Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 128

Search results for: malaria

128 Fuzzy Inference System for Diagnosis of Malaria

Authors: Purnima Pandit

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Malaria remains one of the world’s most deadly infectious disease and arguably, the greatest menace to modern society in terms of morbidity and mortality. To choose the right treatment and to ensure a quality of life suitable for a specific patient condition, early and accurate diagnosis of malaria is essential. It reduces transmission of disease and prevents deaths. Our work focuses on designing an efficient, accurate fuzzy inference system for malaria diagnosis.

Keywords: fuzzy inference system, fuzzy logic, malaria disease, triangular fuzzy number

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127 Lie Symmetry of a Nonlinear System Characterizing Endemic Malaria

Authors: Maba Boniface Matadi

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This paper analyses the model of Malaria endemic from the point of view of the group theoretic approach. The study identified new independent variables that lead to the transformation of the nonlinear model. Furthermore, corresponding determining equations were constructed, and new symmetries were found. As a result, the findings of the study demonstrate of the integrability of the model to present an invariant solution for the Malaria model.

Keywords: group theory, lie symmetry, invariant solutions, malaria

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
126 Assessing the Role of Human Mobility on Malaria Transmission in South Sudan

Authors: A. Y. Mukhtar, J. B. Munyakazi, R. Ouifki

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Over the past few decades, the unprecedented increase in mobility has raised considerable concern about the relationship between mobility and vector-borne diseases and malaria in particular. Thus, one can claim that human mobility is one of the contributing factors to the resurgence of malaria. To assess human mobility on malaria burden among hosts, we formulate a movement-based model on a network of patches. We then extend human multi-group SEIAR deterministic epidemic models into a system of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Our quantitative stochastic model which is expressed in terms of average rates of movement between compartments is fitted to time-series data (weekly malaria data of 2011 for each patch) using the maximum likelihood approach. Using the metapopulation (multi-group) model, we compute and analyze the basic reproduction number. The result shows that human movement is sufficient to preserve malaria disease firmness in the patches with the low transmission. With these results, we concluded that the sensitivity of malaria to the human mobility is turning to be greatly important over the implications of future malaria control in South Sudan.

Keywords: basic reproduction number, malaria, maximum likelihood, movement, stochastic model

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125 The Effects of Rumah Panggung Environment, Social Culture, and Behavior on Malaria Incidence in Kori Village, Indonesia

Authors: Sri Ratna Rahayu, Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Lourensiana Y. S. Ngaga, Imade Sudana, Irwan Budiono

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Malaria is an infectious disease that still cannot be solved in Kori village, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, where the most of people live in rumah panggung (Stilts House). The purpose of this study was to know whether there were the effects of rumah panggung environment, social culture, and behavior on malaria incidence in the Kori village. A cross-sectional study was performed to explore the effects of rumah panggung environment, social culture and behavior on malaria incidence. This study recruited 280 respondents, who live in the rumah panggung, permanent residents in Kori village, were age above 17 years old, and suffered from malaria in the past year. The collected data were analyzed with path analysis. The results of this study showed that the environment of rumah panggung and behavior have a direct effect on the incidence of malaria (p < 0.05). It could be concluded that improvement of environmental conditions of rumah panggung, sociocultural, and behavioral changes to maintain a healthy environment are needed to reduce the malaria incidence.

Keywords: Rumah panggung, socio-cultural, behavior, Malaria

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124 Analysis of Rainfall and Malaria Trends in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Abiodun M. Adeola, Hannes Rautenbach, Gbenga J. Abiodun, Thabo E. Makgoale, Joel O. Botai, Omolola M. Adisa, Christina M. Botai

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There was a surge in malaria morbidity as well as mortality in 2016/2017 malaria season in malaria-endemic regions of South Africa. Rainfall is a major climatic driver of malaria transmission and has potential use for predicting malaria. Annual and seasonal trends and cross-correlation analyses were performed on time series of monthly total rainfall (derived from interpolated weather station data) and monthly malaria cases in five districts of Limpopo Province for the period of 1998 to 2017. The time series analysis indicated that an average of 629.5mm of rainfall was received over the period of study. The rainfall has an annual variation of about 0.46%. Rainfall amount varies among the five districts, with the north-eastern part receiving more rainfall. Spearman’s correlation analysis indicated that total monthly rainfall with one to two months lagged effect is significant in malaria transmission in all the five districts. The strongest correlation is noticed in Mopani (r=0.54; p-value = < 0.001), Vhembe (r=0.53; p-value = < 0.001), Waterberg (r=0.40; p-value = < 0.001), Capricorn (r=0.37; p-value = < 0.001) and lowest in Sekhukhune (r=0.36; p-value = < 0.001). More particularly, malaria morbidity showed a strong relationship with an episode of rainfall above 5-year running means of rainfall of 400 mm. Both annual and seasonal analyses showed that the effect of rainfall on malaria varied across the districts and it is seasonally dependent. Adequate understanding of climatic variables dynamics annually and seasonally is imperative in seeking answers to malaria morbidity among other factors, particularly in the wake of the sudden spike of the disease in the province.

