Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 73

Search results for: prison

73 Heroin Withdrawal, Prison and Multiple Temporalities

Authors: Ian Walmsley


The aim of this paper is to explore the influence of time and temporality on the experience of coming off heroin in prison. The presentation draws on qualitative data collected during a small-scale pilot study of the role of self-care in the process of coming off drugs in prison. Time and temporality emerged as a key theme in the interview transcripts. Drug dependent prisoners experience of time in prison has not been recognized in the research literature. Instead, the literature on prison time typically views prisoners as a homogenous group or tends to focus on the influence of aging and gender on prison time. Furthermore, there is a tendency in the literature on prison drug treatment and recovery to conceptualize drug dependent prisoners as passive recipients of prison healthcare, rather than active agents. In building on these gaps, this paper argues that drug dependent prisoners experience multiple temporalities which involve an interaction between the body-times of the drug dependent prisoner and the economy of time in prison. One consequence of this interaction is the feeling that they are doing, at this point in their prison sentence, double prison time. The second part of the argument is that time and temporality were a means through which they governed their withdrawing bodies. In addition, this paper will comment on the challenges of prison research in England.

Keywords: heroin withdrawal, time and temporality, prison, body

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72 Between Dark and Light: The Construction and the Exclusion of Memory of Prison Heritage in Post-Soviet Period

Authors: Guo Cyuan Deng


This study represents how the Soviet-occupied dark memory in Baltic countries were interpreted and represented by examining the way of management of prison heritage. Based on the formulation of a dark-tourism spectrum which Philip Stone proposed, the Patarei prison in Estonia and the Karosta prison in Latvia are compared, and it is thought that both prisons, which had experienced similar colonial history, face different tourism operation in the present. The former is being run by NGO and remain the situation of “empty" by art intervening. However, the Estonia government attempt to get the operation of museum and transform it to anti-Soviet museum in order show national identity. By contrast, the latter is being managed by private company, whom transformed the prison to "dark fun factories" by entertainment activities in order to private capital accumulation. Moreover, it is not only indicated that both prisons exclude the minority's memory, but also the flaws of dark-tourism spectrum which divide the dark and light are discussed. Finally, given the nature and function of dark heritage, the concept "le métro" is used to supplement Stone's spectrum.

Keywords: dark tourism, prison heritage, Post-Soviet, Baltic countries, national identities

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
71 Conversion from Catholicism to Islam in and out of Prison: A Comparative Study

Authors: Nerissa Gloria Balboa, Aire Yukdawan, Venice Gordula, Rhea Jannagen Curva


This research examined the lived experiences and compared their similarities and differences of former Catholics turned Muslim converts in and out of prison. Qualitative comparative study with an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach was used to explore the lives of Muslim converts. Interviews were conducted at Islamic Studies, Call and Guidance of the Philippines (ISCAG) and Tarbiyyah Islamic Female Institute for Muslim converts out of prison, New Bilibid Prison (NBP) and Correctional Institution for Women (CIW) for Muslim converts in prison. Results of the study show that first, for Muslim converts out of prison, exploration begins through (1) experiences of Catholicism as a norm in the family and eventual realization of its emptiness in practice, (2) experiences of Islam as a norm in the environment and discovery of meaningfulness of Islam (3) experiences of gradual holistic transformation of being a Muslim; and (4) experiences of extension of oneself towards family and society. Secondly, for Muslim converts in prison, exploration begins through (1) experiences of Apathy towards Catholicism and eventual deviation from moral standards, (2) experiences of prison condition as an environment of reflection on spirituality; and (3) experiences of positive effects of being a Muslim inside Prison. Comparisons show that there exists similarities and differences across the two settings in terms of (1) experiences of Catholicism and the degree of its internalization and actualization, (2) experiences of Islamic encounters and the process of conversion; and (3) experience of Islamic devotion and Islamic construct for the self. Theoretical bases of religious conversion found in unique contexts are discussed, initiating a paradigm shift of thinking that is needed to address the deeply rooted prejudices within Catholic and Islamic circles.

Keywords: Catholicism, Islamic conversion, social psychology, religion

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70 Prison Reforms: An Overview of the Nigerian Prisons as a Key Component of an Efficient Criminal Justice Delivery System

Authors: Foluke Dada


Prisons all over the world are set up by law to provide restraint and custody for individuals accused or convicted of crimes by the state. The Nigerian prison dates back to the colonial era and is modelled after the British system. It is a system that lays emphasis on punishment and deterrence. It emphasises retribution rather than reformation. These, it can be argued, results in the inhuman conditions of Nigerian prisons and the conscienceless treatment of convicts and awaiting trial inmates in Nigerian prisons. This paper attempts an examination of the challenges currently beguiling Nigerian prisons, the need for reforms in the prison systems and the imperative of these reforms to an efficient criminal justice delivery system in the country. This paper further postulates that rehabilitation should be favoured as against retribution f the development of the Nigerian criminal justice system in line with the shift towards reform.

