Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3296

Search results for: drug prevention programme

3296 The Effect of Drug Prevention Programme Based On Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self Concept Module Towards Resiliency and Aggression Among At-Risk Youth in Malaysia

Authors: Mohammad Aziz Shah Mohamed Arip, Aslina Ahmad, Fauziah Mohd Sa'ad, Samsiah Mohd Jais, Syed Sofian Syed Salim

Abstract:

This experimental study evaluates the effect of using Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and Multidimensional Self-Concept Model (MSCM) in a drug prevention programme to increase resiliency and reduce aggression among at-risk youth in Malaysia. A number of 60 (N=60) university students who were at-risk of taking drugs were involved in this study. Participants were identified with self-rating scales, Adolescent Resilience Attitude Scale (ARAS) and Aggression Questionnaire. Based on the mean score of these instruments, the participants were divided into the treatment group, and the control group. Data were analyzed using t-test. The finding showed that the mean score of resiliency was increased in the treatment group compared to the control group. It also shows that the mean score of aggression was reduced in the treatment group compared to the control group. Drug Prevention Programme was found to help in enhancing resiliency and reducing aggression among participants in the treatment group compared to the controlled group. Implications were given regarding the preventive actions on drug abuse among youth in Malaysia.

Keywords: drug prevention programme, cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), multidimensional self concept model (MSCM), resiliency, aggression, at-risk youth

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3295 The Effects of Health Education Programme on Knowledge and Prevention of Cerebrovascular Disease among Hypertensive Patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan

Authors: T. A. Ajiboye

Abstract:

This study examines the effects of health education programme on knowledge and prevention of cerebrovascular disease among hypertensive patients in University College Hospital, Ibadan. A quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. 100 hypertensive patients were conveniently selected from general outpatient department in UCH. Data generated were analyzed using ANOVA at 0.05 alpha levels. The findings of the study revealed that health education programme significantly influenced both the knowledge of hypertensive patients (F=22.70; DF=1/99; p < .05) and their attitude (F=10.377; DF=1/99; p < .05) on cerebrovascular disease. Findings also discovered that health education programme significantly reduce the complication of hypertension to cerebrovascular disease (F= 16.41; DF=7/286; p < 0.05) among the hypertensive patients at UCH. Based on the findings, it is recommended that hypertensive patients should relieve themselves from stress, engage themselves on regular exercises, compliance with drug and diet regimes coupled with keeping up of regular appointment. Government should design health information that will center on hypertension and cerebrovascular disease so as to keep health and community development problems to the barest minimum. Finally, there should be provision of social amenities and recreational centers, as this will prevents hypertension problems.

Keywords: cerebrovascular disease, effectiveness, health education, hypertension, knowledge, prevention

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3294 In Silico Studies on Selected Drug Targets for Combating Drug Resistance in Plasmodium Falcifarum

Authors: Deepika Bhaskar, Neena Wadehra, Megha Gulati, Aruna Narula, R. Vishnu, Gunjan Katyal

Abstract:

With drug resistance becoming widespread in Plasmodium falciparum infections, development of the alternative drugs is the desired strategy for prevention and cure of malaria. Three drug targets were selected to screen promising drug molecules from the GSK library of around 14000 molecules. Using an in silico structure-based drug designing approach, the differences in binding energies of the substrate and inhibitor were exploited between target sites of parasite and human to design a drug molecule against Plasmodium. The docking studies have shown several promising molecules from GSK library with more effective binding as compared to the already known inhibitors for the drug targets. Though stronger interaction has been shown by several molecules as compare to reference, few molecules have shown the potential as drug candidates though in vitro studies are required to validate the results.

Keywords: plasmodium, malaria, drug targets, in silico studies

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3293 Development of the Drug Abuse Health Information System in Thai Community

Authors: Waraporn Boonchieng, Ekkarat Boonchieng, Sivaporn Aungwattana, Decha Tamdee, Wongamporn Pinyavong

Abstract:

Drug addiction represents one of the most important public health issues in both developed and developing countries. The purpose of this study was to develop a drug abuse health information in a community in Northern Thailand using developmental research design. The developmental researchers performed four phases to develop drug abuse health information, including 1) synthesizing knowledge related to drug abuse prevention and identifying the components of drug abuse health information; 2) developing the system in mobile application and website; 3) implementing drug abuse health information in the rural community; and 4) evaluating the feasibility of drug abuse health information. Data collection involved both qualitative and quantitative procedures. The qualitative data and quantitative data were analyzed using content analysis and descriptive statistics, respectively. The findings of this study showed that drug abuse health information consisted of five sections, including drug-related prevention knowledge for teens, drug-related knowledge for adults and professionals, the database for drug dependence treatment centers, self-administered questionnaires, and supportive counseling sections. First, in drug-related prevention knowledge for teens, the developmental researchers designed four infographics and animation to provide drug-related prevention knowledge, including types of illegal drugs, causes of drug abuse, consequences of drug abuse, drug abuse diagnosis and treatment, and drug abuse prevention. Second, in drug-related knowledge for adults and professionals, the developmental researchers developed many documents in a form of PDF file to provide drug-related knowledge, including types of illegal drugs, causes of drug abuse, drug abuse prevention, and relapse prevention guideline. Third, database for drug dependence treatment centers included the place, direction map, operation time, and the way for contacting all drug dependence treatment centers in Thailand. Fourth, self-administered questionnaires comprised preventive drugs behavior questionnaire, drug abuse knowledge questionnaire, the stages of change readiness and treatment eagerness to drug use scale, substance use behaviors questionnaire, tobacco use behaviors questionnaire, stress screening, and depression screening. Finally, for supportive counseling, the developmental researchers designed chatting box through which each user could write and send their concerns to counselors individually. Results from evaluation process showed that 651 participants used drug abuse health information via mobile application and website. Among all users, 48.8% were males and 51.2% were females. More than half (55.3%) were 15-20 years old and most of them (88.0%) were Buddhists. Most users reported ever getting knowledge related to drugs (86.1%), and drinking alcohol (94.2%) while some of them (6.9%) reported ever using tobacco. For satisfaction with using the drug abuse health information, more than half of users reflected that the contents of drug abuse health information were interesting (59%), up-to date (61%), and highly useful to their self-study (59%) at high level. In addition, half of them were satisfied with the design in terms of infographics (54%) and animation (51%). Thus, this drug abuse health information can be adopted to explore drug abuse situation and serves as a tool to prevent drug abuse and addiction among Thai community people.