Keywords: correlation, malaria, rainfall, seasonal, trends

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
123 The Effect of Malaria Parasitaemia on Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels of Asymptomatic HIV Subjects in Nauth Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Ezeugwunne Ifeoma Priscilla, Charles Chinedum Onyenekwe, Joseph Eberendu Ahaneku, Rosemary Adanma Analike, Adesuwa Peace Eidangbe

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This study was designed to assess the effect of malaria parasitaemia on serum reproductive hormone levels of asymptomatic HIV adult subjects. A total of 271 participants aged between 17 and 58 ears were conveniently recruited. 135 asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects participated in the study; 67 of them had malaria parasitaemia. 136 HIV seropositive control subjects, 68 of them had malaria parasitaemia. Blood samples were collected from the participants for the determination of HIV status by immunoassay and immunochromatography. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assay for serum LH, FSH, Estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, and PSA levels, CD4+T cell counts by Cyflow method, thick and thin films determination of malaria parasitaemia count and density by WHO. Student's t-tests and ANOVA were used to compare means. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed significant differences in serum levels of LH, FSH, PSA, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone amongst the groups at P<0.05, respectively. The serum levels of LH, FSH, and PSA were significantly higher in malaria-infected asymptomatic HIV subjects than in asymptomatic HIV subjects with malaria parasitaemia (P<0.05 in each case). Also, the serum levels of LH, FSH, PSA, estrogen, and progesterone were significantly higher in malaria-infected asymptomatic HIV subjects compared with malaria-infected HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, respectively). The mean MP counts and MP density were significantly higher in asymptomatic HIV subjects compared to HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, in each case). The mean serum levels of testosterone were significantly lower in both malaria-infected and malaria uninfected HIV seronegative subjects (P<0.05, in each case). In conclusion, Malaria and HIV co-infection might increase the burden of hypogonadism as well as primary testicular failure, hyperprogesteronaemia, elevated levels of estrogen, and PSA in adult males asymptomatic HIV subjects.

Keywords: malaria parasitaemia, HIV, CD4, reproductive hormones

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122 Malaria and Environmental Sanitation

Authors: Soorya Vennila

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A comprehensive study of malaria in 165 villages (hamlets) in Harur block, Dharmapuri district, has revealed the fact that there are distinct episodes of malaria due to An. culicifacies, the vector, causes persistent transmission in the revenue village called Vedakatamaduvu. A total of 300 household adult samples are randomly selected to study both quantitatively and qualitatively the vulnerability of malaria. On the basis of the response, the problem uncommon with groups was identified as the outdoor routine, particularly open defecation, with which the samples needed to be stratified into two major groups; users of toilets 21 and those who practice open defecation 279. Open defecation, as the habit-based vulnerability, is measured with the Pearson correlation coefficient to estimate the relationship between malaria and open defecation. It is also verified from the literature that plant fluids provide mosquitoes not only with energy but also with nutrition, to the extent that they can develop fertile eggs. In the endemic areas, the bushy Presopis Juliflora, which naturally serves as a feeding and resting spot for mosquitoes, serves as a cover to practice open defecation as well. Eventually, those who get resort to Presopis for open defecation have a higher chance of getting exposed to mosquito bites and being infected with malaria. The study concludes that the combination of bushy Prosopis Juliflora and open defecation leaves the place perpetually vulnerable to malaria.

Keywords: Malaria, open defecation, endemic, presopis juliflora

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121 Spatio-Temporal Analysis and Mapping of Malaria in Thailand

Authors: Krisada Lekdee, Sunee Sammatat, Nittaya Boonsit

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This paper proposes a GLMM with spatial and temporal effects for malaria data in Thailand. A Bayesian method is used for parameter estimation via Gibbs sampling MCMC. A conditional autoregressive (CAR) model is assumed to present the spatial effects. The temporal correlation is presented through the covariance matrix of the random effects. The malaria quarterly data have been extracted from the Bureau of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health of Thailand. The factors considered are rainfall and temperature. The result shows that rainfall and temperature are positively related to the malaria morbidity rate. The posterior means of the estimated morbidity rates are used to construct the malaria maps. The top 5 highest morbidity rates (per 100,000 population) are in Trat (Q3, 111.70), Chiang Mai (Q3, 104.70), Narathiwat (Q4, 97.69), Chiang Mai (Q2, 88.51), and Chanthaburi (Q3, 86.82). According to the DIC criterion, the proposed model has a better performance than the GLMM with spatial effects but without temporal terms.

Keywords: Bayesian method, generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), malaria, spatial effects, temporal correlation

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120 The Long-Run Effects of In-Utero Exposure to Malaria: Evidence from the Brazilian Eradication Campaign

Authors: Henrique Veras De Paiva Fonseca

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This paper investigates the long-term relationship between early life exposure to malaria and adult socioeconomic outcomes in Brazil. The identification strategy relies on exogenous variation in the risk of malaria outbreaks in different states and seasons of the year to identify early life exposure according to the timing and location of birth. Furthermore, Brazil has undergone a successful campaign of malaria eradication during the late 1950s, which allows for comparing outcomes of birth cohorts born just prior to and just after eradication to identify the extent of in utero exposure. Instrumental variables estimates find consistent negative treatment effects of in utero exposure to malaria on socioeconomic outcomes, such as educational attainment and health status. The effects are stronger for exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy than during other periods of gestation. Additionally, consistent with previous findings, men are more likely to exhibit larger long-term effects.

