Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2943

Search results for: adverse drug reactions

2943 Pattern of Adverse Drug Reactions with Platinum Compounds in Cancer Chemotherapy at a Tertiary Care Hospital in South India

Authors: Meena Kumari, Ajitha Sharma, Mohan Babu Amberkar, Hasitha Manohar, Joseph Thomas, K. L. Bairy

Abstract:

Aim: To evaluate the pattern of occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) with platinum compounds in cancer chemotherapy at a tertiary care hospital. Methods: It was a retrospective, descriptive case record study done on patients admitted to the medical oncology ward of Kasturba Hospital, Manipal from July to November 2012. Inclusion criteria comprised of patients of both sexes and all ages diagnosed with cancer and were on platinum compounds, who developed at least one adverse drug reaction during or after the treatment period. CDSCO proforma was used for reporting ADRs. Causality was assessed using Naranjo Algorithm. Results: A total of 65 patients was included in the study. Females comprised of 67.69% and rest males. Around 49.23% of the ADRs were seen in the age group of 41-60 years, followed by 20 % in 21-40 years, 18.46% in patients over 60 years and 12.31% in 1-20 years age group. The anticancer agents which caused adverse drug reactions in our study were carboplatin (41.54%), cisplatin (36.92%) and oxaliplatin (21.54%). Most common adverse drug reactions observed were oral candidiasis (21.53%), vomiting (16.92%), anaemia (12.3%), diarrhoea (12.3%) and febrile neutropenia (0.08%). The results of the causality assessment of most of the cases were probable. Conclusion: The adverse effect of chemotherapeutic agents is a matter of concern in the pharmacological management of cancer as it affects the quality of life of patients. This information would be useful in identifying and minimizing preventable adverse drug reactions while generally enhancing the knowledge of the prescribers to deal with these adverse drug reactions more efficiently.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, platinum compounds, cancer, chemotherapy

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2942 The Safety Profile of Vilazodone: A Study on Post-Marketing Surveillance

Authors: Humraaz Kaja, Kofi Mensah, Frasia Oosthuizen

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Vilazodone was approved in 2011 as an antidepressant to treat the major depressive disorder. As a relatively new drug, it is not clear if all adverse effects have been identified. The aim of this study was to review the adverse effects reported to the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring (PIDM) in order to add to the knowledge about the safety profile and adverse effects caused by vilazodone. Method: Data on adverse effects reported for vilazodone was obtained from the database VigiAccess managed by PIDM. Data was extracted from VigiAccess using Excel® and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The data collected was compared to the patient information leaflet (PIL) of Viibryd® and the FDA documents to determine adverse drug reactions reported post-marketing. Results: A total of 9708 adverse events had been recorded on VigiAccess, of which 6054 were not recorded on the PIL and the FDA approval document. Most of the reports were received from the Americas and were for adult women aged 45-64 years (24%, n=1059). The highest number of adverse events reported were for psychiatric events (19%; n=1889), followed by gastro-intestinal effects (18%; n=1839). Specific psychiatric disorders recorded included anxiety (316), depression (208), hallucination (168) and agitation (142). The systematic review confirmed several psychiatric adverse effects associated with the use of vilazodone. The findings of this study suggested that these common psychiatric adverse effects associated with the use of vilazodone were not known during the time of FDA approval of the drug and is not currently recorded in the patient information leaflet (PIL). Conclusions: In summary, this study found several adverse drug reactions not recorded in documents emanating from clinical trials pre-marketing. This highlights the importance of continued post-marketing surveillance of a drug, as well as the need for further studies on the psychiatric adverse events associated with vilazodone in order to improve the safety profile.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, pharmacovigilance, post-marketing surveillance, vilazodone

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2941 Analyses of Adverse Drug Reactions Reported of Hospital in Taiwan

Authors: Yu-Hong Lin

Abstract:

Background: An adverse drug reaction (ADR) reported is an injury which caused by taking medicines. Sometimes the severity of ADR reported may be minor, but sometimes it could be a life-threatening situation. In order to provide healthcare professionals as a better reference in clinical practice, we do data collection and analysis from our hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective study of ADRs reported performed from 2014 to 2015 in our hospital in Taiwan. We collected assessment items of ADRs reported, which contain gender and age, occurring sources, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification of suspected drugs, types of adverse reactions, Naranjo score calculating by Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale and so on. Results: The investigation included two hundred and seven ADRs reported. Most of ADRs reported were occurring in outpatient department (92%). The average age of ADRs reported was 65.3 years. Less than 65 years of age were in the majority in this study (54%). Majority of all ADRs reported were males (51%). According to ATC classification system, the major classification of suspected drugs was cardiovascular system (19%) and antiinfectives for systemic use (18%) respectively. Among the adverse reactions, Dermatologic Effects (35%) were the major type of ADRs. Also, the major Naranjo scores of all ADRs reported ranged from 1 to 4 points (91%), which represents a possible correlation between ADRs reported and suspected drugs. Conclusions: Definitely, ADRs reported is still an extremely important information for healthcare professionals. For that reason, we put all information of ADRs reported into our hospital's computer system, and it will improve the safety of medication use. By hospital's computer system, it can remind prescribers to think of information about patient's ADRs reported. No drugs are administered without risk. Therefore, all healthcare professionals should have a responsibility to their patients, who themselves are becoming more aware of problems associated with drug therapy.

Keywords: adverse drug reaction, Taiwan, healthcare professionals, safe use of medicines

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2940 Adverse Reactions from Contrast Media in Patients Undergone Computed Tomography at the Department of Radiology, Srinagarind Hospital

Authors: Pranee Suecharoen, Jaturat Kanpittaya

Abstract:

Background: The incidence of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media has risen. The dearth of reports on reactions to the administration of iso- and low-osmolar contrast media should be addressed. We, therefore, studied the profile of adverse reactions to iodinated contrast media; viz., (a) the body systems affected (b) causality, (c) severity, and (d) preventability. Objective: To study adverse reactions (causes and severity) to iodinated contrast media at Srinagarind Hospital. Method: Between March and July, 2015, 1,101 patients from the Department of Radiology were observed and interviewed for the occurrence of adverse reactions. The patients were classified per Naranjo’s algorithm and through use of an adverse reactions questionnaire. Results: A total of 105 cases (9.5%) reported adverse reactions (57% male; 43% female); among whom 2% were iso-osmolar vs. 98% low-osmolar. Diagnoses included hepatoma and cholangiocarcinoma (24.8%), colorectal cancer (9.5%), breast cancer (5.7%), cervical cancer (3.8%), lung cancer (2.9%), bone cancer (1.9%), and others (51.5%). Underlying diseases included hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2. Mild, moderate, and severe adverse reactions accounted for 92, 5 and 3%, respectively. The respective groups of escalating symptoms included (a) mild urticaria, itching, rash, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache; (b) moderate hypertension, hypotension, dyspnea, tachycardia and bronchospasm; and (c) severe laryngeal edema, profound hypotension, and convulsions. All reactions could be anticipated per Naranjo’s algorithm. Conclusion: Mild to moderate adverse reactions to low-osmolar contrast media were most common and these occurred immediately after administration. For patient safety and better outcomes, improving the identification of patients likely to have an adverse reaction is essential.

Keywords: adverse reactions, contrast media, computed tomography, iodinated contrast agents

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2939 Patient-Reported Adverse Drug Reactions, Medication Adherence and Clinical Outcomes among major depression disorder Patients in Ethiopia: A Prospective Hospital Based Study.

