Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: Farzad Jalilian

52 Web-Based Intervention for Addressing Cigarette Smoking Prevention among College Students

Authors: Mohammad Ahmadpanah, Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Abbas Aghaei, Farzad Jalilian, Behzad Karami Matin, Ahmad Ali Eslami

Abstract:

Background: Smoking is introduced as one of the main risky factors to develop different types of diseases around the world, especially related to non-contagious diseases. The goal of the present study was assessment of the effectiveness of web based education program to prevent cigarette smoking among college students. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial, during 2014, 150 male college students in Isfahan and Kermanshah University of medical sciences were assigned to intervention group (receiving web based education program) and control groups. The study information was analyzed by SPSS software version 21 using cross-tabulation, t-test, repeated measures and GEE. Results: It was found significantly that average response for attitude towards cigarette smoking and sensation seeking after education reduced (P < 0.05). After intervention there was no significant difference between intervention and control group of cigarette smoking (P > 0.05). Conclusion: web based education have usefulness to reduce belief towards cigarette smoking.

Keywords: students, Smoking, Iran, web-based intervention

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51 Role of Social Support in Drug Cessation among Male Addicts in the West of Iran

Authors: Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Farzad Jalilian, Fazel Zinat Motlagh

Abstract:

Social support is an important benchmark of health for people in avoidance conditions. The main goal of this study was to determine the three kinds of social support (family, friend and other significant) to drug cessation among male addicts, in Kermanshah, the west of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 132 addicts, randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Data were collected from conduct interviews based on standard questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS-18 at 95% significance level. The majority of addicts were young (Mean: 30.4 years), and with little education. Opium (36.4%), Crack (21.2%), and Methamphetamine (12.9%) were the predominant drugs. Inabilities to reject the offer and having addict friends are the most often reasons for drug usage. Almost, 18.9% reported history of drug injection. 43.2% of the participants already did drug cessation at least once. Logistic regression showed the family support (OR = 1.110), age (OR = 1.106) and drug use initiation age (OR = 0.918) was predicting drug cessation. Our result showed; family support is a more important effect among types of social support in drug cessation. It seems that providing educational program to addict’s families for more support of patients at drug cessation can be beneficial.

Keywords: Family Support, drug use, drug cessation, initiation age

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50 Prevalence of Drug Injection among Male Prisoners in the West of Iran

Authors: Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Farzad Jalilian

Abstract:

Background: Substance addiction is one of the major worldwide problems that destroys economy, familial relationships, and the abuser’s career and has several side effects; in the meantime drug injection due to the possibility of shared use of syringes among drug users could have multiple complications to be followed. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of drug injection among male prisoners in Kermanshah city, the west of Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 615 male prisoners were randomly selected to participate voluntarily in the study. Participants filled out a writing self-report questionnaire. Data were analyzed by the SPSS software (ver. 21.0) at 95% significant level. Results: The mean age of respondents was 31.13 years [SD: 7.76]. Mean initiation age for drug use was 14.36 years (range, 9-34 years). Almost, 39.4 % reported a history of drug use before prison. Opium (33.2%) and crystal (27.1%) was the most used drug among prisoners. Furthermore, 9.3 % had a history of injection addiction. There was a significant correlation between age, crime type, marital status, economic status, unprotected sex and drug injection (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The low age of drug abuse and the prevalence of drug injection among offenders can be as a warning for responsible; in this regard, implementation of prevention programs to risky behavior and harm reduction among high-risk groups can follow useful results.

