Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4149

Search results for: primary prevention

4149 Optimal Secondary Prevention and Background Risk

Authors: Mohamed Anouar Razgallah

Abstract:

This paper examines in the context of a one-period model the impact of background risk on the optimal secondary prevention. We conduct our study based on various configurations of the background risk. We intend to show that in most cases the level of secondary prevention effort varied after the introduction of background risk, however, in very few cases this level remains constant.

Keywords: secondary prevention, primary prevention, background risk, ecomomics

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4148 The Investigation on the Status of Disaster Prevention and Reduction Knowledge in Rural Pupils in China

Authors: Jian-Na Zhang, Xiao-Li Chen, Si-Jian Li

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Objective: In order to investigate current status on knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction in rural pupils, to explore education method on disaster prevention and reduction for rural pupils. Method: A questionnaire was designed based on literature review. Convenient sampling was used in the survey. The questionnaire survey was conducted among 180 students from Huodehong town central primary school which located in Ludian county of Zhaotong city in Yunnan province, where 6.5 magnitude earthquake happened in 2014. The result indicated that the pupils’ knowledge and skills on disaster prevention and reduction relevant poor. The source for them to obtain the knowledge of disaster prevention and reduction included TV (68.9%), followed by their parents (43.9%), while only 24.4% of knowledge is from the teachers. The scores about different natural disaster are ranking in descending order: earthquake (5.39 ±1.27), floods (3.77 ±1.17); debris flow (2.81 ±1.05), family fire (2.16± 0.96). And the disaster experience did not help the pupils enhance the knowledge reserves. There is no statistical significance (P > 0.05) in knowledge scores of disaster prevention and reduction between experienced and non-experienced group. Conclusion: The local disaster experiences did not draw the attention of parents and schools. Knowledge popularization of disaster for local pupils is extremely urgent. It is necessary to take advantage of more mediums to popularize the knowledge and skills about disaster prevention and reduction, for example, family education, school education, newspapers, brochures, etc. The training courses on disaster prevention and reduction which are based on the characteristics of the local rural pupils and the characteristics of the local disasters would be useful.

Keywords: rural, pupils, disaster prevention and reduction knowledge, popularization

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4147 Men’s Engagement in Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) Prevention Programs

Authors: Zeynep Turhan

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This review emphasized the effectiveness of men’s participation, and whether non-violent (NV) boys’ and men’s perceptions of IPV prevention programs affect their involvement. Additionally, the review aimed to identify the barriers of non-engagement as well as the most effective approaches to end and prevent violence-against-women (VAW). The main goals of this assessment were to investigate 1) how NV men engage in anti-violence prevention programs that empower women, 2) what are the possible perceptions of NV men involved in prevention programs 3) how to identify effective approaches and strategies that encourage NV men to become involved in prevention programs. This critical review also included the overview of prevention programs such as The Mentors in Violence Prevention Programs (MVP), The White Ribbon Campaign (WRC), and Domestic Violence Prevention Enhancement and Leadership through Alliances (DELTA). The review recommended expanding these programs to reach more macro settings such as workplace, faith-based and other community-based organizations. Additionally, secondary and territory prevention programs need to expand through addressing the long-term effects of violence.

Keywords: engagement, non-violent men, prevention programs

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4146 Implementing a Prevention Network for the Ortenaukreis

Authors: Klaus Froehlich-Gildhoff, Ullrich Boettinger, Katharina Rauh, Angela Schickler

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The Prevention Network Ortenaukreis, PNO, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, aims to promote physical and mental health as well as the social inclusion of 3 to 10 years old children and their families in the Ortenau district. Within a period of four years starting 11/2014 a community network will be established. One regional and five local prevention representatives are building networks with stakeholders of the prevention and health promotion field bridging the health care, educational and youth welfare system in a multidisciplinary approach. The regional prevention representative implements regularly convening prevention and health conferences. On a local level, the 5 local prevention representatives implement round tables in each area as a platform for networking. In the setting approach, educational institutions are playing a vital role when gaining access to children and their families. Thus the project will offer 18 month long organizational development processes with specially trained coaches to 25 kindergarten and 25 primary schools. The process is based on a curriculum of prevention and health promotion which is adapted to the specific needs of the institutions. Also to ensure that the entire region is reached demand oriented advanced education courses are implemented at participating day care centers, kindergartens and schools. Evaluation method: The project is accompanied by an extensive research design to evaluate the outcomes of different project components such as interview data from community prevention agents, interviews and network analysis with families at risk on their support structures, data on community network development and monitoring, as well as data from kindergarten and primary schools. The latter features a waiting-list control group evaluation in kindergarten and primary schools with a mixed methods design using questionnaires and interviews with pedagogues, teachers, parents, and children. Results: By the time of the conference pre and post test data from the kindergarten samples (treatment and control group) will be presented, as well as data from the first project phase, such as qualitative interviews with the prevention coordinators as well as mixed methods data from the community needs assessment. In supporting this project, the Federal Ministry aims to gain insight into efficient components of community prevention and health promotion networks as it is implemented and evaluated. The district will serve as a model region, so that successful components can be transferred to other regions throughout Germany. Accordingly, the transferability to other regions is of high interest in this project.

