Search results for: exercise
850 The Relationship between Exercise Attitude and Performance with Self-Image in Elderly Men in Iran
Authors: Hadis Mahmoodsalehi, Elham Shakoor, Maryam Koushkie Jahromi
Abstract:Background and aims: Given the importance of health promotion in elderly and attention to health factors including physical activity and self-image reinforcing, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between exercise attitude and performance with self-image concept in elderly men. Methods: In this descriptive–correlational study, 50 different daily exercise activities of the elderly men living in Iran (mean age: 60.94 years) were selected through simple sampling method. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding exercise attitude and performance and Beck self-image concept. Pearson correlation test was used for analysis of the data. Results: The results showed the significant correlation between optimism and exercise performance (p = 0.012) and exercise attitude (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Findings show that exercise performance and attitude are associated positively with optimism in elderly women. So, increasing exercise or improving attitude toward exercise can lead to improving optimism.
Keywords: elderly, exercise performance and attitude, self-image, descriptive–correlational studyProcedia PDF Downloads 475
849 Electromyography Activity of the Lower Limb Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise
Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A. Abdul Malik
Abstract:This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p < 0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63% MVC) and BF (11.43% MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the bio mechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.
Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salatProcedia PDF Downloads 636
848 Predictive Factors of Exercise Behaviors of Junior High School Students in Chonburi Province
Authors: Tanida Julvanichpong
Abstract:Exercise has been regarded as a necessary and important aspect to enhance physical performance and psychology health. Body weight statistics of students in junior high school students in Chonburi Province beyond a standard risk of obesity. Promoting exercise among Junior high school students in Chonburi Province, essential knowledge concerning factors influencing exercise is needed. Therefore, this study aims to (1) determine the levels of perceived exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived barriers to exercise, perceived benefits of exercise, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, feelings associated with exercise behavior, influence of the family to exercise, influence of friends to exercise, and the perceived influence of the environment on exercise. (2) examine the predicting ability of each of the above factors while including personal factors (sex, educational level) for exercise behavior. Pender’s Health Promotion Model was used as a guide for the study. Sample included 652 students in junior high schools, Chonburi Provience. The samples were selected by Multi-Stage Random Sampling. Data Collection has been done by using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, Eta, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The research results showed that: 1. Perceived benefits of exercise, influence of teacher, influence of environmental, feelings associated with exercise behavior were at a high level. Influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise and influence of friends were at a moderate level. Perceived barriers to exercise were at a low level. 2. Exercise behavior was positively significant related to perceived benefits of exercise, influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, influence of friends, influence of teacher, influence of environmental and feelings associated with exercise behavior (p < .01, respectively) and was negatively significant related to educational level and perceived barriers to exercise (p < .01, respectively). Exercise behavior was significant related to sex (Eta = 0.243, p=.000). 3. Exercise behavior in the past, influence of the family to exercise significantly contributed 60.10 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in male students (p < .01). Exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, perceived barriers to exercise, and educational level significantly contributed 52.60 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in female students (p < .01).
Keywords: predictive factors, exercise behaviors, Junior high school, Chonburi ProvinceProcedia PDF Downloads 552
847 Descriptive Study of Role Played by Exercise and Diet on Brain Plasticity
Authors: Mridul Sharma, Praveen Saroha
Abstract:In today's world, everyone has become so busy in their to-do tasks and daily routine that they tend to ignore some of the basal components of our life, including exercise and diet. This comparative study analyzes the pathways of the relationship between exercise and brain plasticity and also includes another variable diet to study the effects of diet on learning by answering questions including which diet is known to be the best learning supporter and what are the recommended quantities of the same. Further, this study looks into inter-relation between diet and exercise, and also some other approach of the relation between diet and exercise on learning apart from through Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).
Keywords: brain derived neurotrophic factor, brain plasticity, diet, exerciseProcedia PDF Downloads 77
846 Electromyography Activity of the Rectus Femoris and Biceps Femoris Muscles during Prostration and Squat Exercise
Authors: M. K. Mohd Safee, W. A. B. Wan Abas, F. Ibrahim, N. A. Abu Osman, N. A Abdul Malik
Abstract:This paper investigates the activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF) in healthy subjects during salat (prostration) and specific exercise (squat exercise) using electromyography (EMG). A group of undergraduates aged between 19 to 25 years voluntarily participated in this study. The myoelectric activity of the muscles were recorded and analyzed. The finding indicated that there were contractions of the muscles during the salat and exercise with almost same EMG’s level. From the result, Wilcoxon’s Rank Sum test showed significant difference between prostration and squat exercise (p<0.05) but the differences was very small; RF (8.63%MVC) and BF (11.43%MVC). Therefore, salat may be useful in strengthening exercise and also in rehabilitation programs for lower limb activities. This pilot study conducted initial research into the biomechanical responses of human muscles in various positions of salat.
Keywords: electromyography, exercise, muscle, salatProcedia PDF Downloads 620
845 Social Media Use and Exercise Behaviors
Authors: Justin M. Swanson, Anna Nelson, Daniel Handysides, Patti Herring, Christopher Hill
Abstract:Not only may social media use have a psychological impact, but increased use may be tied to decreases in physical activity and influencing sedentary behaviors. Social media can be used to share physically active lifestyles and possibly influence others to participate. In contrast, social media use may have adverse effects by decreasing participation in exercise. This study used a qualitative design to examine the relationship between social media use and exercise patterns. Participants were asked questions about their social media habits and how it might impact their physical activity behaviors. Self-reported exercise seemed to increase after viewing others engage in relatable activities or viewing someone that has overcame challenges. To increase the likelihood of engaging in exercise, exercise related posts should be low in difficulty, require few materials, or displayed progress from the individual posting.