Keywords: drug addiction, health informatics, big data, development research

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3292 PRENACEL: Development and Evaluation of an M-Health Strategy to Improve Prenatal Care in Brazil

Authors: E. M. Vieira, C. S. Vieira, L. P. Bonifácio, L. M. de Oliveira Ciabati, A. C. A. Franzon, F. S. Zaratini, J. A. C. Sanchez, M. S. Andrade, J. P. Dias de Souza

Abstract:

The quality of prenatal care is key to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality. Communication between the health service and users can stimulate prevention and care. M-health has been an important and low cost strategy to health education. The PRENACEL programme (prenatal in the cell phone) was developed. It consists of a programme of information via SMS from the 20th week of pregnancy up to 12th week after delivery. Messages were about prenatal care, birth, contraception and breastfeeding. Communication of the pregnant woman asking questions about their health was possible. The objective of this study was to evaluate the implementation of PRENACEL as a useful complement to the standard prenatal care. Twenty health clinics were selected and randomized by cluster, 10 as the intervention group and 10 as the control group. In the intervention group, women and their partner were invited to participate. The control group received the standard prenatal care. All women were interviewed in the immediate post-partum and in the 12th and 24th week post-partum. Most women were married, had more than 8 years of schooling and visit the clinic more than 6 times during prenatal care. The intervention group presented lowest percentage of higher economic participants (5.6%), less single mothers and no drug user. It also presented more prenatal care visits than the control group and it was less likely to present Severe Acute Maternal Mortality when compared to control group as well as higher percentage of partners (75.4%) was present at the birth compared to control group. Although the study is still being carried out, preliminary data are showing positive results of the compliance of women to prenatal care.

Keywords: cellphone, health technology, prenatal care, prevention

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3291 Effects of Using a Recurrent Adverse Drug Reaction Prevention Program on Safe Use of Medicine among Patients Receiving Services at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital Thailand

Authors: Thippharat Wongsilarat, Parichat tuntilanon, Chonlakan Prataksitorn

Abstract:

Recurrent adverse drug reactions are harmful to patients with mild to fatal illnesses, and affect not only patients but also their relatives, and organizations. To compare safe use of medicine among patients before and after using the recurrent adverse drug reaction prevention program . Quasi-experimental research with the target population of 598 patients with drug allergy history. Data were collected through an observation form tested for its validity by three experts (IOC = 0.87), and analyzed with a descriptive statistic (percentage). The research was conducted jointly with a multidisciplinary team to analyze and determine the weak points and strong points in the recurrent adverse drug reaction prevention system during the past three years, and 546, 329, and 498 incidences, respectively, were found. Of these, 379, 279, and 302 incidences, or 69.4; 84.80; and 60.64 percent of the patients with drug allergy history, respectively, were found to have caused by incomplete warning system. In addition, differences in practice in caring for patients with drug allergy history were found that did not cover all the steps of the patient care process, especially a lack of repeated checking, and a lack of communication between the multidisciplinary team members. Therefore, the recurrent adverse drug reaction prevention program was developed with complete warning points in the information technology system, the repeated checking step, and communication among related multidisciplinary team members starting from the hospital identity card room, patient history recording officers, nurses, physicians who prescribe the drugs, and pharmacists. Including in the system were surveillance, nursing, recording, and linking the data to referring units. There were also training concerning adverse drug reactions by pharmacists, monthly meetings to explain the process to practice personnel, creating safety culture, random checking of practice, motivational encouragement, supervising, controlling, following up, and evaluating the practice. The rate of prescribing drugs to which patients were allergic per 1,000 prescriptions was 0.08, and the incidence rate of recurrent drug reaction per 1,000 prescriptions was 0. Surveillance of recurrent adverse drug reactions covering all service providing points can ensure safe use of medicine for patients.

Keywords: recurrent drug, adverse reaction, safety, use of medicine

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3290 Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats

Authors: S. Buloyan, V. Mamikonyan, H. Hakobyan, H. Harutyunyan, H. Gasparyan

Abstract:

The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, GSE, liver cirrhosis, prevention, treatment

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3289 Prevalence of Drug Injection among Male Prisoners in the West of Iran

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh

Abstract:

Background: Substance addiction is one of the major worldwide problems that destroys economy, familial relationships, and the abuser’s career and has several side effects; in the meantime drug injection due to the possibility of shared use of syringes among drug users could have multiple complications to be followed. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug injection among male prisoners in Kermanshah city, the west of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 615 male prisoners were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a writing self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) at 95% significant level. Results: The mean age of respondents was 31.13 years [SD: 7.76]. Mean initiation age for drug use was 14.36 years (range, 9-34 years). Almost, 39.4 % reported a history of drug use before prison. Opium (33.2%) and crystal (27.1%) was the most used drug among prisoners. Furthermore, 9.3 % had a history of injection addiction. There was a significant correlation between age, crime type, marital status, economic status, unprotected sex and drug injection (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The low age of drug abuse and the prevalence of drug injection among offenders can be as a warning for responsible; in this regard, implementation of prevention programs to risky behavior and harm reduction among high-risk groups can follow useful results.