Keywords: malaria, exposure, eradication, instrumental variables, education, health

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119 Clinical and Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria in Surat Thani, Southern Thailand

Authors: Manas Kotepui, Chatree Ratcha, Kwuntida Uthaisar

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Malaria infection is still to be considered a major public health problem in Thailand. This study, a retrospective data of patients in Surat Thani Province, Southern Thailand during 2012-2015 was retrieved and analyzed. These data include demographic data, clinical characteristics and laboratory diagnosis. Statistical analyses were performed to demonstrate the frequency, proportion, data tendency, and group comparisons. Total of 395 malaria patients were found. Most of patients were male (253 cases, 64.1%). Most of patients (262 cases, 66.3%) were admitted at 6 am-11.59 am of the day. Three hundred and fifty-five patients (97.5%) were positive with P. falciparum. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and MCHC between P. falciparum and P. vivax were significant different (P value<0.05).During 2012-2015, prevalence of malaria was highest in 2013. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes were significantly changed among patients with fever ≤ 3 days compared with patients with fever >3 days. This information will guide to understanding pathogenesis and characteristic of malaria infection in Sothern Thailand.

Keywords: prevalence, malaria, Surat Thani, Thailand

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118 Economic Cost of Malaria: A Threat to Household Income in Nigeria

Authors: Nsikan Affiah, Kayode Osungbade, Williams Uzoma

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Malaria remains one of the major killers of humans worldwide, threatening the lives of more than one-third of the world’s population. Some people refers it to; a disease of poverty because it contributes towards national poverty through its impact on foreign direct investment, tourism, labour productivity, and trade. At the micro level, it may cause poverty through spending on health care, income losses, and premature deaths. Unfortunately, malaria is a disease that affects both low-income household and its high-income counterpart, but low-income households are still at greater risk because significant part of the available monthly income is dedicated to various preventive and treatment measures. The objective of this study is to estimate direct and indirect cost of malaria treatment in households in a section of South-South Region (Akwa Ibom State) of Nigeria. A cross-sectional study of Six Hundred and Forty (640) heads of households or any adult representative of households in three local government areas of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria from May 1-31, 2015 were ascertained through interviewer-administered questionnaire adapted from Nigerian Malaria Indicator Survey Report. The clustering technique was used to select 640 households with the help of Primary Health Care (PHC) house numbering system. Using exchange rate of 197 Naira/USD, result shows that direct cost of malaria treatment was 8,894.44 USD while the indirect cost of malaria treatment was 11,012.81 USD. Total cost of treatment made up of 44.7% direct cost and 55.3% indirect cost, with average direct cost of malaria treatment per household estimated at 20.6 USD and the average indirect cost of treatment per household estimated at 25.1 USD. Average total cost for each episode (888) of malaria was estimated at 22.4 USD. While at household level, the average total cost was estimated at 45.5 USD. From the average total cost, low-income households would spend 36% of monthly household income on treating malaria and the impact could be said to be catastrophic, compared to high-income households where only 1.2% of monthly household income is spent on malaria treatment. It could be concluded that the cost of malaria treatment is well beyond the means of households and given the reality of repeated bouts of malaria and its contribution to the impoverishment of households, there is a need for urgent action.

Keywords: direct cost, indirect cost, low income households, malaria

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117 Renal Complications in Patients with Falciparum Malaria

Authors: Saira Baloch, Mohsin Ali Baloch

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Background: Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease and also a major public health problem in Pakistan. Renal failure is an emerging problem correlated with morbidity and mortality, however can be diagnosed and treated in the early stages. Objectives: To elucidate the biochemical renal parameters in patients with falciparum malaria and comparison with healthy control subjects. Method: 80 patients, who were diagnosed to be affected by falciparum malaria. Detailed history, general physical and systemic examination and necessary pathological, biochemical renal laboratory parameters and investigations were done. Results: Among the 80 patients, 43 were males and 37 were females. All patients were infected with P. falciparum. All patients had increased serum creatinine and urea levels and urine output of less than 400 ml/day were categorized as suffering from renal failure. Conclusion: Patients infected with P. falciparum are at an increased risk of developing renal failure when compared to patients infected with other complications. P. vivax has massive potential to cause life threatening complications and even death. Further research is required to understand the exact pathogenesis of various complications encountered in vivax malaria.

Keywords: falciparum malaria, renal failure, biochemical parameters, pathogenesis

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116 Malaria Parasite Detection Using Deep Learning Methods

Authors: Kaustubh Chakradeo, Michael Delves, Sofya Titarenko

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Malaria is a serious disease which affects hundreds of millions of people around the world, each year. If not treated in time, it can be fatal. Despite recent developments in malaria diagnostics, the microscopy method to detect malaria remains the most common. Unfortunately, the accuracy of microscopic diagnostics is dependent on the skill of the microscopist and limits the throughput of malaria diagnosis. With the development of Artificial Intelligence tools and Deep Learning techniques in particular, it is possible to lower the cost, while achieving an overall higher accuracy. In this paper, we present a VGG-based model and compare it with previously developed models for identifying infected cells. Our model surpasses most previously developed models in a range of the accuracy metrics. The model has an advantage of being constructed from a relatively small number of layers. This reduces the computer resources and computational time. Moreover, we test our model on two types of datasets and argue that the currently developed deep-learning-based methods cannot efficiently distinguish between infected and contaminated cells. A more precise study of suspicious regions is required.