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz

Abstract:

Background: there was paucity of data on the self-reported adverse drug reactions (ADRs), level of adherence and clinical outcomes with antidepressants among major depressive disorder (MDD) patients in Ethiopia. Hence, the present study sought to determine the level of adherence for and clinical outcome with antidepressants and the magnitude of ADRs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was employed on MDD patients from September 2016 to January 2017 at Gondar university hospital psychiatry clinic. All patients who were available during the study period were included under the study population. The Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale was employed to assess the adverse drug reaction. The rate of medication adherence was determined using morisky medication adherence measurement scale eight. Clinical Outcome of patients was measured by using patient health questionnaire. Multivariable logistic carried out to determine factors for adherence and patient outcome. Results: two hundred seventy patients were participated in the study. More than half of the respondents were males 122(56.2%). The mean age of the participants was 30.94 ± 8.853. More than one-half of the subjects had low adherence to their medications 124(57.1%). About 186(85.7%) of patients encountered ADR. The most common ADR was weight gain 29(13.2). Around 198(92.2%) ADRs were probable and 19(8.8%) were possible. Patients with long standing MDD had high risk of non-adherence COR: 2.458[4.413-4.227], AOR: 2.424[1.185-4.961]. More than one-half 125(57.6) of respondents showed improved outcome. Optimal level of medication adherence was found to be associated with reduced risk of progression of the diseases COR: 0.37[0.110-5.379] and AOR: 0.432[0.201-0.909]. Conclusion: Patient reported adverse drug reactions were more prevalent in major depressive disorder patients. Adherence to medications was very poor in the setup. However, the clinical outcome was relatively higher. Long standing depression was associated with non-adherence. In addition, clinical outcome of patients were affected by non-adherence. Therefore, adherence enhancing interventions should be provided to improve medication adherence and patient outcome.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, clinical outcomes, Ethiopia, prospective study, medication adherence

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2938 Update on Genetic Diversity for Lamotrigine Induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

Authors: Natida Thongsima, Patompong Satapornpong

Abstract:

Introduction: Lamotrigine is widely used in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. However, lamotrigine leads to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) consist of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) include Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). Moreover, lamotrigine-induced SCARs is usually manifested between 2 and 8 weeks after treatment initiation. A previous study, there was found the association between HLA-B*15:02 and lamotrigine-induced cutaneous adverse drug reactions in the Thai population (odds ratio 4.89; 95% CI 1.28–18.66; p-value = 0.014). Therefore, the distribution of pharmacogenetics markers that a major role in predicting the culprit drugs for SCARs in many populations. Objective: In this study, we want to investigate the prevalence of the HLA-B allele, which correlations in lamotrigine-induced SCARs in a healthy Thai population. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 350 healthy Thai individuals and were approved by the ethics committee of Rangsit University. HLA-B alleles were genotyped by the Lifecodes HLA SSO typing kits (Immucor, West Avenue, Stamford, USA). Results: The results presented HLA-B allele frequency in healthy Thai population were 14.71% (HLA-B*46:01), 8.57% (HLA-B*15:02), 6.71% (HLA-B*40:01), 5.86% (HLA-B*13:01), 5.71% (HLA-B*58:01), 5.14% (HLA-B*38:02), 4.86% (HLA-B*18:01), 4.59% (HLA-B*51:01), 3.86% (HLA-B*44:03) and 2.71% (HLA-B*07:05). Especially, the HLA-B*15:02 allele was the high frequency in the Thais (8.57%), Han Chinese (7.30%), Vietnamese (13.50%), Malaysian (6.06%) and Indonesian (11.60%). Notwithstanding, this allele was much lower in other populations, namely, Africans, Caucasians and Japanese. Conclusions: Although the samples size of the healthy Thai population in this research was limited, there were found the frequency of the HLA-B*15:02 allele could predisposition toward lamotrigine-induced SCARs in Thailand.

Keywords: lamotrigine, cutaneous adverse drug reactions, HLA-B, Thai population

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2937 Pharmacovigilance in Hospitals: Retrospective Study at the Pharmacovigilance Service of UHE-Oran, Algeria

Authors: Nadjet Mekaouche, Hanane Zitouni, Fatma Boudia, Habiba Fetati, A. Saleh, A. Lardjam, H. Geniaux, A. Coubret, H. Toumi

Abstract:

Medicines have undeniably played a major role in prolonging shelf life and improving quality. The absolute efficacy of the drug remains a lever for innovation, its benefit/risk balance is not always assured and it does not always have the expected effects. Prior to marketing, knowledge about adverse drug reactions is incomplete. Once on the market, phase IV drug studies begin. For years, the drug was prescribed with less care to a large number of very heterogeneous patients and often in combination with other drugs. It is at this point that previously unknown adverse effects may appear, hence the need for the implementation of a pharmacovigilance system. Pharmacovigilance represents all methods for detecting, evaluating, informing and preventing the risks of adverse drug reactions. The most severe adverse events occur frequently in hospital and that a significant proportion of adverse events result in hospitalizations. In addition, the consequences of hospital adverse events in terms of length of stay, mortality and costs are considerable. It, therefore, appears necessary to develop ‘hospital pharmacovigilance’ aimed at reducing the incidence of adverse reactions in hospitals. The most widely used monitoring method in pharmacovigilance is spontaneous notification. However, underreporting of adverse drug reactions is common in many countries and is a major obstacle to pharmacovigilance assessment. It is in this context that this study aims to describe the experience of the pharmacovigilance service at the University Hospital of Oran (EHUO). This is a retrospective study extending from 2011 to 2017, carried out on archived records of declarations collected at the level of the EHUO Pharmacovigilance Department. Reporting was collected by two methods: ‘spontaneous notification’ and ‘active pharmacovigilance’ targeting certain clinical services. We counted 217 statements. It involved 56% female patients and 46% male patients. Age ranged from 5 to 78 years with an average of 46 years. The most common adverse reaction was drug toxidermy. For the drugs in question, they were essentially according to the ATC classification of anti-infectives followed by anticancer drugs. As regards the evolution of declarations by year, a low rate of notification was noted in 2011. That is why we decided to set up an active approach at the level of some services where a resident of reference attended the staffs every week. This has resulted in an increase in the number of reports. The declarations came essentially from the services where the active approach was installed. This highlights the need for ongoing communication between all relevant health actors to stimulate reporting and secure drug treatments.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, hospital, pharmacovigilance, spontaneous notification

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2936 Effects of Using a Recurrent Adverse Drug Reaction Prevention Program on Safe Use of Medicine among Patients Receiving Services at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital Thailand

Authors: Thippharat Wongsilarat, Parichat tuntilanon, Chonlakan Prataksitorn

Abstract:

Recurrent adverse drug reactions are harmful to patients with mild to fatal illnesses, and affect not only patients but also their relatives, and organizations. To compare safe use of medicine among patients before and after using the recurrent adverse drug reaction prevention program . Quasi-experimental research with the target population of 598 patients with drug allergy history. Data were collected through an observation form tested for its validity by three experts (IOC = 0.87), and analyzed with a descriptive statistic (percentage). The research was conducted jointly with a multidisciplinary team to analyze and determine the weak points and strong points in the recurrent adverse drug reaction prevention system during the past three years, and 546, 329, and 498 incidences, respectively, were found. Of these, 379, 279, and 302 incidences, or 69.4; 84.80; and 60.64 percent of the patients with drug allergy history, respectively, were found to have caused by incomplete warning system. In addition, differences in practice in caring for patients with drug allergy history were found that did not cover all the steps of the patient care process, especially a lack of repeated checking, and a lack of communication between the multidisciplinary team members. Therefore, the recurrent adverse drug reaction prevention program was developed with complete warning points in the information technology system, the repeated checking step, and communication among related multidisciplinary team members starting from the hospital identity card room, patient history recording officers, nurses, physicians who prescribe the drugs, and pharmacists. Including in the system were surveillance, nursing, recording, and linking the data to referring units. There were also training concerning adverse drug reactions by pharmacists, monthly meetings to explain the process to practice personnel, creating safety culture, random checking of practice, motivational encouragement, supervising, controlling, following up, and evaluating the practice. The rate of prescribing drugs to which patients were allergic per 1,000 prescriptions was 0.08, and the incidence rate of recurrent drug reaction per 1,000 prescriptions was 0. Surveillance of recurrent adverse drug reactions covering all service providing points can ensure safe use of medicine for patients.

