Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1024

Search results for: medication errors

1024 Evaluation of Medication Administration Process in a Paediatric Ward

Authors: Zayed Alsulami, Asma Aldosseri, Ahmed Ezziden, Abdulrahman Alonazi

Abstract:

Children are more susceptible to medication errors than adults. Medication administration process is the last stage in the medication treatment process and most of the errors detected in this stage. Little research has been undertaken about medication errors in children in the Middle East countries. This study was aimed to evaluate how the paediatric nurses adhere to the medication administration policy and also to identify any medication preparation and administration errors or any risk factors. An observational, prospective study of medication administration process from when the nurses preparing patient medication until administration stage (May to August 2014) was conducted in Saudi Arabia. Twelve paediatric nurses serving 90 paediatric patients were observed. 456 drug administered doses were evaluated. Adherence rate was variable in 7 steps out of 16 steps. Patient allergy information, dose calculation, drug expiry date were the steps in medication administration with lowest adherence rates. 63 medication preparation and administration errors were identified with error rate 13.8% of medication administrations. No potentially life-threating errors were witnessed. Few logistic and administrative factors were reported. The results showed that the medication administration policy and procedure need an urgent revision to be more sensible for nurses in practice. Nurses’ knowledge and skills regarding the medication administration process should be improved.

Keywords: medication sasfety, paediatric, medication errors, paediatric ward

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1023 Evaluation of Medication Errors in Outpatient Pharmacies: Electronic Prescription System vs. Paper System

Authors: Mera Ababneh, Sayer Al-Azzam, Karem Alzoubi, Abeer Rababa'h

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Background: Medication errors are among the most common medical errors. Their occurrences result in patient’s mortality, morbidity, and additional healthcare costs. Continuous monitoring and detection is required. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare medication errors in outpatient’s prescriptions in two different hospitals (paper system vs. electronic system). Methods: This was a cross sectional observational study conducted in two major hospitals; King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) and Princess Bassma Teaching Hospital (PBTH) over three months period. Data collection was conducted by two trained pharmacists at each site. During the study period, medication prescriptions and dispensing procedures were screened for medication errors in both participating centers by two trained pharmacist. Results: In the electronic prescription hospital, 2500 prescriptions were screened in which 631 medication errors were detected. Prescription errors were 231 (36.6%), and dispensing errors were 400 (63.4%) of all errors. On the other side, analysis of 2500 prescriptions in paper-based hospital revealed 3714 medication errors, of which 288 (7.8%) were prescription errors, and 3426 (92.2%) were dispensing errors. A significant number of 2496 (67.2%) were inadequately and/or inappropriately labeled. Conclusion: This study provides insight for healthcare policy makers, professionals, and administrators to invest in advanced technology systems, education, and epidemiological surveillance programs to minimize medication errors.

Keywords: medication errors, prescription errors, dispensing errors, electronic prescription, handwritten prescription

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1022 A Survey of Types and Causes of Medication Errors and Related Factors in Clinical Nurses

Authors: Kouorsh Zarea, Fatemeh Hassani, Samira Beiranvand, Akram Mohamadi

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Background and Objectives: Medication error in hospitals is a major cause of the errors which disrupt the health care system. The aim of this study was to assess the nurses’ medication errors and related factors. Material and methods: This was a descriptive study on 225 nurses in various hospitals, selected through multistage random sampling. Data was collected by three researcher made tools; demographic, medication error and related factors questionnaires. Data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, One-way analysis of variance. Results: Based on the results obtained, the type of medication errors giving drugs to patients later or earlier (55.6%), multiple oral medication together regardless of their interactions (36%) and the postoperative analgesic without a prescription (34.2%), respectively. In addition, factors such as the shortage of nurses to patients’ ratio (57.3%), high load functions (51.1%) and fatigue caused by the extra work (40.4%), were the most important factors affecting the incidence of medication errors. The fear of legal issues (40%) are the most important factor is the lack of reported medication errors. Conclusions: Based on the results, effective management and promotion motivate nurses. Therefore, increasing scientific and clinical expertise in the field of nursing medication orders is recommended to prevent medication errors in various states of nursing intervention. Employing experienced staff in areas with high risk of medication errors and also supervising less-experienced staff through competent personnel are also suggested.

Keywords: medication error, nurse, clinical care, drug errors

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1021 The Impact of E-Learning on Medication Administration of Nursing Students

Authors: Z. Karakus, Z. Ozer

Abstract:

Nurses are responsible for the care and treatment of individuals, as well as health maintenance and education. Medication administration is an important part of health promotion. The administration of a medicine is a common but important clinical procedure for nurses because of its complex structure. Therefore, medication errors are inevitable for nurses or nursing students. Medication errors can cause ineffective treatment, patient’s prolonged hospital stay, disablement, or death. Additionally, medication errors affect the global economy adversely by increasing health costs. Hence, preventing or decreasing of medication errors is a critical and essential issue in nursing. Nurse educators are in pursuit of new teaching methods to teach students significance of medication application. In the light of technological developments of this age, e-learning has started to be accepted as an important teaching method. E-learning is the use of electronic media and information and communication technologies in education. It has advantages such as flexibility of time and place, lower costs, faster delivery, and lower environmental impact. Students can make their own schedule and decide the learning method. This study is conducted to determine the impact of e-learning on medication administration of nursing students.