Keywords: convolution neural network, deep learning, malaria, thin blood smears

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115 Effectiveness of Health Education Interventions to Improve Malaria Knowledge and ITN Ownership Among Populations of Sub-Saharan Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Opara Monica Onyinyechi, Ahmad Iqmer Nashriq Mohd Nazan, Suriani Ismail

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Introduction: Global estimates of malaria indicate that at least 3.3 billion people are at risk of being infected with malaria and 1.2 billion are at high risk. The review investigates the effectiveness of health education strategies to increase the level of malaria knowledge and ITN ownership among the populations of sub-Sahara African countries. Methods: A literature search was conducted using Science direct, CINAHL, PubMed, Prisma, Pico, Cochrane library and PsycINFO databases to retrieve articles published between 2000 until 2020. Eleven studies that reported on malaria prevention and intervention using health education strategies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa were included in the final review. Results: Four studies used educational interventions to teach appropriate ITN strategies and promote ITN usage. Two others focused on improving knowledge of malaria transmission, prevention, treatment, and its signs and symptoms. The remaining five studies assessed both ITN use and malaria knowledge. Of these, 10 were eligible for meta-analysis. On average, health education interventions significantly increase the odds of a person in the intervention group to report better malaria knowledge (odds ratio 1.30, 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.70, P= 0.05) and higher ITN ownership (odds ratio 1.53, 95% CI: 1.02 to 2.29, P= 0.004) compared to those in the control group. The odds of ITN ownership also substantially increases when the intervention was based on a theory or model (odds ratio 5.27, 95% CI: 3.24 to 8.58, P= 0.05). Conclusion: Our review highlights the various health education strategies used in sub-Saharan Africa to curb malaria over the past two decades. Meta-analysis findings show that health education intervention is moderately effective in improving malaria knowledge and ITN ownership and has contributed to the effort of global malaria strategy.

Keywords: malaria, health education, insecticide treated nets, sub-Saharan Africa, meta-analysis

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114 Journals' Productivity in the Literature on Malaria in Africa

Authors: Yahya Ibrahim Harande

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The purpose of this study was to identify the journals that published articles on malaria disease in Africa and to determine the core of productive journals from the identified journals. The data for the study were culled out from African Index Medicus (AIM) database. A total of 529 articles was gathered from 115 journal titles from 1979-2011. In order to obtain the core of productive journals, Bradford`s law was applied to the collected data. Five journal titles were identified and determined as core journals. The data used for the study was analyzed and that, the subject matter used, Malaria was in conformity with the Bradford`s law. On the aspect dispersion of the literature, English was found to be the dominant language of the journals. (80.9%) followed by French (16.5%). Followed by Portuguese (1.7%) and German (0.9%). Recommendation is hereby proposed for the medical libraries to acquire these five journals that constitute the core in malaria literature for the use of their clients. It could also help in streamlining their acquision and selection exercises. More researches in the subject area using Bibliometrics approaches are hereby recommended.

Keywords: productive journals, malaria disease literature, Bradford`s law, core journals, African scholars

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113 Distribution of Malaria-Infected Anopheles Mosquitoes in Kudat, Ranau and Tenom of Sabah, Malaysia

Authors: Ahmad Fakhriy Hassan, Rohani Ahmad, Zurainee Mohamed Nor, Wan Najdah Wan Mohamad Ali

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In Malaysia, it was realized that while the incidence of human malaria is decreasing, the incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria appears to be on the rise, especially in rural areas of Sabah, East Malaysia. The primary vector for P. knowlesi malaria in Sabah is An. balabacensis a species found abundant in rural areas, shown to rest and feed outdoor throughout the night, which makes its control very challenging. This study aims to examine the distribution of malaria-infected Anopheles mosquitoes in three areas in Sabah, namely Kudat, Ranau, and Tenom, known as areas in Sabah that presented high number of malaria cases. Briefly, mosquitoes were caught every 6 weeks for the period of 18 months using Human Landing Catching (HLC) technique from May 2016 to November 2017. Identification of species was done using microscopy and molecular methods. Molecular method is also used to detect malaria parasite in all mosquito collected. An. balabacensis was present in all the study areas. In Kudat, six other Anopheles species were also detected, namely, An. barumbrosus, An. latens, An. letifer, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus and An. tesselatus. In Ranau five other Anopheles species were detected, namely, An. barumbrosus, An. donaldi., An. hodgkini, An. maculatus, and An. tesselatus while in Tenom seven more species An. donaldi, An. umbrosus, An. barumbrosus, An.latens, An. hodgkini, An. maculatus, and An. tesselatus were detected. This study showed 24% out of 259, 39% out of 127, and 26% out of 265 Anopheles mosquito collected in Kudat, Ranau, and Tenom were detected positive for malaria parasite respectively. In Kudat An. balabacensis, An. barumbrosus, An. latens, An. maculatus, An. sundaicus and An. tesselatus were the six out of eight Anopheles species that were found infected with malaria parasite. All Anopheles species collected in Ranau were positive for malaria while In Tenom, only five out of eight species; An. balabacensus, An. donaldi, An. hodgkini, An. maculatus, and An. latens were detected positive for malaria parasite. Interestingly, for all study areas An. balabacensis was shown to be the only species infected with four malaria species; P. falciparum, P. knowlesi, P. vivax, and Plasmodium sp. This finding clearly indicates that An. balabacensis is the dominant malaria vector in Kudat, Ranau, and Tenom.

