Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Search results for: adjacency

23 Jordan Curves in the Digital Plane with Respect to the Connectednesses given by Certain Adjacency Graphs

Authors: Josef Slapal

Abstract:

Digital images are approximations of real ones and, therefore, to be able to study them, we need the digital plane Z2 to be equipped with a convenient structure that behaves analogously to the Euclidean topology on the real plane. In particular, it is required that such a structure allows for a digital analogue of the Jordan curve theorem. We introduce certain adjacency graphs on the digital plane and prove digital Jordan curves for them thus showing that the graphs provide convenient structures on Z2 for the study and processing of digital images. Further convenient structures including the wellknown Khalimsky and Marcus-Wyse adjacency graphs may be obtained as quotients of the graphs introduced. Since digital Jordan curves represent borders of objects in digital images, the adjacency graphs discussed may be used as background structures on the digital plane for solving the problems of digital image processing that are closely related to borders like border detection, contour filling, pattern recognition, thinning, etc.

Keywords: digital plane, adjacency graph, Jordan curve, quotient adjacency

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22 Reconstruction of Binary Matrices Satisfying Neighborhood Constraints by Simulated Annealing

Authors: Divyesh Patel, Tanuja Srivastava

Abstract:

This paper considers the NP-hard problem of reconstructing binary matrices satisfying exactly-1-4-adjacency constraint from its row and column projections. This problem is formulated into a maximization problem. The objective function gives a measure of adjacency constraint for the binary matrices. The maximization problem is solved by the simulated annealing algorithm and experimental results are presented.

Keywords: discrete tomography, exactly-1-4-adjacency, simulated annealing, binary matrices

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21 An Analysis of Conversation Structure of Oprah Winfrey and Justin Bieber Utterances on The Oprah Winfrey Show

Authors: Najib Khumaidillah

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A conversation needs skills to create the good flow of it. The skills also need to be paid attention by a host like Oprah Winfrey and Justin Bieber as an artist. This study is aimed at describing turn taking strategies and adjacency pairs used by the speakers. The data are from one segment of The Oprah Winfrey Show’s transcription with Justin Bieber. Those are analyzed by Stenstorm’s turn taking theories and adjacency pairs theories. From the analysis, it was found that both speakers use various turn taking strategies and adjacency pairs. These findings are hoped to be an example for non-native English speaker in doing English conversation and advance people’s comprehension of how to organize good conversation structure.

Keywords: adjacency pairs, conversation structure, the Oprah Winfrey show, turn taking

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20 The Second Smallest Eigenvalue of Complete Tripartite Hypergraph

Authors: Alfi Y. Zakiyyah, Hanni Garminia, M. Salman, A. N. Irawati

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In the terminology of the hypergraph, there is a relation with the terminology graph. In the theory of graph, the edges connected two vertices. In otherwise, in hypergraph, the edges can connect more than two vertices. There is representation matrix of a graph such as adjacency matrix, Laplacian matrix, and incidence matrix. The adjacency matrix is symmetry matrix so that all eigenvalues is real. This matrix is a nonnegative matrix. The all diagonal entry from adjacency matrix is zero so that the trace is zero. Another representation matrix of the graph is the Laplacian matrix. Laplacian matrix is symmetry matrix and semidefinite positive so that all eigenvalues are real and non-negative. According to the spectral study in the graph, some that result is generalized to hypergraph. A hypergraph can be represented by a matrix such as adjacency, incidence, and Laplacian matrix. Throughout for this term, we use Laplacian matrix to represent a complete tripartite hypergraph. The aim from this research is to determine second smallest eigenvalues from this matrix and find a relation this eigenvalue with the connectivity of that hypergraph.

Keywords: connectivity, graph, hypergraph, Laplacian matrix

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19 Improvement a Lower Bound of Energy for Some Family of Graphs, Related to Determinant of Adjacency Matrix

Authors: Saieed Akbari, Yousef Bagheri, Amir Hossein Ghodrati, Sima Saadat Akhtar

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Let G be a simple graph with the vertex set V (G) and with the adjacency matrix A (G). The energy E (G) of G is defined to be the sum of the absolute values of all eigenvalues of A (G). Also let n and m be number of edges and vertices of the graph respectively. A regular graph is a graph where each vertex has the same number of neighbours. Given a graph G, its line graph L(G) is a graph such that each vertex of L(G) represents an edge of G; and two vertices of L(G) are adjacent if and only if their corresponding edges share a common endpoint in G. In this paper we show that for every regular graphs and also for every line graphs such that (G) 3 we have, E(G) 2nm + n 1. Also at the other part of the paper we prove that 2 (G) E(G) for an arbitrary graph G.