Keywords: criminal justice, human rights, prison reforms, rehabilitation and retribution

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69 Everyday Interactions among Imprisoned Sex Offenders: A Qualitative Study within the 'Due Palazzi' Prison in Padua

Authors: Matteo Mazzucato, Elena Faccio, Antonio Iudici


Prison is a social reality constructed by everyday interactions between an inmate, other social actors (cellmates, prison officers, educationalists and psychologists or other detainees) and the external world which participates in this complex construction through the social discourses on prison reality and its problems. Being a detainee means performing a self dealing with processes of stereotypization, attribution of a social role and prejudices assigned by various interlocutors and depending on what kind of crime one has been convicted of. Among all inmates, sex offenders are the ones who risk more to be socially condemned beyond a legal sentence since they have committed one of the most hated and disapproved crime. Regarding this, prison has to be considered as a critical context in which all community expectations and beliefs are converged: for common sense, rapists and child molesters are dangerous people who have to be stigmatized, punished and isolated. Furthermore, other detainees share a code of conduct by which the ‘sex offender’ is collocated at the lowest level of the social hierarchy of the prison. The penitentiary administration too defines this kind of detainee as a ‘vulnerable person to protect’ while prison staff considers him as a particular inmate who has to be treated and definitely changed. Considering all the complexities connected with being imprisoned as a sex offender, our research aimed at exploring how people convicted of sex crimes are called upon to manage all these hetero-narrations about their selves. Set this goal, textual data retrieved from this qualitative research show that sex offenders tend to not face the stigma assigned to them. They are rather used to minimize the story telling about their selves and costruct alternative biographies to be shared with other inmates. Managing narrations about their selves in this way permits to distance them from all the threats perceived living together with other detainees but it blocks sex offenders’ ri-signification of their offences during prison treatment. Given these results, prison administration should develop activities in order to create fields of interaction between detainees where experiencing new versions of their selves spendable even in external social situations. Regarding this it’s important to re-consider prison as part of the community and the sex offenders as a member of it.

Keywords: interactions, qualitative research, prison reality, sex offender

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68 Availability and the Utilization of Recreational Facilities for Prison Inmate Rehabilitation

Authors: Thomas Ejobowah Boye, Philip Oghenetega Ekpon


The paper examines the availability and the utilization of recreational facilities for prison inmate’s rehabilitation in Nigeria. In order to carry out the study the researchers visited sampled prisons in the six geo-political zones in Nigeria. Instant assessment of available recreational facilities was carried out. Inmates were asked to tick a self-design questionnaire that was validated by experts in the Departments of Physical and Health Education, Delta State University and the College of Physical Education, Mosogar on available recreational facilities and activities engaged in by them. The data collected was subjected to percentage analysis. The study revealed that there is little or no standard recreational facilities in all the prisons visited. Considering the role physical activities play in the overall development of individuals physically, mentally, emotionally, morally, and socially it was recommended that the authorities of the Nigerian prisons should as a matter of urgency include recreational activities as a means of reforming and rehabilitating prison inmates. To achieve the desire to rehabilitate prison inmates the researchers also recommended that facilities and equipment should be made available in all prisons in Nigeria.

Keywords: facility, prison, recreation, rehabilitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
67 Pregnant Women and Mothers in Prison, Mother and Baby Units and Mental Health

Authors: Rachel Dolan


Background: Over two thirds of women in prison in England are mothers, and estimates suggest between 100 and 200 women per year give birth during imprisonment. There are currently six mother and baby units (MBUs) in prisons in England which admit women and babies up to the age of 18 months. Although there are only 65 places available, and despite positive impacts, they are rarely full. Mental illness may influence the number of admissions, as may interpretation of admission criteria. They are the only current alternative to separation for imprisoned mothers and their babies. Aims: To identify the factors that affect the decision to apply for/be offered a place in a prison MBU; to measure the impact of a placement upon maternal mental health and wellbeing; To measure the Initial outcomes for mother and child. Methods: A mixed methods approach - 100 pregnant women in English prisons are currently being recruited from prisons in England. Quantitative measures will establish the prevalence of mental disorder, personality disorder, substance misuse and quality of life. Qualitative interviews will document the experiences of pregnancy and motherhood in prison. Results: Preliminary quantitative findings suggest the most prevalent mental disorders are anxiety and depression and approximately half the participants meet the criteria for one or more personality disorders. The majority of participants to date have been offered a place in a prison MBU, and those in a prison with an MBU prior to applying are more likely to be admitted. Those with a previous history of childcare issues, who are known to social services are less likely to be offered a place. Qualitative findings suggest that many women are often hungry and uncomfortable during pregnancy, many have feelings of guilt about having a child in prison and that feelings of anxiety and worry are exacerbated by lack of information.

Keywords: mothers, prison, mother and baby units, mental health

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66 Investigating the Effect of the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 on the Incidence of Adverse Medical Events in Her Majesty’s Prison (HMP) Leeds

Authors: Hayley Boal, Chloe Bromley, John Fairfield


Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS) are synthetic compounds designed to reproduce effects of illicit drugs. Cheap, potent, and readily available on UK highstreets from so-called ‘head shops’, in recent years their use has surged and with it have emerged side effects including seizures, aggression, palpitations, coma, and death. Rapid development of new substances has vastly outpaced pre-existing drug legislation but the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016 rendered all but tobacco, alcohol, and amyl nitrates, illegal. Drug use has long been rife within prisons, but the absence of a reliable screening tool alongside the availability of NPS makes them ideal for prison use. Here we examine the occurrence of NPS-related adverse side effects within HMP Leeds, comparing May-September of 2015 and 2017 using daily reports distributed amongst prison staff summarising medical and behavioural incidents of the previous day. There was a statistically-significant rise of over 200% in the use of NPS between 2015 and 2017: 0.562 and 1.149 incidents per day respectively. In 2017, 38.46% incidents required ambulances, fallen from 51.02% in 2015. Although the most common descriptions in both years were ‘seizure’ and ‘unresponsive’, by 2017 ‘inhalation by staff’ had emerged. Patterns of NPS consumption mirrored the prison regime, peaking when cell doors opened, and prisoners could socialise. Despite limited data, the Psychoactive Substances Act has clearly been an insufficient deterrent to the prison population; more must be done to understand and address substance misuse in prison. NPS remains a significant risk to prisoners’ health and wellbeing.

