Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 112

Search results for: electrospinning

112 Determining the Electrospinning Parameters of Poly(ε-Caprolactone)

Authors: M. Kagan Keler, Sibel Daglilar, Isil Kerti, Oguzhan Gunduz


Electrospinning is a versatile way to occur fibers at nano-scale and polycaprolactone is a biomedical material which has a wide usage in cartilage defects and tissue regeneration. PCL is biocompatible and durable material which can be used in bio-implants. Therefore, electrospinning process was chosen as a fabrication method to get PCL fibers in an effective way because of its significant adjustments. In this research study, electrospinning parameters was evaluated during the producing of polymer tissue scaffolds. Polycaprolactone’s molecular weight was 80.000 Da and was employed as a tissue material in the electrospinning process. PCL was decomposed in dimethylformamid(DMF) and chloroform(CF) with the weight ratio of 1:1. Different compositions (1%, 3%, 5%, 10% and 20 %) of PCL was prepared in the laboratory conditions. All solvents with different percentages of PCL have been taken into the syringe and loaded into the electrospinning system. In electrospinning dozens of trial were applied to get homogeneously uniform scaffold samples. Taylor cone which is crucial point for electrospinning characteristic was occurred and changed in different voltages up to the material compositions’ conductivity. While the PCL percentages were increasing in the electrospinning, structure started to arise with droplets, which was an expressive problem for tissue scaffold. The vertical and horizontal layouts were applied to produce non-woven structures at all.

Keywords: tissue engineering, artificial scaffold, electrospinning, biocomposites

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111 Mesoporous Material Nanofibers by Electrospinning

Authors: Sh. Sohrabnezhad, A. Jafarzadeh


In this paper, MCM-41 mesoporous material nanofibers were synthesized by an electrospinning technique. The nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as a silica source and fiber forming source, respectively. TEM and SEM images showed synthesis of MCM-41 nanofibers with a diameter of 200 nm. The pore diameter and surface area of calcined MCM-41 nanofibers was 2.2 nm and 970 m2/g, respectively. The morphology of the MCM-41 nanofibers depended on spinning voltages.

Keywords: electrospinning, electron microscopy, fiber technology, porous materials, X-ray techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
110 Electro Spinning in Nanotechnology

Authors: Mahoud Alfama, Meloud Yones, Abdelbaset Zroga, Abdelati Elalem


Electrospinning has been recognized as an efficient technique for the fabrication of polymer nanofibers. Various polymers have been successfully electrospun into ultrafine fibers in recent years mostly in solvent solution and some in melt form. Potential applications based on such fibers specifically their use as reinforcement in nanocomposite development have been realized. In this paper we examine -electrospinning by providing a brief description of the theory behind the process examining the effect of changing the process parameters on fiber morphology, and discussing the potential applications and impacts of electrospinning on the field of tissue engineering.

Keywords: nanotechnology, electro spinning, reinforced materials

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109 Preparation and Characterization of Silk/Diopside Composite Nanofibers via Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Leila Ghorbanian, Iren Dabirian


This work focused on preparation and characterizations of silk fibroin (SF)/nanodiopside nanoceramic via electrospinning process. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by combined techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results confirmed that fabricated SF/diopside scaffolds improved cell attachment and proliferation. The results indicated that the electrospun of SF/nanodiopside nanofibrous scaffolds could be considered as ideal candidates for tissue engineering.

Keywords: electrospinning, nanofibers, silk fibroin, diopside, composite scaffold

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108 Fabrication and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Dissolved in Concentrated Acetic Acid

Authors: Kooshina Koosha, Sima Habibi, Azam Talebian


Electrospinning is a simple, versatile and widely accepted technique to produce ultra-fine fibers ranging from nanometer to micron. Recently there has been great interest in developing this technique to produce nanofibers with novel properties and functionalities. The electrospinning field is extremely broad, and consequently there have been many useful reviews discussing various aspects from detailed fiber formation mechanism to the formation of nanofibers and to discussion on a wide range of applications. On the other hand, the focus of this study is quite narrow, highlighting electrospinning parameters. This work will briefly cover the solution and processing parameters (for instance; concentration, solvent type, voltage, flow rate, distance between the collector and the tip of the needle) impacting the morphological characteristics of nanofibers, such as diameter. In this paper, a comprehensive work would be presented on the research of producing nanofibers from natural polymer entitled Gelatin.