Keywords: childhood research, health promotion, physical health, prevention network, psychological well-being, social inclusion

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4145 Nurse Practitioner Led Pediatric Primary Care Clinic in a Tertiary Care Setting: Improving Access and Health Outcomes

Authors: Minna K. Miller, Chantel. E. Canessa, Suzanna V. McRae, Susan Shumay, Alissa Collingridge

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Primary care provides the first point of contact and access to health care services. For the pediatric population, the goal is to help healthy children stay healthy and to help those that are sick get better. Primary care facilitates regular well baby/child visits; health promotion and disease prevention; investigation, diagnosis and management of acute and chronic illnesses; health education; both consultation and collaboration with, and referral to other health care professionals. There is a protective association between regular well-child visit care and preventable hospitalization. Further, low adherence to well-child care and poor continuity of care are independently associated with increased risk of hospitalization. With a declining number of family physicians caring for children, and only a portion of pediatricians providing primary care services, it is becoming increasingly difficult for children and their families to access primary care. Nurse practitioners are in a unique position to improve access to primary care and improve health outcomes for children. Limited literature is available on the nurse practitioner role in primary care pediatrics. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development, implementation and evaluation of a Nurse Practitioner-led pediatric primary care clinic in a tertiary care setting. Utilizing the participatory, evidence-based, patient-focused process for advanced practice nursing (PEPPA framework), this paper highlights the results of the initial needs assessment/gap analysis, the new service delivery model, populations served, and outcome measures.

Keywords: access, health outcomes, nurse practitioner, pediatric primary care, PEPPA framework

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4144 Impact of Internal Control on Fraud Detection and Prevention: A Survey of Selected Organisations in Nigeria

Authors: Amos Olusola Akinola

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The aim of this study is to evaluate the internal control system on fraud prevention in Nigerian business organizations. A survey research was undertaken in five organizations from the banking and manufacturing sectors in Nigeria using the simple random sampling technique and primary data was obtained with the aid structured questionnaire drawn on five likert’s scale. Four Hypotheses were formulated and tested using the T-test Statistics, Correlation and Regression Analysis at 95% confidence interval. It was discovered that internal control has a significant positive relationship with fraud prevention and that a weak internal control system permits fraudulent activities among staff. Based on the findings, it was recommended that organizations should continually and methodically review and evaluate the components of its internal control system whether activities are working as planned or not and that every organization should have pre-determined guidelines for conducting its operations and ensures compliance with these set guidelines while proactive steps should be taken to establish the independence of the internal audit by making the audit reportable to the governing council of an organization and not the chief executive officer.

Keywords: internal control, internal system, internal audit, fraud prevention, fraud detection

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4143 An Evaluation of the Efficacy of School-Based Suicide Prevention Programs

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

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The following review has identified specific programs, as well as the elements of these programs, that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools. Suicide is an issue that affects many students each year. Although this is a prominent issue, there are few prevention programs used within schools. The primary objective of most prevention programs is to reduce risk factors such as depression and hopelessness, and increase protective factors like support systems and help-seeking behaviors. Most programs include a gatekeeper training model, education component, peer support group, and/or counseling/treatment. Research shows that some of these programs, like the Signs of Suicide and Youth Aware of Mental Health Programme, are effective in reducing suicide behaviors and increasing protective factors. These programs have been implemented in many countries across the world and have shown promising results. Since schools can provide easy access to adolescents, implement education programs, and train staff members and students how to identify and to report suicide behaviors, school-based programs seem to be the best way to prevent suicide among adolescents. Early intervention may be an effective way to prevent suicide. Although, since early intervention is not always an option, school-based programs in high schools have also been shown to decrease suicide attempts by up to 50%. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1.) list at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2.) identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, and 3.) describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide.

Keywords: school, suicide, prevention, programs

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4142 Suicide Prevention among Young People: Findings from the Evaluation of Youth Aware of Mental Health in Australian Secondary Schools

Authors: Lauren McGillivray, Michelle Torok, Alison Calear

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Suicide is the leading cause of death for Australians aged 15-24 years, with rates increasing over the past decade. As young people can be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems and suicidal behavior, they are an essential and obvious target for suicide prevention efforts. This study investigates the effectiveness of the universal mental health promotion and suicide prevention program, Youth Aware of Mental Health (YAM), to reduce suicidal ideation and attempts and increase help-seeking in young people. This trial took place in Australian schools across four regions in New South Wales that form part of LifeSpan, a larger multilevel suicide prevention research trial. The YAM program was delivered to Year 9 students in up to 78 schools over two years (from January 2017 to December 2019). All schools were invited to participate in YAM's evaluation, which included completing a student questionnaire at three time-points: baseline, 3-month post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome is suicidal ideation severity. Secondary outcomes are new reports of suicide attempts, stigma towards suicide, knowledge about suicide, help-seeking intentions and behaviors, and depressive symptoms. Results from pre-post and follow-up data will be presented. These research findings are promising and will contribute to the evidence-based for YAM and suicide prevention programs in Australian schools. These findings are also expected to promote YAM's value and sustainability to be more widely delivered in Australian secondary schools.