Keywords: social media, exercise, physical activity, adultsProcedia PDF Downloads 157
844 Relationship between Exercise Activity with Incidence of Overweight-Obesity in Medical Students
Authors: Randy M. Fitratullah, Afriwardi, Nurhayati
Abstract:Overweight-obesity caused by exercise. The objective of this research is to analyze the relation between exercise with the incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of medical faculty of Andalas Univesity batch 2013. This is an analytical observational research with case-control method. This research conducted in FK Unand on September-October 2015. The population of this research is medical students batch 2013. 26 samples (13 samples were case, 13 samples were control) were taken by purposive sampling technique and analysed using statistical univariate and bivariate analysis. Exercise questionnaire was used as research instruments. Based on the interview with questionnaire, anaerobic exercise was majority in case group and aerobic exercise was majority in control group. The case and control group have a rare category in exercise. Less category was majority in exercise duration of case and enough category was majority in control group. Bivariate analysis is using chi-square test with cell combining to 2x2 table, obtained p-value=0.097 in sort of exercise, p-value=1,000 in the frequency of exercise, and p-value=0,112 in duration of exercise, which means statistically unsignificant. There is no relation between exercise with the incidence of overweight-obesity of medical students of FK Unand batch 2013. For medical students suffers overweight-obesity is suggested for increase the frequency of exercise.
Keywords: overweight-obesity, exercise, aerobic, anaerobic, frequency, durationProcedia PDF Downloads 197
843 Comparing Effects of Supervised Exercise Therapy versus Home-Based Exercise Therapy on Low Back Pain Severity, Muscle Strength and Anthropometric Parameters in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain
Authors: Haleh Dadgostar, Faramarz Akbari, Hosien Vahid Tari, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Mohammad Razi
Abstract:Introduction: There are a number of exercises-protocols have been applied to improve low back pain. We compared the effect of supervised exercise therapy and home-based exercise therapy among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: 70 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomly (using a random number generator, excel) divided into two groups to compare the effects of two types of exercise therapy. After a common educational session to learn how to live with low back pain as well as to use core training protocols to strengthen the muscles, the subjects were randomly assigned to follow supervised exercise therapy (n = 31) or home-based exercise therapy (n = 34) for 20 weeks. Results: Although both types of exercise programs resulted in reduced pain, this factor decreased more significantly in supervised exercise program. All scores of fitness improved significantly in supervised exercise group. But only knee extensor strength score was increased in the home base exercise group. Conclusion: Comparing between two types of exercise, supervised group exercise showed more effective than the other one. Reduction in low back pain severity and improvement in muscle flexibility and strength can be more achieved by using a 20-week supervised exercise program compared to the home-based exercise program in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.
Keywords: low back pain, anthropometric parameters, supervised exercise therapy, home-based exercise therapyProcedia PDF Downloads 263
842 Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Chronic Exercise and Myocytic Androgen Receptor Overexpression on Body Composition in Sprague dawley Rats
Authors: Sabrina Barsky, Ashley Monks
Abstract:In humans, exercise improves symptoms of various pathological states, although exercise adaptations seem to differ in response to sex. Skeletal muscle anabolism is thought to be regulated by androgen receptor (AR) through poorly specified mechanisms. Interactions of AR and exercise on muscle phenotype remain inconclusive in males, and undetermined in females. We hypothesized that sex differences in exercise adaptations are regulated by the androgenic system and the type of exercise performed. Here we examined interactions between a muscle-specific AR overexpression transgene (HSA-AR) and forced aerobic exercise paradigm on muscle and adipose exercise adaptation in male and female rats. We used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) to examine body composition adaptations post 9-week exercise protocol. We replicated the effects of HSA-AR on body composition, with males only having increased % lean mass and reduced % fat mass (P<0.05). Aerobic exercise improved lean body phenotype significantly, with lesser indices of total and % fat mass (P<0.01) in both sexes. Sex-specific effects of exercise included decreased total body mass (P<0.01) in males and increased lean mass % (P<0.001) in females. Surprisingly, neither AR manipulation nor exercise affected bone parameters in either sex. This varied response in total mass and lean mass according to exercise presents a sexually dimorphic response to exercise. Neither sex showed an interaction between HSA-AR and forced aerobic exercise on body composition. Future work is proposed to examine the effects of exercise type (aerobic versus resistance) and the role of gonadal androgens in sexually dimorphic exercise-mediated mitochondrial adaptations. This work implicates the development of sex-specific exercise therapies.
