. The D-LDO regulator presents 83.6 % power efficiency during the RF to DC operation with a 3.65 uA load current and voltage regulator referred input power of -27 dBm. It succeeds 486 nA maximum quiescent current with CL 75 pF, the maximum current efficiency of 99.2%, and 1.16x power efficiency improvement compared to analog voltage regulator counterpart oriented to SoC IoT loads. Complementary, the transient performance of the D-LDO is evaluated under the transient droop test, and the achieved figure-of-merit is compared with state-of-art implementations.

Keywords: D-LDO, Internet of Things, RF energy harvesting, voltage regulators

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
3273 Calibration Methods of Direct and Indirect Reading Pressure Sensor and Uncertainty Determination

Authors: Sinem O. Aktan, Musa Y. Akkurt


Experimental pressure calibration methods can be classified into three areas: (1) measurements in liquid or gas systems, (2) measurements in static-solid media systems, and (3) measurements in dynamic shock systems. Fluid (liquid and gas) systems high accuracies can be obtainable and commonly used for the calibration method of a pressure sensor. Pressure calibrations can be performed for metrological traceability in two ways, which are on-site (field) and in the laboratory. Laboratory and on-site calibration procedures and the requirements of the DKD-R-6-1 and Euramet cg-17 guidelines will also be addressed. In this study, calibration methods of direct and indirect reading pressure sensor and measurement uncertainty contributions will be explained.

Keywords: pressure metrology, pressure calibration, dead-weight tester, pressure uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 23
3272 Suitable Tuning Method Selection for PID Controller Used in Digital Excitation System of Brushless Synchronous Generator

Authors: Deepak M. Sajnekar, S. B. Deshpande, R. M. Mohril


At present many rotary excitation control system are using analog type of Automatic Voltage Regulator which now started to replace with the digital automatic voltage regulator which is provided with PID controller and tuning of PID controller is a challenging task. The cases where digital excitation control system is used tuning of PID controller are still carried out by pole placement method. Tuning of PID controller used for static excitation control system is not challenging because it does not involve exciter time constant. This paper discusses two methods of tuning PID controller i.e. Pole placement method and pole zero cancellation method. GUI prepared for both the methods on the platform of MATLAB. Using this GUI, performance results and time required for tuning for both the methods are compared. Sensitivity of the methods is also presented with parameter variation like loop gain ‘K’ and exciter time constant ‘te’.

Keywords: digital excitation system, automatic voltage regulator, pole placement method, pole zero cancellation method

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
3271 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.


Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
3270 Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Pressure through Radial Velocity Difference in Arterial Blood Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we are interested to determine the carbon dioxide pressure in the arterial blood through radial velocity difference. The blood was modeled as a two phase mixture (an aqueous carbon dioxide solution with carbon dioxide gas) by Drift flux model and the Young-Laplace equation. The distributions of mixture velocities determined from the considered model permitted the calculation of the radial velocity distributions with different values of mean mixture pressure and the calculation of the mean carbon dioxide pressure knowing the mean mixture pressure. The radial velocity distributions are used to deduce a calculation method of the mean mixture pressure through the radial velocity difference between two positions which is measured by ultrasound. The mean carbon dioxide pressure is then deduced from the mean mixture pressure.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity difference

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3269 Design of Saddle Support for Horizontal Pressure Vessel

Authors: Vinod Kumar, Navin Kumar, Surjit Angra, Prince Sharma


This paper presents the design analysis of saddle support of a horizontal pressure vessel. Since saddle have the vital role to support the pressure vessel and to maintain its stability, it should be designed in such a way that it can afford the vessel load and internal pressure of the vessel due to liquid contained in the vessel. A model of horizontal pressure vessel and saddle support is created in Ansys. Stresses are calculated using mathematical approach and Ansys software. The analysis reveals the zone of high localized stress at the junction part of the pressure vessel and saddle support due to operating conditions. The results obtained by both the methods are compared with allowable stress value for safe designing.

Keywords: ANSYS, pressure vessel, saddle, support

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
3268 Metal Berthelot Tubes with Windows for Observing Cavitation under Static Negative Pressure

Authors: K. Hiro, Y. Imai, T. Sasayama


Cavitation under static negative pressure is not revealed well. The Berthelot method to generate such negative pressure can be a means to study cavitation inception. In this study, metal Berthelot tubes built in observation windows are newly developed and are checked whether high static negative pressure is generated or not. Negative pressure in the tube with a pair of a corundum plate and an aluminum gasket increased with temperature cycles. The trend was similar to that as reported before.