Keywords: Anopheles balabacensis, human landing catching technique, nested PCR, Plasmodium knowlesi, Simian malaria

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112 The Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata and Chromolaena odorata Plant Extract against Malaria Parasite

Authors: Funmilola O. Omoya, Abdul O. Momoh

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Malaria constitutes one of the major health problems in Nigeria. One of the reasons attributed for the upsurge was the development of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum and the emergence of multi-resistant strains of the parasite to anti-malaria drugs. A continued search for other effective, safe and cheap plant-based anti-malaria agents thus becomes imperative in the face of these difficulties. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate the in vivo anti-malarial efficacy of ethanolic extracts of Chromolaena odorata and Androgaphis paniculata leaves. The two plants were evaluated for their anti-malaria efficacy in vivo in a 4-day curative test assay against Plasmodium berghei strain in mice. The group treated with 500mg/ml dose of ethanolic extract of A. paniculata plant showed parasite suppression with increase in Packed Cell Volume (PCV) value except day 3 which showed a slight decrease in PCV value. During the 4-day curative test, an increase in the PCV values, weight measurement and zero count of Plasmodium berghei parasite values was recorded after day 3 of drug administration. These results obtained in group treated with A. paniculata extract showed anti-malarial efficacy with higher mortality rate in parasitaemia count when compared with Chromolaena odorata group. These results justify the use of ethanolic extracts of A. paniculata plant as medicinal herb used in folklore medicine in the treatment of malaria.

Keywords: anti-malaria, curative, plant-based anti-malaria agents, biology

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111 The Correlation of Environmental Risk Factors with Malaria at Tasikmalaya District, 2013

Authors: Destriyanti Sugiarti, Ririn A Wulandari

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Background: Malaria disease was widespread in many countries, both tropical and sub-tropical. Tasikmalaya is a region that experienced an increase in malaria cases over the last 5 years and highest in 2013, a total of 168 positive cases of malaria. Tasikmalaya region consists of coastal and mountain areas, it has a potential place for Anopheles mosquito breeding, i.e swamp, lagoon, andrice fields.The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation of environmental risk factors with the incidence of malaria in Tasikmalaya. Methods: The design of the study is case control study with 140 samples in 5 sub-district (Cineam, Cikatomas, Cipatujah, Salopa, and Jatiwaras). This study examines the environmental factors that influence the incidence of malaria in Tasikmalaya District in 2013. The research used 14 variables: individual characteristics (education, knowledge, occupation) and environmental risk factors (mobility to endemic areas, use mosquito nets, use of wire gauze at home, use mosquito repellent, repellent use, the presence of a large animal in a cage, breeding place, the presence of larvae, temperature and humidity chamber). Results: Results demonstrated an association between occupation (0.22; 0.10-0.47), the mobility of the population to the endemic areas (37.4; 14.29-98.18) ,the presence of larvae (5.26; 1.41-19.74), and the room temperature with optimum temperature for mosquito breeding is 25-30oC (3.25; 1.62- 6.50). Conclusion: The dominant factor affecting the spread of malaria in Tasikmalaya is the mobility of the population to endemic areas. The results of the study suggest migration survey conducted activity and health promotion for preventive efforts against malaria in malaria-endemic areas, and to encourage people to behave healthy life by freeing environment of mosquito larvae and protect themselves from mosquito bites.

Keywords: Environmental risk factors, malaria, correlation, Anopheles

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110 Suspected Odyssean Malaria Outbreak in Gauteng Province, September 2014

Authors: Patience Manjengwa-Hungwe, Carmen White

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Background: Odyssean malaria refers to malaria acquired by infected mosquito bites from malaria endemic to non-endemic regions by mechanical modes of transport, such as airplanes, water vessels, trains and vehicles. Odyssean Malaria is rare and is characterised by absence of travel history to malaria endemic areas. As not anticipated in non-endemic areas, late diagnosis and treatment lead to a high case fatality rate. On 26 September 2014, the Outbreak Response Unit at the National Institute of Communicable Diseases was notified of a suspected death from Odyssean Malaria in Johannesburg, Gauteng Province, a non-endemic area. The main objective of this investigation was to identify the etiological agent's mode and source of transmission. Methods: Epidemiological surveys were conducted with the deceased’s family and clinical details were obtained from doctors who treated the victim in Southrand, Johannesburg. Blood samples were collected prior to death and sent to the National Health Laboratory Services, Johannesburg laboratory for a full blood count, urea electrolytes, creatinine, and C-reactive protein. Environmental assessments and entomological investigations, including collection of mosquito and larvae, were conducted at the deceased’s home and surrounding areas and sent to the laboratory for analysis. Results: Epidemiological surveys revealed no travel history, no mechanical transmission through blood transfusion and no previous possible exposure of the victim to malaria mosquitoes. Laboratory findings indicated that the platelet count was low. A further smear revealed that the malaria parasite was present and malaria antigen for P. falciparum was positive. Entomological findings revealed that none of the six adult or larval mosquitoes collected on site were malaria vectors. Dumping sites found at the back of the house were identified as possible sites where mosquitoes from endemic places could possibly breed. Conclusion: Given that there was no travel history or the possibility of mechanical transmission (blood transfusion or needle), the research team concluded that it is highly probable that the infection was acquired through an infective Anopheles mosquito inadvertently translocated from a Malaria endemic area by mechanical modes of transport. We recommend that clinicians in non-endemic malaria areas be aware of this type of malaria and test for malaria in patients showing malaria-like symptoms.