Keywords: Substance abuse, Iran, prison, drug injection

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49 Web-Based Alcohol Prevention among Iranian Medical University Students: A Randomized Control Trail

Authors: Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Farzad Jalilian

Abstract:

Background: E-interventions as a universal approach to prevent a high-risk behavior, such as alcohol drinking. This study was conducted to evaluate web-based alcohol drinking preventative intervention efficiency among medical university students in Iran. Methods: Overall, 150 freshman and sophomore male student’s college students participated in this study as intervention and control group. This was a longitudinal randomized pre- and post-test series control group design panel study to implement a behavior modification based intervention to alcohol drinking prevention among college students. Cross-tabulation, t-test, repeated measures, and GEE by using SPSS statistical package, version 21 was used for the statistical analysis. The participants were followed up for 6 months with data collection scheduled at baseline, 3 and 6 months. The primary outcomes are attitude, self-control, and sensation seeking. Furthermore, the secondary outcome is comparing alcohol drinking among the study groups. Results: It was found significant reduce in average response for an attitude towards alcohol drinking and sensation seeking among intervention group (P < 0.05). But after intervention not significant difference between intervention and control group of improve self-control and reduce alcohol drinking (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our intervention has been accompanied with reducing alcohol use rate. These findings indicate that e-intervention may be effectiveness approach to address the alcohol prevention among college students.

Keywords: students, Iran, e-interventions, alcohol drinking

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48 Prediction of Marijuana Use among Iranian Early Youth: an Application of Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction

Authors: Mehdi Mirzaei Alavijeh, Farzad Jalilian

Abstract:

Background: Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, especially among adolescents and young adults, which can cause numerous complications. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern, motivation use, and factors related to marijuana use among Iranian youths based on the integrative model of behavioral prediction Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 174 youths marijuana user in Kermanshah County and Isfahan County, during summer 2014 which was selected with the convenience sampling for participation in this study. A self-reporting questionnaire was applied for collecting data. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 using bivariate correlations and linear regression statistical tests. Results: The mean marijuana use of respondents was 4.60 times at during week [95% CI: 4.06, 5.15]. Linear regression statistical showed, the structures of integrative model of behavioral prediction accounted for 36% of the variation in the outcome measure of the marijuana use at during week (R2 = 36% & P < 0.001); and among them attitude, marijuana refuse, and subjective norms were a stronger predictors. Conclusion: Comprehensive health education and prevention programs need to emphasize on cognitive factors that predict youth’s health-related behaviors. Based on our findings it seems, designing educational and behavioral intervention for reducing positive belief about marijuana, marijuana self-efficacy refuse promotion and reduce subjective norms encourage marijuana use has an effective potential to protect youths marijuana use.

Keywords: Marijuana, Youth, Iran, integrative model of behavioral prediction

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47 Comparative Study between the Absorbed Dose of 67ga-Ecc and 68ga-Ecc

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, S. Shanesazzadeh, A.Lahooti

Abstract:

In this study, 68Ga-ECC and 67Ga-ECC were both prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 97% in less than 30 min. The biodistribution data for 68Ga-ECC showed the extraction of the most of the activity from the urinary tract. The absorbed dose was estimated based on biodistribution data in mice by the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) method. Comparison between human absorbed dose estimation for these two agents indicated the values of approximately ten-fold higher after injection of 67Ga-ECC than 68Ga-ECC in the most organs. The results showed that 68Ga-ECC can be considered as a more potential agent for renal imaging compared to 67Ga-ECC.

Keywords: effective absorbed dose, ethylenecysteamine cysteine, Ga-67, Ga-68

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46 Development of 90y-Chitosan Complex for Radiosynovectomy

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, A. Mirzaei, M. Athari-Allaf

Abstract:

Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common autoimmune disease, leading to the destruction of the joints. The aim of this study was the preparation of 90Y-chitosan complex as a novel agent for radiosynovectomy. The complex was prepared in the diluted acetic acid solution. At the optimized condition, the radiochemical purity of higher than 99% was obtained by ITLC method on Whatman No. 1 and by using a mixture of methanol/water/acetic acid (4:4:2) as the mobile phase. The complex was stable in acidic media (pH=3) and its radiochemical purity was above 98% even after 48 hours. The biodistribution data in rats showed that there was no significant leakage of the injected activity even after 48 h. Considering all of the excellent features of the complex, 90Y-chitosan can be used to manipulate synovial inflammation effectively.