Keywords: eigenvalues, energy, line graphs, matching number

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18 Graph Similarity: Algebraic Model and Its Application to Nonuniform Signal Processing

Authors: Nileshkumar Vishnav, Aditya Tatu

Abstract:

A recent approach of representing graph signals and graph filters as polynomials is useful for graph signal processing. In this approach, the adjacency matrix plays pivotal role; instead of the more common approach involving graph-Laplacian. In this work, we follow the adjacency matrix based approach and corresponding algebraic signal model. We further expand the theory and introduce the concept of similarity of two graphs. The similarity of graphs is useful in that key properties (such as filter-response, algebra related to graph) get transferred from one graph to another. We demonstrate potential applications of the relation between two similar graphs, such as nonuniform filter design, DTMF detection and signal reconstruction.

Keywords: graph signal processing, algebraic signal processing, graph similarity, isospectral graphs, nonuniform signal processing

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17 Exploring the Connectedness of Ad Hoc Mesh Networks in Rural Areas

Authors: Ibrahim Obeidat

Abstract:

Reaching a fully-connected network of mobile nodes in rural areas got a great attention between network researchers. This attention rose due to the complexity and high costs while setting up the needed infrastructures for these networks, in addition to the low transmission range these nodes has. Terranet technology, as an example, employs ad-hoc mesh network where each node has a transmission range not exceed one kilometer, this means that every two nodes are able to communicate with each other if they are just one kilometer far from each other, otherwise a third-party will play the role of the “relay”. In Terranet, and as an idea to reduce network setup cost, every node in the network will be considered as a router that is responsible of forwarding data between other nodes which result in a decentralized collaborative environment. Most researches on Terranet presents the idea of how to encourage mobile nodes to become more cooperative by letting their devices in “ON” state as long as possible while accepting to play the role of relay (router). This research presents the issue of finding the percentage of nodes in ad-hoc mesh network within rural areas that should play the role of relay at every time slot, relating to what is the actual area coverage of nodes in order to have the network reach the fully-connectivity. Far from our knowledge, till now there is no current researches discussed this issue. The research is done by making an implementation that depends on building adjacency matrix as an indicator to the connectivity between network members. This matrix is continually updated until each value in it refers to the number of hubs that should be followed to reach from one node to another. After repeating the algorithm on different area sizes, different coverage percentages for each size, and different relay percentages for several times, results extracted shows that for area coverage less than 5% we need to have 40% of the nodes to be relays, where 10% percentage is enough for areas with node coverage greater than 5%.

Keywords: ad-hoc mesh networks, network connectivity, mobile ad-hoc networks, Terranet, adjacency matrix, simulator, wireless sensor networks, peer to peer networks, vehicular Ad hoc networks, relay

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16 Existence and Construction of Maximal Rectangular Duals

Authors: Krishnendra Shekhawat

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Given a graph G = (V, E), a rectangular dual of G represents the vertices of G by a set of interior-disjoint rectangles such that two rectangles touch if and only if there is an edge between the two corresponding vertices in G. Rectangular duals do not exist for every graph, so we can define maximal rectangular duals. A maximal rectangular dual is a rectangular dual of a graph G such that there exists no graph G ′ with a rectangular dual where G is a subgraph of G ′. In this paper, we enumerate all maximal rectangular duals (or, to be precise, the corresponding planar graphs) up to six nodes and presents a necessary condition for the existence of a rectangular dual. This work allegedly has applications in integrated circuit design and architectural floor plans.

Keywords: adjacency, degree sequence, dual graph, rectangular dual

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15 Efficient Filtering of Graph Based Data Using Graph Partitioning

Authors: Nileshkumar Vaishnav, Aditya Tatu

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An algebraic framework for processing graph signals axiomatically designates the graph adjacency matrix as the shift operator. In this setup, we often encounter a problem wherein we know the filtered output and the filter coefficients, and need to find out the input graph signal. Solution to this problem using direct approach requires O(N3) operations, where N is the number of vertices in graph. In this paper, we adapt the spectral graph partitioning method for partitioning of graphs and use it to reduce the computational cost of the filtering problem. We use the example of denoising of the temperature data to illustrate the efficacy of the approach.