Keywords: Odyssean Malaria, vector Bourne, malaria, epidemiological surveys

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109 The Potential of Ursolic Acid Acetate as an Agent for Malarial Chemotherapy

Authors: Mthokozisi B. C. Simelane

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Despite the various efforts by governmental and non-governmental organizations aimed at eradicating the disease, malaria is said to kill a child every 30 seconds. Traditional healers use different concoctions prepared from medicinal plants to treat malaria. In the quest to bio-prospect plant-derived triterpenes for anti-malaria activity, we report here the in vivo antiplasmodial activity of ursolic acid acetate (ursolic acid isolated from dichloromethane extract of Mimusops caffra was chemically modified to its acetate derivative). The transdermal administration of ursolic acid acetate (UAA) dose dependently showed complete inhibition of the parasites’ growth at the highest concentration of 400 mg/kg after 15 days of Plasmodium berghei infection. UAA prevented the in vitro aggregation of MDH but did not prevent the expression of PfHsp 70 in E. coli XL1 blue cells. It, however, enhanced PfHsp70 ATPase activity with the specific activity of 65 units (amount of phosphate released 73.83 nmolPi/min.mg). Ursolic acid acetate prevented the formation of hemozoin (60 ± 0.02% at 6 mg/ml). The results suggest that Ursolic acid acetate possesses potential anti-malaria properties.

Keywords: Mimusops caffra, ursolic acid acetate, hemozoin, Malaria

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108 Malaria Management among Dispensers in Drug Retail Outlets in Buea Community: An Assessment of Knowledge of Malaria and Antimalarial Drug Prescription and Dispensing Practices

Authors: Marcelus U. Ajonina, Deodata B. Ngonga, Kenric B. Ware, Carine K. Nfor

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Background: Lack of knowledge of rational use of antimalarial drugs among dispensers is a serious problem, especially in areas of intense transmission, thus increasing the risk of resistance and adverse drug reactions. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of malaria as well as perception and dispensing practices of antimalarials among vendors in Buea community. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 140 drug vendors living within the Buea community was conducted between March and June 2017. A questionnaire was designed to obtain information from drug vendors on the general knowledge of malaria as well as dispensing practices. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20.0 and were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Knowledge of malaria symptoms, transmission, and prevention was reasonable among 55.8% (77) of the respondents. Only 33.6% (47) of the respondents could attribute the cause of malaria to protozoan of genus Plasmodium species. Of the 140 vendors, 115 (82.7%) prescribe antimalarial drugs. The knowledge of the national protocol was malaria case management among dispensers was 35.0%. Vendors in hospital/community pharmacies were 2.4 times (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 4.14 - 8.74, p < 0.001) more knowledgeable about malaria treatment protocol than those of in drugstores. The prevalence of self-prescription of antimalarials was 39.3%. Self-prescription was significantly higher in drugstores than hospital/community pharmacies (p=0.004). In all, 56 (40.6%) of vendors showed good practices regarding antimalarial drug dispensing with the majority (51.7%) from community pharmacies (OR=2.27,95% CI: 1.13-4.56). Conclusion: Findings reveal moderate knowledge of malaria but poor prescription and dispensing practices of antimalarial drugs among vendors, thus indicating a need for routine monitoring and evaluation to prevent the emergence of resistant strains to current efficacious antimalarials.

Keywords: antimalarials, drug retail outlets, dispensing, drug resistance, prescription

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107 Differential Diagnosis of Malaria and Dengue Fever on the Basis of Clinical Findings and Laboratory Investigations

Authors: Aman Ullah Khan, Muhammad Younus, Aqil Ijaz, Muti-Ur-Rehman Khan, Sayyed Aun Muhammad, Asif Idrees, Sanan Raza, Amar Nasir

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Dengue fever and malaria are important vector-borne diseases of public health significance affecting millions of people around the globe. Dengue fever is caused by Dengue virus while malaria is caused by plasmodium protozoan. Generally, the consequences of Malaria are less severe compared to dengue fever. This study was designed to differentiate dengue fever and malaria on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and to compare the changes in both diseases having different causative agents transmitted by the common vector. A total of 200 patients of dengue viral infection (120 males, 80 females) were included in this prospective descriptive study. The blood samples of the individuals were first screened for malaria by blood smear examination and then the negative samples were tested by anti-dengue IgM strip. The strip positive cases were further screened by IgM capture ELISA and their complete blood count including hemoglobin estimation (Hb), total and differential leukocyte counts (TLC and DLC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and platelet counts were performed. On the basis of the severity of signs and symptoms, dengue virus infected patients were subdivided into dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) comprising 70 and 100 confirmed patients, respectively. On the other hand, 30 patients were found infected with Malaria while overall 120 patients showed thrombocytopenia. The patients of DHF were found to have more leucopenia, raised hemoglobin level and thrombocytopenia < 50,000/µl compared to the patients belonging to DF and malaria. On the basis of the outcomes of the study, it was concluded that patients affected by DF were at a lower risk of undergoing haematological disturbance than suffering from DHF. While, the patients infected by Malaria were found to have no significant change in their blood components.