Keywords: e-learning, medication administration, nursing, nursing students

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1020 An Analytical Approach for Medication Protocol Errors from Pediatric Nurse Curriculum

Authors: Priyanka Jani

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The main focus of this research is to consider the objective of nursing curriculum in concern with pediatric nurses in respect to various parameters such as causes, reporting and prevention of medication protocol errors. A design or method selected for the study is the descriptive and cross sectional with respect to analytical study. Nurses were selected from inpatient pediatric wards of 5 hospitals in Gujarat, as a population. 126 pediatric nurses gave approval to participate in the research and completed with quarter questionnaires. The actual data was collected and analyzed. The actual data was collected and analyzed. The medium age of the nurses was 25.7 ± 3.68 years; the maximum was lady (97.6%) pediatric nurses stated that the most common causes of medication protocol errors were large work time (69.2%) and a huge ratio of patient: nurse (59.9%). Even though the highest number of nurses (89%) made use of a medication protocol errors notification system, or else they use to check it before. Many errors were not reported and nurses cited abeyant claims of nurses in case of adverse and opposite output for patient (53.97%), distrust (52.45%), and fear of various/different protocol for mediations (42%) among the causes of insufficient of notification in concern to ignorance, nurses most commonly noted the requirement for efficient data concerning the safe use of medications (47.5%). This is the frequent study made by researcher in Gujarat about the pediatric nurse curriculum regarding medication protocol errors. The outputs debate that there is a requirement for ongoing coaching of pediatric nurses regarding safe & secure medication observation and that the causes and post reporting of medication protocol errors by hand further survey.

Keywords: pediatric, medication, protocol, errors

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1019 Knowledge-Attitude-Practice Survey Regarding High Alert Medication in a Teaching Hospital in Eastern India

Authors: D. S. Chakraborty, S. Ghosh, A. Hazra

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Objective: Medication errors are a reality in all settings where medicines are prescribed, dispensed and used. High Alert Medications (HAM) are those that bear a heightened risk of causing significant patient harm when used in error. We conducted a knowledge-attitude-practice survey, among residents working in a teaching hospital, to assess the ground situation with regard to the handling of HAM. Methods: We plan to approach 242 residents among the approximately 600 currently working in the hospital through purposive sampling. Residents in all disciplines (clinical, paraclinical and preclinical) are being targeted. A structured questionnaire that has been pretested on 5 volunteer residents is being used for data collection. The questionnaire is being administered to residents individually through face-to-face interview, by two raters, while they are on duty but not during rush hours. Results: Of the 156 residents approached so far, data from 140 have been analyzed, the rest having refused participation. Although background knowledge exists for the majority of respondents, awareness levels regarding HAM are moderate, and attitude is non-uniform. The number of respondents correctly able to identify most ( > 80%) HAM in three common settings– accident and emergency, obstetrics and intensive care unit are less than 70%. Several potential errors in practice have been identified. The study is ongoing. Conclusions: Situation requires corrective action. There is an urgent need for improving awareness regarding HAM for the sake of patient safety. The pharmacology department can take the lead in designing awareness campaign with support from the hospital administration.

Keywords: high alert medication, medication error, questionnaire, resident

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1018 Rule-Based Expert System for Headache Diagnosis and Medication Recommendation

Authors: Noura Al-Ajmi, Mohammed A. Almulla

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With the increased utilization of technology devices around the world, healthcare and medical diagnosis are critical issues that people worry about these days. Doctors are doing their best to avoid any medical errors while diagnosing diseases and prescribing the wrong medication. Subsequently, artificial intelligence applications that can be installed on mobile devices such as rule-based expert systems facilitate the task of assisting doctors in several ways. Due to their many advantages, the usage of expert systems has increased recently in health sciences. This work presents a backward rule-based expert system that can be used for a headache diagnosis and medication recommendation system. The structure of the system consists of three main modules, namely the input unit, the processing unit, and the output unit.