Keywords: graph signal processing, graph partitioning, inverse filtering on graphs, algebraic signal processing

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14 An Application of Graph Theory to The Electrical Circuit Using Matrix Method

Authors: Samai'la Abdullahi

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A graph is a pair of two set and so that a graph is a pictorial representation of a system using two basic element nodes and edges. A node is represented by a circle (either hallo shade) and edge is represented by a line segment connecting two nodes together. In this paper, we present a circuit network in the concept of graph theory application and also circuit models of graph are represented in logical connection method were we formulate matrix method of adjacency and incidence of matrix and application of truth table.

Keywords: euler circuit and path, graph representation of circuit networks, representation of graph models, representation of circuit network using logical truth table

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13 Bounds on the Laplacian Vertex PI Energy

Authors: Ezgi Kaya, A. Dilek Maden

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A topological index is a number related to graph which is invariant under graph isomorphism. In theoretical chemistry, molecular structure descriptors (also called topological indices) are used for modeling physicochemical, pharmacologic, toxicologic, biological and other properties of chemical compounds. Let G be a graph with n vertices and m edges. For a given edge uv, the quantity nu(e) denotes the number of vertices closer to u than v, the quantity nv(e) is defined analogously. The vertex PI index defined as the sum of the nu(e) and nv(e). Here the sum is taken over all edges of G. The energy of a graph is defined as the sum of the eigenvalues of adjacency matrix of G and the Laplacian energy of a graph is defined as the sum of the absolute value of difference of laplacian eigenvalues and average degree of G. In theoretical chemistry, the π-electron energy of a conjugated carbon molecule, computed using the Hückel theory, coincides with the energy. Hence results on graph energy assume special significance. The Laplacian matrix of a graph G weighted by the vertex PI weighting is the Laplacian vertex PI matrix and the Laplacian vertex PI eigenvalues of a connected graph G are the eigenvalues of its Laplacian vertex PI matrix. In this study, Laplacian vertex PI energy of a graph is defined of G. We also give some bounds for the Laplacian vertex PI energy of graphs in terms of vertex PI index, the sum of the squares of entries in the Laplacian vertex PI matrix and the absolute value of the determinant of the Laplacian vertex PI matrix.

Keywords: energy, Laplacian energy, laplacian vertex PI eigenvalues, Laplacian vertex PI energy, vertex PI index

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12 An Optimized Association Rule Mining Algorithm

Authors: Archana Singh, Jyoti Agarwal, Ajay Rana

Abstract:

Data Mining is an efficient technology to discover patterns in large databases. Association Rule Mining techniques are used to find the correlation between the various item sets in a database, and this co-relation between various item sets are used in decision making and pattern analysis. In recent years, the problem of finding association rules from large datasets has been proposed by many researchers. Various research papers on association rule mining (ARM) are studied and analyzed first to understand the existing algorithms. Apriori algorithm is the basic ARM algorithm, but it requires so many database scans. In DIC algorithm, less amount of database scan is needed but complex data structure lattice is used. The main focus of this paper is to propose a new optimized algorithm (Friendly Algorithm) and compare its performance with the existing algorithms A data set is used to find out frequent itemsets and association rules with the help of existing and proposed (Friendly Algorithm) and it has been observed that the proposed algorithm also finds all the frequent itemsets and essential association rules from databases as compared to existing algorithms in less amount of database scan. In the proposed algorithm, an optimized data structure is used i.e. Graph and Adjacency Matrix.

Keywords: association rules, data mining, dynamic item set counting, FP-growth, friendly algorithm, graph

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11 An Adaptive Dimensionality Reduction Approach for Hyperspectral Imagery Semantic Interpretation