Keywords: adolescent mental health, suicidal ideation, suicide prevention, universal program

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4141 How Acupuncture Improve Migraine: A Literature Review

Authors: Hsiang-Chun Lai, Hsien-Yin Liao, Yi-Wen Lin

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Migraine is a primary headache disorder which presented as recurrent and moderate to severe headaches and affects nearly fifteen percent of people’s daily life. In East Asia, acupuncture is a common treatment for migraine prevention. Acupuncture can modulate migraine through both peripheral and central mechanism and decrease the allodynia process. Molecular pathway suggests that acupuncture relief migraine by regulating neurotransmitters/neuromodulators. This process was also proven by neural imaging. Acupuncture decrease the headache frequency and intensity compared to routine care. We also review the most common chosen acupoints to treat migraine and its treatment protocol. As a result, we suggested that acupuncture can serve as an option to migraine treatment and prevention. However, more studies are needed to establish the mechanism and therapeutic roles of acupuncture in treating migraine.

Keywords: acupuncture, allodynia, headache, migraine

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4140 Waste Prevention and Economic Policy: Policy Tools for Increasing Resource Efficiency and Savings

Authors: Sylvia Graczka

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Waste related environmental problems are not only exploding but are also spotlighted for capacity shortages in recycling, as China announced its ban on waste imports. According to the waste hierarchy, prevention is the primary solution for waste, and also the cheapest. Waste related environmental pollution as externality puts an ever-growing burden on communities bearing the social costs. Economic policies often claim to be pro-environment, this often appears only theoretically, or at the level of principles. There are few concrete occurrences of tools in economic policies, such as green taxes, that are truly effective in stimulating the shift towards waste reduction. The paper presents theoretical economic policy tools based on literature review, and case studies on applied economic policy tools by analyzing policy papers, strategies in force, in line with ‘polluter pays’ and ‘extended producer responsibility’ principles. The study also emphasizes the differences between the broader notion of waste reduction and that of waste minimization, parallel to the difference between resource efficiency and resource savings. It also puts the issue in the context of neoclassical environmental economics and ecological economics, to present alternatives in approach. The research concludes in identifying effective economic policy tools that support the reduction of material use, and the prevention of waste. Consumer and producer awareness of waste problems and consciousness related to their choices are inevitable to make economic policy tools work effectively.

Keywords: economic policy, producer responsibility, resource efficiency, waste prevention

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4139 Decreased Non-Communicable Disease by Surveillance, Control, Prevention Systems, and Community Engagement Process in Phayao, Thailand

Authors: Vichai Tienthavorn

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Background: Recently, the patients of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are increasing in Thailand; especially hypertension and diabetes. Hypertension and Diabetes patients were found to be of 3.7 million in 2008. The varieties of human behaviors have been extensively changed in health. Hence, Thai Government has a policy to reduce NCDs. Generally, primary care plays an important role in treatment using medical process. However, NCDs patients have not been decreased. Objectives: This study not only reduce the patient and mortality rate but also increase the quality of life, could apply in different areas and propose to be the national policy, effectively for a long term operation. Methods: Here we report that primary health care (PHC), which is a primary process to screening, rapidly seek the person's risk. The screening tool of the study was Vichai's 7 color balls model, the medical education tool to transfer knowledge from student health team to community through health volunteers, creating community engagement in terms of social participation. It was found that people in community were realized in their health and they can evaluate the level of risk using this model. Results: Projects implementation (2015) in Nong Lom Health Center in Phayao (target group 15-65 years, 2529); screening hypertension coveraged 99.01%, risk group (light green) was decreased to normal group (white) from 1806 to 1893, significant severe patient (red) was decreased to moderate (orange) from 10 to 5. Health Program in behaving change with best practice of 3Es (Eating, Exercise, Emotion) and 3Rs (Reducing tobacco, alcohol, obesity) were applied in risk group; and encourage strictly medication, investigation in severe patient (red). Conclusion: This is the first demonstration of knowledge transfer to community engagement by student, which is the sustainable education in PHC.

Keywords: non-communicable disease, surveillance control and prevention systems, community engagement, primary health care

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4138 Gender Differences in Attitudes to Technology in Primary Education

Authors: Radek Novotný, Martina Maněnová

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This article presents a summary of reviews on gender differences in perception of information and communication technology (ICT) by pupils in primary education. The article outlines the meaning of ICT in primary education then summarizes different studies of the use of ICT in primary education from the point of view of gender. The article also presents the specific differences of gender in the knowledge of modalities of use of specialized digital tools and the perception and value assigned to ICT, accordingly the article provides insight into the background of gender differences in performance in relation to ICT to determinate the complex meaning of pupils attitudes to the ICT.