Keywords: headache diagnosis system, prescription recommender system, expert system, backward rule-based system

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1017 Handling Patient's Supply during Inpatient Stay: Using Lean Six Sigma Techniques to Implement a Comprehensive Medication Handling Program

Authors: Erika Duggan

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A Major Hospital had identified that there was no standard process for handling a patient’s medication that they brought with them to the hospital. It was also identified that each floor was handling the patient’s medication differently and storing it in multiple locations. Based on this disconnect many patients were leaving the hospital without their medication. The project team was tasked with creating a cohesive process to send a patient’s unneeded medication home on admission, storing any of the patient’s medication that could not be sent home, storing any of the patient’s medication for inpatient administration, and sending all of the patient’s medication home on discharge. The project team consisted of pharmacists, RNs, LPNs, members from nursing informatics and a project engineer and followed a DMAIC framework. Working together observations were performed to identify what was working and not working on the different floors which resulted in process maps. Using the multidisciplinary team, brainstorming, including affinity diagramming and other lean six sigma techniques, the best process for receiving, storing, and returning the medication was created. It was highlighted that being able to track the medication throughout the patient’s stay would be beneficial and would help make sure the medication left with the patient on discharge. Using an automated medications dispensing system would help store, and track patient’s medications. Also, the use of a specific order that would show up on the discharge instructions would assist the front line staff in retrieving the medication from a set location and sending it home with the patient. This new process will effectively streamline the admission and discharge process for patients who brought their medication with them as well as effectively tracking the medication during the patient’s stay. As well as increasing patient safety as it relates to medication administration.

Keywords: lean six sigma, medication dispensing, process improvement, process mapping

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1016 English 2A Students’ Oral Presentation Errors: Basis for English Policy Revision

Authors: Marylene N. Tizon

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English instructors pay attention on errors committed by students as errors show whether they know or master their oral skills and what difficulties they may have in the process of learning the English language. This descriptive quantitative study aimed at identifying and categorizing the oral presentation errors of the purposively chosen 118 English 2A students enrolled during the first semester of school year 2013 – 2014. The analysis of the data for this study was undertaken using the errors committed by the students in their presentation. Marking and classifying of errors were made by first classifying them into linguistic grammatical errors then all errors were categorized further into Surface Structure Errors Taxonomy with the use of Frequency and Percentage distribution. From the analysis of the data, the researcher found out: Errors in tenses of the verbs (71 or 16%) and in addition 167 or 37% were most frequently uttered by the students. And Question and negation mistakes (12 or 3%) and misordering errors (28 or 7%) were least frequently enunciated by the students. Thus, the respondents in this study most frequently enunciated errors in tenses and in addition while they uttered least frequently the errors in question, negation, and misordering.

Keywords: grammatical error, oral presentation error, surface structure errors taxonomy, descriptive quantitative design, Philippines, Asia

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1015 Knowledge Required for Avoiding Lexical Errors at Machine Translation

Authors: Yukiko Sasaki Alam

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This research aims at finding out the causes that led to wrong lexical selections in machine translation (MT) rather than categorizing lexical errors, which has been a main practice in error analysis. By manually examining and analyzing lexical errors outputted by a MT system, it suggests what knowledge would help the system reduce lexical errors.

Keywords: machine translation, error analysis, lexical errors, evaluation

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1014 Error Analysis in English Essays Writing of Thai Students with Different English Language Experiences

Authors: Sirirat Choophan Atthaphonphiphat

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The objective of the study is to analyze errors in English essay writing of Thai (Suratthani Rajabhat University)’s students with different English language experiences. 16 subjects were divided into 2 groups depending on their English language experience. The data were collected from English essay writing about 'My daily life'. The finding shows that 275 tokens of errors were found from 240 English sentences. The errors were categorized into 4 types based on frequency counts: grammatical errors, mechanical errors, lexical errors, and structural errors, respectively. The findings support all of the researcher’s hypothesizes, i.e. 1) the students with low English language experience made more errors than those with high English language experience; 2) all errors in English essay writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students, the interlingual errors are more than the intralingual ones; 3) systemic and structural differences between English (target language) and Thai (mother-tongue language) lead to the errors in English essays writing of Suratthani Rajabhat University’s students.

Keywords: applied linguistics, error analysis, interference, language transfer

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1013 Comparative Study on the Evaluation of Patient Safety in Malaysian Retail Pharmacy Setup

Authors: Palanisamy Sivanandy, Tan Tyng Wei, Tan Wee Loon, Lim Chong Yee

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Background: Patient safety has become a major concern over recent years with elevated medication errors; particularly prescribing and dispensing errors. Meticulous prescription screening and diligent drug dispensing is therefore important to prevent drug-related adverse events from inflicting harm to patients. Hence, pharmacists play a significant role in this scenario. The evaluation of patient safety in a pharmacy setup is crucial to contemplate current practices, attitude and perception of pharmacists towards patient safety. Method: The questionnaire for Pharmacy Survey on Patient Safety Culture developed by the Agency for Healthcare and Research Quality (AHRQ) was used to assess patient safety. Main objectives of the study was to evaluate the attitude and perception of pharmacists towards patient safety in retail pharmacies setup in Malaysia. Results: 417 questionnaire were distributed via convenience sampling in three different states of Malaysia, where 390 participants were responded and the response rate was 93.52%. The overall positive response rate (PRR) was ranged from 31.20% to 87.43% and the average PRR was found to be 67%. The overall patient safety grade for our pharmacies was appreciable and it ranges from good to very good. The study found a significant difference in the perception of senior and junior pharmacists towards patient safety. The internal consistency of the questionnaire contents /dimensions was satisfactory (Cronbach’s alpha - 0.92). Conclusion: Our results reflect that there was positive attitude and perception of retail pharmacists towards patient safety. Despite this, various efforts can be implemented in the future to amplify patient safety in retail pharmacies setup.