Keywords: chitosan, biodistribution, Y-90, radiosynovectomy

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45 Evaluation of the Radiolabelled 68GA-DOTATOC Complex in Adenocarcinoma Breast Cancer

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, M. Naderi, A. Ramazani, B. Alirzapour

Abstract:

Nowadays, 68Ga-DOTATOC has been known as a potential agent for the detection of neuroendocrine tumours and it has indicated higher sensitivity compared with the 111In-Octeroetide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of this new agent in the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma breast cancer. 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 98% and by the specific activity of 39.6 TBq/mmol. 37 MBq of the complex was injected intravenously into the BULB/c mice with adenocarcinoma breast cancer. PET/CT images were acquired after 30, 60 and 90 min post injection demonstrated significant accumulation in the tumour sites. Also, considerable activity was observed in the kidney and bladder as the main routs of excretion. Generally, the results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as a suitable complex for diagnosis of the adenocarcinoma breast cancer using PET procedure.

Keywords: Imaging, octreotide, adenocarcinoma breast cancer

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44 Development of 111In-DOTMP as a New Bone Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, AR. Jalilian, A. Mirzaei, A. Bahrami-Samani, M. Erfani

Abstract:

The objective of this study is the preparation of 111In-DOTMP as a new bone imaging agent. 111In was produced at the Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS) by means of 30 MeV cyclotron via natCd(p,x)111In reaction. Complexion of In‐111 with DOTMP was carried out by adding 0.1 ml of the stock solution (50 mg/ml in 2 N NaoH) to the vial containing 1 mCi of 111In. pH of the mixture was adjusted to 7-8 by means of phosphate buffer. The radiochemical purity of the complex at the optimized condition was higher than 98% (by using whatman No.1 paper in NH4OH:MeOH: H2O (0.2:2:4)). Both the biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake. The ratio of bone to other soft tissue accumulation was significantly high which permit to observe high quality images. The results show that 111In-DOTMP can be used as a suitable tracer for diagnosis of bone metastases by SPECT imaging.

Keywords: biodistribution, DOTMP, SPECT

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43 Preparation and Quality Control of 68Ga-1,2-Propylene Di-Amino Tetra (Methylenephosphonic Acid)

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, A. Ramazani, N. Tadayon

Abstract:

Bone metastases occur in many patients with solid malignant tumors. Recently, 1,2 propylene di-amino tetra methylenephosphonic acid (PDTMP) has been introduced as a suitable carrier in the development of therapeutic bone-avid radiopharmaceuticals. In this study, due to the desirable characteristics of 68Ga, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A stock solution of PDTMP was prepared by dissolving in 2 N NaOH. A certain volume of the stock solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared in only 15 min with radiochemical purity of more than 98%. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: Imaging, PDTMP, bone metastases, Ga-68

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42 Biodistribution Study of 68GA-PDTMP as a New Bone Pet Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, A. Ramazani, N. Tadayon

Abstract:

In this study, 68Ga-PDTMP was prepared as a new agent for bone imaging. 68Ga was obtained from SnO2 based generator. A certain volume of the PDTMP solution was added to the vial containing 68GaCl3 and the pH of the mixture was adjusted to 4 using HEPES. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabelled complex was checked by thin layer chromatography. Biodistribution of this new agent was assessed in rats after intravenously injection of the complex. For this purpose, the rats were killed at specified times after injection and the weight and activity of each organ was measured. Injected dose per gram was calculated by dividing the activity of each organ to the total injected activity and the mass of each organ. As expected the most of the activity was accumulated in the bone tissue. The radiolabelled compound was extracted from blood very fast. This new bone-seeking complex can be considered as a good candidate of PET-based radiopharmaceutical for imaging of bone metastases.