Authors: Akrem Sellami, Imed Riadh Farah, Basel Solaiman

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With the development of HyperSpectral Imagery (HSI) technology, the spectral resolution of HSI became denser, which resulted in large number of spectral bands, high correlation between neighboring, and high data redundancy. However, the semantic interpretation is a challenging task for HSI analysis due to the high dimensionality and the high correlation of the different spectral bands. In fact, this work presents a dimensionality reduction approach that allows to overcome the different issues improving the semantic interpretation of HSI. Therefore, in order to preserve the spatial information, the Tensor Locality Preserving Projection (TLPP) has been applied to transform the original HSI. In the second step, knowledge has been extracted based on the adjacency graph to describe the different pixels. Based on the transformation matrix using TLPP, a weighted matrix has been constructed to rank the different spectral bands based on their contribution score. Thus, the relevant bands have been adaptively selected based on the weighted matrix. The performance of the presented approach has been validated by implementing several experiments, and the obtained results demonstrate the efficiency of this approach compared to various existing dimensionality reduction techniques. Also, according to the experimental results, we can conclude that this approach can adaptively select the relevant spectral improving the semantic interpretation of HSI.

Keywords: band selection, dimensionality reduction, feature extraction, hyperspectral imagery, semantic interpretation

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10 Uvulars Alternation in Hasawi Arabic: A Harmonic Serialism Approach

Authors: Huda Ahmed Al Taisan

Abstract:

This paper investigates a phonological phenomenon, which exhibits variation ‘alternation’ in terms of the uvular consonants [q] and [ʁ] in Hasawi Arabic. This dialect is spoken in Alahsa city, which is located in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. To the best of our knowledge, no such research has systematically studied this phenomenon in Hasawi Arabic dialect. This paper is significant because it fills the gap in the literature about this alternation phenomenon in this understudied dialect. A large amount of the data is extracted from several interviews the author has conducted with 10 participants, native speakers of the dialect, and complemented by additional forms from social media. The latter method of collecting the data adds to the significance of the research. The analysis of the data is carried out in Harmonic Serialism Optimality Theory (HS-OT), a version of the Optimality Theoretic (OT) framework, which holds that linguistic forms are the outcome of the interaction among violable universal constraints, and in the recent development of OT into a model that accounts for linguistic variation in harmonic derivational steps. This alternation process is assumed to be phonologically unconditioned and in free variation in other varieties of Arabic dialects in the area. The goal of this paper is to investigate whether this phenomenon is in free variation or governed, what governs this alternation between [q] and [ʁ] and whether the alternation is phonological or other linguistic constraints are in action. The results show that the [q] and [ʁ] alternation is not free and it occurs due to different assimilation processes. Positional, segmental sequence and vowel adjacency factors are in action in Hasawi Arabic.

Keywords: harmonic serialism, Hasawi, uvular, variation

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9 Catalytic Thermodynamics of Nanocluster Adsorbates from Informational Statistical Mechanics

Authors: Forrest Kaatz, Adhemar Bultheel

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We use an informational statistical mechanics approach to study the catalytic thermodynamics of platinum and palladium cuboctahedral nanoclusters. Nanoclusters and their adatoms are viewed as chemical graphs with a nearest neighbor adjacency matrix. We use the Morse potential to determine bond energies between cluster atoms in a coordination type calculation. We use adsorbate energies calculated from density functional theory (DFT) to study the adatom effects on the thermodynamic quantities, which are derived from a Hamiltonian. Oxygen radical and molecular adsorbates are studied on platinum clusters and hydrogen on palladium clusters. We calculate the entropy, free energy, and total energy as the coverage of adsorbates increases from bridge and hollow sites on the surface. Thermodynamic behavior versus adatom coverage is related to the structural distribution of adatoms on the nanocluster surfaces. The thermodynamic functions are characterized using a simple adsorption model, with linear trends as the coverage of adatoms increases. The data exhibits size effects for the measured thermodynamic properties with cluster diameters between 2 and 5 nm. Entropy and enthalpy calculations of Pt-O2 compare well with previous theoretical data for Pt(111)-O2, and our Pd-H results show similar trends as experimental measurements for Pd-H2 nanoclusters. Our methods are general and may be applied to wide variety of nanocluster adsorbate systems.