Keywords: recurrent drug, adverse reaction, safety, use of medicine

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2935 Pharmacogenetics Study of Dapsone-Induced Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions and HLA Class I Alleles in Thai Patients

Authors: Patompong Satapornpong, Therdpong Tempark, Pawinee Rerknimitr, Jettanong Klaewsongkram, Chonlaphat Sukasem

Abstract:

Dapsone (4, 4’-diaminodiphenyl sulfone, DDS) is broadly used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and infections such as; leprosy, Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia in patients with HIV infection, neutrophilic dermatoses, dermatitis herpetiformis and autoimmune bullous disease. The severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs) including, Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) are rare but severe life-threatening adverse drug reactions. Dapsone is one of many culprit drugs induced SJS, TEN and DRESS. Notwithstanding, to our knowledge, there are no studies of the association of HLA class I alleles and dapsone-induced SCARs in non-leprosy Thai patients. This investigation was a prospective cohort study, which performed in a total of 45 non-leprosy patients. Fifteen patients of dapsone-induced SCARs were classified as following the RegiSCAR criteria, and 30 dapsone-tolerant controls were exposed to dapsone more than 6 months without any evidence of cutaneous reactions. The genotyping of HLA-A, -B and –C were performed using sequence-specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSOs). The Ethics Committee of Ramathibodi hospital, Mahidol University, approved this study. Among all HLA class I alleles, HLA-A*24:07, HLA-B*13:01, HLA-B*15:02, HLA-C*03:04 and HLA-C*03:09 were significantly associated with dapsone-induced SCARs (OR = 10.55, 95% CI = 1.06 – 105.04, p = 0.0360; OR = 56.00, 95% CI = 8.27 – 379.22, p = 0.0001; OR = 7.00, 95% CI = 1.17 – 42.00, p = 0.0322; OR = 6.00, 95% CI = 1.24 – 29.07, p = 0.0425 and OR = 17.08, 95% CI = 0.82 – 355.45, p = 0.0321, respectively). Furthermore, HLA-B*13:01 allele had strong association with dapsone-induced SJS-TEN and DRESS when compared with dapsone-tolerant controls (OR = 42.00, 95% CI = 2.88 – 612.31, p = 0.0064 and OR = 63.00, 95% CI = 7.72 – 513.94 and p = 0.0001, respectively). Consequently, HLA-B*13:01 might serve as a pharmacogenetic marker for screening before initiating the therapy with dapsone for prevention of dapsone-induced SCARs.

Keywords: dapsone-induced SCARs, HLA-B*13:01, HLA class I alleles, severe cutaneous adverse reactions, Thai

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2934 An Assessment of Adverse Events Following Immunization Reporting Pattern of Selected Vaccines in VigiAccess

Authors: Peter Yamoah, Frasia Oosthuizen

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Introduction: Reporting of Adverse Events Following Immunization continues to be a challenge. Pharmacovigilance centers throughout the world are mandated by the WHO to submit AEFI reports from various countries to a large pool of adverse drug reaction electronic database called Vigibase. Despite the relevant information of AEFI in Vigibase, it is unavailable to the general public. However, the WHO has an alternative website called VigiAccess which is an open access website serving as a repository of reported adverse drug reactions and AEFIs. The aim of the study was to ascertain the reporting pattern of a number of commonly used vaccines in VigiAccess. Methods: VigiAccess was thoroughly searched on the 5th of February 2018 for AEFI reports of measles vaccine, oral polio vaccine (OPV), yellow fever vaccine, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, tetanus vaccine and tuberculosis (BCG) vaccine. These were reports from all pharmacovigilance centers in the world from the time they joined the WHO drug monitoring program. Results: After a thorough search in VigiAccess, there were 9,062 measles vaccine AEFIs, 185,829 OPV AEFIs, 24,577 yellow fever vaccine AEFIs, 317,208 pneumococcal vaccine AEFIs, 73,513 rotavirus vaccine AEFIs, 145,447 meningococcal vaccine AEFIs, 22,781 tetanus vaccine AEFIs and 35,556 BCG vaccine AEFIs. Conclusion: The study revealed that out of the eight vaccines studied, pneumococcal vaccines are associated with the highest number of AEFIs whilst measles vaccines were associated with the least AEFIs.

Keywords: vaccines, adverse reactions, VigiAccess, adverse event reporting

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2933 Management Tools for Assessment of Adverse Reactions Caused by Contrast Media at the Hospital

Authors: Pranee Suecharoen, Ratchadaporn Soontornpas, Jaturat Kanpittaya

Abstract:

Background: Contrast media has an important role for disease diagnosis through detection of pathologies. Contrast media can, however, cause adverse reactions after administration of its agents. Although non-ionic contrast media are commonly used, the incidence of adverse events is relatively low. The most common reactions found (10.5%) were mild and manageable and/or preventable. Pharmacists can play an important role in evaluating adverse reactions, including awareness of the specific preparation and the type of adverse reaction. As most common types of adverse reactions are idiosyncratic or pseudo-allergic reactions, common standards need to be established to prevent and control adverse reactions promptly and effectively. Objective: To measure the effect of using tools for symptom evaluation in order to reduce the severity, or prevent the occurrence, of adverse reactions from contrast media. Methods: Retrospective review descriptive research with data collected on adverse reactions assessment and Naranjo’s algorithm between June 2015 and May 2016. Results: 158 patients (10.53%) had adverse reactions. Of the 1,500 participants with an adverse event evaluation, 137 (9.13%) had a mild adverse reaction, including hives, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. These types of symptoms can be treated (i.e., with antihistamines, anti-emetics) and the patient recovers completely within one day. The group with moderate adverse reactions, numbering 18 cases (1.2%), had hypertension or hypotension, and shortness of breath. Severe adverse reactions numbered 3 cases (0.2%) and included swelling of the larynx, cardiac arrest, and loss of consciousness, requiring immediate treatment. No other complications under close medical supervision were recorded (i.e., corticosteroids use, epinephrine, dopamine, atropine, or life-saving devices). Using the guideline, therapies are divided into general and specific and are performed according to the severity, risk factors and ingestion of contrast media agents. Patients who have high-risk factors were screened and treated (i.e., prophylactic premedication) for prevention of severe adverse reactions, especially those with renal failure. Thus, awareness for the need for prescreening of different risk factors is necessary for early recognition and prompt treatment. Conclusion: Studying adverse reactions can be used to develop a model for reducing the level of severity and setting a guideline for a standardized, multidisciplinary approach to adverse reactions.