Keywords: substance abuse, drug injection, prison, Iran

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3288 Assessment of Impact of Physiological and Biochemical Risk Factors on Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: V. Mathad, S. Shivprasad, P. Shivsharannappa, M. K. Patil

Abstract:

Introduction: Non-communicable diseases are emerging diseases in India. Government of India launched National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Cancer and Stroke (NPCDCS) during the year 2008. The aim of the programme was to reduce the burden of non communicable diseases by health promotion and prompt treatment. Objective: The present study was intended to assess the impact of National Program for prevention and control of Cardiovascular Diseases, Diabetes, Cancer and Stroke Programme on biochemical and physiological factors influencing Type 2 diabetes in Kalaburagi District. Material and Method: NCD Clinic was established at District Hospital during April 2016. All the patients attending District Hospital Kalaburagi above the age of 30 years are screened for Non Communicable Diseases under NPCDCS Programme. A total sample of 7447 patients attending NCD Clinic situated at Kalaburagi district was assessed in this study. Pre structured and pretested schedule seeking information was obtained from all the patients by the counselor working under NPCDCS programme. All the Patients attending District Hospital were screened for Diabetes using Glucometer at NCD clinic. The suspected cases were further confirmed through Biochemical investigations like Fasting Blood glucose, HBA1c, Urine Glucose, Kidney Function test. SPSS 20 version was used for analysis of data. Chi square test, P values and odds ratio was used to study the association of factors. Results: A Total of 7447 patients attended NCD clinic during the year 2017-18 were analyzed, Diabetes was seen among 3028 individuals were as comorbidities along with Hypertension was seen among 757 individuals. The mean age of the population was 50 ± 2.84. 3440(46.2%) were males whereas Female constituted 4007(53.8%) of population. The incidence and prevalence of Diabetes being 8.6 and 12.8 respectively. Diabetes was more commonly seen during the age group of 40 to 69 years. Diabetes was significantly associated with Age group 40 to 69 years, obesity and female gender (p < 0.05). The risk of developing Hypertension and comorbidity conditions of hypertension and Diabetes was 1.224 and 1.305 times higher among males, whereas the risk of diabetes was 1.127 higher among females as compared to males. Conclusion: The screening for NCD has significantly increased after launching of NPCDCS programme. NCD was significantly associated with obesity, female gender, increased age as well as comorbid conditions like hypertension and tuberculosis.

Keywords: non-communicable diseases, NPCDCS programme, type 2 Diabetes, physiological factors

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3287 Developing New Academics: So What Difference Does It Make?

Authors: Nalini Chitanand

Abstract:

Given the dynamic nature of the higher education landscape, induction programmes for new academics has become the norm nowadays to support academics negotiate these rough terrain. This study investigates an induction programme for new academics in a higher education institution to establish what difference it has made to participants. The findings revealed that the benefits ranged from creating safe spaces for collaboration and networking to fostering reflective practice and contributing to the scholarship of teaching and learning. The study also revealed that some of the intentions of the programme may not have been achieved, for example transformative learning. This led to questioning whether this intention is an appropriate one given the short duration of the programme and the long, drawn out process of transformation. It may be concluded that the academic induction programme in this study serves to sow the seeds for transformative learning through fostering critically reflective practice. Recommendations for further study could include long term impact of the programme on student learning and success, these being the core business of higher education. It is also recommended that in addition to an induction programme, the university invests in a mentoring programme for new staff and extend the support for academics in order to sustain critical reflection and which may contribute to transformative educational practice.

Keywords: induction programme, reflective practice, scholarship of teaching, transformative learning

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3286 The Role of Public Representatives and Legislatures in Strengthening HIV and AIDS Prevention Strategies: The Case of South Africa

Authors: Moses Mncwabe

Abstract:

Both Public Representatives and Legislatures have an imperative role towards strengthening interventions to reduce and cease Sexual Transmitted Infections (STIs) specifically the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Scaling-up constituency work in support of interventions earmarked for mitigating the compromising socio-economic impacts of advanced HIV is extremely essential. Though the antiretroviral treatment (ART) has saved million lives that would have perished without it, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (2012) states that more efforts should be redirected to prevention strategies to close the tap of new infections. It is against this backdrop that Legislatures as law making institutions have undisputed role to play in HIV alleviation because of the position they occupy in the society. Furthermore, Public Representatives are arguably idolised by young people for the role they play hence it is incumbent upon them to use their moral and political responsibility to aid the interventions for HIV prevention (Inter-Parliamentary Union, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS & United Nations Development Programme, 2007). Moreover, the continuous HIV infection and its devastating effects specifically in Southern African region has brought closer the disease to public representatives and demanded calculated interventions warranting both public representatives and legislatures to be more visible in various ways such as taking HIV counselling and testing publicly, oversight, reducing stigma and discrimination, partnering with civil society organisations (CSOs) and facilitating debates on HIV across parliamentary and social platforms. The effects of advanced HIV yearn for public representatives to be seen, accessed, felt, engaged, partnered and lobbied for pro-human rights legislations and ideal oversight to coerce the executive to deliver on their core responsibilities like providing basic services to the electorates (AIDS Law Project (2003). The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs and the Southern African Development Community Parliamentary Forum (2004) assert that the omission of Public Representatives and Legislatures in the HIV prevention agenda is a serious deficiency in the fight against HIV and AIDS. In light of this, this paper argues the innovative and legislative ways in which both the Public Representative and the Legislatures should play in HIV prevention.