Keywords: legislation, novel psychoactive substances, prison, spice

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65 Unfolding Prison Crisis in India: An Evaluation from a Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Sharmila Sakravarthy


Prison administration in India, even though an important limb of the criminal justice system are worse off in terms of overcrowding, prolonged detention of under-trial prisoners, and a host of other problems. Considering the statistics of the prison population, over a thousand three hundred prisons across the country were overcrowded, even to the extent of more than six hundred percent. A total of eighteen thousand eight hundred and fifty-eight female prisoners were in India, out of which thirteen thousand hundred and sixty-five were under trials and five thousand and sixty-three convicts. A total of around one thousand seven hundred thirty-five children are residing in prisons along with their mothers. District prisons are more overcrowded than the other prisons, and their practices are at odd with human rights standards. This article examines a range of issues in prisons throughout India including pretrial detention, overcrowding, resources and governance, women and children in prison and rehabilitation. A substantial amount of space is devoted to the reforms that are occurring across the nation, and recommendations are made with regard to what further reforms are necessary.

Keywords: human rights, overcrowding, prisons, rehabilitation

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64 Prisoners for Sexual Offences: Custodial Regime, Prison Experience and Reintegration Interventions

Authors: Nikolaos Koulouris, Anna Kasapoglou, Dimitris Koros


The paper aims to present the course of ongoing research concerning the treatment of pretrial detainees, convicted or released prisoners for sexual offenses, an area that has not received much attention in Greece in terms of the prison experience and the reintegration potentials regarding this specific category of prisoners. The study plan provides for the use of a combination of research methods (focus groups with prisoners, structured individual interviews with prisoners and prison staff). Also, interviews with ex-prisoners detained regarding sexual offenses will take place. In Greece, there are no special provisions for the treatment of sexual offenders in prison, nor are there any special programs in place for their rehabilitation. Sexual offenders are usually separated from other prisoners, as the informal code of the social organization of the prison community dictates, despite no relevant legal framework. The study aims to explore the reasons for the separate detention of sexual offenders and discuss their special (non) treatment from different points of view, namely the legality and legitimacy of this discriminatory practice in terms of prisoners’ protection, safety, stigmatization, and possible social exclusion, as well as their post-release expectations and social reintegration potentials. The purpose of the research is the exploration of the prison experience of sexual offenders, the exercise of their legal rights, their adjustment to the demands of social life in prison, as well as the role of prison officers and various interventions aiming to their preparation for reentry to society. The study will take into consideration the European and international prison/penitentiary standards and best practices in order to examine the issue comparatively, while the contribution of the United Nations and the Council of Europe and its standards will be used to assess the treatment of sexual offenders in terms of its compatibility to international and European model-rules and trends. The outcome will be utilized to form main directions and propositions for a coherent and consistent human rights-based and social integration-oriented penal policy regarding the treatment of persons accused or convicted of sexual offenses in Greece.

Keywords: prisoners’ treatment, sex offenders, social exclusion, social reintegration

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
63 Moving Forward to Stand Still: Social Experiences of Children with a Parent in Prison in Ireland

Authors: Aisling Parkes, Fiona Donson


There is no doubt that parental imprisonment directly alters the social experiences of childhood for many children worldwide today. Indeed, the extent to which meaningful contact with a parent in prison can positively impact on the life of a child is well documented as are the benefits for the prisoner, particularly in the long term and post-release. However, despite the growing acceptance of children’s rights in Ireland over the past decade in particular, it appears that children’s rights have not yet succeeded in breaking through the walls of Irish prisons when children are visiting an incarcerated parent. In a prison system that continues to prioritise security over all other considerations, little attention has been given to the importance of recognising and protecting the rights of children affected by parental imprisonment in Ireland for children, families and society in the long term. This paper will present the findings which have emerged from a national qualitative research project (the first of its kind to be conducted in Ireland) which examines the current visiting conditions for children and families, and the related culture of visitation within the Irish Prison system. This study investigated, through semi-structured interviews and focus groups, the unique and specialist perspectives of senior prison management, prison governors, prison officers, support organisations, prison child care workers, as well as those with a family member in prison who have direct experience of prison visits in Ireland which involve children and young people. The reality of the current system of visitation that operates in Irish prisons and its impact on children’s rights is presented from a variety of perspectives. The idea of what meaningful contact means from a children’s rights based perspective is interrogated as are the benefits long term for both the child and the offender. The current system is benchmarked against well-accepted international children’s rights norms as reflected under the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child 1989. The dissonance that continues to exist between the theory of children’s rights which includes the right to maintain meaningful contact with a parent in prison and current practice and procedure in Irish Prisons will be explored. In adopting a children’s rights based perspective combined with socio-legal research, this paper will explore the added value that this approach to prison visiting might offer in responding to this particularly marginalised group of children in terms of their social experience of childhood. Finally, the question will be raised as to whether or not there is a responsibility on prisons to view children as independent rights holders when they come to visit the prison or is the prison entitled to focus solely on the prisoner with their children being viewed as a circumstance of the offender? Do the interests of the child and the prisoner have to be exclusive or is there any way of marrying the two?

Keywords: children’s rights, prisoners, sociology, visitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
62 Prison Pipeline or College Pathways: Transforming the Urban Classroom

Authors: Marcia J. Watson


The “school-to-prison pipeline” is a widely known phenomenon within education. Although data surrounding this epidemic is daunting, we coin the term “school-to-postsecondary pipeline” to explore proactive strategies that are currently working in K-12 education for African American students. The assumption that high school graduation, postsecondary matriculation, and social success are not the assumed norms for African American youth, positions the term “school-to-postsecondary pipeline” as the newly casted advocacy term for African American educational success. Using secondary data from the Children’s Defense Fund and the U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Civil Rights, we examine current conditions of educational accessibility and attainment for African American students, and provide effective strategies for classroom teachers, administrators, and parents to use for the immediate implementation in schools. These strategies include: (a) engaging instruction, (b) relevant curriculum, and (c) utilizing useful enrichment and community resources. By providing proactive steps towards the school-to-postsecondary pipeline, we hope to counter the docility of the school-to-prison pipeline as the assumed reality for African American youth.