Keywords: Imaging, biodistribution, PDTMP, Ga-68

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41 Human Absorbed Dose Assessment of 68Ga-Dotatoc Based on Biodistribution Data in Syrian Rats

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, M. Naderi, A. Ramazani

Abstract:

The aim of this work was to evaluate the values of absorbed dose of 68Ga-DOTATOC in numerous human organs. 68Ga-DOTATOC was prepared with the radiochemical purity of higher than 98% and by specific activity of 39.6 MBq/nmol. The complex demonstrated great stability at room temperature and in human serum at 37° C at least 2 h after preparation. Significant uptake was observed in somatostatin receptor-positive tissues such as pancreas and adrenal. The absorbed dose received by human organs was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in Syrian rats by the radiation absorbed dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. Maximum absorbed dose was obtained in the pancreas, kidneys, and adrenal with 0.105, 0.074, and 0.010 mGy/MBq, respectively. The effective absorbed dose was 0.026 mSv/MBq for 68Ga-DOTATOC. The results showed that 68Ga-DOTATOC can be considered as a safe and effective agent for clinically PET imaging applications.

Keywords: MIRD, effective absorbed dose, Ga-68, octreotide

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40 Preliminary Dosimetric Evaluation of Two New 153Sm Bone Pain Palliative Agents

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, AR. Jalilian, N. Amraee, Z. Naseri

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to calculate the absorbed dose to each human organ for two new Sm-153 bone-seeking agents in order to evaluate their effectiveness in bone pain palliation therapy. In this work, the absorbed dose of 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP to each human organ was evaluated based on biodistribution studies in rats by radiation dose assessment resource (RADAR) method. The highest absorbed dose for 153Sm-TTHMP and 153Sm-PDTMP is observed in trabecular bone with 1.844 and 3.167 mGy/MBq, respectively. Bone/red marrow dose ratio, as the target/critical organ dose ratio, for 153Sm-PDTMP is greater than 153Sm-TTHMP and is compatible with 153Sm-EDTMP. The results showed that these bone-seeking agents, specially 153Sm-PDTMP, have considerable characteristics compared to the most clinically used bone pain palliative radiopharmaceutical, and therefore, can be good candidates for bone pain palliation in patients with bone metastasis; however, further biological studies in other mammals are still needed.

Keywords: internal dosimetry, PDTMP, TTHMP

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39 Production, Quality Control, and Biodistribution Assessment of 111In-BPAMD as a New Bone Imaging Agent

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian, A. Mirzaei, A. Aghanejad, R. Enayati

Abstract:

Bone metastases occur in many cases at an early stage of the tumour disease; however, their symptoms are recognized rather late. The aim of this study was the preparation and quality control of 111In-BPAMD for diagnostic purposes. 111In was produced at the Agricultural, Medical, and Industrial Research School (AMIRS) by means of 30 MeV cyclotron via natCd(p,x)111In reaction. Complexion of In‐111 with BPAMD was carried out by using acidic solution of 111InCl3 and BPAMD in absolute water. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, ligand concentration, pH, and time on the radiolabeled yield was studied. 111In-BPAMD was prepared successfully with the radiochemical purity of 95% at the optimized condition (100 µg of BPAMD, pH=5, and at 90°C for 1 h) which was measured by ITLC method. The final solution was injected to wild-type mice and biodistribution was determined up to 72 h. SPECT images were acquired after 2 and 24 h post injection. Both the biodistribution studies and SPECT imaging indicated high bone uptake while accumulation in other organs was approximately negligible. The results show that 111In-BPAMD can be used as an excellent tracer for diagnosis of bone metastases by SPECT imaging.

Keywords: biodistribution, SPECT, BPAMD

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38 Artemisia Species from Iran as Valuable Resources for Medicinal Uses

Authors: Mohammad Reza Naghavi, Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Hossein Ghafoori

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Artemisia species, which are medically beneficial, are widespread in temperate regions of both Northern and Southern hemispheres among which Iran is located. About 35 species of Artemisia are indigenous in Iran among them some are widespread in all or most provinces, yet some are restricted to some specific regions. In this review paper, initially, GC-Mass results of some experiments done in different provinces of Iran are mentioned among them some compounds are common among species, some others are mostly restricted to other species; after that, medical advantages based on some researches on species of this genus are reviewed; different qualities such as anti-leishmania, anti-bacteria, antiviral as well as anti-proliferative could be mentioned.