Keywords: Berthelot method, cavitation, negative pressure, observation

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
3267 Iterative Linear Quadratic Regulator (iLQR) vs LQR Controllers for Quadrotor Path Tracking

Authors: Wesam Jasim, Dongbing Gu


This paper presents an iterative linear quadratic regulator optimal control technique to solve the problem of quadrotors path tracking. The dynamic motion equations are represented based on unit quaternion representation and include some modelled aerodynamical effects as a nonlinear part. Simulation results prove the ability and effectiveness of iLQR to stabilize the quadrotor and successfully track different paths. It also shows that iLQR controller outperforms LQR controller in terms of fast convergence and tracking errors.

Keywords: iLQR controller, optimal control, path tracking, quadrotor UAVs

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
3266 Measurement of Reverse Flow Generated at Cold Exit of Vortex Tube

Authors: Mohd Hazwan bin Yusof, Hiroshi Katanoda


In order to clarify the structure of the cold flow discharged from the vortex tube (VT), the pressure of the cold flow was measured, and a simple flow visualization technique using a 0.75 mm-diameter needle and an oily paint is made to study the reverse flow at the cold exit. It is clear that a negative pressure and positive pressure region exist at a certain pressure and cold fraction area, and that a reverse flow is observed in the negative pressure region.

Keywords: flow visualization, pressure measurement, reverse flow, vortex tube

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
3265 Design and Simulation of MEMS-Based Capacitive Pressure Sensors

Authors: Kirankumar B. Balavalad, Bhagyashree Mudhol, B. G. Sheeparamatti


MEMS sensor have gained popularity in automotive, biomedical, and industrial applications. In this paper, the design and simulation of conventional, slotted, and perforated MEMS capacitive pressure sensor is proposed. Polysilicon material is used as diaphragm material that deflects due to applied pressure. Better sensitivity is the main advantage of conventional pressure sensor as compared with other two sensors and perforated pressure sensor achieves large operating pressure range. The proposed MEMS sensor demonstrated with diaphragm length 50um, gap depth 3um is being modelled. The simulation is carried out for different types of MEMS capacitive pressure sensor using COMSOL Multiphysics and Coventor ware.

Keywords: MEMS, conventional pressure sensor, slotted and perforated diaphragm, COMSOL multiphysics, coventor ware

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
3264 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoops Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (Fos) in the Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammad Hani Ajani


The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 368
3263 Evaluation of Longitudinal and Hoop Stresses and a Critical Study of Factor of Safety (FoS) in Design of a Glass-Fiber Pressure Vessel

Authors: Zainul Huda, Mohammed Hani Ajani


The design, manufacture, and operation of thin-walled pressure vessels must be based on maximum safe operating pressure and an adequate factor of safety (FoS). This research paper first reports experimental evaluation of longitudinal and hoops stresses based on working pressure as well as maximum pressure; and then includes a critical study of factor of safety (FoS) in the design of a glass fiber pressure vessel. Experimental work involved the use of measuring instruments and the readings from pressure gauges. Design calculations involved the computations of design stress and FoS; the latter was based on breaking strength of 55 MPa for the glass fiber (pressure-vessel material). The experimentally determined FoS value has been critically compared with the general FoS allowed in the design of glass fiber pressure vessels.

Keywords: thin-walled pressure vessel, hoop stress, longitudinal stress, factor of safety (FoS), fiberglass

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
3262 A CFD Analysis of Flow through a High-Pressure Natural Gas Pipeline with an Undeformed and Deformed Orifice Plate

Authors: R. Kiš, M. Malcho, M. Janovcová


This work aims to present a numerical analysis of the natural gas which flows through a high-pressure pipeline and an orifice plate, through the use of CFD methods. The paper contains CFD calculations for the flow of natural gas in a pipe with different geometry used for the orifice plates. One of them has a standard geometry and a shape without any deformation and the other is deformed by the action of the pressure differential. It shows the behaviour of natural gas in a pipeline using the velocity profiles and pressure fields of the gas in both models with their differences. The entire research is based on the elimination of any inaccuracy which should appear in the flow of the natural gas measured in the high-pressure pipelines of the gas industry and which is currently not given in the relevant standard.