Keywords: role of pharmacist, management of adverse reactions, guideline for contrast media, non-ionic contrast media

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2932 Pharmacovigilance: An Empowerment in Safe Utilization of Pharmaceuticals

Authors: Pankaj Prashar, Bimlesh Kumar, Ankita Sood, Anamika Gautam

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Pharmacovigilance (PV) is a rapidly growing discipline in pharmaceutical industries as an integral part of clinical research and drug development over the past few decades. PV carries a breadth of scope from drug manufacturing to its regulation with safer utilization. The fundamental steps of PV not only includes data collection and verification, coding of drugs with adverse drug reactions, causality assessment and timely reporting to the authorities but also monitoring drug manufacturing, safety issues, product quality and conduction of due diligence. Standardization of adverse event information, collaboration of multiple departments in different companies, preparation of documents in accordance to both governmental as well as non-governmental organizations (FDA, EMA, GVP, ICH) are the advancements in discipline of PV. De-harmonization, lack of predictive drug safety models, improper funding by government, non-reporting, and non-acceptability of ADRs by developing countries and reports directly from patients to the monitoring centres respectively are the major road backs of PV. Mandatory pharmacovigilance reporting, frequent inspections, funding by government, educating and training medical students, pharmacists and nurses in this segment can bring about empowerment in PV. This area needs to be addressed with a sense of urgency for the safe utilization of pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: pharmacovigilance, regulatory, adverse event, drug safety

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2931 Establishment of an Information Platform Increases Spontaneous Reporting of Adverse Drug Reactions

Authors: Pei-Chun Chen, Chi-Ting Tseng, Lih-Chi Chen, Kai-Hsiang Yang

Abstract:

Introduction: The pharmacist is responsible for encouraging adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting. In a local center in Northern Taiwan, promotion and rewarding of ADR reporting have continued for over six years but failed to bring significant changes. This study aims to find a solution to increase ADR reporting. Research question or hypothesis: We hypothesized that under-reporting is due to the inconvenience of the reporting system. Reports were made conventionally through printed sheets. We proposed that reports made per month will increase if they were computerized. Study design: An ADR reporting platform was established in April 2015, before which was defined as the first stage of this study (January-March, 2015) and after which the second stage. The third stage commenced in November, 2015, after adding a reporting module to physicians prescription system. ADRs could be reported simultaneously when documenting drug allergies. Methods: ADR report rates during the three stages of the study were compared. Effects of the information platform on reporting were also analyzed. Results: During the first stage, the number of ADR reports averaged 6 per month. In the second stage, the number of reports per month averaged 1.86. Introducing the information platform had little effect on the monthly number of ADR reports. The average number of reports each month during the third stage of the study was 11±3.06, with 70.43% made electronically. Reports per month increased significantly after installing the reporting module in November, 2015 (P<0.001, t-test). In the first two stages, 29.03% of ADR reports were made by physicians, as compared to 70.42% of cases in the third stage of the study. Increased physician reporting possibly account for these differences. Conclusion: Adding a reporting module to the prescription system significantly increased ADR reporting. Improved accessibility is likely the cause. The addition of similar modules to computer systems of other healthcare professions may be considered to encourage spontaneous ADR reporting.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, adverse drug reaction reporting systems, regional hospital, prescription system

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2930 Need of Medicines Information OPD in Tertiary Health Care Settings: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Swanand Pathak, Kiran R. Giri, Reena R. Giri, Kamlesh Palandurkar, Sangita Totade, Rajesh Jha, S. S. Patel

Abstract:

Background: Population burden, illiteracy, availability of few doctors for larger group of population leads to many unanswered questions left in a patient’s mind. Incomplete information results into noncompliance, therapeutic failure, and adverse drug reactions (ADR). It is very important to establish a system which will provide noncommercial, independent, unbiased source of medicine information. Medicines Info OPD is a concept and step towards safe and appropriate use of medicines. Objective: (1) to assess the present status of knowledge about the medicines in the patients and its correlation with education; (2) to assess the medicine information dispensing modalities, their use and sufficiency from the patients view point; (3) to assess the overall need for Medicines Information OPD in present scenario. Materials and Methods: A pre-validated questionnaire based study was conducted amongst 500 patients of tertiary health care hospital. The questionnaire consisted of specific questions regarding understanding of prescription, knowledge about adverse drug reaction, view about self-medication and opinion regarding the need of Medicines Info OPD. Results: Significantly large proportion of patients opined that doctors do not have sufficient time in current Indian healthcare to explain the prescription and they are not aware of adverse drug reactions, expiry date or use the package inserts etc. Conclusion: Clinically relevant, up to date, user specific, independent, objective and unbiased Medicines Info OPD is essential for appropriate drug use and can help in a big way to common public to address many problems faced by them.

Keywords: information, prescription, unbiased, clinically relevant

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2929 Methylphenidate Use by Canadian Children and Adolescents and the Associated Adverse Reactions

Authors: Ming-Dong Wang, Abigail F. Ruby, Michelle E. Ross

Abstract:

Methylphenidate is a first-line treatment drug for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common mental health disorder in children and adolescents. Over the last several decades, the rate of children and adolescents using ADHD medication has been increasing in many countries. A recent study found that the prevalence of ADHD medication use among children aged 3-18 years increased in 13 different world regions between 2001 and 2015, where the absolute increase ranged from 0.02 to 0.26% per year. The goal of this study was to examine the use of methylphenidate in Canadian children and its associated adverse reactions. Methylphenidate use information among young Canadians aged 0-14 years was extracted from IQVIA data on prescriptions dispensed by pharmacies between April 2014 and June 2020. The adverse reaction information associated with methylphenidate use was extracted from the Canada Vigilance database for the same time period. Methylphenidate use trends were analyzed based on sex, age group (0-4 years, 5-9 years, and 10-14 years), and geographical location (province). The common classes of adverse reactions associated with methylphenidate use were sorted, and the relative risks associated with methylphenidate use as compared with two second-line amphetamine medications for ADHD were estimated. This study revealed that among Canadians aged 0-14 years, every 100 people used about 25 prescriptions (or 23,000 mg) of methylphenidate per year during the study period, and the use increased with time. Boys used almost three times more methylphenidate than girls. The amount of drug used was inversely associated with age: Canadians aged 10-14 years used nearly three times as many drugs compared to those aged 5-9 years. Seasonal methylphenidate use patterns were apparent among young Canadians, but the seasonal trends differed among the three age groups. Methylphenidate use varied from region to region, and the highest methylphenidate use was observed in Quebec, where the use of methylphenidate was at least double that of any other province. During the study period, Health Canada received 304 adverse reaction reports associated with the use of methylphenidate for Canadians aged 0-14 years. The number of adverse reaction reports received for boys was 3.5 times higher than that for girls. The three most common adverse reaction classes were psychiatric disorders, nervous system disorders and injury, poisoning procedural complications. The number one commonly reported adverse reaction for boys was aggression (11.2%), while for girls, it was a tremor (9.6%). The safety profile in terms of adverse reaction classes associated with methylphenidate use was similar to that of the selected control products. Methylphenidate is a commonly used pharmaceutical product in young Canadians, particularly in the province of Quebec. Boys used approximately three times more of this product as compared to girls. Future investigation is needed to determine what factors are associated with the observed geographic variations in Canada.