Keywords: androgen receptor, forced exercise, muscle physiology, sexual dimorphismProcedia PDF Downloads 65
841 The Effects of Passive and Active Recoveries on Responses of Platelet Indices and Hemodynamic Variables to Resistance Exercise
Authors: Mohammad Soltani, Sajad Ahmadizad, Fatemeh Hoseinzadeh, Atefe Sarvestan
Abstract:The exercise recovery is an important variable in designing resistance exercise training. This study determined the effects of passive and active recoveries on responses of platelet indices and hemodynamic variables to resistance exercise. Twelve healthy subjects (six men and six women, age, 25.4 ±2.5 yrs) performed two types of resistance exercise protocols (six exercises including upper- and lower-body parts) at two separate sessions with one-week intervening. First resistance protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 80% of 1RM with 2 min passive rest between sets and exercises; while, the second protocol included three sets of six repetitions at 60% of 1RM followed by active recovery included six repetitions of the same exercise at 20% of 1RM. The exercise volume was equalized. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 1-hour recovery, and analyzed for fibrinogen and platelet indices. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and rate pressure product (RPP), were measured before, immediately after exercise and every 5 minutes during recovery. Data analyzes showed a significant increase in SBP (systolic blood pressure), HR, rate of pressure product (RPP) and PLT in response to resistance exercise (P<0.05) and that changes for HR and RPP were significantly different between two protocols (P<0.05). Furthermore, MPV and P_LCR did not change in response to resistance exercise, though significant reductions were observed after 1h recovery compared to before and after exercise (P<0.05). No significant changes in fibrinogen and PDW following two types of resistance exercise protocols were observed (P>0.05). On the other hand, no significant differences in platelet indices were found between the two protocols (P>0.05). Resistance exercise induces changes in platelet indices and hemodynamic variables, and that these changes are not related to the type of recovery and returned to normal levels after 1h recovery.
Keywords: hemodynamic variables, platelet indices, resistance exercise, recovery intensityProcedia PDF Downloads 76
840 Motivational Qualities of and Flow State Responses to Participant-Selected Music and Researcher-Selected Music
Authors: Nurul A. Hamzah, Tony Morris, Dan Van Der Westhuizen
Abstract:Music listening can potentially promote the achievement of flow state during exercise. Selecting music for exercise should consider the motivational factors-internal factors (music tempo and musicality) and external factors (cultural impact and association). This study was a cross-over study which was designed to examine the motivational qualities of music (participant-selected music and researcher-selected music) and flow state responses during exercise accompanying with music. 17 healthy participants (M=30.2, SD=6.3 years old) were among low physical activity individuals. Participants completed two separate sessions of 30 minutes of moderate intensity exercise (40-60% of Heart Rate Reserve) while listening to music. Half the participants at random were assigned to exercise with participant-selected music first, and half were assigned to exercise with researcher-selected music first. Parameters including flow state responses (Flow State Scale-2) and motivational music rating (Brunel Music Rating Inventory-2) were administered immediately after the exercise. Results from this study showed that there were no significant differences for both flow state t(32)=0.00, p>0.05 and motivational music rating t(32)= .393, p>0.05 between exercise with participant-selected music and exercise with researcher-selected music. Listening to music either participant or researcher selected music could promote flow experience during exercise when music is perceived as motivational. Music tempo and music preference are factors that could influence individuals to enjoy exercise and improve the exercise performance.
Keywords: motivational music, flow state, researcher-selected music, participant-selected musicProcedia PDF Downloads 307
839 Comparing the Effect of Exercise Time (Morning and Evening) on Troponin T in Males with Cardiovascular Disease
Authors: Amin Mehrabi, Mohsen Salesi, Pourya Pasavand
Abstract:Context and objective: The purpose of this research is to study the effect of exercise time (morning/evening) on amount of Troponin T in males' plasma suffering from cardiovascular disease. Method: 15 cardiovascular patients selected as the research subjects. At 7 a.m. pretest blood samples taken from the subjects and they did the exercise protocol in presence of a doctor. Immediately after and 3 hours after that blood measurements done. A week later, the subjects did the same steps at 7 p.m. The SPSS v.20 software used to analyze data. Findings: This study proved that circadian rhythm does not have any effect on the response of myocarditis tissue to exercise and cardiovascular patients allowed to exercise in any times of a day.
Keywords: cardiovascular disease, time of exercise, troponin T (cTnT), myocarditisProcedia PDF Downloads 431
838 The Writing Eight Exercise and Its Impact on Kindergartners
Authors: Karima Merchant
Abstract:The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of the Writing Eight Exercise, an exercise from the Brain Integration Therapy, with Kindergartners who are struggling with writing tasks in school. With the help of this exercise, children were able to cross the midline, an invisible line running from our brain to our feet, which separates the body’s right from left. Crossing the midline integrates the brain hemispheres, thus encouraging bilateral movement. The study was spread over 15 weeks where the children were required to do the Writing Eight Exercise 4 times a week. The data collection methods included observations, student work samples and feedback from teachers and parents. Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that the Writing Eight Exercise had a positive impact on students’ approach towards writing tasks, letter formation, and fine motor skills.
Keywords: crossing the midline, fine motor skills, letter formation, writingProcedia PDF Downloads 366
837 Motivational Factors for the Practice of Exercise in a Sample of Portuguese Fitness Center Users
Authors: N. Sena, C. Vasconcelos
Abstract:Portugal has a lower rate of people who exercise. Fitness centers are a widely recognized context for the performance of an exercise. Thus, the objective of this study is to analyze the motivational factors for the practice of exercise in a sample of Portuguese fitness center users. The sample consists of 34 users (23 men and 11 women), aged between 16 and 60 years old (24.7 ± 11,5 years old). The instrument used for data collection was the Motivation Questionnaire for Exercise (version translated and validated into Portuguese), consisting of forty-nine items grouped into ten motivational factors. Responses to the Exercise Motivation Questionnaire are given on a 6-point Likert scale (0="not at all true for me" to 5="completely true for me"). With regard to the results, it is possible to verify that the motivational factors considered most relevant by the sample of our study were “Well-being” (4.44 ± 0.28), followed by “Health” (4.29 ± 0.57) and “Stress Management” (4.06 ± 0.54). The factors “Affiliation” (3.11 ± 0.49) “Personal Appreciation” (2.26 ± 0.59) and “Medical History” (1.71 ± 0.74) were considered by the respondents to be the least important factors for performing the exercise. The conclusion of this study is that in the sample of this study, the factors that most motivated the practice of exercise were “Well-being”, “Health” and “Stress Management”. In the opposite direction, the factors that least motivated the individuals in this sample to practice exercise were “Affiliation”, “Personal Appreciation” and “Medical History”.