Keywords: patient safety, attitude, perception, positive response rate, medication errors

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1012 The Study of Formal and Semantic Errors of Lexis by Persian EFL Learners

Authors: Mohammad J. Rezai, Fereshteh Davarpanah

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Producing a text in a language which is not one’s mother tongue can be a demanding task for language learners. Examining lexical errors committed by EFL learners is a challenging area of investigation which can shed light on the process of second language acquisition. Despite the considerable number of investigations into grammatical errors, few studies have tackled formal and semantic errors of lexis committed by EFL learners. The current study aimed at examining Persian learners’ formal and semantic errors of lexis in English. To this end, 60 students at three different proficiency levels were asked to write on 10 different topics in 10 separate sessions. Finally, 600 essays written by Persian EFL learners were collected, acting as the corpus of the study. An error taxonomy comprising formal and semantic errors was selected to analyze the corpus. The formal category covered misselection and misformation errors, while the semantic errors were classified into lexical, collocational and lexicogrammatical categories. Each category was further classified into subcategories depending on the identified errors. The results showed that there were 2583 errors in the corpus of 9600 words, among which, 2030 formal errors and 553 semantic errors were identified. The most frequent errors in the corpus included formal error commitment (78.6%), which were more prevalent at the advanced level (42.4%). The semantic errors (21.4%) were more frequent at the low intermediate level (40.5%). Among formal errors of lexis, the highest number of errors was devoted to misformation errors (98%), while misselection errors constituted 2% of the errors. Additionally, no significant differences were observed among the three semantic error subcategories, namely collocational, lexical choice and lexicogrammatical. The results of the study can shed light on the challenges faced by EFL learners in the second language acquisition process.

Keywords: collocational errors, lexical errors, Persian EFL learners, semantic errors

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1011 Self-Medicating Behavior of Urban Pakistani Population toward Psychotropic Agents and Its Correlates

Authors: M. Umar Hafeez, Furqan Khursheed Hashmi, Nadeem Irfan Bukhari, Shahzad Ali, Muzammil Ali

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The trend of self-medication is increasing due to various factors and is associated with a large number of complications. A cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate self-medication trend in an urban community and its correlates such as level of education, gender and behavior of using psychoactive medicines. A validated questionnaire was used to collect the data from different locations of Lahore, provincial capital of Punjab, Pakistan. The trend of self-medication was noted in reference to difference in educational level and in gender. This study showed that total 110 respondents, all literate,were found to be self-medicating, and their educational status was as 73.13% primary, 63.15% secondary, 61.12% higher secondary and 62.15% university going. In this sample 74.99% were males and 48.00%were females. Twenty nine (26.36%) of the total sample were found to be using psychoactive agents without consulting the physician. The trend of self-medication was 10% higher in individuals having primary level education, whereas there was not much difference of self-medication trend in other levels of education. The main reasons involved in self-medication trend were socio-economic status, medicine accessibility, religious and cultural beliefs, lack of awareness about risks associated with medicine, non-prescription sale of medicines and previous medication experience. The trend of self-medication of psychotropic agents is quite significant.

Keywords: self-medication, educated community, psychotropic drugs, education levels

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1010 Patients' Interpretation of Prescribed Medication Instructions: A Pilot Study among Diabetes Mellitus Patients at Makanye Clinic in Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Charity Ngoatle, Tebogo M. Mothiba, Mahlapahlapana J. Themane

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Misapprehension of medications instructions due to poor health literacy is common in diabetic patients, predominantly leading to suboptimal medication therapy caused by taking less than expected, or getting inadequate medication concentration. Globally, 50% of adults have been reported to have misunderstood medication instructions which could be the cause of not using medication as prescribed. Reading material has been found not to improve people’s knowledge to the extent where they would be informed and knowledgeable about their health. This, therefore, depicts that instructive materials alone cannot improve health literacy but further patient education is still needed to explain what the information really mean. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ interpretation of prescribed medication instructions at Makanye Clinic in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study used a mixed method approach. A non-probability purposive and simple random sampling strategies will be used to select ten (10) participants for the pilot study. Semi-structured interviews with a guide and self- administered structured questionnaires will be used to collect data. Tesch’s eight steps for qualitative data analysis and SPSS version 24 with descriptive statistics will be adopted. The preliminary findings from other studies show that: (a) poor health literacy negatively affect medication adherence, (b) general literacy influence health literacy, and (c) there are poor health outcomes and medication adverse effects due to poor medication comprehension.