Keywords: adverse reaction risk, methylphenidate, prescription trend, use variation

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2928 Genetics of Pharmacokinetic Drug-Drug Interactions of Most Commonly Used Drug Combinations in the UK: Uncovering Unrecognised Associations

Authors: Mustafa Malki, Ewan R. Pearson

Abstract:

Tools utilized by health care practitioners to flag potential adverse drug reactions secondary to drug-drug interactions ignore individual genetic variation, which has the potential to markedly alter the severity of these interactions. To our best knowledge, there have been limited published studies on the impact of genetic variation on drug-drug interactions. Therefore, our aim in this project is the discovery of previously unrecognized, clinically important drug-drug-gene interactions (DDGIs) within the list of most commonly used drug combinations in the UK. The UKBB database was utilized to identify the top most frequently prescribed drug combinations in the UK with at least one route of interaction (over than 200 combinations were identified). We have recognised 37 common and unique interacting genes considering all of our drug combinations. Out of around 600 potential genetic variants found in these 37 genes, 100 variants have met the selection criteria (common variant with minor allele frequency ≥ 5%, independence, and has passed HWE test). The association between these variants and the use of each of our top drug combinations has been tested with a case-control analysis under the log-additive model. As the data is cross-sectional, drug intolerance has been identified from the genotype distribution as presented by the lower percentage of patients carrying the risky allele and on the drug combination compared to those free of these risk factors and vice versa with drug tolerance. In GoDARTs database, the same list of common drug combinations identified by the UKBB was utilized here with the same list of candidate genetic variants but with the addition of 14 new SNPs so that we have a total of 114 variants which have met the selection criteria in GoDARTs. From the list of the top 200 drug combinations, we have selected 28 combinations where the two drugs in each combination are known to be used chronically. For each of our 28 combinations, three drug response phenotypes have been identified (drug stop/switch, dose decrease, or dose increase of any of the two drugs during their interaction). The association between each of the three phenotypes belonging to each of our 28 drug combinations has been tested against our 114 candidate genetic variants. The results show replication of four findings between both databases : (1) Omeprazole +Amitriptyline +rs2246709 (A > G) variant in CYP3A4 gene (p-values and ORs with the UKBB and GoDARTs respectively = 0.048,0.037,0.92,and 0.52 (dose increase phenotype)) (2) Simvastatin + Ranitidine + rs9332197 (T > C) variant in CYP2C9 gene (0.024,0.032,0.81, and 5.75 (drug stop/switch phenotype)) (3) Atorvastatin + Doxazosin + rs9282564 (T > C) variant in ABCB1 gene (0.0015,0.0095,1.58,and 3.14 (drug stop/switch phenotype)) (4) Simvastatin + Nifedipine + rs2257401 (C > G) variant in CYP3A7 gene (0.025,0.019,0.77,and 0.30 (drug stop/switch phenotype)). In addition, some other non-replicated, but interesting, significant findings were detected. Our work also provides a great source of information for researchers interested in DD, DG, or DDG interactions studies as it has highlighted the top common drug combinations in the UK with recognizing 114 significant genetic variants related to drugs' pharmacokinetic.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, common drug combinations, drug-drug-gene interactions, pharmacogenomics

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2927 Detection of Important Biological Elements in Drug-Drug Interaction Occurrence

Authors: Reza Ferdousi, Reza Safdari, Yadollah Omidi

Abstract:

Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are main cause of the adverse drug reactions and nature of the functional and molecular complexity of drugs behavior in human body make them hard to prevent and treat. With the aid of new technologies derived from mathematical and computational science the DDIs problems can be addressed with minimum cost and efforts. Market basket analysis is known as powerful method to identify co-occurrence of thing to discover patterns and frequency of the elements. In this research, we used market basket analysis to identify important bio-elements in DDIs occurrence. For this, we collected all known DDIs from DrugBank. The obtained data were analyzed by market basket analysis method. We investigated all drug-enzyme, drug-carrier, drug-transporter and drug-target associations. To determine the importance of the extracted bio-elements, extracted rules were evaluated in terms of confidence and support. Market basket analysis of the over 45,000 known DDIs reveals more than 300 important rules that can be used to identify DDIs, CYP 450 family were the most frequent shared bio-elements. We applied extracted rules over 2,000,000 unknown drug pairs that lead to discovery of more than 200,000 potential DDIs. Analysis of the underlying reason behind the DDI phenomena can help to predict and prevent DDI occurrence. Ranking of the extracted rules based on strangeness of them can be a supportive tool to predict the outcome of an unknown DDI.

Keywords: drug-drug interaction, market basket analysis, rule discovery, important bio-elements

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2926 Adverse Drug Reactions Monitoring in the Northern Region of Zambia

Authors: Ponshano Kaselekela, Simooya O. Oscar, Lunshano Boyd

Abstract:

The Copperbelt University Health Services (CBUHS) was designated by the Zambia Medicines Regulatory Authority (ZAMRA), formally the Pharmaceutical Regulatory Authority (PRA) as a regional pharmacovigilance centre to carryout activities of drug safety monitoring in four provinces in Zambia. CBUHS’s mandate included stimulating the reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), as well as collecting and collating ADR reports from health institutions in the four provinces. This report covers the researchers’ experiences from May 2008 to September, 2016. The main objectives are 1) to monitor ADRs in the Zambian population, 2) to disseminate information to all health professionals in the region advising that the CBU health was a centre for reporting ADRs in the region, 3) to monitor polypharmacy as well as the benefit-risk profile of medicines, 4) to generate independent, evidence based recommendations on the safety of medicines, 5) to support ZAMRA in formulating safety related regulatory decisions for medicines, and 6) to communicate findings with all key stakeholders. The methodology involved monthly visits, beginning in early May 2008 to September, 2016, by the CBUHS to health institutions in the programme areas. Activities included holding discussions with health workers, distribution of ADR forms and collection of ADRs reports. These reports, once collected, were documented and assessed at the CBUHS. A report was then prepared for ZAMRA on quarterly basis. At ZAMRA, serious ADRs were noted and recommendations made to the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Zambia. The results show that 2,600 ADRs reports were received at the pharmacovigilance regional centre. Most of the ADRs reports that received were due to antiretroviral drugs, as well as a few from anti-malarial drugs like Artemether/Lumefantrine – Coartem®. Three hundred and twelve ADRs were entered in the Uppsala Monitoring Centre WHO Vigiflow for further analysis. It was concluded that in general, 2008-16 were exciting years for the pharmacovigilance group at CBUHS. From a very tentative beginning, a lot of strides were made and contacts established with healthcare facilities in the region. The researchers were encouraged by the support received from the Copperbelt University management, the motivation provided by ZAMRA and most importantly the enthusiasm of health workers in all the health care facilities visited. As a centre for drug safety in Zambia, the results show it achieves its objectives for monitoring ADRs, Pharmacovigilance (drug safety monitoring), and activities of monitoring ADRs as well as preventing them. However, the centre faces critical challenges caused by erratic funding that prevents the smooth running of the programme.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, drug safety, monitoring, pharmacovigilance

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2925 Assessment of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Health Care Professionals and Factors Associated with Adverse Drug Reaction Reporting in Public and Private Hospitals of Islamabad

Authors: Zaka Nisa, Farooq Sher

Abstract:

Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) underreporting is a great challenge to Pharmacovigilance. Health care professionals have to consider ADR reporting as their professional obligation, an effective system of ADR reporting is important to improve patient health care and safety. The present study is designed to assess the knowledge, attitude, practice and factors associated with ADR reporting by health care professionals (physicians and pharmacists) in public and private hospitals of Pakistan. A pretested questionnaire was administered to 384 physicians and pharmacists in public and private hospitals. Respondents were evaluated for their knowledge, attitude, and practice related to ADR reporting. The data was analyzed using the SPSS statistical software, the factors which encourage and discourage respondents in reporting ADRs were determined. Most of the respondents have shown a positive attitude towards ADR reporting. The response rate was 95.32%. Of the 367 questionnaires, including 333 (86.5%) physicians and 34 (8.8%) pharmacists with the mean age 28.34 (SD= 6.69), most of the respondents showed poor ADR reporting knowledge (83.1%). The majority of respondents (78.2%) showed positive attitude towards ADR reporting and only (12.3%) hospitals have good ADR reporting practice. Knowledge of respondents in public hospitals (8.6%) was less as compare to those in the private hospitals (29.7%) (P < 0.001). Attitude of respondents in private hospitals was more positive (92.4%) than those in public hospitals (68.8%) (P < 0.001). No significant difference was observed in practicing of ADR reporting in public (11.8%) and private hospitals (13.1%) (P value 0.89). Seriousness of ADR, unusualness of reaction, new drug involvement and confidence in diagnosis of ADR were the factors which encourage respondents to report ADR, however, lack of knowledge regarding where and how to report ADR, lack of access to ADR reporting form, managing patients was more important than reporting ADR, legal liability issues were the factors which discourage respondents to report ADR. The study reveals poor knowledge and practice regarding ADR reporting. However positive attitude was seen regarding ADR reporting. There is a need of educational training for health care professionals as well as genuine and continuous efforts are required by Government and health authorities to ensure the proper implementation of ADR reporting system in all of the hospitals.

Keywords: adverse drugs reactions (ADR), pharmacovigilance, spontaneous ADR reporting, knowledge of ADR, attitude of health care profesionals, practice of ADR reporting

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2924 Safety Profile of Anti-Retroviral Medicine in South Africa Based on Reported Adverse Drug Reactions

Authors: Sarah Gounden, Mukesh Dheda, Boikhutso Tlou, Elizabeth Ojewole, Frasia Oosthuizen

Abstract:

Background: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been effective in the reduction of mortality and resulted in an improvement in the prognosis of HIV-infected patients. However, treatment with antiretrovirals (ARVs) has led to the development of many adverse drug reactions (ADRs). It is, therefore, necessary to determine the safety profile of these medicines in a South African population in order to ensure safe and optimal medicine use. Objectives: The aim of this study was to quantify ADRs experienced with the different ARVs currently used in South Africa, to determine the safety profile of ARV medicine in South Africa based on reported ADRs, and to determine the ARVs with the lowest risk profile based on specific patient populations. Methodology: This was a quantitative study. Individual case safety reports for the period January 2010 – December 2013 were obtained from the National Pharmacovigilance Center; these reports contained information on ADRs, ARV medicine, and patient demographics. Data was analysed to find associations that may exist between ADRs experienced, ARV medicines used and patient demographics. Results: A total of 1916 patient reports were received of which 1534 met the inclusion criteria for the study. The ARV with the lowest risk of ADRs were found to be lamivudine (0.51%, n=12), followed by lopinavir/ritonavir combination (0.8%, n=19) and abacavir (0.64%, n=15). A higher incidence of ADRs was observed in females compared to males. The age group 31–50 years and the weight group 61–80 kg had the highest incidence of ADRs reported. Conclusion: This study found that the safest ARVs to be used in a South African population are lamivudine, abacavir, and the lopinavir/ritonavir combination. Gender differences play a significant role in the occurrence of ADRs and both anatomical and physiological differences account for this. An increased BMI (body mass index) in both men and women showed an increase in the incidence of ADRs associated with ARV therapy.

Keywords: adverse drug reaction, antiretrovirals, HIV/AIDS, pharmacovigilance, South Africa

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2923 Safety Profile of Three Commonly Prescribed Interleukin Inhibitors for Psoriasis Treatment: Analysis of Drug Safety Database -Vigibase

Authors: Akanksha Marwah, Kajal Kaushik, Amit Kamboj, Tarni Prakash Shrivastava

Abstract:

Monoclonal antibodies are known as biological agents targeting specific Interleukins, i.e., IL-17A, IL-17RA, IL-23, AND IL-12/23 associated with the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other chronic inflammatory disorders were comparatively analyzed using WHO VigiFlow ADR reporting database for safety evaluation globally. Spontaneous reports associated with three commonly prescribed interleukin inhibitors, namely; Secukinumab, Ustekinumab, and Brodalumab available in VigiLyze, were analyzed concerning patient demography, the profession of reporter, system organ class (SOC) affected, causality assessment, the seriousness of the adverse event and year-wise analysis of reported ADRs. According to WHO Adverse Reaction Terminology for causality assessment, only 'certain', 'probable,' or 'possible' ADRs were included. Association between drugs and any ADR was assessed by using the case/non-case methodology. The reported ICSRs are higher in numbers for Secukinumab (72926) as compared to Ustekinumab (41480) and Brodalumab (1419). A higher prevalence of ADRs was seen in females for Secukinumab (54.8%) and Ustekinumab (51.5%), while Brodalumab associated ADRs were more in males (55.5%). Out of all three drugs, Ustekinumab has caused more serious ADRs (45.0%) in patients. System organ class mostly reported for ADRs associated with all the three drugs included general disorders and administration site conditions (Avg. 35.53%), and the most reported preferred term was drug ineffective (12.0%) for all the three drugs. This study has identified the potential of the three most prescribed Interleukin inhibitors for causing specific ADRs in patients using these drugs. All these three drugs mostly cause the reaction associated with the involvement of administration sites and general disorders. surprisingly, the preferred term which was most reported for all these drugs was the drug ineffective, which indicates a failure of the drug to cause a therapeutic effect. More focused PV studies in clinical settings are needed to witness the safety profile of Secukinumab, Ustekinumab, and Brodalumab in the treatment of Psoriasis.

Keywords: adverse drug reactions, interleukins, case-non case study, poriasis

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2922 Patient-Reported Adverse Reactions to Adolescent Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Disclosures and Implications for Clinical Practice

Authors: Renee Fabian, Jordan Davidson

Abstract:

Current research on non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) provides ample insights on best practices for caregivers and clinicians to address and reduce NSSI behavior among adolescents. However, the efficacy of evidenced-based NSSI interventions and their delivery from the perspective of adolescent patients does not receive significant attention, creating a gap between the efficacy of research-based NSSI interventions and adolescent perceptions of NSSI treatment and adolescent willingness to engage in NSSI interventions. To address the gap between practice and patient perspectives and inform more effective treatment outcomes, the current survey aims to identify major patient-reported adverse reactions to NSSI disclosures from caregivers, treating mental health clinicians, and medical professionals using a mixed methods survey of 2,500 people with a history of NSSI completed by editors at a consumer-facing health publication. Based on the analyzed results of the survey, a majority of adolescents with a history of NSSI found parents and caregivers ineffective at empathetically addressing NSSI, and a significant number of participants reported at least one treating mental health professional inadequately responded to NSSI behaviors, in addition to other findings of adverse reactions to NSSI disclosures that serve as a barrier to treatment. NSSI is a significant risk factor for future suicide attempts. Addressing patient-reported adverse reactions to NSSI disclosures in the adolescent population can remove barriers to the effectiveness of caregiver and clinician NSSI interventions and reduce the risk of NSSI-related harm and lower the risk of future suicide attempts or completions.