Keywords: exercise, fitness center users, motivational factors, PortugalProcedia PDF Downloads 23
836 Eight-Week Exercise for Women: Impact on Anomalies in Width Depth and Environmental Dimension
Authors: Yalcin Kaya, Fatma Arslan, Ahmet Selim Kaya
Abstract:This study aimed to determine the undesirable hypertrophic anomalies in the body of females and to investigate how they can be affected by the exercise program according to the applied 8 week individual conditions. The research was carried out on 35 women who did not have any regular previous sports practice and had an approximate age of 30 ± 5.0 at the gymnasium because of their asymmetric structure and weight gain of the body. Measurements of width, depth, and periphery were taken from the participants' body, and the exercise protocol was applied for 8 weeks according to the individual measurements in accordance with the obtained measurements. After 8 weeks, the same measurements were applied again. Measurements were made by using ruler and paper tape. The findings were evaluated and differences were analyzed by paired sample t test. According to the findings obtained, ulnae distal proiecturas width averages were 44.77 ± 3.65 and 43.52 ± 3.47 pre- and post-exercise respectively. Bithorachanteric width averages were 29.3 ± 3.12 before exercise and 26.67 ± 3.27 after exercise. Average abdominal widths were observed as 18.64 ± 4.14 (before exercise) and 18.01 ± 6.27 (after exercise). The distances between the malleolus were measured as 16.98 ± 1.62 (before exercise) and 16.70 ± 1.64 (after exercise). The results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean of pre-exercise Externus abdominis circumference was 93.97 ± 8.91, and the mean of post-exercise mean was 90.82 ± 8.24. The results are statistically significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, findings of the study show that inactivity, daily uncontrolled activities or erroneous postural postures, malnutrition cause some anomalies in the human body. However, with consciously standardized and regular exercises, these abnormalities are reduced by an eight-week exercise protocol in parallel with the expulsion of excess kilos and can be removed when working much longer and fitter, it is proposed to be healthier and more beautiful in appearance.
Keywords: women, body, circumference-width and depth measurements, hypertrophy, exerciseProcedia PDF Downloads 323
835 Attitude and Perception of Multiple Sclerosis Patients toward Exercise
Authors: Ali Fuad Ashour
Abstract:Introduction: Contrary to the common belief that physical training for multiple sclerosis (MS) patients might exacerbate fatigue and provoke other symptoms of the illness, it is now widely accepted that exercise can be actually beneficial in terms of activities of daily living, reduced fatigue, and improved quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of MS patients toward exercise. Methodology: 112 MS patients who were recruited from the local community participated in this study. We utilised a self-developed questionnaire targeting attitudes and perceptions of MS patients towards physical exercise. The questionnaire was piloted and tested for validity and reliability. Results: Before being diagnosed with MS, 49.9% of our MS patients’ respondents used to engage in different types of physical activities and sports, namely aerobics/walking (35.3%), stretching exercise (18.7%), and strengthening exercise (11.4%). After being diagnosed with MS, 40.8% of our sample showed determination to remain physically active. The interest in sports activities was consistent after the diagnoses with MS and included aerobics/walking (33.8%), stretching exercise (22.6%), and strengthening exercise (19.7%). Discussion: The Kuwaiti respondents thought that lack of encouragement was the main reason for them not exercise. Aptly put, if they try to exercise, they will be discouraged by the loved ones lest the worse happens. On the other side, British patients are generally aware of the benefits of physical and mental health-promoting activities; they can seek help from a wide range of professionals and are more actively involved in the management of their condition. It is therefore important that the benefits of physical activity are promoted among MS patients, and that attitude towards MS and MS patients is changed through education.
Keywords: perception, multiple sclerosis, exercise, physical trainingProcedia PDF Downloads 82
834 Using Photo-Elicitation to Explore the Cosmology of Personal Training
Authors: John Gray, Andy Smith, Hazel James
Abstract:With the introduction of projects such as GP referral and other medical exercise schemes, there has been a shift in the cosmology underpinning exercise leadership. That is, the knowledge base of exercise leaders, specifically personal trainers, has moved from a cosmology based on aesthetic and physical fitness demands to one requiring interaction with the dominant biomedical model underpinning contemporary medicine. In line with this shift research has demonstrated that personal trainer education has aligned itself to a biotechnological model. However, whilst there is a need to examine exercise as medicine, and consider the role of personal trainers as prescribers of these interventions, the possible issues surrounding the growing medicalization of the exercise cosmology have not been explored. Using a phenomenological methodology, and the novel approach of photo-elicitation, this research examined the practices of successful personal trainers. The findings highlight that a growing focus on an iatro-biological based scientific process of exercise prescription may prove problematical. Through the development of a model of practitioner-based knowledge, it is argued there is a possible growing disconnection between the theoretical basis of exercise science and the working cosmology of exercise practitioners.