Keywords: legislature, public representative, oversight, HIV and AIDS, constituency, service delivery

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3285 Dietetics Practice in the Scope of Disease Prevention in Community Settings: A School-Based Obesity Prevention Program

Authors: Elham Abbas Aljaaly, Nahlaa Abdulwahab Khalifa

Abstract:

The active method of disease prevention is seen as the most affordable and sustainable action to deal with risks of non-communicable diseases such as obesity. This eight-week project aimed to pilot the feasibility and acceptability of a school-based programme, which is proposed to prevent and modify overweight status and possible related risk factors among student girls 'at the intermediate level' in Jeddah city. The programme was conducted through comprehensible approach targeting physical environment and school policies (nutritional/exercise/behavioural approach). The programme was designed to cultivate the personal and environmental awareness in schools for girls. This was applied by promoting healthy eating and physical activity through policies, physical education, healthier options for school canteens, and the creation of school health teams. The prevention programme was applied on 68 students (who agreed to participate) from grades 7th, 8th and 9th. A pre and post assessment questionnaire was employed on 66 students. The questionnaires were designed to obtain information on students' knowledge about health, nutrition and physical activity. Survey questions included information about nutrients, food consumption patterns, food intake and lifestyle. Physical education included training sessions for new opportunities for physical activities to be performed during school or after school hours. A running competition 'to enhance students’ performance for physical activities' was also conducted during the school visit. A visit to the school canteen was conducted to check, observe, record and assess all available food/beverage items and meals. The assessment method was a subjective method for the type of food/beverages if high in saturated fat, salt and sugar (HFSS) or non-HFSS. The school canteen administrators were encouraged to provide healthy food/beverage items and a sample healthy canteen was provided for implementation. Two healthy options were introduced to the school canteen. A follow up for students’ preferences for the introduced options and the purchasing power were assessed. Thirty-eight percent of young girls (n=26) were not participating in any form of physical activities inside or outside school. Skipping breakfast was stated by 42% (n=28) of students with no daily consumption (19%, n=13) for fruit/vegetables. Significant changes were noticed in students’ (n=66) overall responses to the pre and post questions (P value=.001). All students had participated in the conducted running competition sessions and reported satisfaction and enjoyment about the sessions. No absence was reported by the research team for attending physical education and activity sessions throughout the delivered programme. The purchasing power of the introduced healthy options of 'Salad and oatmeal' was increased to 18% in 8 weeks at the school canteen, and slightly affected the purchase for other less healthy options. The piloted programme indorsed better health and nutrition knowledge, healthy eating and lifestyle attitude, which could help young girls to obtain sustainable changes. It is expected that the outcomes of the programme will be a cornerstone for the futuristic national study that will assist policy makers and participants to build a knowledgeable health promotion scenario and make sure that school students have access to healthy foods, physical exercise and healthy lifestyle.

Keywords: adolescents, diet, exercise, behaviours, overweight/obesity, prevention-intervention programme, Saudi Arabia, schoolgirls

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3284 Access to Higher Education in Nigeria: The University of Calabar Pre-Degree Programme Experience

Authors: Eni I. Eni, James Okon, Ashang J. Ashang

Abstract:

The pre-degree programme of the University of Calabar was introduced to help increase access to tertiary Education in science related courses. This has become necessary due to population increase and public awareness. Its main objective was to provide access to candidates from educationally less developed states (ELDS) and states within its catchment area. To find out if this objective of the programme has been achieved, an impact evaluation of the programme was conducted, from where the aspect of providing access to University Education was reported here. It was reasoned that if this objective of the programme was properly implemented, there should be an evidence of increase in the access to University Education. To achieve the purpose of this study, two research questions were formulated; expost-facto research design and purposive sampling technique were adopted for the study. Data was collected from the Faculty of Science and analyzed using descriptive statistics in terms of frequencies and percentages. The result of data analysis showed that the pre-degree programme of the University of Calabar has provided educational access to Nigerians especially those from educationally less developed states in science related courses. It was therefore recommended that the programme be sustained and further be improved upon to facilitate its continued provision of access to University Education in Nigeria.

Keywords: higher education, pre-degree programme, University of Calabar, educationally less developed states

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3283 Community Participation of the Villagers: Corporate Social Responsibility Programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya Village, Bekasi Regency, West Java

Authors: Auliya Adzillatin Uzhma, Ismu Rini Dwi Ari, I. Nyoman Suluh Wijaya

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya village is cultivation of mangrove and fishery capital distribution, to achieve the goal the CSR programme needed participation from the society in it. Moeliono in Fahrudin (2011) mentioned that participation from society is based by intrinsic reason from inside people it self and extrinsic reason from the other who related to him or from connection with other people. The fundamental connection who caused more boundaries from action which the organization can do called the social structure. The purpose of this research is to know the form of public participation and the density of the villager and people who is participated in CSR programme. This research use Social Network Analysis method by knew the Rate of Participation and Density. The result of the research is people who is involved in the programme is lived in Dusun Pondok Dua and they work in fisheries field. Rate of Participation is 11,61 and that means people involved in 11 or 12 activites of CSR Programme. The rate of participation of CSR Programme is categorized as high rate participation. The density value from the participant is 0.516 it’s mean that 51.6% of the people that participated is involved in the same step of CSR programme.

Keywords: community participation, social network analysis, corporate social responsibility, urban and regional studies

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3282 Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Molecular Epidemiology: An Overview

Authors: Asho Ali

Abstract:

Tuberculosis is a disease of grave concern which infects one-third of the global population. The high incidence of tuberculosis is further compounded by the increasing emergence of drug resistant strains including multi drug resistant (MDR). Global incidence MDR-TB is ~4%. Molecular epidemiological studies, based on the assumption that patients infected with clustered strains are epidemiologically linked, have helped understand the transmission dynamics of disease. It has also helped to investigate the basis of variation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains, differences in transmission, and severity of disease or drug resistance mechanisms from across the globe. This has helped in developing strategies for the treatment and prevention of the disease including MDR.