Keywords: college access, higher education, school-to-prison pipeline, urban education reform

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61 Determining the Effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy in Reducing the Psychopathic Deviance of Criminals

Authors: Setareh Gerayeli


The present study tries to determine the effectiveness of dialectical behavior therapy in reducing the psychopathic deviance of employed criminals released from prison. The experimental method was used in this study, and the statistical population included employed criminals released from prison in Mashhad. Thirty offenders were selected randomly as the samples of the study. The MMPI-2 was used to collect data in the pre-test and post-test stages. The behavioral therapy was conducted on the experimental group during fourteen two and a half hour sessions, while the control group did not receive any intervention. Data analysis was conducted by using covariance. The results showed there is a significant difference between the post-test mean scores of the two groups. The findings suggest that dialectical behavior therapy is effective in reducing psychopathic deviance.

Keywords: criminals, dialectical behavior therapy, psychopathic deviance, prison

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
60 Realizing the Rights of Prisoners with Disabilities in Nigeria: A Case Study of Four Lagos State Prisons

Authors: Jacob Bogart, Adaobi Egboka


Nigeria signed and ratified the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2010, which was heralded as a much-needed step towards protecting the rights of persons with disabilities (PWDs). However, even with such progress, incarcerated PWDs have been left behind. The current legal framework in Nigeria does not consider the particular challenges PWDs face in prison nor make provisions to address them, despite the need for such reforms. Indeed, given the closed and restricted nature of prisons, and the violence that results from overcrowding, lack of supervision, and poor facilities, prisoners with disabilities often face significant challenges while incarcerated. While every prisoner is affected by these issues, PWDs are disproportionately harmed by them due to the nature of their disability. A study of four prisons in Lagos State, Nigeria was carried out by interviewing prisoners with disabilities, prison officials, advocates, and academics. The study found that for prisoners with physical disabilities, inaccessible prison facilities and a lack of mobility, hearing, or seeing assistance can often cause them to be dependent on the mercy of the other inmates for assistance in performing such basic functions as using the restroom, going to church, or washing themselves. Prison officials do not assist these PWDs or provide them with aids, such as crutches or a cane. Relatedly, prisoners with psychosocial disabilities (mental health conditions) often are not removed to health care facilities, despite a law to that effect, and are left to languish in prisons without the mental health care treatment they need. This presentation argues that reforms addressing the rights of PWDs must consider and make provisions for prisoners with disabilities, such as ensuring that prison facilities are accessible, providing PWDs with mobility, seeing or hearing aids as needed, and conducting mental health screenings for persons awaiting trial immediately upon entering the prison. These reforms, among others, are necessary first steps toward realizing the rights of prisoners with disabilities in Nigeria.

Keywords: disability rights, human rights, Lagos, Nigeria, prisoners with disabilities

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
59 There Is No Meaningful Opportunity in Meaningless Data: Why It Is Unconstitutional to Use Life Expectancy Tables in Post-Graham Sentences

Authors: Stacie Nelson Colling, Adele Cummings


The United States Supreme Court recently announced that it is unconstitutional to sentence a child to life without parole for non-homicide offenses, and that each child so situated must be afforded a meaningful opportunity for release from prison in his lifetime. The Court also declared that it is unconstitutional to impose a mandatory sentence of life without parole on a child for homicide offenses. Across the United States, attorneys and advocates continue to litigate issues surrounding the implementation of these legal principles. Some states have held that any sentence to a finite term of years, no matter how long, is not the same as ‘life’ and therefore does not violate the constitution. Other states have held that a sentence to a term of years that is less than the expected life of that particular child is not unconstitutional. In Colorado, the courts have routinely looked to life expectancy estimates from governmental organizations to determine how long a particular child is expected to live. They then compare that the date that the child is expected to be eligible for parole, and if the child is expected to still be living when he is eligible for parole, the sentence is deemed constitutional. This paper argues that it is inappropriate, reckless, unconstitutional and not scientifically sound to use such estimates in determining whether a child will have a meaningful opportunity for release from prison and life outside of prison before he dies. This paper argues that the opportunity for release must mean more than a probability that a child will be released before his death, and that it must include an opportunity for a meaningful life outside of prison (not just the opportunity to be released and then die on the outside). The paper further argues that life expectancy estimates cannot guide a court or a legislature in determining whether a sentence is or is not constitutional.

Keywords: life without parole, life expectancy, juvenile sentencing, meaningful opportunity for release from prison

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58 Restorative Justice Programmes in South African Prison Environment: A Qualitative Enquiry

Authors: Clarice Zimbili Zondi


This study investigates the effect of restorative justice programmes offered to offenders in prison environment (Correctional Centres) during their rehabilitation. The study looks specifically to programmes offered by a Non-Profit Organisation (NPO), Phoenix Zululand (PZ) in twelve (12) different prisons in Zululand, South Africa. Document analysis, interviews and participant observation methods were used to test whether the work done by Phoenix Zululand is in line with the remarks made on restorative justice as encapsulated in the White Paper on Corrections 2005 in South Africa. Also tested was whether a better understanding of restorative justice programmes assists in coming up with better strategies to change the behaviour of offenders. The study findings discovered that the work that is done by PZ is not in line with the remarks made in the White Paper on Corrections. Also the importance of a full comprehension of what one is doing in order to be effective in rehabilitation. However, rehabilitation that is aimed at only changing the decision-making processes of offenders not to reoffend, does not serve as a total rehabilitation programme. Rehabilitation is only successful if ex-offenders, whilst still in prison, have developed market-related skills and become employed or self-employed. Restorative Justice Programmes offered by PZ, although they play a critical role, appears to be lacking in equipping offenders with skills for effective reintegration into society and, subsequently, self-reliance.