Keywords: ICT in primary education, attitudes to ICT, gender differences, gender and ICT

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4137 Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in King Fahd Medical City: An Epidemiological Study

Authors: Saeed Alshahri

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Introduction: Our study aims to estimate the characteristics & causes of TSCI at King Fahad Medical City (KFMC) in Riyadh city in order to hypothesize strategy for primary prevention of traumatic spinal cord injury. Method: Cross-sectional, retrospective study was conducted on all TSCI patients who aged 14 and above and who were admitted to rehabilitation center of King Fahad Medical City from January 2012 to December 2015. Furthermore, a descriptive analysis was conducted while considering factors including age, gender, marital status, educational level and causes of injury and characteristics of injury. Results: Total of 216 patients were admitted during this period, mean age was 28.94, majority of patients were male (86.5%), 71.7% of total patients were high school level of education or less, 68% were single, RTA was the main cause with 90.7% and the main result of TSCI was complete paraplegia 37%. Furthermore, statistically, we found that males are at a low risk of having incomplete paraplegia compared to female (p = 0.035, RRR=0.35). Conclusion: The rate of TSCI related to RTA has increased in Saudi Arabia in previous years despite the government’s efforts to decrease RTA. It’s clear that we need TSCI registry data developed on the basis of international data standards to have a clear idea about the exact etiology of TSCI in Saudi Arabia. This will assist in planning for primary prevention.

Keywords: traumatic spinal cord injury, road traffic accident, Saudi Arabia, spinal cord injury

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4136 Elder Abuse Interventions: What We Know and What We Need to Know

Authors: Sepali Guruge

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Background: There is an increase in interest among health care professionals and social workers in understanding how best to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse. Purpose & method: Based on a recently completed scoping review of related literature, this paper will focus on the current state of knowledge on elder abuse interventions. Results: The results will be presented in light of the fact that limited literature exists on primary prevention of elder abuse. The existing literature on interventions to reduce or stop abuse will be critically examined in terms of their effectiveness. Particular attention will be paid to interventions such as relocation of older adults experiencing abuse, in-home assessments, empowerment and psycho-educational support for older adults. Conclusions: Overall, multi-stakeholder collaborative, community-based interventions should be designed to identify, mitigate, and prevent elder abuse.

Keywords: elder abuse, interventions, scoping review, prevention

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4135 Effect of Community Education and Early Intervention and Rehabilitation in Minimising the Impact on Mental Illness

Authors: Akanle Florence Foluso, Richard Oni, Ola Tolulo, Lani Ofie

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Health is a state of complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. Society’s attitude to mental health and primary prevention is the key instrument in a better understanding of the mental illness. This paper attempted to investigate the effect of community education and early intervention and rehabilitation in minimizing the impact of mental illness. The study involved 50 adolescents who were randomly selected and assigned to two groups, the control and the experimental. Subjects in the experimental group were exposed to treatment, while those in the control group were not. The subject exposed to treatment had an increased understanding of what mental illness is. Those with mental illness were better understood, less feared, less discriminated against, and tertiary prevention strategies were reported to minimize the impact of mental illness when it occurs

Keywords: community, health, improve, status

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4134 Challenges of Outreach Team Leaders in Managing Ward Based Primary Health Care Outreach Teams in National Health Insurance Pilot Districts in Kwazulu-Natal

Authors: E. M. Mhlongo, E. Lutge

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In 2010, South Africa’s National Department of Health (NDoH) launched national primary health care (PHC) initiative to strengthen health promotion, disease prevention, and early disease detection. The strategy, called Re-engineering Primary Health Care (rPHC), aims to support a preventive and health-promoting community-based PHC model by using community-based outreach teams (known in South Africa as Ward-based Primary Health Care Outreach teams or WBPHCOTs). These teams provide health education, promote healthy behaviors, assess community health needs, manage minor health problems, and support linkages to health services and health facilities. Ward based primary health care outreach teams are supervised by a professional nurse who is the outreach team leader. In South Africa, the WBPHCOTs have been established, registered, and are reporting their activities in the District Health Information System (DHIS). This study explored and described the challenges faced by outreach team leaders in supporting and supervising the WBPHCOTs. Qualitative data were obtained through interviews conducted with the outreach team leaders at a sub-district level. Thematic analysis of data was done. Findings revealed some challenges faced by team leaders in day to day execution of their duties. Issues such as staff shortages, inadequate resources to carry out health promotion activities, and lack of co-operation from team members may undermine the capacity of team leaders to support and supervise the WBPHCOTs. Many community members are under the impression that the outreach team is responsible for bringing the clinic to the community while the outreach teams do not carry any medication/treatment with them when doing home visits. The study further highlights issues around the challenges of WBPHCOTs at a household level. In conclusion, the WBPHCOTs are an important component of National Health Insurance (NHI), and in order for NHI to be optimally implemented, the issues raised in this research should be addressed with some urgency.