Keywords: Mycobcaterium tuberculosis, molecular epidemiology, drug resistance, disease

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3281 Men’s Engagement in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programs

Authors: Zeynep Turhan

Abstract:

This review emphasized the effectiveness of men’s participation, and whether non-violent (NV) boys’ and men’s perceptions of IPV prevention programs affect their involvement. Additionally, the review aimed to identify the barriers of non-engagement as well as the most effective approaches to end and prevent violence-against-women (VAW). The main goals of this assessment were to investigate 1) how NV men engage in anti-violence prevention programs that empower women, 2) what are the possible perceptions of NV men involved in prevention programs 3) how to identify effective approaches and strategies that encourage NV men to become involved in prevention programs. This critical review also included the overview of prevention programs such as The Mentors in Violence Prevention Programs (MVP), The White Ribbon Campaign (WRC), and Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership through Alliances (DELTA). The review recommended expanding these programs to reach more macro settings such as workplace, faith-based and other community-based organizations. Additionally, secondary and territory prevention programs need to expand through addressing the long-term effects of violence.

Keywords: engagement, non-violent men, prevention programs

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3280 An Evaluation of the Efficacy of School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

Abstract:

The following review has identified specific programs, as well as the elements of these programs, that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools. Suicide is an issue that affects many students each year. Although this is a prominent issue, there are few prevention programs used within schools. The primary objective of most prevention programs is to reduce risk factors such as depression and hopelessness, and increase protective factors like support systems and help-seeking behaviors. Most programs include a gatekeeper training model, education component, peer support group, and/or counseling/treatment. Research shows that some of these programs, like the Signs of Suicide and Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme, are effective in reducing suicide behaviors and increasing protective factors. These programs have been implemented in many countries across the world and have shown promising results. Since schools can provide easy access to adolescents, implement education programs, and train staff members and students how to identify and to report suicide behaviors, school-based programs seem to be the best way to prevent suicide among adolescents. Early intervention may be an effective way to prevent suicide. Although, since early intervention is not always an option, school-based programs in high schools have also been shown to decrease suicide attempts by up to 50%. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1.) list at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2.) identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, and 3.) describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide.

Keywords: school, suicide, prevention, programs

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3279 Optimal Secondary Prevention and Background Risk

Authors: Mohamed Anouar Razgallah

Abstract:

This paper examines in the context of a one-period model the impact of background risk on the optimal secondary prevention. We conduct our study based on various configurations of the background risk. We intend to show that in most cases the level of secondary prevention effort varied after the introduction of background risk, however, in very few cases this level remains constant.

Keywords: secondary prevention, primary prevention, background risk, ecomomics

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3278 The Effects of the GAA15 (Gaelic Athletic Association 15) on Lower Extremity Injury Incidence and Neuromuscular Functional Outcomes in Collegiate Gaelic Games: A 2 Year Prospective Study

Authors: Brenagh E. Schlingermann, Clare Lodge, Paula Rankin

Abstract:

Background: Gaelic football, hurling and camogie are highly popular field games in Ireland. Research into the epidemiology of injury in Gaelic games revealed that approximately three quarters of the injuries in the games occur in the lower extremity. These injuries can have player, team and institutional impacts due to multiple factors including financial burden and time loss from competition. Research has shown it is possible to record injury data consistently with the GAA through a closed online recording system known as the GAA injury surveillance database. It has been established that determining the incidence of injury is the first step of injury prevention. The goals of this study were to create a dynamic GAA15 injury prevention programme which addressed five key components/goals; avoid positions associated with a high risk of injury, enhance flexibility, enhance strength, optimize plyometrics and address sports specific agilities. These key components are internationally recognized through the Prevent Injury, Enhance performance (PEP) programme which has proven reductions in ACL injuries by 74%. In national Gaelic games the programme is known as the GAA15 which has been devised from the principles of the PEP. No such injury prevention strategies have been published on this cohort in Gaelic games to date. This study will investigate the effects of the GAA15 on injury incidence and neuromuscular function in Gaelic games. Methods: A total of 154 players (mean age 20.32 ± 2.84) were recruited from the GAA teams within the Institute of Technology Carlow (ITC). Preseason and post season testing involved two objective screening tests; Y balance test and Three Hop Test. Practical workshops, with ongoing liaison, were provided to the coaches on the implementation of the GAA15. The programme was performed before every training session and game and the existing GAA injury surveillance database was accessed to monitor player’s injuries by the college sports rehabilitation athletic therapist. Retrospective analysis of the ITC clinic records were performed in conjunction with the database analysis as a means of tracking injuries that may have been missed. The effects of the programme were analysed by comparing the intervention groups Y balance and three hop test scores to an age/gender matched control group. Results: Year 1 results revealed significant increases in neuromuscular function as a result of the GAA15. Y Balance test scores for the intervention group increased in both the posterolateral (p=.005 and p=.001) and posteromedial reach directions (p= .001 and p=.001). A decrease in performance was determined for the three hop test (p=.039). Overall twenty-five injuries were reported during the season resulting in an injury rate of 3.00 injuries/1000hrs of participation; 1.25 injuries/1000hrs training and 4.25 injuries/1000hrs match play. Non-contact injuries accounted for 40% of the injuries sustained. Year 2 results are pending and expected April 2016. Conclusion: It is envisaged that implementation of the GAA15 will continue to reduce the risk of injury and improve neuromuscular function in collegiate Gaelic games athletes.