Keywords: instructions, diabetes mellitus, patients, prescribed medication

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1009 Improving Self-Administered Medication Adherence for Older Adults: A Systematic Review

Authors: Mathumalar Loganathan, Lina Syazana, Bryony Dean Franklin

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Background: The therapeutic benefit of self-administered medication for long-term use is limited by an average 50% non-adherence rate. Patient forgetfulness is a common factor in unintentional non-adherence. With a growing ageing population, strategies to improve self-administration of medication adherence are essential. Our aim was to review systematically the effects of interventions to optimise self-administration of medication. Method: Database searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsynINFO, CINAHL from 1980 to 31 October 2013. Search terms included were ‘self-administration’, ‘self-care’, ‘medication adherence’, and ‘intervention’. Two independent reviewers undertook screening and methodological quality assessment, using the Downs and Black rating scale. Results: The search strategy retrieved 6 studies that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Three intervention strategies were identified: self-administration medication programme (SAMP), nursing education and medication packaging (pill calendar). A nursing education programme focused on improving patients’ behavioural self-management of drug prescribing. This was the most studied area and three studies highlighting an improvement in self-administration of medication. Conclusion: Results are mixed and there is no one interventional strategy that has proved to be effective. Nevertheless, self-administration of medication programme seems to show most promise. A multi-faceted approach and clearer policy guideline are likely to be required to improve prescribing for these vulnerable patients. Mixed results were found for SAMP. Medication packaging (pill calendar) was evaluated in one study showing a significant improvement in self-administration of medication. A meta-analysis could not be performed due to heterogeneity in the outcome measures.

Keywords: self-administered medication, intervention, prescribing, older patients

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1008 Spelling Errors of EFL Students: An Insight into Curriculum Development

Authors: Sheikha Ali Salim Al-Breiki

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The purpose of this study was to explore the types of the spelling errors students of grade ten make and to find out whether there were any significant differences between males and females with respect to the types of the spelling errors made. The sample of the study included 90 grade ten students from four different schools in North Batinah. The researcher manipulated the use of a test that consisted of two questions: an oral dictation test of 70 words with a contextualizing sentence and a free writing task. The misspellings were classified into nine different types. The findings revealed that the most common spelling errors among Omani grade ten students were vowel substitution, then came vowel omission in the second place and consonant substitution in the third place. Male students omitted more vowels than female students while females made more true word errors than their male counterparts. In light of the findings, the study presents some recommendations and suggestions for further studies.

Keywords: types of spelling errors, errors, ESL/EFL, error analysis

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1007 Error Analysis: Examining Written Errors of English as a Second Language (ESL) Spanish Speaking Learners

Authors: Maria Torres

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After the acknowledgment of contrastive analysis, Pit Coder’s establishment of error analysis revolutionized the way instructors analyze and examine students’ writing errors. One question that relates to error analysis with speakers of a first language, in this case, Spanish, who are learning a second language (English), is the type of errors that these learners make along with the causes of these errors. Many studies have looked at the way the native tongue influences second language acquisition, but this method does not take into account other possible sources of students’ errors. This paper examines writing samples from an advanced ESL class whose first language is Spanish at non-profit organization, Learning Quest Stanislaus Literacy Center. Through error analysis, errors in the students’ writing were identified, described, and classified. The purpose of this paper was to discover the type and origin of their errors which generated appropriate treatments. The results in this paper show that the most frequent errors in the advanced ESL students’ writing pertain to interlanguage and a small percentage from an intralanguage source. Lastly, the least type of errors were ones that originate from negative transfer. The results further solidify the idea that there are other errors and sources of errors to account for rather than solely focusing on the difference between the students’ mother and target language. This presentation will bring to light some strategies and techniques that address the issues found in this research. Taking into account the amount of error pertaining to interlanguage, an ESL teacher should provide metalinguistic awareness of the students’ errors.