Keywords: biomedicine, cosmology, personal training, photo-elicitationProcedia PDF Downloads 304
833 Systolic Blood Pressure Responses to Aerobic Exercise among HIV Positive Patients
Authors: Ka'abu Mu'azu
Abstract:The study examines the effect of varied intensities of aerobic exercise on Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) among HIV/AIDS positive patients. Participants of mean age of 20.4 years were randomized into four groups. High Intensity Group (HIG), Moderate Intensity Group (MIG), Low Intensity Group (LIG) and Control Group (COG). SBP was measured at baseline (pre-exercise) and post-exercise (8 weeks). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicates a significant training effect on resting values of SBP (F [3, 15] = 8.9, P < 0.05). Sheffe post hoc analysis indicated that both HIG and MIG significantly differ from control (P < 0.05). Dependent t- test indicates difference in HIG (t  = 6.5, P < 0.05) and slightly in MIG (t  = 5.4, P < 0.05). The study concluded that aerobic exercise is effective in reducing resting values of SBP particularly the activities that are high intensity in nature. The study recommends that high and moderate intensity aerobic exercise should be used for improving health condition of HIV/AIDS patients as regard to decrease in resting value of SBP.
Keywords: systolic blood pressure, aerobic exercise, HIV patients, health sciencesProcedia PDF Downloads 320
832 L-Carnitine Supplementation and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage
Authors: B. Nakhostin-Roohi, F. Khoshkhahesh, KH. Parandak, R. Ramazanzadeh
Abstract:Introduction: The protective effect of antioxidants in diminishing the post-exercise rise of serum CK and LDH in individuals trained for competitive sports has come to light in recent years. This study was conducted to assess the effect of Two-week L-carnitine supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage, as well as antioxidant capacity after a bout of strenuous exercise in active healthy young men. Methodology: Twenty active healthy men volunteered for this study. Participants were randomized in a double-blind placebo-controlled fashion into two groups: L-carnitine (C group; n = 10) and placebo group (P group; n = 10). The participants took supplementation (2000 mg L-carnitine) or placebo (2000 mg lactose) daily for 2weeks before the main trial. Then, participants ran 14 km. Blood samples were taken before supplementation, before exercise, immediately, 2h and 24h after exercise. Creatine kinase (CK), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured. Results: Serum CK and LDH significantly increased after exercise in both groups (p < 0.05). Serum LDH was significantly lower in C group than P group 2h and 24h after exercise (p < 0.05). Furthermore, CK was significantly lower in C group compared with P group just 24h after exercise (p < 0.05). Plasma TAC increased significantly 14 days after supplementation and 24h after exercise in C group compared with P group (p < 0.05). Discussion and conclusion: These results suggest two-week daily oral supplementation of L-carnitine has been able to promote antioxidant capacity before and after exercise and decrease muscle damage markers through possibly inhibition of exercise-induced oxidative stress.
Keywords: L-carnitine, muscle damage, creatine kinase, Lactate dehydrogenaseProcedia PDF Downloads 376
831 Effects of Resistance Exercise Training on Blood Profile and CRP in Men with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Authors: Mohsen Salesi, Seyyed Zoheir Rabei
Abstract:Exercise has been considered a cornerstone of diabetes prevention and treatment for decades, but the benefits of resistance training are less clear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of resistance training on blood profile and inflammatory marker (CRP) of type 2 diabetes mellitus people. Thirty diabetic male were recruited (age: 50.34±10.28 years) and randomly assigned to 8 weeks resistance exercise training (n=15) and control groups (n=15). Before and after training blood pressure, weight, lipid profile (TC, TG, LDL-c, and HDL-c) and hs-CRP were measured. The resistance exercise training group took part in supervised 50–80 minutes resistance training sessions, three days a week on non-consecutive days for 8 weeks. Each exercise session included approximately 10 min of warm-up and cool-down periods. Results showed that TG significantly decreased (pre 210.19±9.31 vs. 101.12±7.25, p=0.03) and HDL-c significantly increased (pre 42.37±3.15 vs. 47.50±2.19, p=0.01) after exercise training. However, there was no difference between groups in TC, LDL-c, BMI and weight. In addition, a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels showed significant difference between groups (pre 144.65±5.73 vs. 124.21±6.48 p=0.04). Regular resistance exercise training can improve the lipid profile and reducing the cardiovascular risk factors in T2DM patients.
Keywords: lipid profile, resistance exercise, type 2 diabetes mellitus, menProcedia PDF Downloads 327
830 Sport and Exercise Behavior of Students in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University
Authors: Pimporn Thongmuang
Abstract:The purpose of this research is to study sport and exercise behavior of students in Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University in September of 2012. The sample group used in this research was a group of regular students in undergraduate school enrolled in faculty of science and technology. This sample group consisted of 1,858 students. The research tool used to collect result was the checklist. The data was calculated by statistical percentage. From the research, it was discovered that most students did exercise in previous month. 71.6% of students exercised by running. 61.1% of students exercised in their neighborhood. 60.4% of students exercised in order to keep fit. 60.2% of students agreed that the result from this research can be educational and inspirational for students in campus in terms of living healthily by exercise.