Keywords: GAA15, Gaelic games, injury prevention, neuromuscular training

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3277 Development of a Computer Based, Nutrition and Fitness Programme and Its Effect on Nutritional Status and Fitness of Obese Adults

Authors: Richa Soni, Vibha Bhatnagar, N. K. Jain

Abstract:

This study was conducted to develop a computer mediated programme for weight management and physical fitness and examining its efficacy in reducing weight and improving physical fitness in obese adults. A user friendly, computer based programme was developed to provide a simple, quick, easy and user-friendly method of assessing energy balance at individual level. The programme had four main sections viz. personal Profile, know about your weight, fitness and food exchange list. The computer programme was developed to provide facilities of creating individual profile, tracking meal and physical activities, suggesting nutritional and exercise requirements, planning calorie specific menus, keeping food diaries and revising the diet and exercise plans if needed. The programme was also providing information on obesity, underweight, physical fitness. An exhaustive food exchange list was also given in the programme to assist user to make right food choice decisions. The developed programme was evaluated by a panel of 15 experts comprising endocrinologists, nutritionists and diet counselors. Suggestions given by the experts were paned down and the entire programme was modified in light of suggestions given by the panel members and was reevaluated by the same panel of experts. For assessing the impact of the programme 22 obese subjects were selected purposively and randomly assigned to intervention group (n=12) and no information control group. (n=10). The programme group was asked to strictly follow the programme for one month. Significant reduction in the intake of energy, fat and carbohydrates was observed while intake of fruits, green leafy vegetables was increased. The programme was also found to be effective in reducing body weight, body fat percent and body fat mass whereas total body water and physical fitness scores improved significantly. There was no significant alteration observed in any parameters in the control group.

Keywords: body composition, body weight, computer programme, physical fitness

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3276 The Needs Programme and Poverty Reduction for National Development of Nigeria at 53

Authors: Owulo Thomas

Abstract:

Despite Nigeria’s ranking as the 6th among oil producing countries, the country faces great challenges. One of such challenges is how to reduce poverty or eradicating it in the land that promises milk and honey to enhance national development. The government of Nigeria initiated various programmes including the NEEDS programme in which it committed her to meeting these challenges. This paper is an attempt to discuss the concept of National Development, the Nigerian poverty profile and its implication for national development, the NEEDS programmes and the extent to which it has addressed the poverty problem in Nigeria at 53.

Keywords: challenges, poverty, national development, NEEDS programme

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3275 The Development of a School-Based Wellbeing Programme to Enhance the Social Functioning of Learners in Middle Childhood

Authors: Soretha Beets, Izanette Van Schalkwyk, Doret K. Kirsten

Abstract:

Children in middle childhood are exposed to various risks, for example, risks associated with poverty and/or dysfunctional families, that may threaten their social functioning. The aim of this study was to develop and design a programme that can be presented to children in middle childhood in order to enhance their social functioning towards better wellbeing. The skills and competencies needed to be included in the programme were identified by means of a literature review and 4 focus groups with educators from 4 sub-areas in a certain district in the North-West Province of South Africa. The programme consists of 8 sessions, presented in a certain order. The sessions cover the following aspects: self-esteem and gratitude, self-regulation and goal-setting, values and relationships, communication and listening, conflict management, emotional competence, and resilient coping. These aspects may benefit children in the middle child’s wellbeing and live on the short-term and may also hold long-term benefits.

Keywords: middle childhood, programme development, social functioning, wellbeing

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3274 Social Structure of Corporate Social Responsibility Programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya Village, Bekasi Regency, West Java

Authors: Auliya Adzilatin Uzhma, Ismu Rini Dwi, I. Nyoman Suluh Wijaya

Abstract:

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programme in Pantai Harapan Jaya village is cultivation of mangrove and fishery capital distribution, to achieve the goal the CSR programme needed participation from the society in it. Moeliono in Fahrudin (2011) mentioned that participation from society is based by intrinsic reason from inside people it self and extrinsic reason from the other who related to him. The fundamental connection who caused more boundaries from action which the organization can do called the social structure. The purpose of this research is to know the form of public participation and the social structure typology of the villager and people who is participated in CSR programme. The key actors of the society and key actors of the people who’s participated also can be known. This research use Social Network Analysis method by knew the Rate of Participation, Density and Centrality. The result of the research is people who is involved in the programme is lived in Dusun Pondok Dua and they work in fisheries field. The density value from the participant is 0.516 it’s mean that 51.6% of the people that participated is involved in the same step of CSR programme.

Keywords: social structure, social network analysis, corporate social responsibility, public participation

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3273 Creation and Implementation of A New Palliative Care Drug Chart, via A Closed-Loop Audit

Authors: Asfa Hussain, Chee Tang, Mien Nguyen

Abstract:

Introduction: The safe usage of medications is dependent on clear, well-documented prescribing. Medical drug charts should be regularly checked to ensure that they are fit for purpose. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Isabel Hospice drug charts were effective or prone to medical errors. The aim was to create a comprehensive palliative care drug chart in line with medico-legal guidelines and to minimise drug administration and prescription errors. Methodology: 50 medical drug charts were audited from March to April 2020, to assess whether they complied with medico-legal guidelines, in a hospice within East of England. Meetings were held with the larger multi-disciplinary team (MDT), including the pharmacists, nursing staff and doctors, to raise awareness of the issue. A preliminary drug chart was created, using the input from the wider MDT. The chart was revised and trialled over 15 times, and each time feedback from the MDT was incorporated into the subsequent template. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2020, the finalised drug chart was trialled. 50 new palliative drug charts were re-audited, to evaluate the changes made. Results: Prescribing and administration errors were high prior to the implementation of the new chart. This improved significantly after introducing the new drug charts, therefore improving patient safety and care. The percentage of inadequately documented allergies went down from 66% to 20% and incorrect oxygen prescription from 40% to 16%. The prescription drug-drug interactions decreased by 30%. Conclusion: It is vital to have clear standardised drug charts, in line with medico-legal standards, to allow ease of prescription and administration of medications and ensure optimum patient-centred care. This closed loop audit demonstrated significant improvement in documentation and prevention of possible fatal drug errors and interactions.