Keywords: error analysis, ESL, interlanguage, intralangauge

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1006 The Mirage of Progress? a Longitudinal Study of Japanese Students’ L2 Oral Grammar

Authors: Robert Long, Hiroaki Watanabe

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This longitudinal study examines the grammatical errors of Japanese university students’ dialogues with a native speaker over an academic year. The L2 interactions of 15 Japanese speakers were taken from the JUSFC2018 corpus (April/May 2018) and the JUSFC2019 corpus (January/February). The corpora were based on a self-introduction monologue and a three-question dialogue; however, this study examines the grammatical accuracy found in the dialogues. Research questions focused on a possible significant difference in grammatical accuracy from the first interview session in 2018 and the second one the following year, specifically regarding errors in clauses per 100 words, global errors and local errors, and with specific errors related to parts of speech. The investigation also focused on which forms showed the least improvement or had worsened? Descriptive statistics showed that error-free clauses/errors per 100 words decreased slightly while clauses with errors/100 words increased by one clause. Global errors showed a significant decline, while local errors increased from 97 to 158 errors. For errors related to parts of speech, a t-test confirmed there was a significant difference between the two speech corpora with more error frequency occurring in the 2019 corpus. This data highlights the difficulty in having students self-edit themselves.

Keywords: clause analysis, global vs. local errors, grammatical accuracy, L2 output, longitudinal study

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1005 Language Switching Errors of Bilinguals: Role of Top down and Bottom up Process

Authors: Numra Qayyum, Samina Sarwat, Noor ul Ain

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Bilingual speakers generally can speak both languages with the same competency without mixing them intentionally and making mistakes, but sometimes errors occur in language selection. This quantitative study particularly deals with the language errors made by Urdu-English bilinguals. In this research, researchers have given special attention to the part played by bottom-up priming and top-down cognitive control in these errors. Unstable Urdu-English bilingual participants termed pictures and were prompted to shift from one language to another under the pressure of time. Different situations were given to manipulate the participants. The long and short runs trials of the same language were also given before switching to another language. The study is concluded with the findings that bilinguals made more errors when switching to the first language from their second language, and these errors are large in number, especially when a speaker is switching from L2 (second language) to L1 (first language) after a long run. When the switching is reversed, i.e., from L2 to LI, it had no effect at all. These results gave the clear responsibility of all these errors to top-down cognitive control.

Keywords: bottom up priming, language error, language switching, top down cognitive control

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1004 Low Cost Inertial Sensors Modeling Using Allan Variance

Authors: A. A. Hussen, I. N. Jleta

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Micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) accelerometers and gyroscopes are suitable for the inertial navigation system (INS) of many applications due to the low price, small dimensions and light weight. The main disadvantage in a comparison with classic sensors is a worse long term stability. The estimation accuracy is mostly affected by the time-dependent growth of inertial sensor errors, especially the stochastic errors. In order to eliminate negative effect of these random errors, they must be accurately modeled. Where the key is the successful implementation that depends on how well the noise statistics of the inertial sensors is selected. In this paper, the Allan variance technique will be used in modeling the stochastic errors of the inertial sensors. By performing a simple operation on the entire length of data, a characteristic curve is obtained whose inspection provides a systematic characterization of various random errors contained in the inertial-sensor output data.

Keywords: Allan variance, accelerometer, gyroscope, stochastic errors

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1003 Frequency of Refractive Errors in Squinting Eyes of Children from 4 to 16 Years Presenting at Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Maryum Nawaz

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Purpose: To determine the frequency of refractive errors in squinting eyes of children from 4 to 16 years presenting at tertiary care hospital. Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study was done. Place and Duration: The study was conducted in Pediatric Ophthalmology, Hayatabad Medical Complex, Peshawar. Materials and Methods: The sample size was 146 keeping 41.45%5 proportion of refractive errors in children with squinting eyes, 95% confidence interval and 8% margin of error under WHO sample size calculations. Non-probability consecutive sampling was done. Result: Mean age was 8.57±2.66 years. Male were 89 (61.0%) and female were 57 (39.0%). Refractive error was present in 56 (38.4%) and was not present in 90 (61.6%) of patients. There was no association of gender, age, parent refractive errors, or early usage of electric equipment with the refractive errors. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of refractive errors in a patient with strabismus. There is no association of age, gender, parent refractive errors, or early usage of electric equipment in the occurrence of refractive errors. Further studies are recommended for confirmation of these.

Keywords: strabismus, refractive error, myopia, hypermetropia, astigmatism

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1002 Patterns and Extent of Self-Medication Practice among Adolescents in Selected Public Secondary Schools in IFE Central Local Government Area of Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: Olajumoke A. Ojeleye

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The study assessed the patterns and extent of self-medication practice among adolescents in selected public senior secondary schools in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun State. The objectives of the study were to find out the patterns of self-medication among adolescents, to elucidate whether age or gender has any effect on the self-medication patterns of adolescent, to ascertain to what extent adolescents indulge in self-medication, to examine the sources of drug information of these adolescents and also to examine the sources of these drugs. A cross-sectional design was employed for the study. A self-administered questionnaire tested for validity was used to collect data. Multistage sampling technique was used and 238 adolescents participated in the study. Data collection took two weeks and was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 17. Results were presented using descriptive (e.g. frequency counts) and inferential statistics (e.g. chi-square). Results showed that more females (55.9%) than males (44.1%) practiced self-medication. Although the results showed that there is a low prevalence rate (33.6%) of self-medication among adolescents, chemists served as both the source of information on how to use the drug as well as the source of the drugs. Also, adolescents under study will only self-medicate in medical conditions such as malaria or wound/injuries but will prefer to see a doctor for conditions such as abdominal pain, infections or allergic reactions. It was recommended that government officials responsible for regulating and controlling of drugs should be more active in ensuring that safe drugs are made available over the counter and the consumer be given adequate information about the use of drugs and when to consult the doctor.