Keywords: exercise behavior, sport behavior, students, healthProcedia PDF Downloads 402
829 The Correlation between of Medicine and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS)
Authors: Dian Ariyawati, Romi Sukoco, Sinung Agung Joko
Abstract:Background: Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) is a form of orthostatic intolerance caused by autonomic dysfunction. POTS predominantly occurs in young women. Regular exercise has proven to improve the organ system functions, including autonomous systems. The aim of this research was to determine the correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Method: 510 young women (16-23 years of age) were screened. They were obtained by interview and physical examination. The diagnosis of POTS was performed with Active Stand Test (AST) and heart rate measurement using a pulsemeter. There were 29 young women who suffered from POTS. The exercise frequency was obtained by interview. Data was statistically analyzed using Spearman Correlation test. Result: The subjects’, who tested positive for POTS didn’t perform regular exercise. The Spearman correlation test showed there was a moderate negative correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women (r = -0.487, p < 0.00). Conclusion: There is a moderate reverse correlation between exercise frequency and POTS in young women. Further studies are suggested to develop an exercise program for young who suffered from POTS.
Keywords: POTS, autonomic dysfunction, exercise frequency, young womanProcedia PDF Downloads 485
828 An Empirical Study on the Effect of Physical Exercise and Outdoor Lighting on Pupils’ Eyesight
Authors: Zhang Jun Xiong
Abstract:Objective: To explore the effect of physical exercise and outdoor lighting on the improvement of pupils' eyesight. Methods: A total of 208 first grade students in a primary school in Chengdu were enrolled in the study, 104 of whom were nearsighted and 104 had normal vision. They were randomly divided into indoor exercise group, outdoor exercise group, indoor control group and outdoor control group. Indoor and outdoor exercise groups performed moderate and high-intensity aerobic exercise three times a week, 60 minutes each time; The indoor and outdoor control groups had normal study and life during the experiment, without exercise intervention. The experiment lasted for one academic year, and the visual indicators of the subjects were tested before and after the experiment. Results: After the experiment, the visual fatigue index of the subjects with normal vision in the outdoor exercise group, indoor exercise group and outdoor control group decreased by 1.5 ± 2.89, 1.4 ± 3.05, 2.12 ± 2.66 respectively, and the diopter index decreased by 0.30D ± 0.09, 0.41D ± 0.16, 0.40D ± 0.19 respectively, while the visual fatigue score of the subjects with normal vision in the indoor control group increased by 2.3 ± 2.15, and the diopter decreased by 0.53D ± 0.22, There were significant differences in visual fatigue and diopter among the subjects with normal vision in each group (P<0.001). After the experiment, the visual fatigue index of the myopic subjects in the outdoor exercise group, indoor exercise group and outdoor control group decreased by 1.8 ± 1.95, 0.8 ± 1.81, 1.1 ± 1.85 respectively, and the diopter index decreased by 0.35D ± 0.21, 0.52D ± 0.24, 0.52D ± 0.15 respectively, while the visual fatigue score of the myopic subjects in the indoor control group increased by 1.3 ± 2.66, and the diopter decreased by 0.62D ± 0.29. There were significant differences between groups in visual fatigue and diopter (P<0.001). Conclusion: Both physical exercise and outdoor lighting can have a beneficial effect on children's vision, and the superposition effect of the two is better. It is suggested that outdoor physical exercise should be carried out more in primary school.
Keywords: physical exercise, outdoor lighting, pupil, vision, myopiaProcedia PDF Downloads 27
827 Development and Effects of Transtheoretical Model Exercise Program for Elderly Women with Chronic Back Pain
Authors: Hyun-Ju Oh, Soon-Rim Suh, Mihan Kim
Abstract:The steady and rapid increase of the older population is a global phenomenon. Chronic diseases and disabilities are increased due to aging. In general, exercise has been known to be most effective in preventing and managing chronic back pain. However, it is hard for the older women to initiate and maintain the exercise. Transtheoretical model (TTM) is one of the theories explain behavioral changes such as exercise. The application of the program considering the stage of behavior change is effective for the elderly woman to start and maintain the exercise. The purpose of this study was to develop TTM based exercise program and to examine its effect for elderly women with chronic back-pain. For the program evaluation, the non-equivalent control pre-posttest design was applied. The independent variable of this study is exercise intervention program. The contents of the program were constructed considering the characteristics of the elderly women with chronic low back pain, focusing on the process of change, the stage of change by the previous studies. The developed exercise program was applied to the elderly women with chronic low back pain in the planning stage and the preparation stage. The subjects were 50 older women over 65 years of age with chronic back-pain who did not practice regular exercise. The experimental group (n=25) received the 8weeks TTM based exercise program. The control group received the book which named low back pain management. Data were collected at three times: before the exercise intervention, right after the intervention, and 4weeks after the intervention. The dependent variables were the processes of change, decisional balance, exercise self-efficacy, back-pain, depression and muscle strength. The results of this study were as follows. Processes of change (<.001), pros of decisional balance (<.001), exercise self-efficacy (<.001), back pain (<.001), depression (<.001), muscle strength (<.001) were higher in the experimental group than in the control group right after the program and 4weeks after the programs. The results of this study show that applying the TTM based exercise program increases the use of the change process, increases the exercise self-efficacy, increases the stage of changing the exercise behavior and strengthens the muscular strength by lowering the degree of pain and depression Respectively. The significance of the study was to confirm the effect of continuous exercise by maintaining regular exercise habits by applying exercise program of the transtheoretical model to the chronic low back pain elderly with exercise intention.