Keywords: antiviral, artemisia, GC-Mass analysis, medical advantage

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37 Western Culture Differences and the Contradictions in the Islamic World

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen, Farzad Ravanbod

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Regarding the issues that are currently happening in the world, more than any other time the differences between West and Islam is under discussion. The cultural relations between Islam and the West took a drastically new turn when Europe arose as the dominant and unchallenged force of the modern era. The author, by using descriptive- analytical method, tries to analyse one of the most controversial questions facing analysts of relations between the Islamic world and the West: What are the roots of the conflict? This paper addresses the history of the intellectual tradition of the West and the attitude of Muslim world regarding the rise of western modernity. Also, the differences between two groups on philosophical foundations such as religion, power, science and humanism will be explained. The author believes that the real difference between the West and Islam is epistemological.

Keywords: Islam, Culture, Civilization, West

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36 Absorbed Dose Estimation of 68Ga-EDTMP in Human Organs

Authors: H. Yousefnia, S. Zolghadri, A. R. Jalilian

Abstract:

Bone metastases are observed in a wide range of cancers leading to intolerable pain. While early detection can help the physicians in the decision of the type of treatment, various radiopharmaceuticals using phosphonates like 68Ga-EDTMP have been developed. In this work, due to the importance of absorbed dose, human absorbed dose of this new agent was calculated for the first time based on biodistribution data in Wild-type rats. 68Ga was obtained from 68Ge/68Ga generator with radionuclidic purity and radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabeled complex was prepared in the optimized conditions. Radiochemical purity of the radiolabeled complex was checked by instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC) method using Whatman No. 2 paper and saline. The results indicated the radiochemical purity of higher than 99%. The radiolabelled complex was injected into the Wild-type rats and its biodistribution was studied up to 120 min. As expected, major accumulation was observed in the bone. Absorbed dose of each human organ was calculated based on biodistribution in the rats using RADAR method. Bone surface and bone marrow with 0.112 and 0.053 mSv/MBq, respectively, received the highest absorbed dose. According to these results, the radiolabeled complex is a suitable and safe option for PET bone imaging.

Keywords: rats, absorbed dose, EDTMP, ⁶⁸Ga

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35 Seismic Fragility Curves Methodologies for Bridges: A Review

Authors: Farzad Hatami, Amirmozafar Benshams, Mesbah Saybani, Khatere Kashmari

Abstract:

As a part of the transportation network, bridges are one of the most vulnerable structures. In order to investigate the vulnerability and seismic evaluation of bridges performance, identifying of bridge associated with various state of damage is important. Fragility curves provide important data about damage states and performance of bridges against earthquakes. The development of vulnerability information in the form of fragility curves is a widely practiced approach when the information is to be developed accounting for a multitude of uncertain source involved. This paper presents the fragility curve methodologies for bridges and investigates the practice and applications relating to the seismic fragility assessment of bridges.

Keywords: Uncertainty, Bridge, fragility curve, NLTHA, IDA

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34 Terrorism: Definition, History and Different Approaches in the Analysis of Terrorism Phenomenon

Authors: Shabnam Dadparvar, Laijin Shen, Farzad Ravanbod

Abstract:

Nowadays, the political phenomenon of terrorism is considered as an effective factor on political, social, and economic changes. It has replaced the recognized political phenomena such as revolutions, wars (total war among two or more political units with distinct identities in the form of national states), coups d’état, insurgencies and etc. and has challenged political life in all its levels (sub national, national, and international political groups). In this paper by using descriptive-analytical method, the authors try to explain the spread of this political phenomenon across the world, its definition and types, also analyze different approaches to understand it. The authors believe that the Logical-Rational approach is the best way to explain and understand this phenomenon.