Keywords: community health worker, national health insurance, primary health care, ward-based primary health care outreach teams

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4133 The Effectiveness of an Injury Prevention Workshop in Increasing Knowledge and Understanding in Grass-Root Youth Coaches

Authors: Mark De Ste Croix, Jonathan Hughes, Francisco Ayala, Michal Lehnert

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There are well-known challenges to implementing injury prevention training for youth players but no data are available on the knowledge and understanding of deliverers of such programmes at grass root level. To increase adoption and adherence to such programmes coach knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention is essential. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine grass-root coaches knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. 68 grass root coaches (18 females and 50 males) who were attending a one-day injury prevention workshop completed a modified validated questionnaire exploring knowledge and understanding of injury risk and prevention in youth players. Only 59% of coaches agreed that youth players are at a high risk of suffering an injury. There were high levels of agreement that injuries can have negative impacts on team performance (75%) and can cause physical problems in later life (85%), however only around half of coaches felt that injuries affect youth players current quality of life (59%). There was strong agreement that it is possible to prevent injuries in youth players (84%), but coaches were generally unaware of programs to help prevent injuries (84%), and only 9% used some form of injury prevention program. Despite this, nearly all coaches felt that their coaching could benefit from a greater understanding of growth and maturation (91%), injury prevention programmes (91%) and specific exercises (93%) for youth athletes. 17% of coaches rated their knowledge of injury prevention as good/very good at the start of the workshop and this increased to 94% at the end of the workshop. 62% of coaches identified their attitude towards injury prevention as indifferent at the start of the workshop compared with only 1% at the end. Only 14% of coaches at the start of the workshop were confident to deliver an injury prevention session but 83% stated they were confident by the end of the workshop. Finally, 98% of coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the confidence and the knowledge to deliver an injury prevention session and 98% suggested that they would implement injury prevention into their coaching. These data suggest that there is a lack of understanding of grass root coaches that children are a high-risk group for injuries, and that such injuries impact on current quality of life. Despite understanding that injuries can be prevented most grass root coaches do not have the knowledge to implement injury prevention into their coaching and very few do. There is a common consensus amongst these coaches that a greater understanding of such programmes will enhance their coaching. The injury prevention workshop appears to have increased the knowledge and changed the attitude of coaches towards injury prevention. All coaches felt that the workshop provided them with the tools to adopt, implement and deliver injury prevention in their coaching. These data highlight that there is a clear need for education regarding injury risk and prevention to be embedded within the coach education pathway, especially at grass root level.

Keywords: coach education, injury prevention, knowledge, and understanding, youth

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4132 Needs for Primary Prevention in Families with Mentally Ill Parents

Authors: Patricia Wahl, Dirk Bruland, Albert Lenz

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Children of mentally ill parents are a large high risk group for mental disorders which is hardly reached by preventive programs. The children inherit a heightened risk to develop a mental disorder themselves during their lifetime, but they and their parents are often rejecting to seek help. To elicit the factors determining this prevention dilemma, an explorative qualitative interview study is conducted in 25 families with mentally ill parents and yet unaffected children. Inclusion criteria are the children’s age (7 to 14 years old) and that these children live together with the affected parent. With regard to the concept of Mental Health Literacy the following research questions are leading the Qualitative Content Analysis: What are the needs of families with mentally ill parents? How can their help-seeking behaviour be described? What are their subjective illness theories? And which influences do gender, ethnicity and socio-economic status have on needs, help-seeking and illness theories? Mental Health Literacy relates to the knowledge and attitudes towards mental disorders influencing the recognition, management or prevention of these disorders. The concept seems to be an interesting starting point for our analysis with the aim to understand antecedences and processes in the families more deeply. Results of an extensive literature review serve as deductive framework for our analysis, first findings from the interviews will be available up to the time of the conference and can be presented. They hopefully will give inside in the families’ living environment and help to adapt/develop interventions and in the long term reduce health inequalities. The project at hand is part of the Health Literacy in Childhood and Adolescence (HLCA) Research Consortium financed by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

Keywords: children of mentally ill parents, help-seeking behaviour, mental health literacy, prevention dilemma

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4131 Grape Seed Extract in Prevention and Treatment of Liver Toxic Cirrhosis in Rats

Authors: S. Buloyan, V. Mamikonyan, H. Hakobyan, H. Harutyunyan, H. Gasparyan

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The liver is the strongest regenerating organ of the organism, and even with 2/3 surgically removed, it can regenerate completely. Hence, liver cirrhosis may only develop when the regenerating system is off. We present the results of a comparative study of structural and functional characteristics of rat liver tissue under the conditions of toxic liver cirrhosis development, induced by carbon tetrachloride, and its prevention/treatment by natural compounds with antioxidant and immune stimulating action. Studies were made on Wister rats, weighing 120~140 g. Grape seeds extracts, separately and in combination with well known anticirrhotic drug ursodeoxycholic acid (ursodiol) have demonstrated effectiveness in prevention of liver cirrhosis development and its treatment.

Keywords: carbon tetrachloride, GSE, liver cirrhosis, prevention, treatment

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4130 On Consolidated Predictive Model of the Natural History of Breast Cancer Considering Primary Tumor and Primary Distant Metastases Growth