Keywords: offender, rehabilitation, restorative justice, prison

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57 Vertical Electrical Sounding and Seismic Refraction Techniques in Resolving Groundwater Problems at Kujama Prison Farm, Kaduna, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Dogara, C. G, Afuwai, O. O. Esther, A. M. Dawai


For two decades, the inhabitants of Kujama Prison Farm faced problems of water for domestic and agricultural purposes, even after the drilling of three deep boreholes. The scarcity of this groundwater resource led to the geophysical investigation of the basement complex of the prison farm. Two geophysical techniques, vertical electrical sounding and seismic refraction methods were deployed to unravel the cause(s) of the non-productivity of the three boreholes. The area of investigation covered was 400,000 m2 of ten profiles with six investigative points. In all, 60 vertical electrical points were sounded, and sixty sets of seismic refraction data were collected using the forward and reverse approach. From the geoelectric sections, it is suggestive that the area is underlain by three to five geoelectric layers of varying thicknesses and resistivities. The result of the interpreted seismic data revealed two geovelocity layers, with velocities ranging between 478m/s to 1666m/s for the first layer and 1166m/s to 7141m/s for the second layer. From the combined results of the two techniques, it was suggestive that all the three unproductive boreholes were drilled at points that were neither weathered nor fractured. It was, therefore, suggested that new boreholes should be drilled at areas identified with depressed bedrock topography having geophysical evidence of intense weathering and fracturing within the fresh basement.

Keywords: groundwater, Kujama prison farm, kaduna, nigeria, seismic refraction, vertical electrical sounding

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
56 Women's Pathways to Prison in Thailand

Authors: Samantha Jeffries, Chontit Chuenurah


Thailand incarcerates the largest number of women and has the highest female incarceration rate in South East Asia. Since the 1990s, there has been a substantial increase in the number, rate and proportion of women imprisoned. Thailand places a high priority on the gender specific contexts out of which offending arises and the different needs of women in the criminal justice system. This is manifested in work undertaken to guide the development of the United Nations Rules for the Treatment of Women Prisoners and Non-Custodial Measures for Women Offenders (the Bangkok Rules); adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2010. The Bangkok Rules make a strong statement about Thailand’s recognition of and commitment to the fair and equitable treatment of women throughout their contact with the criminal justice system including at sentencing and in prison. This makes the comparatively high use of imprisonment for women in Thailand particularly concerning and raises questions about the relationship between gender, crime and criminal justice. While there is an extensive body of research in Western jurisdictions exploring women’s pathways to prison, there is a relative dearth of methodologically robust research examining the possible gendered circumstances leading to imprisonment in Thailand. In this presentation, we will report preliminary findings from a qualitative study of women’s pathways to prison in Thailand. Our research aims were to ascertain: 1) the type, frequency, and context of criminal behavior that led to women’s incarceration, 2) women’s experiences of the criminal justice system, 3) the broader life experiences and circumstances that led women to prison in Thailand. In-depth life history interviews (n=77) were utilized to gain a comprehensive understanding of women’s journeys into prison. The interview schedule was open-ended consisting of prisoner responses to broad discussion topics. This approach provided women with the opportunity to describe significant experiences in their lives, to bring together distinct chronologies of events, and to analyze links between their varied life experiences, offending, and incarceration. Analyses showed that women’s journey’s to prison take one of eight pathways which tentatively labelled as follows, the: 1) harmed and harming pathway, 2) domestic/family violence victimization pathway, 3) drug connected pathway, 4) street woman pathway, 5) economically motivated pathway, 6) jealousy anger and/or revenge pathway, 7) naivety pathway, 8) unjust and/or corrupted criminal justice pathway. Each will be fully discussed during the presentation. This research is significant because it is the first in-depth methodologically robust exploration of women’s journeys to prison in Thailand and one of a few studies to explore gendered pathways outside of western contexts. Understanding women’s pathways into Thailand’s prisons is crucial to the development of effective planning, policy and program responses not only while women are in prison but also post-release. To best meet women’s needs in prison and effectively support their reintegration, we must have a comprehensive understanding of who these women are, what offenses they commit, the reasons that trigger their confrontations with the criminal justice system and the impact of the criminal justice system on them.

Keywords: pathways, prison, women, Thailand

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55 Psychological Well Being of Female Prisoners

Authors: Sujata Gupta Kedar, J. N. Tulika


Early researchers suggested that imprisonment had negative psychological and physical effects on its inmates, leading to psychological deterioration. The term “prisons” in the Consensus Statement of WHO is intended to denote, as those institutions which hold people who have been sentenced to a period of imprisonment by the courts for offences against the law. Thus “prisons” if local circumstances justify it, may also be taken to include secure institutions holding on a compulsory basis on any of the following categories of people: remand prisoners; civil prisoners; juvenile detainees; immigration detainees; some categories of mentally disordered patients; asylum seekers; refugees; people detained pending expulsion, deportation, exile, exclusion or any other form of compulsory transfer to other countries or areas of the country; people detained in police cells; and any other compulsorily detained group. Prisons are aimed to cure the criminal and their behavior but their records are not encouraging. Instead the imprisonment affects all prisoners in different way. From withstanding the shock of entry to the new culture, which is very different from their own, prisoners must try to determine how to spend the time in prison, since the hours appears to be endless in prisons. There is also the fear of deterioration. This article aims to provide an overview of the psychological well being of female prisoners in the prison environment in five areas- satisfaction, efficiency, sociability, mental health and interpersonal relations. Research was done on two different types of imprisonment- under trial prisoner and convict. Total sample included 22 female prisoners of Nagaon Special Jail of Assam. The instrument used for the study was based on Psychological Well Being Scale. Statistical analysis was done with t-test and one way anova test. The result demonstrated that there is no significant difference in the psychological wellbeing of female prisoners in the prison and that there is no significant difference in the psychological well being of different types of female prisoners involved in different crimes but there is significant difference in the mental health of the female prisoners in prison.