Keywords: Terrorism, logical approach, psychological- social approach, religious approach

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33 A New Mathematical Model for Scheduling Preventive Maintenance and Renewal Projects of Multi-Unit Systems; Application to Railway Track

Authors: Farzad Pargar

Abstract:

We introduce the preventive maintenance and renewal scheduling problem for a multi-unit system over a finite and discretized time horizon. Given the latest possible time for carrying out the next maintenance and renewal projects after the previous ones and considering several common set-up costs, the introduced scheduling model tries to minimize the cost of projects by grouping them and simultaneously finding the optimal balance between doing maintenance and renewal. We present a 0-1 pure integer linear programming that determines which projects should be performed together on which location and in which period (e.g., week or month). We consider railway track as a case for our study and test the performance of the proposed model on a set of test problems. The experimental results show that the proposed approach performs well.

Keywords: Maintenance, Scheduling, renewal, mathematical programming model

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32 Influence of Insulation System Methods on Dissipation Factor and Voltage Endurance

Authors: Farzad Yavari, Hamid Chegini, Saeed Lotfi

Abstract:

This paper reviews the comparison of Resin Rich (RR) and Vacuum Pressure Impregnation (VPI) insulation system qualities for stator bar of rotating electrical machines. Voltage endurance and tangent delta are two diagnostic tests to determine the quality of insulation systems. The paper describes the trend of dissipation factor while performing voltage endurance test for different stator bar samples made with RR and VPI insulation system methods. Some samples were made with the same strands and insulation thickness but with different main wall material to prove the influence of insulation system methods on stator bar quality. Also, some of the samples were subjected to voltage at the temperature of their insulation class, and their dissipation factor changes were measured and studied.

Keywords: insulation, dissipation factor, resin rich, VPI, stator bar, voltage endurance

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31 Exploitation of Terpenes as Guardians in Plant Biotechnology

Authors: Farzad Alaeimoghadam, Farnaz Alaeimoghadam

Abstract:

Plants are always being threatened by biotic and abiotic elements in their abode. Although they have inherited mechanisms to defend themselves, sometimes due to overpowering of their enemies or weakening of themselves, they just suffer from those elements. Human, as to help plants defend themselves, have developed several methods among which application of terpenes via plant biotechnology is promising. Terpenes are the most frequent and diverse secondary metabolites in plants. In these plants, terpenes are involved in different protective aspects. In this field, by utilizing biotechnological approaches on them, a delicate, precise, and an economic intervention will be achieved. In this review, first, the importance of terpenes as guardians in plants, which include their allelopathy effect, a call for alliances, and a mitigation impact on abiotic stresses will be pointed out. Second, problems concerning terpenes application in plant biotechnology comprising: damage to cell, undesirable terpene production and undesirable concentration and proportion of terpenes will be discussed. At the end, the approaches in plant biotechnology of terpenes including tampering with terpene gene sequences, compartmentalization, and localization and utilization of membrane transporters will be expressed. It is concluded with some useful notions concerning the topic.

Keywords: Plant Biotechnology, Plant protection, terpenes, terpenoids

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30 Study of Energy Dissipation in Shape Memory Alloys: A Comparison between Austenite and Martensite Phase of SMAs

Authors: Farzad Hatami, Amirmozafar Benshams, Mesbah Saybani, Khatere Kashmari

Abstract:

Shape memory alloys with high capability of energy dissipation and large deformation bearing with return ability to their original shape without too much hysteresis strain have opened their place among the other damping systems as smart materials. Ninitol which is the most well-known and most used alloy material from the shape memory alloys family, has high resistance and fatigue and is coverage for large deformations. Shape memory effect and super-elasticity by shape alloys like Nitinol, are the reasons of the high power of these materials in energy depreciation. Thus, these materials are suitable for use in reciprocating dynamic loading conditions. The experiments results showed that Nitinol wires with small diameter have greater energy dissipation capability and by increase of diameter and thickness the damping capability and energy dissipation increase.