Authors: Ella Tyuryumina, Alexey Neznanov

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Finding algorithms to predict the growth of tumors has piqued the interest of researchers ever since the early days of cancer research. A number of studies were carried out as an attempt to obtain reliable data on the natural history of breast cancer growth. Mathematical modeling can play a very important role in the prognosis of tumor process of breast cancer. However, mathematical models describe primary tumor growth and metastases growth separately. Consequently, we propose a mathematical growth model for primary tumor and primary metastases which may help to improve predicting accuracy of breast cancer progression using an original mathematical model referred to CoM-IV and corresponding software. We are interested in: 1) modelling the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases; 2) developing adequate and precise CoM-IV which reflects relations between PT and MTS; 3) analyzing the CoM-IV scope of application; 4) implementing the model as a software tool. The CoM-IV is based on exponential tumor growth model and consists of a system of determinate nonlinear and linear equations; corresponds to TNM classification. It allows to calculate different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases: 1) ‘non-visible period’ for primary tumor; 2) ‘non-visible period’ for primary metastases; 3) ‘visible period’ for primary metastases. The new predictive tool: 1) is a solid foundation to develop future studies of breast cancer models; 2) does not require any expensive diagnostic tests; 3) is the first predictor which makes forecast using only current patient data, the others are based on the additional statistical data. Thus, the CoM-IV model and predictive software: a) detect different growth periods of primary tumor and primary metastases; b) make forecast of the period of primary metastases appearance; c) have higher average prediction accuracy than the other tools; d) can improve forecasts on survival of BC and facilitate optimization of diagnostic tests. The following are calculated by CoM-IV: the number of doublings for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases; tumor volume doubling time (days) for ‘nonvisible’ and ‘visible’ growth period of primary metastases. The CoM-IV enables, for the first time, to predict the whole natural history of primary tumor and primary metastases growth on each stage (pT1, pT2, pT3, pT4) relying only on primary tumor sizes. Summarizing: a) CoM-IV describes correctly primary tumor and primary distant metastases growth of IV (T1-4N0-3M1) stage with (N1-3) or without regional metastases in lymph nodes (N0); b) facilitates the understanding of the appearance period and manifestation of primary metastases.

Keywords: breast cancer, exponential growth model, mathematical modelling, primary metastases, primary tumor, survival

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4129 Some Investigations of Primary Slurry Used for Production of Ceramic Shells

Authors: Balwinder Singh

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In the current competitive environment, casting industry has several challenges such as production of intricate castings, near net shape castings, decrease lead-time from product design to production, improved casting quality and to control costs. The raw materials used to make ceramic shell play an important role in determining the overall final ceramic shell characteristics. In this work, primary slurries were formulated using various combinations of zircon flour, fused silica and aluminosilicate powders as filler, colloidal silica as binder along with wetting and antifoaming agents (Catalyst). Taguchi’s parameter design strategy has been applied to investigate the effect of primary slurry parameters on the viscosity of the slurry and primary coating of shell. The result reveals that primary coating with low viscosity slurry has produced a rough surface of the shell due to stucco penetration.

Keywords: ceramic shell, primary slurry, filler, slurry viscosity, surface roughness

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4128 Determining Face-Validity for a Set of Preventable Drug-Related Morbidity Indicators Developed for Primary Healthcare in South Africa

Authors: D. Velayadum, P. Sthandiwe , N. Maharaj, T. Munien, S. Ndamase, G. Zulu, S. Xulu, F. Oosthuizen

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Introduction and aims of the study: It is the responsibility of the pharmacist to manage drug-related problems in order to ensure the greatest benefit to the patient. In order to prevent drug-related morbidity, pharmacists should be aware of medicines that may contribute to certain drug-related problems due to their pharmacological action. In an attempt to assist healthcare practitioners to prevent drug-related morbidity (PDRM), indicators for prevention have been designed. There are currently no indicators available for primary health care in developing countries like South Africa, where the majority of the population access primary health care. There is, therefore, a need to develop such indicators, specifically with the aim of assisting healthcare practitioners in primary health care. Methods: A literature study was conducted to compile a comprehensive list of PDRM indicators as developed internationally using the search engines Google Scholar and PubMed. MESH term used to retrieve suitable articles was 'preventable drug-related morbidity indicators'. The comprehensive list of PDRM indicators obtained from the literature study was further evaluated for face validity. Face validity was done in duplicate by 2 sets of independent researchers to ensure 1) no duplication of indicators when compiling a single list, 2) inclusion of only medication available in primary healthcare, and 3) inclusion of medication currently available in South Africa. Results: The list of indicators, compiled from PDRM indicators in the USA, UK, Portugal, Australia, India, and Canada contained 324 PDRM. 184 of these indicators were found to be duplicates, and the duplications were omitted, leaving a final list of 140. The 140 PDRM indicators were evaluated for face-validity, and 97 were accepted as relevant to primary health care in South Africa. 43 indicators did not comply with the criteria and were omitted from the final list. Conclusion: This study is a first step in compiling a list of PDRM indicators for South Africa. It is important to take cognizance to the fact the health systems differ vastly internationally, and it is, therefore, important to develop country-specific indicators.