Keywords: adolescent self-injury, non-suicidal self-injury, patient perspectives, self-harm interventions

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2921 Inappropriate Prescribing Defined by START and STOPP Criteria and Its Association with Adverse Drug Events among Older Hospitalized Patients

Authors: Mohd Taufiq bin Azmy, Yahaya Hassan, Shubashini Gnanasan, Loganathan Fahrni

Abstract:

Inappropriate prescribing in older patients has been associated with resource utilization and adverse drug events (ADE) such as hospitalization, morbidity and mortality. Globally, there is a lack of published data on ADE induced by inappropriate prescribing. Our study is specific to an older population and is aimed at identifying risk factors for ADE and to develop a model that will link ADE to inappropriate prescribing. The design of the study was prospective whereby computerized medical records of 302 hospitalized elderly aged 65 years and above in 3 public hospitals in Malaysia (Hospital Serdang, Hospital Selayang and Hospital Sungai Buloh) were studied over a 7 month period from September 2013 until March 2014. Potentially inappropriate medications and potential prescribing omissions were determined using the published and validated START-STOPP criteria. Patients who had at least one inappropriate medication were included in Phase II of the study where ADE were identified by local expert consensus panel based on the published and validated Naranjo ADR probability scale. The panel also assessed whether ADE were causal or contributory to current hospitalization. The association between inappropriate prescribing and ADE (hospitalization, mortality and adverse drug reactions) was determined by identifying whether or not the former was causal or contributory to the latter. Rate of ADE avoidability was also determined. Our findings revealed that the prevalence of potential inappropriate prescribing was 58.6%. A total of ADEs were detected in 31 of 105 patients (29.5%) when STOPP criteria were used to identify potentially inappropriate medication; All of the 31 ADE (100%) were considered causal or contributory to admission. Of the 31 ADEs, 28 (90.3%) were considered avoidable or potentially avoidable. After adjusting for age, sex, comorbidity, dementia, baseline activities of daily living function, and number of medications, the likelihood of a serious avoidable ADE increased significantly when a potentially inappropriate medication was prescribed (odds ratio, 11.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.014 - 24.93; p < .001). The medications identified by STOPP criteria, are significantly associated with avoidable ADE in older people that cause or contribute to urgent hospitalization but contributed less towards morbidity and mortality. Findings of the study underscore the importance of preventing inappropriate prescribing.

Keywords: adverse drug events, appropriate prescribing, health services research

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2920 Using Group Concept Mapping to Identify a Pharmacy-Based Trigger Tool to Detect Adverse Drug Events

Authors: Rodchares Hanrinth, Theerapong Srisil, Peeraya Sriphong, Pawich Paktipat

Abstract:

The trigger tool is the low-cost, low-tech method to detect adverse events through clues called triggers. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) has developed the Global Trigger Tool for measuring and preventing adverse events. However, this tool is not specific for detecting adverse drug events. The pharmacy-based trigger tool is needed to detect adverse drug events (ADEs). Group concept mapping is an effective method for conceptualizing various ideas from diverse stakeholders. This technique was used to identify a pharmacy-based trigger to detect adverse drug events (ADEs). The aim of this study was to involve the pharmacists in conceptualizing, developing, and prioritizing a feasible trigger tool to detect adverse drug events in a provincial hospital, the northeastern part of Thailand. The study was conducted during the 6-month period between April 1 and September 30, 2017. Study participants involved 20 pharmacists (17 hospital pharmacists and 3 pharmacy lecturers) engaging in three concept mapping workshops. In this meeting, the concept mapping technique created by Trochim, a highly constructed qualitative group technic for idea generating and sharing, was used to produce and construct participants' views on what triggers were potential to detect ADEs. During the workshops, participants (n = 20) were asked to individually rate the feasibility and potentiality of each trigger and to group them into relevant categories to enable multidimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analysis. The outputs of analysis included the trigger list, cluster list, point map, point rating map, cluster map, and cluster rating map. The three workshops together resulted in 21 different triggers that were structured in a framework forming 5 clusters: drug allergy, drugs induced diseases, dosage adjustment in renal diseases, potassium concerning, and drug overdose. The first cluster is drug allergy such as the doctor’s orders for dexamethasone injection combined with chlorpheniramine injection. Later, the diagnosis of drug-induced hepatitis in a patient taking anti-tuberculosis drugs is one trigger in the ‘drugs induced diseases’ cluster. Then, for the third cluster, the doctor’s orders for enalapril combined with ibuprofen in a patient with chronic kidney disease is the example of a trigger. The doctor’s orders for digoxin in a patient with hypokalemia is a trigger in a cluster. Finally, the doctor’s orders for naloxone with narcotic overdose was classified as a trigger in a cluster. This study generated triggers that are similar to some of IHI Global trigger tool, especially in the medication module such as drug allergy and drug overdose. However, there are some specific aspects of this tool, including drug-induced diseases, dosage adjustment in renal diseases, and potassium concerning which do not contain in any trigger tools. The pharmacy-based trigger tool is suitable for pharmacists in hospitals to detect potential adverse drug events using clues of triggers.

Keywords: adverse drug events, concept mapping, hospital, pharmacy-based trigger tool

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2919 Malaria Management among Dispensers in Drug Retail Outlets in Buea Community: An Assessment of Knowledge of Malaria and Antimalarial Drug Prescription and Dispensing Practices

Authors: Marcelus U. Ajonina, Deodata B. Ngonga, Kenric B. Ware, Carine K. Nfor

Abstract:

Background: Lack of knowledge of rational use of antimalarial drugs among dispensers is a serious problem, especially in areas of intense transmission, thus increasing the risk of resistance and adverse drug reactions. This study was aimed at assessing the knowledge of malaria as well as perception and dispensing practices of antimalarials among vendors in Buea community. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 140 drug vendors living within the Buea community was conducted between March and June 2017. A questionnaire was designed to obtain information from drug vendors on the general knowledge of malaria as well as dispensing practices. Data were analyzed using SPSS Statistics 20.0 and were considered significant at p ≤ 0.05. Results: Knowledge of malaria symptoms, transmission, and prevention was reasonable among 55.8% (77) of the respondents. Only 33.6% (47) of the respondents could attribute the cause of malaria to protozoan of genus Plasmodium species. Of the 140 vendors, 115 (82.7%) prescribe antimalarial drugs. The knowledge of the national protocol was malaria case management among dispensers was 35.0%. Vendors in hospital/community pharmacies were 2.4 times (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 4.14 - 8.74, p < 0.001) more knowledgeable about malaria treatment protocol than those of in drugstores. The prevalence of self-prescription of antimalarials was 39.3%. Self-prescription was significantly higher in drugstores than hospital/community pharmacies (p=0.004). In all, 56 (40.6%) of vendors showed good practices regarding antimalarial drug dispensing with the majority (51.7%) from community pharmacies (OR=2.27,95% CI: 1.13-4.56). Conclusion: Findings reveal moderate knowledge of malaria but poor prescription and dispensing practices of antimalarial drugs among vendors, thus indicating a need for routine monitoring and evaluation to prevent the emergence of resistant strains to current efficacious antimalarials.