Keywords: psychological effect, female prisoners, prison, well being of prisoners

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54 Introducing Information and Communication Technologies in Prison: A Proposal in Favor of Social Reintegration

Authors: Carmen Rocio Fernandez Diaz


This paper focuses on the relevance of information and communication technologies (hereinafter referred as ‘ICTs’) as an essential part of the day-to-day life of all societies nowadays, as they offer the scenario where an immense number of behaviors are performed that previously took place in the physical world. In this context, areas of reality that have remained outside the so-called ‘information society’ are hardly imaginable. Nevertheless, it is possible to identify a means that continue to be behind this reality, and it is the penitentiary area regarding inmates rights, as security aspects in prison have already be improved by new technologies. Introducing ICTs in prisons is still a matter subject to great rejections. The study of comparative penitentiary systems worldwide shows that most of them use ICTs only regarding educational aspects of life in prison and that communications with the outside world are generally based on traditional ways. These are only two examples of the huge range of activities where ICTs can carry positive results within the prison. Those positive results have to do with the social reintegration of persons serving a prison sentence. Deprivation of liberty entails contact with the prison subculture and the harmful effects of it, causing in cases of long-term sentences the so-called phenomenon of ‘prisonization’. This negative effect of imprisonment could be reduced if ICTs were used inside prisons in the different areas where they can have an impact, and which are treated in this research, as (1) access to information and culture, (2) basic and advanced training, (3) employment, (4) communication with the outside world, (5) treatment or (6) leisure and entertainment. The content of all of these areas could be improved if ICTs were introduced in prison, as it is shown by the experience of some prisons of Belgium, United Kingdom or The United States. However, rejections to introducing ICTs in prisons obey to the fact that it could carry also risks concerning security and the commission of new offences. Considering these risks, the scope of this paper is to offer a real proposal to introduce ICTs in prison, trying to avoid those risks. This enterprise would be done to take advantage of the possibilities that ICTs offer to all inmates in order to start to build a life outside which is far from delinquency, but mainly to those inmates who are close to release. Reforming prisons in this sense is considered by the author of this paper an opportunity to offer inmates a progressive resettlement to live in freedom with a higher possibility to obey the law and to escape from recidivism. The value that new technologies would add to education, employment, communications or treatment to a person deprived of liberty constitutes a way of humanization of prisons in the 21st century.

Keywords: deprivation of freedom, information and communication technologies, imprisonment, social reintegration

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53 Improving Post Release Outcomes

Authors: Michael Airton


This case study examines the development of a new service delivery model for prisons that focuses on using NGO’s to provide more effective case management and post release support functions. The model includes the co-design of the service delivery model and innovative commercial agreements that encourage embedded service providers within the prison and continuity of services post release with outcomes based payment mechanisms. The collaboration of prison staff, probation and parole officers and NGO’s is critical to the success of the model and its ability to deliver value and positive outcomes in relation to desistance from offending.

Keywords: collaborative service delivery, desistance, non-government organisations, post release support services

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52 Perceived Procedural Justice and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Evidence from a Security Organization

Authors: Noa Nelson, Orit Appel, Rachel Ben-ari


Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is voluntary employee behavior that contributes to the organization beyond formal job requirements. It can take different forms, such as helping teammates (OCB toward individuals; hence, OCB-I), or staying after hours to attend a task force (OCB toward the organization; hence, OCB-O). Generally, OCB contributes substantially to organizational climate, goals, productivity, and resilience, so organizations need to understand what encourages it. This is particularly challenging in security organizations. Security work is characterized by high levels of stress and burnout, which is detrimental to OCB, and security organizational design emphasizes formal rules and clear hierarchies, leaving employees with less freedom for voluntary behavior. The current research explored the role of Perceived Procedural Justice (PPJ) in enhancing OCB in a security organization. PPJ refers to how fair decision-making processes are perceived to be. It involves the sense that decision makers are objective, attentive to everyone's interests, respectful in their communications and participatory - allowing individuals a voice in decision processes. Justice perceptions affect motivation, and it was specifically suggested that PPJ creates an attachment to one's organization and personal interest in its success. Accordingly, PPJ had been associated with OCB, but hardly any research tested their association with security organizations. The current research was conducted among prison guards in the Israel Prison Service, to test a correlational and a causal association between PPJ and OCB. It differentiated between perceptions of direct commander procedural justice (CPJ), and perceptions of organization procedural justice (OPJ), hypothesizing that CPJ would relate to OCB-I, while OPJ would relate to OCB-O. In the first study, 336 prison guards (305 male) from 10 different prisons responded to questionnaires measuring their own CPJ, OPJ, OCB-I, and OCB-O. Hierarchical linear regression analyses indicated the significance of commander procedural justice (CPJ): It associated with OCB-I and also associated with OPJ, which, in turn, associated with OCB-O. The second study tested CPJ's causal effects on prison guards' OCB-I and OCB-O; 311 prison guards (275 male) from 14 different prisons read scenarios that described either high or low CPJ, and then evaluated the likelihood of that commander's prison guards performing OCB-I and OCB-O. In this study, CPJ enhanced OCB-O directly. It also contributed to OCB-I, indirectly: CPJ enhanced the motivation for collaboration with the commander, which respondents also evaluated after reading scenarios. Collaboration, in turn, associated with OCB-I. The studies demonstrate that procedural justice, especially commander's PJ, promotes OCB in security work environments. This is important because extraordinary teamwork and motivation are needed to deal with emergency situations and with delicate security challenges. Following the studies, the Israel Prison Service implemented personal procedural justice training for commanders and unit level programs for procedurally just decision processes. From a theoretical perspective, the studies extend the knowledge on PPJ and OCB to security work environments and contribute evidence on PPJ's causal effects. They also call for further research, to understand the mechanisms through which different types of PPJ affect different types of OCB.