Keywords: drug-related morbidity, primary healthcare, South Africa, developing countries

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4127 Primary Care Physicians in Urgent Care Centres of the United Kingdom

Authors: Mohammad Ansari, Ahmed Ismail, Satinder Mann

Abstract:

Overcrowding in Emergency departments (ED) of United Kingdom has become a common problem. Urgent Care centres were developed nearly a decade ago to reduce pressure on EDs. Unfortunately, the development of Urgent Care centres has failed to produce the projected effects. It was thought that nearly 40% patients attending ED would go to Urgent Care centres and these would be staffed by Primary care Physicians. Data reveals that no more than 20% patients were seen by Primary Care Physicians even when the Urgent Care Centre was based in the ED. This study was carried out at the ED of George Eliot Hospital, Nuneaton, UK where the Urgent Care centre was based in the ED and employed Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma for nearly one year. This was then followed by a Primary Care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number of patients seen during these periods and the cost-effectiveness of the service.We randomly selected a week of patients seen by Primary Care Physicians with special interest in Trauma and by Primary Care Physicians and the Advanced Nurse Practitioner. We compared the number and type of patients seen during these two periods. Nearly 38% patients were seen by Primary care Physician with special interest in Trauma, whilst only 14.3% patients were seen by the Primary care Physician and Advanced Nurse Practitioner. The Primary Care Physicians with special interest in trauma were paid less. Our study confirmed that unless Primary Care Physicians are able to treat minor trauma and interpret x-rays, the urgent care service is not going to be cost effective. Numerous previous studies have shown that 15 to 20% patients attending ED can be treated by Primary Care Physicians who do not require any investigations for their management. It is advantageous to have Urgent Care Centres within the ED because if the patient deteriorates they can be transferred to ED. We recommend that the Urgent care Centres should be a part of ED. Our study shows that Urgent care Centres in the ED can be helpful and cost effective if staffed by either senior Emergency Physicians or Primary Care Physicians with special interest and experience in the management of minor trauma.

Keywords: urgent care centres, primary care physician, advanced nurse practitioner, trauma

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4126 E-Learning in Primary Science: Teachers versus Students

Authors: Winnie Wing Mui So, Yu Chen

Abstract:

This study investigated primary school teachers’ and students’ perceptions of science learning in an e-learning environment. This study used a multiple case study design and involved eight science teachers and their students from four Hong Kong primary schools. The science topics taught included ‘season and weather’ ‘force and movement’, ‘solar and lunar eclipse’ and ‘living things and habitats’. Data were collected through lesson observations, interviews with teachers, and interviews with students. Results revealed some differences between the teachers’ and the students’ perceptions regarding the usefulness of e-learning resources, the organization of student-centred activities, and the impact on engagement and interactions in lessons. The findings have implications for the more effective creation of e-learning environments for science teaching and learning in primary schools.

Keywords: e-learning, science education, teacher' and students' perceptions, primary schools

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4125 Web-Based Alcohol Prevention among Iranian Medical University Students: A Randomized Control Trail

Authors: Farzad Jalilian, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh

Abstract:

Background: E-interventions as a universal approach to prevent a high-risk behavior, such as alcohol drinking. This study was conducted to evaluate web-based alcohol drinking preventative intervention efficiency among medical university students in Iran. Methods: Overall, 150 freshman and sophomore male student’s college students participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pre- and post-test series control group design panel study to implement a behavior modification based intervention to alcohol drinking prevention among college students. Cross-tabulation, t-test, repeated measures, and GEE by using SPSS statistical package, version 21 was used for the statistical analysis. The participants were followed up for 6 months with data collection scheduled at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcomes are attitude, self-control, and sensation seeking. Furthermore, the secondary outcome is comparing alcohol drinking among the study groups. Results: It was found significant reduce in average response for an attitude towards alcohol drinking and sensation seeking among intervention group (P < 0.05). But after intervention not significant difference between intervention and control group of improve self-control and reduce alcohol drinking (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our intervention has been accompanied with reducing alcohol use rate. These findings indicate that e-intervention may be effectiveness approach to address the alcohol prevention among college students.

Keywords: e-interventions, alcohol drinking, students, Iran

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4124 Prevention of the Post – Intensive Care Syndrome (PICS) by Implementation of an ICU Delirium Prevention Strategy (DPB)

Authors: Paul M. H. J. Roekaerts

Abstract:

In recent years, it became clear that much intensive care (ICU) survivors develop a post-intensive care syndrome (PICS) consisting of psychiatric, cognitive and physical problems for a prolonged period after their ICU stay. Physical inactivity and delirium during the ICU stay are the main determinants of the post-ICU PICS. This presentation will focus on delirium, its epidemiology, prevalence, effect on outcome, risk factors and the current standard of care for managing delirium. Because ICU delirium is a predictor of prolonged length-of-stay in the ICU and of death, the use of a delirium prevention bundle (DPB) becomes mandatory in every ICU. In this presentation, a DPB bundle will be discussed consisting of six components: pain, sedation, sleep, sensory and intellectual stimulation, early mobilization, and hydration. For every of the six components, what to do and what not to do will be discussed. The author will present his own institutional policy on pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in the management of delirium. The component ‘early mobilization’ will be discussed more in detail, as this component is extremely important in the prevention of delirium as well as in the prevention of the PICS. The author will conclude his presentation with the remaining areas of uncertainties/work and research to be done.