Keywords: orifice plate, high-pressure pipeline, natural gas, CFD analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3261 Real-Time Monitoring of Complex Multiphase Behavior in a High Pressure and High Temperature Microfluidic Chip

Authors: Renée M. Ripken, Johannes G. E. Gardeniers, Séverine Le Gac


Controlling the multiphase behavior of aqueous biomass mixtures is essential when working in the biomass conversion industry. Here, the vapor/liquid equilibria (VLE) of ethylene glycol, glycerol, and xylitol were studied for temperatures between 25 and 200 °C and pressures of 1 to 10 bar. These experiments were performed in a microfluidic platform, which exhibits excellent heat transfer properties so that equilibrium is reached fast. Firstly, the saturated vapor pressure as a function of the temperature and the substrate mole fraction of the substrate was calculated using AspenPlus with a Redlich-Kwong-Soave Boston-Mathias (RKS-BM) model. Secondly, we developed a high-pressure and high-temperature microfluidic set-up for experimental validation. Furthermore, we have studied the multiphase flow pattern that occurs after the saturation temperature was achieved. A glass-silicon microfluidic device containing a 0.4 or 0.2 m long meandering channel with a depth of 250 μm and a width of 250 or 500 μm was fabricated using standard microfabrication techniques. This device was placed in a dedicated chip-holder, which includes a ceramic heater on the silicon side. The temperature was controlled and monitored by three K-type thermocouples: two were located between the heater and the silicon substrate, one to set the temperature and one to measure it, and the third one was placed in a 300 μm wide and 450 μm deep groove on the glass side to determine the heat loss over the silicon. An adjustable back pressure regulator and a pressure meter were added to control and evaluate the pressure during the experiment. Aqueous biomass solutions (10 wt%) were pumped at a flow rate of 10 μL/min using a syringe pump, and the temperature was slowly increased until the theoretical saturation temperature for the pre-set pressure was reached. First and surprisingly, a significant difference was observed between our theoretical saturation temperature and the experimental results. The experimental values were 10’s of degrees higher than the calculated ones and, in some cases, saturation could not be achieved. This discrepancy can be explained in different ways. Firstly, the pressure in the microchannel is locally higher due to both the thermal expansion of the liquid and the Laplace pressure that has to be overcome before a gas bubble can be formed. Secondly, superheating effects are likely to be present. Next, once saturation was reached, the flow pattern of the gas/liquid multiphase system was recorded. In our device, the point of nucleation can be controlled by taking advantage of the pressure drop across the channel and the accurate control of the temperature. Specifically, a higher temperature resulted in nucleation further upstream in the channel. As the void fraction increases downstream, the flow regime changes along the channel from bubbly flow to Taylor flow and later to annular flow. All three flow regimes were observed simultaneously. The findings of this study are key for the development and optimization of a microreactor for hydrogen production from biomass.

Keywords: biomass conversion, high pressure and high temperature microfluidics, multiphase, phase diagrams, superheating

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
3260 On the Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Internal Pressure in Air Bearings

Authors: Abdurrahim Dal, Tuncay Karaçay


Dynamics of a rotor supported by air bearings is strongly depends on the pressure distribution between the rotor and the bearing. In this study, internal pressure in air bearings is numerical and experimental analyzed for different radial clearances. Firstly the pressure distribution between rotor and bearing is modeled using Reynold's equation and this model is solved numerically. The rotor-bearing system is also modeled in four degree of freedom and it is simulated for different radial clearances. Then, in order to validate numerical results, a test rig is designed and the rotor bearing system is run under the same operational conditions. Pressure signals of left and right bearings are recorded. Internal pressure variations are compared for numerical and experimental results for different radial clearances.

Keywords: air bearing, internal pressure, Reynold’s equation, rotor

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
3259 The Mainspring of Controlling of Low Pressure Steam Drum at Lower Pressure than Its Design for Adjusting the Urea Synthesis Pressure

Authors: Reza Behtash, Enayat Enayati


The pool condenser is in principal a horizontal reactor, containing a bundle of U-tubes for heat exchange, coupling to low pressure steam drum. Condensation of gas takes place in a condensed pool around the tubes of the condenser. The heat of condensation is removed by the generation of low pressure steam on the inner tube side of the bundle. A circulation pump transfers ample boiler feed water to these tubes. The pressure of the steam generated influenced the heat flux. Changing the steam pressure means changing the steam condensate temperature and therefore the temperature difference between the tube side and the shell side. 2NH3 + CO2 ↔ NH2COONH4 + Heat. This reaction is exothermic and according to Le Chatelier's Principle if the heat is not removed enough, it will come back to left side and generate of the gas and so the Urea synthesis pressure will rise. The most principal reasons for high Urea synthesis pressure are non proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio and too high a pressure in low pressure steam drum. Proportional of Ammonia/Dioxide Carbon ratio is 3.0 and normal pressure for low pressure steam drum is 4.5 bar. As regards these conditions were proportional but we could not control the synthesis pressure the plant endangered, therefore we had to control the steam drum pressure at about 3.5 bar. While we opened the pool condenser, we found the partition plate used to divide inlet and outlet boiler feed water to tubes, was broken partially and so amount of boiler feed water bypass the tubes and the heat was not removed totally and it resulted in the generation of gases and high pressure in synthesis.