Keywords: catalytic thermodynamics, palladium nanocluster absorbates, platinum nanocluster absorbates, statistical mechanics

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8 Using Cyclic Structure to Improve Inference on Network Community Structure

Authors: Behnaz Moradijamei, Michael Higgins

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Identifying community structure is a critical task in analyzing social media data sets often modeled by networks. Statistical models such as the stochastic block model have proven to explain the structure of communities in real-world network data. In this work, we develop a goodness-of-fit test to examine community structure's existence by using a distinguishing property in networks: cyclic structures are more prevalent within communities than across them. To better understand how communities are shaped by the cyclic structure of the network rather than just the number of edges, we introduce a novel method for deciding on the existence of communities. We utilize these structures by using renewal non-backtracking random walk (RNBRW) to the existing goodness-of-fit test. RNBRW is an important variant of random walk in which the walk is prohibited from returning back to a node in exactly two steps and terminates and restarts once it completes a cycle. We investigate the use of RNBRW to improve the performance of existing goodness-of-fit tests for community detection algorithms based on the spectral properties of the adjacency matrix. Our proposed test on community structure is based on the probability distribution of eigenvalues of the normalized retracing probability matrix derived by RNBRW. We attempt to make the best use of asymptotic results on such a distribution when there is no community structure, i.e., asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. Moreover, we provide a theoretical foundation for our statistic by obtaining the true mean and a tight lower bound for RNBRW edge weights variance.

Keywords: hypothesis testing, RNBRW, network inference, community structure

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7 Fundamental Research on Factors Affecting the Under-Film Corrosion Behavior of Coated Steel Members

Authors: T. Sakamoto, S. Kainuma

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Firstly, in order to examine the influence of the remaining amount of the rust on the coating film durability, the accelerated deterioration tests were carried out. In order to prepare test specimens, uncoated steel plates were corroded by the Salt Spray Test (SST) prior to the accelerated deterioration tests, and then the prepared test specimens were coated by epoxy resin and phthalic acid resin each of which has different gas-barrier performance. As the result, it was confirmed that the under-film corrosion occurred in the area and the adjacency to great quantities of salt exists in the rust, and did not occurred in the specimen which was applied the epoxy resin paint after the surface preparation by the power tool. Secondly, in order to clarify the influence of the corrosive factors on the coating film durability, outdoor exposure tests were conducted for one year on actual steel bridge located at a coastal area. The tests specimens consist of coated corroded plates and the uncoated steel plates, and they were installed on the different structural members of the bridge for one year. From the test results, the uncoated steel plates which were installed on the underside of the member are easily corrosive and had highly correlation with the amount of salt in the rust. On the other hand, the most corrosive under-film steel was the vertical surface of the web plate. Thus, it was confirmed that under-film corrosion rate was not match with corrosion rate of the uncoated steel. Consequently, it is estimated that the main factors of under-film corrosion are gas-barrier property of coating film and corrosive factors such as water vapor and temperature. The salt which significantly corrodes the uncoated steel plate is not directly related to the under-film corrosion.

Keywords: accelerated deterioration test, coating durability, environmental factor, under-film corrosion

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6 Forecasting Regional Data Using Spatial Vars

Authors: Taisiia Gorshkova

Abstract:

Since the 1980s, spatial correlation models have been used more often to model regional indicators. An increasingly popular method for studying regional indicators is modeling taking into account spatial relationships between objects that are part of the same economic zone. In 2000s the new class of model – spatial vector autoregressions was developed. The main difference between standard and spatial vector autoregressions is that in the spatial VAR (SpVAR), the values of indicators at time t may depend on the values of explanatory variables at the same time t in neighboring regions and on the values of explanatory variables at time t-k in neighboring regions. Thus, VAR is a special case of SpVAR in the absence of spatial lags, and the spatial panel data model is a special case of spatial VAR in the absence of time lags. Two specifications of SpVAR were applied to Russian regional data for 2000-2017. The values of GRP and regional CPI are used as endogenous variables. The lags of GRP, CPI and the unemployment rate were used as explanatory variables. For comparison purposes, the standard VAR without spatial correlation was used as “naïve” model. In the first specification of SpVAR the unemployment rate and the values of depending variables, GRP and CPI, in neighboring regions at the same moment of time t were included in equations for GRP and CPI respectively. To account for the values of indicators in neighboring regions, the adjacency weight matrix is used, in which regions with a common sea or land border are assigned a value of 1, and the rest - 0. In the second specification the values of depending variables in neighboring regions at the moment of time t were replaced by these values in the previous time moment t-1. According to the results obtained, when inflation and GRP of neighbors are added into the model both inflation and GRP are significantly affected by their previous values, and inflation is also positively affected by an increase in unemployment in the previous period and negatively affected by an increase in GRP in the previous period, which corresponds to economic theory. GRP is not affected by either the inflation lag or the unemployment lag. When the model takes into account lagged values of GRP and inflation in neighboring regions, the results of inflation modeling are practically unchanged: all indicators except the unemployment lag are significant at a 5% significance level. For GRP, in turn, GRP lags in neighboring regions also become significant at a 5% significance level. For both spatial and “naïve” VARs the RMSE were calculated. The minimum RMSE are obtained via SpVAR with lagged explanatory variables. Thus, according to the results of the study, it can be concluded that SpVARs can accurately model both the actual values of macro indicators (particularly CPI and GRP) and the general situation in the regions