Keywords: adolescents, drugs, patterns, self-medication

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1001 Error Analysis in Academic Writing of EFL Learners: A Case Study for Undergraduate Students at Pathein University

Authors: Aye Pa Pa Myo

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Writing in English is accounted as a complex process for English as a foreign language learners. Besides, committing errors in writing can be found as an inevitable part of language learners’ writing. Generally, academic writing is quite difficult for most of the students to manage for getting better scores. Students can commit common errors in their writings when they try to write academic writing. Error analysis deals with identifying and detecting the errors and also explains the reason for the occurrence of these errors. In this paper, the researcher has an attempt to examine the common errors of undergraduate students in their academic writings at Pathein University. The purpose of doing this research is to investigate the errors which students usually commit in academic writing and to find out the better ways for correcting these errors in EFL classrooms. In this research, fifty-third-year non-English specialization students attending Pathein University were selected as participants. This research took one month. It was conducted with a mixed methodology method. Two mini-tests were used as research tools. Data were collected with a quantitative research method. Findings from this research pointed that most of the students noticed their common errors after getting the necessary input, and they became more decreased committing these errors after taking mini-test; hence, all findings will be supportive for further researches related to error analysis in academic writing.

Keywords: academic writing, error analysis, EFL learners, mini-tests, mixed methodology

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1000 Variation of Refractive Errors among Right and Left Eyes in Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria

Authors: F. B. Masok, S. S Songdeg, R. R. Dawam

Abstract:

Vision is an important process for learning and communication as man depends greatly on vision to sense his environment. Prevalence and variation of refractive errors conducted between December 2010 and May 2011 in Jos, revealed that 735 (77.50%) out 950 subjects examined for refractive error had various refractive errors. Myopia was observed in 373 (49.79%) of the subjects, the error in the right eyes was 263 (55.60%) while the error in the left was 210(44.39%). The mean myopic error was found to be -1.54± 3.32. Hyperopia was observed in 385 (40.53%) of the sampled population comprising 203(52.73%) of the right eyes and 182(47.27%). The mean hyperopic error was found to be +1.74± 3.13. Astigmatism accounted for 359 (38.84%) of the subjects, out of which 193(53.76%) were in the right eyes while 168(46.79%) were in the left eyes. Presbyopia was found in 404(42.53%) of the subjects, of this figure, 164(40.59%) were in the right eyes while 240(59.41%) were in left eyes. The number of right eyes and left eyes with refractive errors was observed in some age groups to increase with age and later had its peak within 60 – 69 age groups. This pattern of refractive errors could be attributed to exposure to various forms of light particularly the ultraviolet rays (e.g rays from television and computer screen). There was no remarkable differences between the mean Myopic error and mean Hyperopic error in the right eyes and in the left eyes which suggest the right eye and the left eye are similar.

Keywords: left eye, refractive errors, right eye, variation

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999 Malay ESL (English as a Second Language) Students' Difficulties in Using English Prepositions

Authors: Chek Kim Loi

Abstract:

The study attempts to undertake an error analysis of prepositions employed in the written work of Form 4 Malay ESL (English as a Second Language) students in Malaysia. The error analysis is undertaken using Richards’s (1974) framework of intralingual and interlingual errors and Bennett’s (1975) framework in identifying prepositional concepts found in the sample. The study first identifies common prepositional errors in the written texts of 150 student participants. It then measures the relative intensities of these errors and finds out the possible causes for the occurrences of these errors. In this study, one significant finding is that among the nine concepts of prepositions examined, the participant students tended to make errors in the use of prepositions of time and place. The present study has pedagogical implications in teaching English prepositions to Malay ESL students.

Keywords: error, interlingual, intralingual, preposition

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998 Hardware Error Analysis and Severity Characterization in Linux-Based Server Systems

Authors: Nikolaos Georgoulopoulos, Alkis Hatzopoulos, Konstantinos Karamitsios, Konstantinos Kotrotsios, Alexandros I. Metsai

Abstract:

In modern server systems, business critical applications run in different types of infrastructure, such as cloud systems, physical machines and virtualization. Often, due to high load and over time, various hardware faults occur in servers that translate to errors, resulting to malfunction or even server breakdown. CPU, RAM and hard drive (HDD) are the hardware parts that concern server administrators the most regarding errors. In this work, selected RAM, HDD and CPU errors, that have been observed or can be simulated in kernel ring buffer log files from two groups of Linux servers, are investigated. Moreover, a severity characterization is given for each error type. Better understanding of such errors can lead to more efficient analysis of kernel logs that are usually exploited for fault diagnosis and prediction. In addition, this work summarizes ways of simulating hardware errors in RAM and HDD, in order to test the error detection and correction mechanisms of a Linux server.