Keywords: boiler, pressure, pool condenser, partition plate

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
3258 Negative Pressure Waves in Hydraulic Systems

Authors: Fuad H. Veliev


Negative pressure phenomenon appears in many thermodynamic, geophysical and biophysical processes in the Nature and technological systems. For more than 100 years of the laboratory researches beginning from F. M. Donny’s tests, the great values of negative pressure have been achieved. But this phenomenon has not been practically applied, being only a nice lab toy due to the special demands for the purity and homogeneity of the liquids for its appearance. The possibility of creation of direct wave of negative pressure in real heterogeneous liquid systems was confirmed experimentally under the certain kinetic and hydraulic conditions. The negative pressure can be considered as the factor of both useful and destroying energies. The new approach to generation of the negative pressure waves in impure, unclean fluids has allowed the creation of principally new energy saving technologies and installations to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of different production processes. It was proved that the negative pressure is one of the main factors causing hard troubles in some technological and natural processes. Received results emphasize the necessity to take into account the role of the negative pressure as an energy factor in evaluation of many transient thermohydrodynamic processes in the Nature and production systems.

Keywords: liquid systems, negative pressure, temperature, wave, metastable state

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
3257 Gas Pressure Evaluation through Radial Velocity Measurement of Fluid Flow Modeled by Drift Flux Model

Authors: Aicha Rima Cheniti, Hatem Besbes, Joseph Haggege, Christophe Sintes


In this paper, we consider a drift flux mixture model of the blood flow. The mixture consists of gas phase which is carbon dioxide and liquid phase which is an aqueous carbon dioxide solution. This model was used to determine the distributions of the mixture velocity, the mixture pressure, and the carbon dioxide pressure. These theoretical data are used to determine a measurement method of mean gas pressure through the determination of radial velocity distribution. This method can be applicable in experimental domain.

Keywords: mean carbon dioxide pressure, mean mixture pressure, mixture velocity, radial velocity

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
3256 Characterization of the GntR Family Transcriptional Regulator Rv0792c: A Potential Drug Target for Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Authors: Thanusha D. Abeywickrama, Inoka C. Perera, Genji Kurisu


Tuberculosis, considered being as the ninth leading cause of death worldwide, cause from a single infectious agent M. tuberculosis and the drug resistance nature of this bacterium is a continuing threat to the world. Therefore TB preventing treatment is expanding, where this study designed to analyze the regulatory mechanism of GntR transcriptional regulator gene Rv0792c, which lie between several genes codes for some hypothetical proteins, a monooxygenase and an oxidoreductase. The gene encoding Rv0792c was cloned into pET28a and expressed protein was purified to near homogeneity by Nickel affinity chromatography. It was previously reported that the protein binds within the intergenic region (BS region) between Rv0792c gene and monooxygenase (Rv0793). This resulted in binding of three protein molecules with the BS region suggesting tight control of monooxygenase as well as its own gene. Since monooxygenase plays a key role in metabolism, this gene may have a global regulatory role. The natural ligand for this regulator is still under investigation. In relation to the Rv0792 protein structure, a Circular Dichroism (CD) spectrum was carried out to determine its secondary structure elements. Percentage-wise, 17.4% Helix, 21.8% Antiparallel, 5.1% Parallel, 12.3% turn and 43.5% other were revealed from CD spectrum data under room temperature. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was conducted to assess the thermal stability of Rv0792, which the melting temperature of protein is 57.2 ± 0.6 °C. The graph of heat capacity (Cp) versus temperature for the best fit was obtained for non-two-state model, which concludes the folding of Rv0792 protein occurs through stable intermediates. Peak area (∆HCal ) and Peak shape (∆HVant ) was calculated from the graph and ∆HCal / ∆HVant was close to 0.5, suggesting dimeric nature of the protein.

Keywords: CD spectrum, DSC analysis, GntR transcriptional regulator, protein structure

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