Keywords: electrospinning, solution parameters, process parameters, natural fiber

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107 UV-Reactive Electrospinning: Preparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Applications of Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Keratin

Authors: Duygu Yüksel Deniz, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Mediha Süleymanoğlu


Our first aim was to synthesize Hydroxy Apatite (HAP) and then modify its surface by adding 4-Vinylbenzene boronic acid (4-VBBA). The characterization was done by FT-IR. By adding Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 4- VBBA-HAP, we obtained a suitable electrospinning solution. PVA solution which was also modified by using alkoxy silanes, in order to prevent the scaffolds from being damaged by aqueous cell medium, was added. Keratin was dissolved and then added into the electrospinning solution. Keratin containing 4-VBBA- HAP/PVA composite was used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds with the simultaneous UV-reactive electrospinning technique. The structural characterization was done by FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was also performed by using TGA. The morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. Our second aim was to create a scaffold where cells could grow. With this purpose, suitable nanofibers were choosen according to their SEM analysis. Keratin containing nanofibers were seeded with 3T3, ECV and SAOS cells and their cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were investigated by using MTT assay. After cell culturing process morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. These scaffolds were designed to be nontoxic biomaterials. Here, a comparision was made between keratin containing 3T3, ECV and SAOS seeded nanofiber scaffolds and the results were presented and discussed.

Keywords: cell culture, keratin, nanofibers, UV-reactive electrospinning

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106 Optimization of Parameters for Electrospinning of Pan Nanofibers by Taguchi Method

Authors: Gamze Karanfil Celep, Kevser Dincer


The effects of polymer concentration and electrospinning process parameters on the average diameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were experimentally investigated. Besides, mechanical and thermal properties of PAN nanofibers were examined by tensile test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. For this purpose, the polymer concentration, solution feed rate, supply voltage and tip-to-collector distance were determined as the control factors. To succeed these aims, Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal design (4 parameters, 4 level) was employed for the experimental design. Optimal electrospinning conditions were defined using the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio that was calculated from diameters of the electrospun PAN nanofibers according to "the-smaller-the-better" approachment. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was evaluated to conclude the statistical significance of the process parameters. The smallest diameter of PAN nanofibers was observed. According to the S/N ratio response results, the most effective parameter on finding out of nanofiber diameter was determined. Finally, the Taguchi design of experiments method has been found to be an effective method to statistically optimize the critical electrospinning parameters used in nanofiber production. After determining the optimum process parameters of nanofiber production, electrical conductivity and fuel cell performance of electrospun PAN nanofibers on the carbon papers will be evaluated.

Keywords: nanofiber, electrospinning, polyacrylonitrile, Taguchi method

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105 Preparation of Silicon-Based Oxide Hollow Nanofibers Using Single-Nozzle Electrospinning

Authors: Juiwen Liang, Choliang Chung


In this study, the silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure were prepared using single-nozzle electrospinning and heat treatment. Firstly, precursor solution was prepared: the Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) dissolved in ethanol and to make sure the concentration of solution in appropriate using single-nozzle electrospinning to produce the nanofibers. Secondly, control morphology of the electrostatic spinning nanofibers was conducted, and design the temperature profile to created hollow nanofibers, exploring the morphology and properties of nanofibers. The characterized of nanofibers, following instruments were used: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers, and 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of fibers. FE-SEM and TEM were used to explore the morphology and diameter of nanofibers and hollow nanofiber. The excitation and emission spectra explored by PL. Finally, XRD was used for identified crystallization of ceramic nanofibers. Using electrospinning technique followed by subsequent heat treatment, we have successfully prepared silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure. Thus, the microstructure and morphology of electrostatic spinning silicon-base oxide hollow nanofibers were explored. Major characteristics of the nanofiber in terms of crystalline, optical properties and crystal structure were identified.