Keywords: shape memory alloys, shape memory effect, energy dissipation, super elastic effect, nitinol

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29 Finding DEA Targets Using Multi-Objective Programming

Authors: Raziyeh Shamsi, Farzad Sharifi

Abstract:

In this paper, we obtain the projection of inefficient units in data envelopment analysis (DEA) in the case of stochastic inputs and outputs using the multi-objective programming (MOP) structure. In some problems, the inputs might be stochastic while the outputs are deterministic, and vice versa. In such cases, we propose molti-objective DEA-R model, because in some cases (e.g., when unnecessary and irrational weights by the BCC model reduces the efficiency score), an efficient DMU is introduced as inefficient by the BCC model, whereas the DMU is considered efficient by the DEA-R model. In some other case, only the ratio of stochastic data may be available (e.g; the ratio of stochastic inputs to stochastic outputs). Thus, we provide multi objective DEA model without explicit outputs and prove that in-put oriented MOP DEA-R model in the invariable return to scale case can be replacing by MOP- DEA model without explicit outputs in the variable return to scale and vice versa. Using the interactive methods for solving the proposed model, yields a projection corresponding to the viewpoint of the DM and the analyst, which is nearer to reality and more practical. Finally, an application is provided.

Keywords: stochastic, DEA, MOLP, DEA-R

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28 Investigate the Performance of SMA-FRP Composite Bars in Seismic Regions under Corrosion Conditions

Authors: Farzad Hatami, Amirmozafar Benshams, Saman Shafeinejad, Mohammad Zaman Kabir, Mohammadreza Khedmati, Mesbah Saybani

Abstract:

Steel bars has been used in concrete structures for more than one hundred years but lack of corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement has resulted in many structural failures. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bar is an acceptable solution to replace steel to mitigate corrosion problem. Since FRP is a brittle material its use in seismic region has been a concern. FRP RC structures can be made ductile by employing a ductile material such as Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) at the plastic hinge region and FRP at the other regions on the other hand SMA is highly resistant to corrosion. Shape Memory Alloy has the unique ability to undergo large inelastic deformation and regain its initial shape through stress removal therefore utilizing composite SMA-FRP bars not only have good corrosion resistance but also have good performance in seismic region. The result show indicate that such composite SMA-FRP bars can substantially reduce the residual drift with adequate energy dissipation capacity during earthquake.

Keywords: Corrosion, FRP, shape memory alloy, steel bar

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27 Wobbled Laser Beam Welding for Macro-to Micro-Fabrication Process

Authors: Farzad Vakili-Farahani, Joern Lungershausen, Kilian Wasmer

Abstract:

Wobbled laser beam welding, fast oscillations of a tiny laser beam within a designed path (weld geometry) during the laser pulse illumination, opens new possibilities to improve the marco-to micro-manufacturing process. The present work introduces the wobbled laser beam welding as a robust welding strategy for improving macro-to micro-fabrication process, e.g., the laser processing for gap-bridging and packaging industry. The typical requisites and relevant equipment for the development of a wobbled laser processing unit are addressed, including a suitable laser source, light delivery system, optics, proper beam deflection system and the design geometry. In addition, experiments have been carried out on titanium plate to compare the results of wobbled laser welding with conventional pulsed laser welding. As compared to the pulsed laser welding, the wobbled laser welding offers a much greater fusion area (i.e. additional molten material) while minimizing the HAZ and provides a better confinement of the material microstructural changes.

Keywords: Micro Welding, wobbled laser beam welding, wobbling function, beam oscillation

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26 Realistic Testing Procedure of Power Swing Blocking Function in Distance Relay

Authors: Farzad Razavi, Behrooz Taheri, Mohammad Parpaei, Mehdi Mohammadi Ghalesefidi, Siamak Zarei

Abstract:

As one of the major problems in protecting large-dimension power systems, power swing and its effect on distance have caused a lot of damages to energy transfer systems in many parts of the world. Therefore, power swing has gained attentions of many researchers, which has led to invention of different methods for power swing detection. Power swing detection algorithm is highly important in distance relay, but protection relays should have general requirements such as correct fault detection, response rate, and minimization of disturbances in a power system. To ensure meeting the requirements, protection relays need different tests during development, setup, maintenance, configuration, and troubleshooting steps. This paper covers power swing scheme of the modern numerical relay protection, 7sa522 to address the effect of the different fault types on the function of the power swing blocking. In this study, it was shown that the different fault types during power swing cause different time for unblocking distance relay.