Keywords: hardware errors, Kernel logs, Linux servers, RAM, hard disk, CPU

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997 A Greedy Alignment Algorithm Supporting Medication Reconciliation

Authors: David Tresner-Kirsch

Abstract:

Reconciling patient medication lists from multiple sources is a critical task supporting the safe delivery of patient care. Manual reconciliation is a time-consuming and error-prone process, and recently attempts have been made to develop efficiency- and safety-oriented automated support for professionals performing the task. An important capability of any such support system is automated alignment – finding which medications from a list correspond to which medications from a different source, regardless of misspellings, naming differences (e.g. brand name vs. generic), or changes in treatment (e.g. switching a patient from one antidepressant class to another). This work describes a new algorithmic solution to this alignment task, using a greedy matching approach based on string similarity, edit distances, concept extraction and normalization, and synonym search derived from the RxNorm nomenclature. The accuracy of this algorithm was evaluated against a gold-standard corpus of 681 medication records; this evaluation found that the algorithm predicted alignments with 99% precision and 91% recall. This performance is sufficient to support decision support applications for medication reconciliation.

Keywords: clinical decision support, medication reconciliation, natural language processing, RxNorm

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996 Creation and Implementation of A New Palliative Care Drug Chart, via A Closed-Loop Audit

Authors: Asfa Hussain, Chee Tang, Mien Nguyen

Abstract:

Introduction: The safe usage of medications is dependent on clear, well-documented prescribing. Medical drug charts should be regularly checked to ensure that they are fit for purpose. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the Isabel Hospice drug charts were effective or prone to medical errors. The aim was to create a comprehensive palliative care drug chart in line with medico-legal guidelines and to minimise drug administration and prescription errors. Methodology: 50 medical drug charts were audited from March to April 2020, to assess whether they complied with medico-legal guidelines, in a hospice within East of England. Meetings were held with the larger multi-disciplinary team (MDT), including the pharmacists, nursing staff and doctors, to raise awareness of the issue. A preliminary drug chart was created, using the input from the wider MDT. The chart was revised and trialled over 15 times, and each time feedback from the MDT was incorporated into the subsequent template. In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic in September 2020, the finalised drug chart was trialled. 50 new palliative drug charts were re-audited, to evaluate the changes made. Results: Prescribing and administration errors were high prior to the implementation of the new chart. This improved significantly after introducing the new drug charts, therefore improving patient safety and care. The percentage of inadequately documented allergies went down from 66% to 20% and incorrect oxygen prescription from 40% to 16%. The prescription drug-drug interactions decreased by 30%. Conclusion: It is vital to have clear standardised drug charts, in line with medico-legal standards, to allow ease of prescription and administration of medications and ensure optimum patient-centred care. This closed loop audit demonstrated significant improvement in documentation and prevention of possible fatal drug errors and interactions.

Keywords: palliative care, drug chart, medication errors, drug-drug interactions, COVID-19, patient safety

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995 Improving Medication Understanding, Use and Self-Efficacy among Stroke Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial; Study Protocol

Authors: Jamunarani Appalasamy, Tha Kyi Kyi, Quek Kia Fatt, Joyce Pauline Joseph, Anuar Zaini M. Zain

Abstract:

Background: The Health Belief Theory had always been associated with chronic disease management. Various health behaviour concepts and perception branching from this Health Belief Theory had involved with medication understanding, use, and self-efficacy which directly link to medication adherence. In a previous quantitative and qualitative study, stroke patients in Malaysia were found to be strongly believing information obtained by various sources such as the internet and social communication. This action leads to lower perception of their stroke preventative medication benefit which in long-term creates non-adherence. Hence, this study intends to pilot an intervention which uses audio-visual concept incorporated with mHealth service to enhance learning and self-reflection among stroke patients to manage their disease. Methods/Design: Twenty patients will be allocated to a proposed intervention whereas another twenty patients are allocated to the usual treatment. The intervention involves a series of developed audio-visual videos sent via mobile phone which later await for responses and feedback from the receiver (patient) via SMS or recorded calls. The primary outcome would be the medication understanding, use and self-efficacy measured over two months pre and post intervention. Secondary outcome is measured from changes of blood parameters and other self-reported questionnaires. Discussion: This study shall also assess uptake/attrition, feasibility, and acceptability of this intervention. Trial Registration: NMRR-15-851-24737 (IIR)

Keywords: health belief, medication understanding, medication use, self-efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 147