Keywords: forecasting, regional data, spatial econometrics, vector autoregression

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5 Land-Use Transitions and Its Implications on Food Production Systems in Rural Landscape of Southwestern Ghana

Authors: Evelyn Asante Yeboah, Kwabena O. Asubonteng, Justice Camillus Mensah, Christine Furst

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Smallholder-dominated mosaic landscapes in rural Africa are relevant for food production, biodiversity conservation, and climate regulation. Land-use transitions threaten the multifunctionality of such landscapes, especially the production capacity of arable lands resulting in food security challenges. Using land-cover maps derived from maximum likelihood classification of Landsat satellite images for the years 2002, 2015, and 2020, post-classification change detection, landscape metrics, and key informant interviews, the study assessed the implications of rubber plantation expansion and oil business development on the food production capacity of Ahanta West District, Ghana. The analysis reveals that settlement and rubber areas expanded by 5.82% and 10.33% of the landscape area, respectively, between 2002 and 2020. This increase translates into over twice their initial sizes (144% in settlement change and 101% in rubber change). Rubber plantation spread dominates the north and southwestern areas, whereas settlement is widespread in the eastern parts of the landscape. Rubber and settlement expanded at the expense of cropland, palm, and shrublands. Land-use transitions between cropland, palm, and shrubland were targeting each other, but the net loss in shrubland was higher (-17.27%). Isolation, subdivision, connectedness, and patch adjacency indices showed patch consolidation in the landscape configuration from 2002 to 2015 and patch fragmentation from 2015 to 2020. The study also found patches with consistent increasing connectivity in settlement areas indicating the influence of oil discovery developments and fragmentation tendencies in rubber, shrubland, cropland, and palm, indicating springing up of smaller rubber farms, the disappearance of shrubland, and splitting up of cropland and palm areas respectively. The results revealed a trend in land-use transitions in favor of smallholder rubber plantation expansion and oil discovery developments, which suggest serious implications on food production systems and poses a risk for food security and landscape multifunctional characteristics. To ensure sustainability in land uses, this paper recommends the enforcement of legislative instruments governing spatial planning and land use in Ghana as embedded in the 2016 land-use and spatial planning act.

Keywords: food production systems, food security, Ghana’s west coast, land-use transitions, multifunctional rural landscapes

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4 Evolutionary Advantages of Loneliness with an Agent-Based Model

Authors: David Gottlieb, Jason Yoder

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The feeling of loneliness is not uncommon in modern society, and yet, there is a fundamental lack of understanding in its origins and purpose in nature. One interpretation of loneliness is that it is a subjective experience that punishes a lack of social behavior, and thus its emergence in human evolution is seemingly tied to the survival of early human tribes. Still, a common counterintuitive response to loneliness is a state of hypervigilance, resulting in social withdrawal, which may appear maladaptive to modern society. So far, no computational model of loneliness’ effect during evolution yet exists; however, agent-based models (ABM) can be used to investigate social behavior, and applying evolution to agents’ behaviors can demonstrate selective advantages for particular behaviors. We propose an ABM where each agent contains four social behaviors, and one goal-seeking behavior, letting evolution select the best behavioral patterns for resource allocation. In our paper, we use an algorithm similar to the boid model to guide the behavior of agents, but expand the set of rules that govern their behavior. While we use cohesion, separation, and alignment for simple social movement, our expanded model adds goal-oriented behavior, which is inspired by particle swarm optimization, such that agents move relative to their personal best position. Since agents are given the ability to form connections by interacting with each other, our final behavior guides agent movement toward its social connections. Finally, we introduce a mechanism to represent a state of loneliness, which engages when an agent's perceived social involvement does not meet its expected social involvement. This enables us to investigate a minimal model of loneliness, and using evolution we attempt to elucidate its value in human survival. Agents are placed in an environment in which they must acquire resources, as their fitness is based on the total resource collected. With these rules in place, we are able to run evolution under various conditions, including resource-rich environments, and when disease is present. Our simulations indicate that there is strong selection pressure for social behavior under circumstances where there is a clear discrepancy between initial resource locations, and against social behavior when disease is present, mirroring hypervigilance. This not only provides an explanation for the emergence of loneliness, but also reflects the diversity of response to loneliness in the real world. In addition, there is evidence of a richness of social behavior when loneliness was present. By introducing just two resource locations, we observed a divergence in social motivation after agents became lonely, where one agent learned to move to the other, who was in a better resource position. The results and ongoing work from this project show that it is possible to glean insight into the evolutionary advantages of even simple mechanisms of loneliness. The model we developed has produced unexpected results and has led to more questions, such as the impact loneliness would have at a larger scale, or the effect of creating a set of rules governing interaction beyond adjacency.