Keywords: palliative care, drug chart, medication errors, drug-drug interactions, COVID-19, patient safety

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3272 Population Pharmacokinetics of Levofloxacin and Moxifloxacin, and the Probability of Target Attainment in Ethiopian Patients with Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis

Authors: Temesgen Sidamo, Prakruti S.Rao, Eleni Akllilu, Workineh Shibeshi, Yumi Park, Yong-Soon CHO, Jae-Gook Shin, Scott K.Heysell, Stellah G.Mpagama, Ephrem Engidawork

Abstract:

The fluoroquinolones (FQs) are used off-label for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), and for evaluation in shortening the duration of drug-susceptible TB in recently prioritized regimens. Within the class, levofloxacin (LFX) and moxifloxacin (MXF) play a substantial role in ensuring success in treatment outcomes. However, sub-therapeutic plasma concentrations of either LFX or MXF may drive unfavorable treatment outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, the pharmacokinetics of LFX and MXF in Ethiopian patients with MDR-TB have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) model of levofloxacin (LFX) and moxifloxacin (MXF) and assess the percent probability of target attainment (PTA) as defined by the ratio of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve over 24-h (AUC0-24) and the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (AUC0-24/MIC) in Ethiopian MDR-TB patients. Steady-state plasma was collected from 39 MDR-TB patients enrolled in the programmatic treatment course and the drug concentrations were determined using optimized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, the in vitro MIC of the patients' pretreatment clinical isolates was determined. PopPK and simulations were run at various doses, and PK parameters were estimated. The effect of covariates on the PK parameters and the PTA for maximum mycobacterial kill and resistance prevention was also investigated. LFX and MXF both fit in a one-compartment model with adjustments. The apparent volume of distribution (V) and clearance (CL) of LFX were influenced by serum creatinine (Scr), whereas the absorption constant (Ka) and V of MXF were influenced by Scr and BMI, respectively. The PTA for LFX maximal mycobacterial kill at the critical MIC of 0.5 mg/L was 29%, 62%, and 95% with the simulated 750 mg, 1000 mg, and 1500 mg doses, respectively, whereas the PTA for resistance prevention at 1500 mg was only 4.8%, with none of the lower doses achieving this target. At the critical MIC of 0.25 mg/L, there was no difference in the PTA (94.4%) for maximum bacterial kill among the simulated doses of MXF (600 mg, 800 mg, and 1000 mg), but the PTA for resistance prevention improved proportionately with dose. Standard LFX and MXF doses may not provide adequate drug exposure. LFX PopPK is more predictable for maximum mycobacterial kill, whereas MXF's resistance prevention target increases with dose. Scr and BMI are likely to be important covariates in dose optimization or therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) studies in Ethiopian patients.

Keywords: population PK, PTA, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, MDR-TB patients, ethiopia

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3271 An Evaluation of a Student Peer Mentoring Program

Authors: Nazeema Ahmed

Abstract:

This paper reports on the development of a student peer mentoring programme at a higher education institution. The programme is dependent on volunteering senior undergraduate students who are trained to mentor first-year students studying towards an engineering degree. The evaluation of the programme took the form of first-year students completing a self-report paper questionnaire at the onset of a lecture and mentors completing their questionnaire electronically. The evaluation yielded mixed findings. Peer mentoring clearly benefited some students in their adjustment to the institution. Specific mentors’ personal attributes enabled the establishment of successful mentoring relationships, where encouragement, advice and academic assistance was provided. Gains were reciprocal with mentors reporting that the programme contributed towards their personal development. Confidence in the programme was expressed in mentors feeling that it was an initiative worth continuing and first-year students agreeing that it be recommended to future first-year students. This was despite many unfavourable experiences of mentors where their professionalism and commitment to the programme was suspect. It is evident that while mentors began with noble intentions they appear either to lose interest or become overwhelmed with their own workload as the academic year progresses. On the other hand, some mentors reported feeling challenged by the apathy of first-year students who failed to maximise the opportunity available to them. The different attitudes towards mentoring that manifested as a mentoring culture in some departments were particularly pertinent to its successful implementation. The findings point to the key role of academic staff in the mentoring programme who model the mentoring relationship in their interaction with student mentors. While their involvement in the programme may be perceived as a drain on resources in an already demanding academic teaching environment, it is imperative that structural changes be put in place for the programme to be both efficient and sustainable. A pervasive finding concerns the evolving institutional culture of student development in the faculty. Mentors and first-year students alike alluded to the potential of the mentoring programme provided it is seriously endorsed at both the departmental and faculty level. The findings provide a foundation from which to develop the programme further and to begin improving its capacity for maximizing student retention in South African higher education.