Keywords: chronic back pain, elderly, exercise, womenProcedia PDF Downloads 206
826 A Review of the Effects of Exercise in Preventing Migraine Headaches
Authors: Afsaneh Soltani, Zahra Mohajer
Abstract:Migraine is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases. Migraines affect different aspects of life. Severe migraine headaches lead to dysfunction, a reduced presence at work, and decreased ability to think and make decisions. Non-pharmacological treatments play a very important role in controlling and preventing migraine headaches. A healthy lifestyle helps control migraine headaches. Migraine headaches can be reduced by following these steps: Avoiding stress, eating regularly and avoiding hunger and thirst, avoiding stimulants such as chocolate, caffeine, and cigarettes, following a regular bedtime routine, or avoiding sleep deprivation. Exercise a lot, and do regular exercise (and prevent obesity). Non-pharmacological treatment is especially important in pregnant women and children because in these cases, medical treatments are not preferred due to the many side effects. Exercise is one of the most effective and uncomplicated non-pharmacological alternatives in the treatment of migraine headaches. Exercising for episodic migraines is a safe, effective, and promising complementary treatment option. Numerous studies have shown that aerobic exercise reduces the severity and duration of migraine headaches. Effective aerobic exercise includes cycling and brisk walking. Exercise improves the quality of life and reduces the use of medication in people with migraines. Patients who exercise have fewer migraine days, resulting in better personal, social, and occupational performance. Several studies have shown that pain intensity and frequency in patients who exercise regularly decreased significantly after exercise compared to controls who did not exercise. According to a study, regular exercise reduces the levels of interleukins, especially IL-12P70, which reduces anxiety and reduces the number of days of migraine in patients. An article has shown that endurance exercise reduces the number of migraine days and also increases cerebrovascular health in migraine patients. According to studies, the minimum duration of exercise to achieve a positive effect of exercise in patients with migraine is 3 months (12 weeks) and 40 minutes three times a week.
Keywords: exercise, headache, migraine, physical activityProcedia PDF Downloads 46
825 The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Glycemic Control in Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes
Authors: Chun-Chin Huang
Abstract:Individuals with prediabetes increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Exercise is a potent stimulator of skeletal muscle glucose uptake and thus good for maintaining glucose homeostasis. That could be a conducive method to improve blood glucose regulation and prevent type 2 diabetes without medication intake. The aim of this study was to summarize mechanisms of insulin resistance and investigate the beneficial effects of acute and chronic aerobic exercise on glycemic control in prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. Aerobic exercise regulates glucose homeostasis and reduces blood glucose, insulin concentrations. Therefore, the type of aerobic exercise brings positive effects to prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.
Keywords: insulin resistance, glucose sensitivity, impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose toleranceProcedia PDF Downloads 76
824 A Profile of an Exercise Addict: The Relationship between Exercise Addiction and Personality
Authors: Klary Geisler, Dalit Lev-Arey, Yael Hacohen
Abstract:It is a well-known fact that exercise has favorable effects on people's physical health, as well as mental well-being. However, as for as excessive exercise, it may likely elevate negative consequences (e.g., physical injuries, negligence of everyday responsibilities such as work, family life). Lately, there is a growing interest in exercise addiction, sometimes referred to as exercise dependence, which is defined as a craving for physical activity that results in extreme work-out sessions and generates negative physiological and psychological symptoms (e.g., withdrawal symptoms, tolerance, social conflict). Exercise addiction is considered a behavioral addiction, yet it was not included in the latest editions of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV), due to lack of significant research. Specifically, there is scarce research on the relationship between exercise addiction and personality dimensions. The purpose of the current research was to examine the relationship between primary exercise addiction symptoms and the big five dimensions, perfectionism (high performance expectations and self-critical performance evaluations) and subjective affect. participants were 152 trainees on a variety of aerobic sports activities (running, cycling, swimming) that were recruited through sports groups and trainers. 88% of participants trained for at least 5 hours per week, 24% of the participants trained above 10 hours per week. To test the predictive ability of the IVs a hierarchical linear regression with forced block entry was performed. It was found that Neuroticism significantly predicted exercise addiction symptoms (20% of the variance, p<0.001), while consciousness was negatively correlated with exercise addiction symptoms (14% of variance p<0.05); both had a unique contribution. Other dimensions of the big five (agreeableness, openness and extraversion) did not have any contribution to the dependent. Moreover, maladaptive perfectionism (self-critical performance evaluations) significantly predicted exercise addiction symptoms as well (10% of the variance P < 0.05). The overall regression model explained 54% of variance.
Keywords: big five, consciousness, excessive exercise, exercise addiction, neuroticism, perfectionism, personalityProcedia PDF Downloads 163
823 The Effect of Four-Week Resistance Exercise along with Milk Consumption on NT-proBNP and Plasma Troponin I
Authors: Rostam Abdi, Ahmad Abdi, Zahra Vahedi Langrodi
Abstract:The aim of this study is to investigate four-week resistance exercise and milk supplement on NT-proBNP and plasma troponin I of male students. Concerning the methodology of the study, 21 senior high school students of Ardebil city were selected. The selected subjects were randomly shared in three groups of control, exercise- water and exercise- milk. The exercise program includes resistance exercise for a big muscle group. The subjects of control group rested during the study and did not participate in any training. The subjects of exercise- water experimental group immediately received 400 cc water after exercise and exercise- milk group immediately received 400 cc low fat milk. Control-water groups consumed the same amount of water. 48 hours before and after the last exercise session, the blood sample of the subjects were taken for measuring the variables. NT-proBNP and Troponin I concentrations were measured by ELISA. For data analysis, one-way variance analysis test, correlated t-test and Bonferroni post hoc test were used. The significant difference of p ≤ 0.05 was accepted. Resistance training along with milk consumption leads to increase of plasma NT-proBNP, however; this increase has not reached the significant level. Furthermore, meaningful increase was observed in plasma NT–proBNP in exercise group between pretest and posttest values. Furthermore, no meaningful difference was observed between groups in terms of Troponin I after milk consumption. It seems that endurance exercises lead to change in the structure of heart muscle and is along with an increase of NT-proBNP. Furthermore, there is the possibility that milk consumption can lead to release of heart troponin I. The mechanism through which protein supplements have been put on heart troponin I is unknown and requires more research.