Keywords: organizational citizenship behavior, perceived procedural justice, prison guards, security organizations

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51 Top-Down, Middle-Out, Bottom-Up: A Design Approach to Transforming Prison

Authors: Roland F. Karthaus, Rachel S. O'Brien


Over the past decade, the authors have undertaken applied research aimed at enabling transformation within the prison service to improve conditions and outcomes for those living, working and visiting in prisons in the UK and the communities they serve. The research has taken place against a context of reducing resources and public discontent at increasing levels of violence, deteriorating conditions and persistently high levels of re-offending. Top-down governmental policies have mainly been ineffectual and in some cases counter-productive. The prison service is characterised by hierarchical organisation, and the research has applied design thinking at multiple levels to challenge and precipitate change: top-down, middle-out and bottom-up. The research employs three distinct but related approaches, system design (top-down): working at the national policy level to analyse the changing policy context, identifying opportunities and challenges; engaging with the Ministry of Justice commissioners and sector organisations to facilitate debate, introducing new evidence and provoking creative thinking, place-based design (middle-out): working with individual prison establishments as pilots to illustrate and test the potential for local empowerment, creative change, and improved architecture within place-specific contexts and organisational hierarchies, everyday design (bottom-up): working with individuals in the system to explore the potential for localised, significant, demonstrator changes; including collaborative design, capacity building and empowerment in skills, employment, communication, training, and other activities. The research spans a series of projects, through which the methodological approach has developed responsively. The projects include a place-based model for the re-purposing of Ministry of Justice land assets for the purposes of rehabilitation; an evidence-based guide to improve prison design for health and well-being; capacity-based employment, skills and self-build project as a template for future open prisons. The overarching research has enabled knowledge to be developed and disseminated through policy and academic networks. Whilst the research remains live and continuing; key findings are emerging as a basis for a new methodological approach to effecting change in the UK prison service. An interdisciplinary approach is necessary to overcome the barriers between distinct areas of the prison service. Sometimes referred to as total environments, prisons encompass entire social and physical environments which themselves are orchestrated by institutional arms of government, resulting in complex systems that cannot be meaningfully engaged through narrow disciplinary lenses. A scalar approach is necessary to connect strategic policies with individual experiences and potential, through the medium of individual prison establishments, operating as discrete entities within the system. A reflexive process is necessary to connect research with action in a responsive mode, learning to adapt as the system itself is changing. The role of individuals in the system, their latent knowledge and experience and their ability to engage and become agents of change are essential. Whilst the specific characteristics of the UK prison system are unique, the approach is internationally applicable.

Keywords: architecture, design, policy, prison, system, transformation

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50 Sociological Analysis on Prisoners; with Special Reference to Prisoners of Death Penalty and Life Imprisonment in Sri Lanka

Authors: Wasantha Subasinghe


Crimes are one of big social problems in Sri Lanka. Crimes can be seen as simply way as an activity that against for the society or public law. There are offences in minor crimes and grave crimes including murder, rape, trafficking, robbery, excise, narcotic, kidnapping and so on. There are various forms of punishment such as bailing, fining, and prisoning to the death penalty. Death penalty contains the killing of an offender for an offense. There are 23 prison institutions in Sri Lanka including 03 closed prisoners and 20 remand prisons. There are 10 work camps, 02 open prison camps, 01 training school for youthful offenders and 02 correctional centers for youthful offenders. Capital punishment is legal in Sri Lanka as many other countries as India, Japan, Bangladesh, Iran and Iraq so on. When compared unconvicted prisoners from 2006-2010 there is an increase. It was 89190 in 2006 and it was 100191 in 2010. There were 28732 of convicted prisoners and it was 32128 in 2010. There were 165 Death sentences in 2006 and it was 96 in 2010. There are 540 individuals had been sentenced to death. The death penalty has not been implemented in Sri Lanka since 1976. Research problem: What are the feelings of prisoners as waiting for death?’ Objectives of the study were identifying prisoners’ point of view on their punishment and root causes for their offence. Case studies were conducted to identify the research problem and data were collected using formal interviews. Research area was Welikada prison. Stratified sampling method in probability samplings was used. Sample size was 20 cases from death penalty and life in prison prisoners and 20 from other convicted prisoners. Findings revealed causes and feelings them as offenders. They need if death penalty or freedom. Some of them need to convert death sentence to life imprisonment. They are physically and mentally damaged after their imprisonment. Lack of hope and as well as lack of welfare and rehabilitation programs they suffered their lives.

Keywords: death penalty, expectations, life imprisonment, rehabilitation

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49 Through Hope and Struggle: The Meaning of the Gaisce Award for Youth in Irish Prisons

Authors: Silvia Gagliardi, Orlaith Rice


This article provides a qualitative evaluation of 'Gaisce - The President's Award' for youth in Irish prisons. Building on previous research on Gaisce, this article makes space for marginalized voices to provide their own feedback on the program they participate in while in custody. Both strengths and limitations in undertaking a positive youth development program in prison are identified and examined. More research with vulnerable and marginalized participants, such as youth in prison, is recommended as a way to further improve youth development programs and thus enhance the opportunities for self-development and psychological wellbeing for youth, including in custodial settings.