Keywords: agent-based, behavior, evolution, loneliness, social

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3 Doctor-Patient Interaction in an L2: Pragmatic Study of a Nigerian Experience

Authors: Ayodele James Akinola

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This study investigated the use of English in doctor-patient interaction in a university teaching hospital from a southwestern state in Nigeria with the aim of identifying the role of communication in an L2, patterns of communication, discourse strategies, pragmatic acts, and contexts that shape the interaction. Jacob Mey’s Pragmatic Acts notion complemented with Emanuel and Emanuel’s model of doctor-patient relationship provided the theoretical standpoint. Data comprising 7 audio-recorded doctors-patient interactions were collected from a University Hospital in Oyo state, Nigeria. Interactions involving the use of English language were purposefully selected. These were supplemented with patients’ case notes and interviews conducted with doctors. Transcription was patterned alongside modified Arminen’s notations of conversation analysis. In the study, interaction in English between doctor and patients has the preponderance of direct-translation, code-mixing and switching, Nigerianism and use of cultural worldviews to express medical experience. Irrespective of these, three patterns communication, namely the paternalistic, interpretive, and deliberative were identified. These were exhibited through varying discourse strategies. The paternalistic model reflected slightly casual conversational conventions and registers. These were achieved through the pragmemic activities of situated speech acts, psychological and physical acts, via patients’ quarrel-induced acts, controlled and managed through doctors’ shared situation knowledge. All these produced empathising, pacifying, promising and instructing practs. The patients’ practs were explaining, provoking, associating and greeting in the paternalistic model. The informative model reveals the use of adjacency pairs, formal turn-taking, precise detailing, institutional talks and dialogic strategies. Through the activities of the speech, prosody and physical acts, the practs of declaring, alerting and informing were utilised by doctors, while the patients exploited adapting, requesting and selecting practs. The negotiating conversational strategy of the deliberative model featured in the speech, prosody and physical acts. In this model, practs of suggesting, teaching, persuading and convincing were utilised by the doctors. The patients deployed the practs of questioning, demanding, considering and deciding. The contextual variables revealed that other patterns (such as phatic and informative) are also used and they coalesced in the hospital within the situational and psychological contexts. However, the paternalistic model was predominantly employed by doctors with over six years in practice, while the interpretive, informative and deliberative models were found among registrar and others below six years of medical practice. Doctors’ experience, patients’ peculiarities and shared cultural knowledge influenced doctor-patient communication in the study.

Keywords: pragmatics, communication pattern, doctor-patient interaction, Nigerian hospital situation

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2 Teaching Turn-Taking Rules and Pragmatic Principles to Empower EFL Students and Enhance Their Learning in Speaking Modules