Keywords: dengue fever, blood, serum, malaria, ELISA

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106 Bacterial Flora of the Anopheles Fluviatilis S. L. in an Endemic Malaria Area in Southeastern Iran for Candidate Paraterasgenesis Strains

Authors: Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi, Jalal Mohammadi Soleimani, Hassan Vatandoost, Mohammad Hassan Shirazi, Sara Hajikhani, Roonak Bakhtiari, Morteza Akbari, Siamak Hydarzadeh

Abstract:

Malaria is an infectious disease and considered most important health problems in the southeast of Iran. Iran is elimination malaria phase and new tool need to vector control. Paraterasgenesis is a new way to cut of life cycle of the malaria parasite. In this study, the microflora of the surface and gut of various stages of Anopheles fluviatilis James as one of the important malaria vector was studied using biochemical and molecular techniques during 2013-2014. Twelve bacteria species were found including; Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Citrobacter braakii، Citrobacter freundii، Aeromonas hydrophila، Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter koseri, Serratia fonticola، Enterobacter sakazakii and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. The species of Alcaligenes faecalis, Providencia vermicola and Enterobacter hormaechei were identified in various stages of the vector and confirmed by biochemical and molecular techniques. We found Providencia rettgeri proper candidate for paratransgenesis.

Keywords: Anopheles fluviatilis, bacteria, malaria, Paraterasgenesis, Southern Iran

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105 A Custom Convolutional Neural Network with Hue, Saturation, Value Color for Malaria Classification

Authors: Ghazala Hcini, Imen Jdey, Hela Ltifi

Abstract:

Malaria disease should be considered and handled as a potential restorative catastrophe. One of the most challenging tasks in the field of microscopy image processing is due to differences in test design and vulnerability of cell classifications. In this article, we focused on applying deep learning to classify patients by identifying images of infected and uninfected cells. We performed multiple forms, counting a classification approach using the Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) color space. HSV is used since of its superior ability to speak to image brightness; at long last, for classification, a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture is created. Clusters of focus were used to deliver the classification. The highlights got to be forbidden, and a few more clamor sorts are included in the information. The suggested method has a precision of 99.79%, a recall value of 99.55%, and provides 99.96% accuracy.

Keywords: deep learning, convolutional neural network, image classification, color transformation, HSV color, malaria diagnosis, malaria cells images

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104 Malaria Vector Situation in Tanjung Subdistrict, West Lombok Regency, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia

Authors: Subagyo Yotopranoto, Sri Wijayanti Sulistyawati, Sukmawati Basuki, Budi Armika, Yoes Prijatna Dachlan

Abstract:

Malaria is a parasitic infectious disease that still remains a health problem in the world, including Indonesia. There is an outbreak happen at West Nusa Tenggara in 2007. A tourist spot in West Nusa Tenggara called West Lombok is mesoendemic area for malaria. Tanjung is the highest malaria morbidity subdistrict in West Lombok. Thus, the research conducted for the presence of a new species of malaria vectors, that are suspected of one factors which caused high morbidity of malaria in this region. The study was conducted in coastal and highland areas. We collected and identified Anopheles larvae from their breeding places. We also collected and identified Anopheles adult mosquitoes with outdoor cow net, indoor and outdoor human bait. In coastal area (Tembobor village), we found Anopheles vagus larvae from rivers as its breeding places. In highland area (Dasan Tengah village), we found An. subpictus from pool, lagoon, and river as its breeding places. In coastal area, with outdoor human bait, we collected An. vagus and An. subpictus adult mosquitoes. With indoor human bait, we collected An. subpictus adult mosquitoes. Whereas with outdoor cow net, we collected An. subpictus and An. maculatus, the first was more dominant. Furthermore, An subpictus strong suspected as malaria vector in coastal area. Anopheles subpictus was an anthropozoophylic mosquitoes, because it was found at indoor and outdoor places.

Keywords: malaria, vector, Tanjung, West Nusa Tenggara

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103 Vectorial Capacity and Age Determination of Anopheles Maculipinnis S. L. (Diptera: Culicidae), in Esfahan and Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari Provinces, Central Iran

Authors: Fariba Sepahvand, Seyed Hassan Moosa-kazemi

Abstract:

The objective was to determine the population dynamics of Anopheles maculipinnis s.l. in relation to probable malaria transmission. The study was carried out in three villages in Isfahan and charmahal bakhteari provinces of Iran, from April to March 2014. Mosquitoes were collected by Total catch, Human and Animal bait collection. An. maculipinnis play as a dominant vector with exophagic and endophilic behavior. Ovary dissection revealed four dilatations indicate at least 9% of the population can reach to the dangerous age to potentially malaria transmission. Two peaks of blood feeding were observed, 9.00-10.00 P.M, and the 12.00-00.01 A.M. The gonotrophic cycle, survival rate, life expectancy of the species was 4, 0.82 and five days, respectively. Vectorial capacity was measured as 0.028. In conclusion, moderate climatic conditions support the persistence, density and longevity of An maculipinnis s.l. could result in more significant malaria transmission.