Keywords: Gaisce, president's award, youth development program, youth in custody, hope, psychological wellbeing, Ireland, qualitative research, covid-19

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48 Victims of Imprisonment: Incarceration and Post-Release Effects of Confinement with Women with a Mental Illness

Authors: Anat Yaron Antar, Tomer Einat


This study explores the effects of the imprisonment of women together with females with mental disorders on the well-being of the former both during imprisonment and after their release from prison. Based on in-depth interviews with 22 women ex-prisoners who had been imprisoned for a period of at least two years in the single Israeli female correctional facility, Neve Tirza Prison, and released one to three months before the initiation of the study to a community-based agency managed by the Israeli Prisoner Rehabilitation Authority, and based on a qualitative, constructive strategy. We found that: (i) mentally ill prisoners’ conduct creates severe feelings of stress and discomfort among many of the prisoners without a mental disorder prisoners; (ii) The intimate and often long-term encounters with prisoners with a mental illness lead to increased feelings of distress, helplessness, fear, and frustration among many of the women prisoners; (iii) the damaging encounters between women prisoners and mentally-ill prisoners harmed the reintegration of the formers into society after release, and (iv) The women ex-prisoners lacked the basic mental, cognitive, and social tools necessary for dealing with female inmates with a mental illness and had received no psychological or emotional support from the prison personnel. Consequently, they suffered – and still suffer – from traumatic and upsetting memories Our findings led us to conclude that women prisoners should be imprisoned separately from female prisoners with mental disorders or be offered a wide range of psychological and emotional coping tools as well as various rehabilitative treatment programs.

Keywords: women, prisoners, mentally ill, health

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47 Indicators of Radicalization in Prisons Facilities: Identification and Assessment

Authors: David Kramsky, Barbora Vegrichtova


The prison facility is generally considered as an environment having a corrective purpose. Besides the social sense of remedy, prison is also an environment that potentially determines and affects socially dangerous behavior. The authors, based on long-term empirical research, present the significant indicators that are directly related to the transformation of personality attitudes, motivations and behavior associating with a process of radicalization. One of the most significant symptoms of radicalization is a particular social moral decision making. Individuals in the radicalism process primarily prefer utilitarian manners of decision-making more than personal aspects like empathy for others. The authors will present the method of social moral profiling of the subject in radicalization process as an effective prevention system reducing security risks in society.

Keywords: indicators, moral decision, radicalism, social profile

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46 Criminal Justice System, Health and Imprisonment in India

Authors: Debolina Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra Chatterjee


Imprisonment is an expansive concept, as it is regulated by laws under criminal justice system of the state. The state sets principles of punishment to control offenders and also puts limits to excess punitive control. One significant way through which it exercises control is through rules governing healthcare of imprisoned population. Prisons signify specialized settings which accommodate both medical and legal concerns. The provision of care operates within the institutional paradigm of punishment. This requires the state to negotiate adequately between goals of punishment and fulfilment of basic human rights of offenders. The present study is based on a critical analysis of prison healthcare standards in India, which include government policies and guidelines. It also demonstrates how healthcare is delivered by drawing insights from a primary study conducted in a correctional home in the state of West Bengal, India, which houses both male and female inmates. Forty women were interviewed through semi-structured interviews, followed by focus group discussions. Doctors and administrative personnel were also interviewed. Findings show how institutional practices control women through subversion of the role of doctors to prison administration. Also, poor healthcare infrastructure, unavailability of specialized services, hierarchies between personnel and inmates make prisons unlikely sites for therapeutic intervention. The paper further discusses how institutional practices foster gender-based discriminatory practices.

Keywords: imprisonment, Indian prisons, prison healthcare, punishment

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45 Incarcerated Students' Participation Rates in Open Distance Education: Exploring the Role of South African Universities

Authors: Veisiwe Gasa


Many higher institutions of education that offer Open Distance Learning (ODL) and e-Learning have opened their doors to accommodate prisoners who want to further their studies. The provision of education for prisoners in South Africa emanates from a number of reasons. The alarmingly high numbers of the prison population in South Africa has called for the government to provide desperate measures. It is on these premises that the provision of higher education in prison is recommended. Higher education is recommended because of the belief that it creates employability and thereby reduces recidivism. Using targeted sampling, 5 universities were required to elaborate on their awareness strategies, how they ensure that Distance Education is accessible to the prisoners and also the ways in which they cater to the needs of incarcerated students. The research findings reveal that there is so little that has been done by these particular institutions to cater for prisoners. This raises a concern and indicates a need to raise awareness of the value of higher and distance education among prisoners. It also calls for higher education institutions to make prisons aware of their course offerings.

Keywords: e-Learning, incarcerated students, open distance learning, recidivism

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44 Contextualizing Torture in Closed Institutions

Authors: Erinda Bllaca Ndroqi


The dilemma with which the monitoring professionals are facing in today’s reality is whether to accept that prisons all over the world constitute a place where not all rights are respected (ethical approach), or widen the scope of monitoring by prioritizing the special needs of people deprived of their liberties (human right approach), despite the context and the level of improved prison condition, staff profiling, more services oriented towards rehabilitation instead of punishment. Such dilemma becomes a concern if taking into consideration the fact that prisoners, due to their powerlessness and 'their lives at the hand of the state', are constantly under the threat of abuse of power and neglect, which in the Albanian case, has never been classified as torture. Scientific research in twenty-four (24) Albanian prisons shows that for some rights, prisoners belonging to 'vulnerable groups' such as mental illness, HIV positive status, sexual orientation, and terminal illness remain quite challenged and do not ensure that their basic rights are being met by the current criminal justice system (despite recommendations set forwards to prison authorities by the European Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (CPT)). The research orients more discussion about policy and strategic recommendations that would need a thorough assessment of the impact of rehabilitation in special categories of prisoners, including recidivists.

Keywords: prisons, rehabilitation, torture, vulnerability

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