Keywords: resistance exercise, milk, NT-proBNP, Troponin IProcedia PDF Downloads 199
822 Exercise Training for Management Hypertensive Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Authors: Noor F. Ilias, Mazlifah Omar, Hashbullah Ismail
Abstract:Exercise training has been shown to improve functional capacity and is recommended as a therapy for management of blood pressure. Our purpose was to establish whether different exercise capacity produces different effect size for Cardiorespiratory Fitness (CRF), systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Exercise characteristic is required in order to have optimal benefit from the training, but optimal exercise capacity is still unwarranted. A MEDLINE search (1985 to 2015) was conducted for exercise based rehabilitation trials in hypertensive patients. Thirty-seven studies met the selection criteria. Of these, 31 (83.7%) were aerobic exercise and 6 (16.3%) aerobic with additional resistance exercise, providing a total of 1318 exercise subjects and 819 control, the total of subjects was 2137. We calculated exercise volume and energy expenditure through the description of exercise characteristics. 4 studies (18.2%) were 451kcal - 900 kcal, 12 (54.5%) were 900 kcal – 1350 kcal and 6 (27.3%) >1351kcal per week. Peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) increased by mean difference of 1.44 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08 to 1.79 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 21.2% for aerobic exercise compare to aerobic with additional resistance exercise 4.50 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.57 to 5.42 ml/kg/min; p = 0.00001) with weighted mean 14.5%. SBP was clinically reduce for both aerobic and aerobic with resistance training by mean difference of -4.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -5.68 to -3.63 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 6% reduction and -5.06 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -7.32 to -2.8 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 5% reduction respectively. Result for DBP was clinically reduce for aerobic by mean difference of -1.62 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -2.09 to -1.15 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 4% reduction and aerobic with resistance training reduce by mean difference of -3.26 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -4.87 to -1.65 mmHg; p = 0.0001) weighted mean 6% reduction. Optimum exercise capacity for 451 kcal – 900 kcal showed greater improvement in peak VO2 and SBP by 2.76 ml/kg/min (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.47 to 4.05 ml/kg/min; p = 0.0001) with weighted mean 40.6% and -16.66 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI]: -21.72 to -11.60 mmHg; p = 0.00001) weighted mean 9.8% respectively. Our data demonstrated that aerobic exercise with total volume of 451 kcal – 900 kcal/ week energy expenditure may elicit greater changes in cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure in hypertensive patients. Higher exercise capacity weekly does not seem better result in management hypertensive patients.
Keywords: blood Pressure, exercise, hypertension, peak VO2Procedia PDF Downloads 228
821 Acute Effects of Local Vibration on Muscle Activation, Metabolic and Hormone Responses
Authors: Zong Yan Cai, Wen-Chyuan Chen, Chih-Min Wu
Abstract:The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of local vibration on muscle activation, metabolic and hormone responses. Totally 12 healthy, physically inactive, male adults participated in this study and completed LV exercise session. During LV exercise session, four custom-made vibrations (diameter: 20 mm; thickness: 8 mm; weight: 0.022 g) were locally placed over the belly of the thigh of each subject’s non-dominant leg in supine lying position, and subjects received 10 sets for 1 min at the frequency of 35-40Hz, with 1–2 min of rest between sets. The surface electromyography (EMG) were obtained from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris, and the subjects’ rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were measured. EMG data, RPE values as well as HR were obtained by averaging the results of 10 sets of each exercise session. Blood samples were drawn before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 15min and 30min after exercise in each session for analysis of lactic acid (LA), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). The results indicated that the HR did not increase after LV (63.18±3.5 to 63.25±2.58 beat/min, p > 0.05). The average RPE values during the LV exposure were at 2.86±0.39. The root mean square % EMG values from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris were 19.02±2.19 and 8.25±2.20 respectively. There were no significant differences after acute LV exercise among LA, GH and T values as compared with baseline values (LA: 0.68±0.11 to 0.7±0.1 mmol/L; GH: 0.06±0.05 to 0.57±0.27 ng/mL; T: 551.33±46.62 to 520.42±43.78 ng/dL, p>0.05). However, the LV treatment caused a significant decrease in C values after exercise (16.56±1.05 to 11.64±1.85 nmol/L, p<0.05). In conclusion, acute LV exercise only slightly increase muscle activation which may not cause effective exercise response. However, acute LV exercise reduces C level, which may reduce the catabolic response. The probable reason might partly due to the vibration rhythmically which massage on muscles.
Keywords: cortisol, growth hormone, lactic acid, testosteroneProcedia PDF Downloads 214