Keywords: engineering students, first-year students, peer mentoring

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3270 Evaluation of a Higher Diploma in Mental Health Nursing Using Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Effects on Student Behavior, Attitude and Perception

Authors: T. Frawley, G. O'Kelly

Abstract:

The UCD School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems Higher Diploma in Mental Health (HDMH) nursing programme commenced in January 2017. Forty students successfully completed the programme. Programme evaluation was conducted from the outset. Research ethics approval was granted by the UCD Human Research Ethics Committee – Sciences in November 2016 (LS-E-16-163). Plan for Sustainability: Each iteration of the programme continues to be evaluated and adjusted accordingly. Aims: The ultimate purpose of the HDMH programme is to prepare registered nurses (registered children’s nurse (RCN), registered nurse in intellectual disability (RNID) and registered general nurse (RGN)) to function as effective registered psychiatric nurses in all settings which provide care and treatment for people experiencing mental health difficulties. Curriculum evaluation is essential to ensure that the programme achieves its purpose, that aims and expected outcomes are met and that required changes are highlighted for the programme’s continuing positive development. Methods: Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used in the evaluation. A series of questionnaires were used (the majority pre and post programme) to determine student perceptions of the programme, behaviour and attitudinal change from commencement to completion. These included the student assessment of learning gains (SALG); mental health knowledge schedule (MAKS); mental health clinician attitudes scale (MICA); reported and intended behaviour scale (RIBS); and community attitudes towards the mentally ill (CAMI). In addition, student and staff focus groups were conducted. Evaluation methods also incorporated module feedback. Outcome/Results: The evaluation highlighted a very positive response in relation to the achievement of programme outcomes and preparation for future work as registered psychiatric nursing. Some areas were highlighted for further development, which have been taken cognisance of in the 2019 iteration of the programme.

Keywords: learning gains, mental health, nursing, stigma

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3269 Implementation of an Induction Programme to Help the International Medical Graduates in the NHS

Authors: Mohammad K. Rumjaun, Sana Amjed, Muhammad A. Ghazi, Safa G. Attar, Jason Raw

Abstract:

Background: National Health Service (NHS) in England is one of the leading healthcare systems in the world and it heavily relies on the recruitment of overseas doctors. 30.7% of the doctors currently serving in NHS are overseas doctors. Most of these doctors do not receive the essential induction required to work in the NHS when they first arrive and therefore, they mostly struggle to work effectively in the first few months of their new jobs as compared to UK graduates. In our hospital, the clinical need for a dedicated induction programme for the International Medical Graduates (IMGs) was identified for their initial settling period and this programme was designed to achieve this. Methods: A questionnaire was designed for the previous 7 IMGs (Group 1) in order to identify the difficulties they faced in their initial phase. Thereafter, an induction programme consisting of presentations explaining the NHS and hospital framework, communication skills practice sessions, the clinical ceiling of care and patient simulation training was implemented for 6 new IMGs (Group 2). Another survey was done and compared with the previous. Results: After this programme, group 2 required only 1 week to understand the complexity of the IT systems as compared 3 weeks in group 1. 83% of group 2 was well-supported for their on-call duties after this programme as compared to 29% and 100% of group 2 was aware of their role in the job after the induction as compared to 0%. Furthermore, group 2 was able to function independently and confidently in their roles after only 1 month as compared to an average of 3 months for group 1. After running the PDSA cycles, our results show clear evidence that this programme has tremendously benefitted the IMGs in settling in the NHS. The IMGs really appreciated this initiative and have given positive feedback. Conclusion: Leaving your home country to begin your career in a different country is not an easy transition and undoubtedly, everyone struggles. It is important to invest in a well-structured induction programme for the IMGs in the initial phase of their jobs as this will improve not only their confidence and efficacy but also patients’ safety.

Keywords: induction programme, international medical graduates, NHS, overseas doctors struggles.

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3268 The Impact of Access to Microcredit Programme on Women Empowerment: A Case Study of Cowries Microfinance Bank in Lagos State, Nigeria

Authors: Adijat Olubukola Olateju

Abstract:

Women empowerment is an essential developmental tool in every economy especially in less developed countries; as it helps to enhance women's socio-economic well-being. Some empirical evidence has shown that microcredit has been an effective tool in enhancing women empowerment, especially in developing countries. This paper therefore, investigates the impact of microcredit programme on women empowerment in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study used Cowries Microfinance Bank (CMB) as a case study bank, and a total of 359 women entrepreneurs were selected by simple random sampling technique from the list of Cowries Microfinance Bank. Selection bias which could arise from non-random selection of participants or non-random placement of programme, was adjusted for by dividing the data into participant women entrepreneurs and non-participant women entrepreneurs. The data were analyzed with a Propensity Score Matching (PSM) technique. The result of the Average Treatment Effect on the Treated (ATT) obtained from the PSM indicates that the credit programme has a significant effect on the empowerment of women in the study area. It is therefore, recommended that microfinance banks should be encouraged to give loan to women and for more impact of the loan to be felt by the beneficiaries the loan programme should be complemented with other programmes such as training, grant, and periodic monitoring of programme should be encouraged.

Keywords: empowerment, microcredit, socio-economic wellbeing, development

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3267 Parental Discourse on Childhood Vaccination Programme: A Case Study

Authors: Tengku Farah Petri Tengku Mahmood, Shameem Rafik-Galea, Zalina Mohd Kasim, Norlijah Othman

Abstract:

Childhood vaccination programme is mandatory in Malaysia. However, the decision to vaccinate or not vaccinate children is still left to the parents. Presently, there are parents who are opting out of vaccination claiming that it causes autism and other chronic disorders despite inconclusive evidence. There appears to be a dangerous trend among some Malaysian parents to not vaccinate their children and to not participate in the childhood vaccination programme. This study presents preliminary findings of parental discourse on childhood vaccination programme through the perspective of the Integrated Threat Theory. An in-depth interview was carried out to investigate a parent’s concern of the effects of childhood vaccination on children. A thematic discourse analysis was used to analyse the transcribed data. The emerging themes based on the analysis and their relevance to our understanding of a parent’s concerns of the effects of childhood vaccination on children are discussed.

Keywords: case study, parental discourse, thematic discourse analysis, childhood vaccination

Procedia PDF Downloads 274