Keywords: delirium, delirium prevention bundle, early mobilisation in intensive care (ICU), post-intensive care syndrome (PICS)

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4123 Education for Sustainable Development and Primary Education in China: A Case Study

Authors: Ronghui (Kevin) Zhou

Abstract:

This research intends to explore the enactment of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD), in term of the ESD concept, in primary schools in China, and investigate the factors that have positively or negatively impacted the outcome of ESD in urban primary schools in China. The proposed research question is: how is the ESD concept perceived and enacted by the local education stakeholders. This research is conducted in multiple primary schools in China and has questionnaired and interviewed multiple education stakeholders, including school principals, school teachers, and bureau from the municipal Ministry of Education. Factor analysis, regression analysis, and critical discourse analysis are adopted to interpret and analyze the data. The preliminary findings suggest that contested ESD definition, education system pressures, education policy enforcement, and power dynamics between stakeholders are the key factors that have determined to what degree is ESD enacted, and to what extent is ESD practiced in primary schools in China.

Keywords: education for sustainable development, China, primary education, case study

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4122 Integrating Concepts in Positive Psychology with Suicide Prevention in Children and Adolescents

Authors: S. Wietrzychowski

Abstract:

This systematic review incorporates concepts used in the field of positive psychology in order to integrate important elements into suicide prevention programs for children and adolescents. The goal of this review is to help students and professionals gain insight to available prevention programs for suicide and to incorporate aspects of positive psychology into these programs. Evidence-based interventions such as Positive Youth Development will be discussed in detail in its relation to prevention and positive psychology. Concepts such as hope, optimism, coping, and resilience will be related to these interventions in order to improve these interventions. The review will also explain how these programs can help prevent suicidal thoughts and/or behaviors. Research on mentorship programs and early intervention programs will be included and related to the aforementioned positive psychology concepts. Since children and adolescents are such a vulnerable population, the review will highlight specific considerations for working with children in order to prevent risk factors for suicide and to build protective factors. This review will discuss the effectiveness of school-based programs that are integrated with positive psychology. Elements of these programs that have been shown to be most effective in preventing suicide in schools will also be identified. As a result of this presentation, participants will be able to 1) List at least 2 evidence-based suicide prevention programs, 2) Understand the connection between specific positive psychology concepts and suicide prevention, 3) Identify at least 3 factors which protect against suicide, 4) Describe at least 3 risk factors for suicide, and 5) Think critically about the positive elements of suicide prevention programs.

Keywords: children, adolescents, suicide, positive

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4121 Relationship between Body Mass Composition and Primary Dysmenorrhoea

Authors: Snehalata Tembhurne

Abstract:

Introduction: A healthy menstrual cycle is a sign of women’s sound health.Various variables may influence the length and regularity of menstrual cycle.Studies have revealed that menstrual cycle abnormalities may be associated with psychological stress,lack of physical exercise, alteration in body composition,endocrine disturbances,higher estrogen levels as seen in obese females.Hence there is an urgent need to find out the relationship between variations in body mass composition(BMI & body fat%) with menstrual abnormalities like primary dysmenorrhoea. Aim: To find out the relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Objectives: 1.To check whether there is any association between body mass index and primary dysmenorrhoea.2.To check whether there is any association between body fat percentage and primary dysmenorrhoea. NULL HYPOTHESES-There is no relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Hypothesis: There exists a relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months with 90 samples selected on random basis. The procedure was explained to the participant and a written consent was taken thereafter. The participant was made to stand on the BODY COMPOSITION SCANNING MONITOR, which scanned the physical profile of the participant (height, weight, BMI, body fat percentage and visceral fat).Thereafter, the candidate was asked about her menstrual irregularities and was asked to grade her level of dysmenorrhoea (if present) using the Verbal Dimensional Dysmenorrhea Scale. Results: Chi square test of association was used to find out the association between body mass composition(body mass index,body fat percentage) and primary dysmenorrhea.The chi-square value for association between body mass index and primary dysmenorrhea was 38.63 p<0.001 which was statistically significant.The chi-square value for the association of body fat % & primary dysmenorrhea was 30.09,p<0.001which was statistically significant. Conclusion: Study shows that there exists a significant relationship between body mass composition and primary dysmenorrhea and as the value of Body mass index and body fat percentages goes on increasing in females, the severity of primary dysmenorrhea also increases.

Keywords: body mass index, body composition screening monitor, primary dysmenorrhea, verbal dimensional dysmenorrhea scale

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4120 Practical Limitations of the Fraud Triangle Framework in Fraud Prevention

Authors: Alexander Glebovskiy

Abstract:

Practitioners charged with fraud prevention and investigation strongly rely on the Fraud Triangle framework developed by Joseph T. Wells in 1997 while analyzing the causes of fraud at business organizations. The Fraud Triangle model explains fraud by elements such as pressure, opportunity, and rationalization. This view is not fully suitable for effective fraud prevention as the Fraud Triangle model provides limited insight into the causation of fraud. Fraud is a multifaceted phenomenon, the contextual factors of which may not fit into any framework. Employee criminal behavior in business organizations is influenced by environmental, individual, and organizational aspects. Therefore, further criminogenic factors and processes facilitating fraud in organizational settings need to be considered in the root-cause analysis: organizational culture, leadership style, groupthink effect, isomorphic behavior, crime of obedience, displacement of responsibility, lack of critical thinking and unquestioning conformity and loyalty.

Keywords: criminogenesis, fraud triangle, fraud prevention, organizational culture

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