Keywords: antimalarials, drug retail outlets, dispensing, drug resistance, prescription

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2918 A Significant Clinical Role for the Capitalbio™ DNA Microarray in the Diagnosis of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis in Patients with Tuberculous Spondylitis Simultaneous with Pulmonary Tuberculosis in High Prevalence Settings in China

Authors: Wenjie Wu, Peng Cheng, Zehua Zhang, Fei Luo, Feng Wu, Min Zhong, Jianzhong Xu

Abstract:

Background: There has been limited research into the therapeutic efficacy of rapid diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis. We attempted to discover whether the utilization of a DNA microarray assay to detect multidrug-resistant spinal tuberculosis complicated with pulmonary tuberculosis can improve clinical outcomes. Methods: A prospective study was conducted from February 2006 to September 2015. One hundred and forty-three consecutive culture–confirmed, clinically and imaging diagnosed MDR-TB patients with spinal tuberculosis complicated by pulmonary tuberculosis were enrolled into the study. The initial time to treatment for MDR-TB, the method of infection control, radiological indicators of spinal tubercular infectious foci, culture conversion, and adverse drug reactions were compared with the standard culture methods. Results: Of the total of 143 MDR-TB patients, 68 (47.6%) were diagnosed by conventional culture methods and 75 (52.4%) following the implementation of detection using the DNA microarray. Patients in the microarray group began rational use of the second-line drugs schedule more speedily than sufferers in the culture group (17.3 vs. 74.1 days). Among patients were admitted to a general tuberculosis ward, those from the microarray group spent less time in the ward than those from the culture group (7.8 vs. 49.2 days). In those patients with six months follow-up (n=134), patients in the microarray group had a higher rate of sputum negativity conversion at six months (89% vs. 73%). In the microarray group, the rate of drug adverse reactions was significantly lower (22.2% vs. 67.7%). At the same time, they had a more obvious reduction of the area with spinal tuberculous lesions in radiological examinations (77% vs. 108%). Conclusions: The application of the CapitalBio™ DNA Microarray assay caused noteworthy clinical advances including an earlier time to begin MDR-TB treatment, increased sputum culture conversion, improved infection control measures and better radiographical results

Keywords: tuberculosis, multidrug-resistant, tuberculous spondylitis, DNA microarray, clinical outcomes

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2917 Cannabis for the Treatment of Drug Resistant Epilepsy in Children

Authors: Sarah E. Casey

Abstract:

Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in children and approximately one-third of children with epilepsy have seizures that are uncontrolled on anticonvulsants alone. Cannabidiol is shown to be an effective treatment at reducing the amount of breakthrough seizures experienced by children with drug resistant epilepsy. Improvements in quality of life and overall condition were noted during cannabidiol treatment. Adverse side effects were experienced and were generally mild to moderate in nature. Additional double-blind, controlled studies with a more diverse sample population and standardized dosing are needed to ensure the efficacy and safety of cannabidiol use in children with drug resistant epilepsy.

Keywords: cannabis, drug resistant epilepsy, children, epilepsy

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2916 Important role of HLA-B*58:01 Allele and Distribution Among Healthy Thais: Avoid Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions

Authors: Jaomai Tungsiripat, Patompong Satapornpong

Abstract:

Allopurinol have been used to treat diseases that relating with the reduction of uric acid and be a treatment preventing the severity of, including gout, chronic kidney disease, chronic heart failure, and diabetes mellitus (type 2). However, allopurinol metabolites can cause a severe cutaneous adverse reaction (SCARs) consist of Drug Rash with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) and Stevens-Johnson Syndrome(SJS)/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN). Previous studies, we found only HLA-B*58:01 allele has a strongly association with allopurinol-induced SCARs in many populations: Han Chinese [P value = 4.7 x 10−24], European [P value <10−6], and Thai [P value <0.001].However, there was no update the frequency of HLA-B alleles and pharmacogenetics markers distribution in healthy Thais and support for screening before the initiation of treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HLA-B*58:01 allele associated with allopurinol-induced SCARs in healthy Thai population. A retrospective study of 260 individual healthy subjects who living in Thailand. HLA-B were genotyped using sequence-specific oligonucleotides (PCR-SSOs).In this study, we identified the prevalence of HLA-B alleles consist ofHLA-B*46:01 (12.69%), HLA-B*15:02 (8.85%), HLA-B*13:01 (6.35%), HLA-B*40:01 (6.35%), HLA-B*38:02 (5.00%), HLA-B*51:01 (5.00%), HLA-B*58:01 (4.81%), HLA-B*44:03 (4.62%), HLA-B*18:01 (3.85%) and HLA-B*15:25 (3.08%). Therefore, the distribution of HLA-B*58:01 will support the clinical implementation and screening usage of allopurinol in Thai population.

Keywords: allopurinol, HLA-B*58: 01, Thai population, SCARs

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2915 A Photoredox (C)sp³-(C)sp² Coupling Method Comparison Study

Authors: Shasline Gedeon, Tiffany W. Ardley, Ying Wang, Nathan J. Gesmundo, Katarina A. Sarris, Ana L. Aguirre

Abstract:

Drug discovery and delivery involve drug targeting, an approach that helps find a drug against a chosen target through high throughput screening and other methods by way of identifying the physical properties of the potential lead compound. Physical properties of potential drug candidates have been an imperative focus since the unveiling of Lipinski's Rule of 5 for oral drugs. Throughout a compound's journey from discovery, clinical phase trials, then becoming a classified drug on the market, the desirable properties are optimized while minimizing/eliminating toxicity and undesirable properties. In the pharmaceutical industry, the ability to generate molecules in parallel with maximum efficiency is a substantial factor achieved through sp²-sp² carbon coupling reactions, e.g., Suzuki Coupling reactions. These reaction types allow for the increase of aromatic fragments onto a compound. More recent literature has found benefits to decreasing aromaticity, calling for more sp³-sp² carbon coupling reactions instead. The objective of this project is to provide a comparison between various sp³-sp² carbon coupling methods and reaction conditions, collecting data on production of the desired product. There were four different coupling methods being tested amongst three cores and 4-5 installation groups per method; each method ran under three distinct reaction conditions. The tested methods include the Photoredox Decarboxylative Coupling, the Photoredox Potassium Alkyl Trifluoroborate (BF3K) Coupling, the Photoredox Cross-Electrophile (PCE) Coupling, and the Weix Cross-Electrophile (WCE) Coupling. The results concluded that the Decarboxylative method was very difficult in yielding product despite the several literature conditions chosen. The BF3K and PCE methods produced competitive results. Amongst the two Cross-Electrophile coupling methods, the Photoredox method surpassed the Weix method on numerous accounts. The results will be used to build future libraries.

Keywords: drug discovery, high throughput chemistry, photoredox chemistry, sp³-sp² carbon coupling methods

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2914 Effect on Tolerability and Adverse Events in Participants Receiving Naltrexone/Bupropion and Antidepressant Medication, Including SSRIs, in a Large Randomized Double-Blind Study

Authors: Kye Gilder, Kevin Shan, Amy Halseth, Steve Smith

Abstract:

This study assessed the effect of prolonged-release naltrexone 32 mg/bupropion 360 mg (NB) on cardiovascular (CV) events in overweight/obese participants at elevated CV risk. Participants must lose ≥2% body weight at 16 wks, without a sustained increase in blood pressure, to continue drug. Only serious adverse events (SAE) and adverse events leading to discontinuation of study drug (AELDSD) were collected. The study was terminated early after second interim analysis with 50% of all CV events. Data on CV endpoints has been published. Current analyses focused on AEs in participants on antidepressants at baseline, as these individuals were excluded from Phase 3 trials. Intent-to-treat (ITT) population (placebo [PBO] N=4450, NB N=4455) was 54.5% female, 83.5% white, mean age of 61 yrs, mean BMI 37.3 kg/m2, 22.8% with a history of depression, 23.1% on antidepressants, including 15.4% on an SSRI. SAEs in participants receiving antidepressants was similar between NB (10.7%) and PBO (9.9%) and also similar to overall population (9.5% NB, 8.1% PBO). SAEs in those on SSRIs were similar, 10.1% NB and PBO 9.4%. For those on SSRIs or other antidepressants, AELDSDs were similar to overall population and were primarily GI disorders. Obesity increases the risk of developing depression. For participants taking NB and antidepressants, including SSRIs, there is a similar AE profile as the overall population and data revealed no evidence of an additional health risk with combined use.

Keywords: antidepressant, Contrave, Mysimba, obesity, pharmacotherapy

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