Keywords: age determination, Anopheles maculipinnis, center of Iran, Malaria

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102 Modified Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) Model for Quality Assessment of Malaria Parasite Microscopy and Rapid Diagnostic Tests in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: F. Sarkinfada, Dabo N. Tukur, Abbas A. Muaz, Adamu A. Yahuza

Abstract:

Appropriate Quality Assurance (QA) of parasite-based diagnosis of malaria to justify Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) is essential for Malaria Programmes. In Low and Middle Income Countries (LMIC), resource constrain appears to be a major challenge in implementing the conventional QA system. We designed and implemented a modified LQAS model for QA of malaria parasite (MP) microscopy and RDT in a State Specialist Hospital (SSH) and a University Health Clinic (UHC) in Kano, Nigeria. The capacities of both facilities for MP microscopy and RDT were assessed before implementing a modified LQAS over a period of 3 months. Quality indicators comprising the qualities of blood film and staining, MP positivity rates, concordance rates, error rates (in terms of false positives and false negatives), sensitivity and specificity were monitored and evaluated. Seventy one percent (71%) of the basic requirements for malaria microscopy was available in both facilities, with the absence of certifies microscopists, SOPs and Quality Assurance mechanisms. A daily average of 16 to 32 blood samples were tested with a blood film staining quality of >70% recorded in both facilities. Using microscopy, the MP positivity rates were 50.46% and 19.44% in SSH and UHS respectively, while the MP positivity rates were 45.83% and 22.78% in SSH and UHS when RDT was used. Higher concordance rates of 88.90% and 93.98% were recorded in SSH and UHC respectively using microscopy, while lower rates of 74.07% and 80.58% in SSH and UHC were recorded when RDT was used. In both facilities, error rates were higher when RDT was used than with microscopy. Sensitivity and specificity were higher when microscopy was used (95% and 84% in SSH; 94% in UHC) than when RDT was used (72% and 76% in SSH; 78% and 81% in UHC). It could be feasible to implement an integrated QA model for MP microscopy and RDT using modified LQAS in Malaria Control Programmes in Low and Middle Income Countries that might have resource constrain for parasite-base diagnosis of malaria to justify ACT treatment.

Keywords: malaria, microscopy, quality assurance, RDT

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101 Revolving Ferrofluid Flow in Porous Medium with Rotating Disk

Authors: Paras Ram, Vikas Kumar

Abstract:

The transmission of Malaria with seasonal were studied through the use of mathematical models. The data from the annual number of Malaria cases reported to the Division of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand during the period 1997-2011 were analyzed. The transmission of Malaria with seasonal was studied by formulating a mathematical model which had been modified to describe different situations encountered in the transmission of Malaria. In our model, the population was separated into two groups: the human and vector groups, and then constructed a system of nonlinear differential equations. Each human group was divided into susceptible, infectious in hot season, infectious in rainy season, infectious in cool season and recovered classes. The vector population was separated into two classes only: susceptible and infectious vectors. The analysis of the models was given by the standard dynamical modeling.

Keywords: ferrofluid, magnetic field, porous medium, rotating disk, Neuringer-Rosensweig Model

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100 Nanoparticle-Based Histidine-Rich Protein-2 Assay for the Detection of the Malaria Parasite Plasmodium Falciparum

Authors: Yagahira E. Castro-Sesquen, Chloe Kim, Robert H. Gilman, David J. Sullivan, Peter C. Searson

Abstract:

Diagnosis of severe malaria is particularly important in highly endemic regions since most patients are positive for parasitemia and treatment differs from non-severe malaria. Diagnosis can be challenging due to the prevalence of diseases with similar symptoms. Accurate diagnosis is increasingly important to avoid overprescribing antimalarial drugs, minimize drug resistance, and minimize costs. A nanoparticle-based assay for detection and quantification of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) in urine and serum is reported. The assay uses magnetic beads conjugated with anti-HRP2 antibody for protein capture and concentration, and antibody-conjugated quantum dots for optical detection. Western Blot analysis demonstrated that magnetic beads allows the concentration of HRP2 protein in urine by 20-fold. The concentration effect was achieved because large volume of urine can be incubated with beads, and magnetic separation can be easily performed in minutes to isolate beads containing HRP2 protein. Magnetic beads and Quantum Dots 525 conjugated to anti-HRP2 antibodies allows the detection of low concentration of HRP2 protein (0.5 ng mL-1), and quantification in the range of 33 to 2,000 ng mL-1 corresponding to the range associated with non-severe to severe malaria. This assay can be easily adapted to a non-invasive point-of-care test for classification of severe malaria.

Keywords: HRP2 protein, malaria, magnetic beads, Quantum dots

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99 Non-Autonomous Seasonal Variation Model for Vector-Borne Disease Transferral in Kampala of Uganda

Authors: Benjamin Aina Peter, Amos Wale Ogunsola

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In this paper, a mathematical model of malaria transmission was presented with the effect of seasonal shift, due to global fluctuation in temperature, on the increase of conveyor of the infectious disease, which probably alters the region transmission potential of malaria. A deterministic compartmental model was proposed and analyzed qualitatively. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches of the model were considered. The next-generation matrix is employed to determine the basic reproduction number of the model. Equilibrium points of the model were determined and analyzed. The numerical simulation is carried out using Excel Micro Software to validate and support the qualitative results. From the analysis of the result, the optimal temperature for the transmission of malaria is between and . The result also shows that an increase in temperature due to seasonal shift gives rise to the development of parasites which consequently leads to an increase in the widespread of malaria transmission in Kampala. It is also seen from the results that an increase in temperature leads to an increase in the number of infectious human hosts and mosquitoes.

Keywords: seasonal variation, indoor residual spray, efficacy of spray, temperature-dependent model

Procedia PDF Downloads 104