Authors: O. F. Elkommos

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Teaching and learning EFL speaking modules is one of the most challenging productive modules for both instructors and learners. In a student-centered interactive communicative language teaching approach, learners and instructors should be aware of the fact that the target language must be taught as/for communication. The student must be empowered by tools that will work on more than one level of their communicative competence. Communicative learning will need a teaching and learning methodology that will address the goal. Teaching turn-taking rules, pragmatic principles and speech acts will enhance students' sociolinguistic competence, strategic competence together with discourse competence. Sociolinguistic competence entails the mastering of speech act conventions and illocutionary acts of refusing, agreeing/disagreeing; emotive acts like, thanking, apologizing, inviting, offering; directives like, ordering, requesting, advising, and hinting, among others. Strategic competence includes enlightening students’ consciousness of the various particular turn-taking systemic rules of organizing techniques of opening and closing conversation, adjacency pairs, interrupting, back-channeling, asking for/giving opinion, agreeing/disagreeing, using natural fillers for pauses, gaps, speaker select, self-select, and silence among others. Students will have the tools to manage a conversation. Students are engaged in opportunities of experiencing the natural language not as a mere extra student talking time but rather an empowerment of knowing and using the strategies. They will have the component items they need to use as well as the opportunity to communicate in the target language using topics of their interest and choice. This enhances students' communicative abilities. Available websites and textbooks now use one or more of these tools of turn-taking or pragmatics. These will be students' support in self-study in their independent learning study hours. This will be their reinforcement practice on e-Learning interactive activities. The students' target is to be able to communicate the intended meaning to an addressee that is in turn able to infer that intended meaning. The combination of these tools will be assertive and encouraging to the student to beat the struggle with what to say, how to say it, and when to say it. Teaching the rules, principles and techniques is an act of awareness raising method engaging students in activities that will lead to their pragmatic discourse competence. The aim of the paper is to show how the suggested pragmatic model will empower students with tools and systems that would support their learning. Supporting students with turn taking rules, speech act theory, applying both to texts and practical analysis and using it in speaking classes empowers students’ pragmatic discourse competence and assists them to understand language and its context. They become more spontaneous and ready to learn the discourse pragmatic dimension of the speaking techniques and suitable content. Students showed a better performance and a good motivation to learn. The model is therefore suggested for speaking modules in EFL classes.

Keywords: communicative competence, EFL, empowering learners, enhance learning, speech acts, teaching speaking, turn taking, learner centred, pragmatics

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1 Contact Zones and Fashion Hubs: From Circular Economy to Circular Neighbourhoods

Authors: Tiziana Ferrero-Regis, Marissa Lindquist

Abstract:

Circular Economy (CE) is increasingly seen as the reorganisation of production and consumption, and cities are acknowledged as the sources of many ecological and social problems; at the same time, they can be re-imagined through an ecologically and socially resilient future. The concept of the CE has received pointed critiques for its techno-deterministic orientation, focus on science and transformation by the policy. At the heart of our local re-imagining of the CE into circularity through contact zones there is the acknowledgment of collective, spontaneous and shared imaginations of alternative and sustainable futures through the creation of networks of community initiatives that are transformative, creating opportunities that simultaneously make cities rich and enrich humans. This paper presents a mapping project of the fashion and textile ecosystem in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Brisbane is currently the most aspirational city in Australia, as its population growth rate is the highest in the country. Yet, Brisbane is considered the least “fashion city” in the country. In contrast, the project revealed a greatly enhanced picture of distinct fashion and textile clusters across greater Brisbane and the adjacency of key services that may act to consolidate CE community contact zones. Clusters to the north of Brisbane and several locales to the south are zones of a greater mix between public/social amenities, walkable zones and local transport networks with educational precincts, community hubs, concentration of small enterprises, designers, artisans and waste recovery centers that will help to establish knowledge of key infrastructure networks that will support enmeshing these zones together. The paper presents two case studies of independent designers who work on new and re-designed clothing through recovering pre-consumer textiles and that operate from within creative precincts. The first case is designer Nelson Molloy, who recently returned to the inner city suburb of West End with their Chasing Zero Design project. The area was known in the 1980s and 1990s for its alternative lifestyle with creative independent production, thrifty clothing shops, alternative fashion and a socialist agenda. After 30 years of progressive gentrification of the suburb, which has dislocated many of the artists, designers and artisans, West End is seeing the return and amplification of clusters of artisans, artists, designers and architects. The other case study is Practice Studio, located in a new zone of creative growth, Bowen Hills, north of the CBD. Practice Studio combines retail with a workroom, offers repair and remaking services, becoming a point of reference for young and emerging Australian designers and artists. The paper demonstrates the spatial politics of the CE and the way in which new cultural capital is produced thanks to cultural specificities and resources. It argues for the recognition of contact zones that are created by local actors, communities and knowledge networks, whose grass-roots agency is fundamental for the co-production of CE’s systems of local governance.

Keywords: contact zones, circular citities, fashion and textiles, circular neighbourhoods, australia

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