Keywords: Power system protection, power swing, distance relay, relay test, transient in power system

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25 Mixed Convection Heat Transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil Nanofluid in Vertical Tube

Authors: Farhad Hekmatipour, M. A. Akhavan-Behabadi, Farzad Hekmatipour

Abstract:

In this paper, experiments were conducted to investigate the heat transfer of Copper Oxide-Heat Transfer Oil (CuO-HTO) nanofluid laminar flow in vertical smooth and microfin tubes as the surface temperature is constant. The effect of adding the nanoparticle to base fluid and Richardson number on the heat transfer enhancement is investigated as Richardson number increases from 0.1 to 0.7. The experimental results demonstrate that the combined forced-natural convection heat transfer rate may be improved significantly with an increment of mass nanoparticle concentration from 0% to 1.5%. In this experiment, a correlation is also proposed to predict the mixed convection heat transfer rate of CuO-HTO nanofluid flow. The maximum deviation of both correlations is less than 14%. Moreover, a correlation is presented to estimate the Nusselt number inside vertical smooth and microfin tubes as Rayleigh number is between 2´105 and 6.8´106 with the maximum deviation of 12%.

Keywords: Heat Transfer, Nanofluid, mixed convection, vertical tube, microfin tube

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24 Heavy Metal Distribution in Tissues of Two Commercially Important Fish Species, Euryglossa orientalis and Psettodes erumei

Authors: Zahra Khoshnood, Reza Khoshnood, Ali Hajinajaf, Farzad Fahim, Behdokht Hajinajaf, Farhad Fahim

Abstract:

In 2013, 24 fish samples were taken from two fishery regions in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, the fishing grounds north of Hormoz Strait (Persian Gulf) near the Iranian coastline. The two flat fishes were oriental sole (Euryglossa orientalis) and deep flounder (Psettodes erumei). Using the ROPME method (MOOPAM) for chemical digestion, Cd concentration was measured with a nonflame atomic absorption spectrophotometry technique. The average concentration of Cd in the edible muscle tissue of deep flounder was measured in Bandar-Abbas and was found to be 0.15±.06 µg g-1. It was 0.1±.05 µg.g-1 in Bandar-Lengeh. The corresponding values for oriental sole were 0.2±0.13 and 0.13±0.11 µg.g-1. The average concentration of Cd in the liver tissue of deep flounder in Bandar-Abbas was 0.22±.05 µg g-1 and that in Bandar-Lengeh was 0.2±0.04 µg.g-1. The values for oriental sole were 0.31±0.09 and 0.24±0.13 µg g-1 in Bandar-Abbas and Bandar-Lengeh, respectively.

Keywords: Trace Metal, Euryglossa orientalis, Psettodes erumei, Persian Gulf

Procedia PDF Downloads 474
23 An Experimental and Numerical Study on the Pultruded GFRP I-Sections Beams

Authors: Parinaz Arashnia, Farzad Hatami, Saeed Ghaffarpour Jahromi

Abstract:

Using steel in bridges’ construction because of their desired tensile and compressive strength and light weight especially in large spans was widely popular. Disadvantages of steel such as corrosion, buckling and weaknesses in high temperature and unsuitable weld could be solve with using Fibres Reinforced Polymer (FRP) profiles. The FRP is a remarkable class of composite polymers that can improve structural elements behaviour like corrosion resistance, fir resistance with good proofing and electricity and magnetic non-conductor. Nowadays except FRP reinforced bars and laminates, FRP I-beams are made and studied. The main reason for using FRP profiles is, prevent of corrosion and increase the load carrying capacity and durability, especially in large spans in bridges’ deck. In this paper, behaviour of I-section glass fibres reinforced polymer (GFRP) beam is discussed under point loads with numerical models and results has been compared and verified with experimental tests.

Keywords: Durability, Composite, Finite Element Method, numerical model, glass fibres reinforced polymer, I-section beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 161