Keywords: electrospinning, single-nozzle, hollow, nanofibers

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104 Highly Stretchable, Intelligent and Conductive PEDOT/PU Nanofibers Based on Electrospinning and in situ Polymerization

Authors: Kun Qi, Yuman Zhou, Jianxin He


A facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning and followed by in situ polymerization to fabricate a highly stretchable and conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Polyurethane (PEDOT/PU) nanofibrous membrane is reported. PU nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and then PEDOT was coated on the plasma modified PU nanofiber surface via in-situ polymerization to form flexible PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers with conductivity. The results show PEDOT is successfully synthesized on the surface of PU nanofiber and PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers possess skin-core structure. Furthermore, the experiments indicate the optimal technological parameters of the polymerization process are as follow: The concentration of EDOT monomers is 50 mmol/L, the polymerization time is 24 h and the temperature is 25℃. The PEDOT/PU nanofibers exhibit excellent electrical conductivity ( 27.4 S/cm). In addition, flexible sensor made from conductive PEDOT/PU nanofibers shows highly sensitive response towards tensile strain and also can be used to detect finger motion. The results demonstrate promising application of the as-obtained nanofibrous membrane in flexible wearable electronic fields.

Keywords: electrospinning, polyurethane, PEDOT, conductive nanofiber, flexible senor

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103 Parameter Study for TPU Nanofibers Fabricated via Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç


Electrospinning is the most common method to produce nanofibers. However, low production rate is still a big challenge for industrial applications of this method. In this study, morphology of nanofibers obtained from namely centrifugal spinning was investigated. Dominant process parameters acting on the fiber diameter and fiber orientation were discussed.

Keywords: centrifugal spinning, electrospinning, nanofiber, TPU nanofibers

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102 Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Doped Polymer Composites

Authors: Atilla Evcin, Bahri Ersoy, Süleyman Akpınar, I. Sinan Atlı


Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.

Keywords: electrospinning, characterization, composites, nanofiber

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101 Electrospinning in situ Synthesis of Graphene-Doped Copper Indium Disulfide Composite Nanofibers for Efficient Counter Electrode in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Lidan Wang, Shuyuan Zhao, Jianxin He


In this paper, graphene-doped copper indium disulfide (rGO+CuInS2) composite nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning, in situ synthesis, and carbonization, using polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), copper dichloride (CuCl2), indium trichloride (InCl3), thiourea (C2H5NS) and graphene oxide nanosheets (Go) as the precursor solution for electrospinning. The average diameter of rGO+CuInS2 nanofibers were about 100 nm, and graphene nanosheets anchored with chalcopyrite CuInS2 nanocrystals 8-15 nm in diameter were overlapped and embedded, aligning along the fiber axial direction. The DSSC with a rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode exhibits a power conversion efficiency of 5.93%; better than the corresponding values for a DSSC with a CuInS2 counter electrode, and comparable to that of a reference DSSC with a Pt counter electrode. The excellent photoelectric performance of the rGO+CuInS2 counter electrode was attributed to its high specific surface area, which facilitated permeation of the liquid electrolytes, promoted electron and ion transfer and provided numerous catalytically active sites for the oxidation reaction of the electrolytic (I- /I3-).

Keywords: dye-sensitized solar cells, counter electrode, electrospinning, graphene

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100 Preparation Non-Woven Nanofiber Structures for Uniform and Rapid Drug Releasing Applications Using an Electrospinning Process

Authors: Cho-Liang Chung


Uniform and rapid drug release are important for trauma dressing application. Low glass transition polymer system and non-woven nanofiber structures as the designs conduct rapid-release characteristics. In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polysulfone, and polystyrene were dissolved in dimethylformamide to form precursor solution. These solutions were blended with vitamin C to form the electrospinning solutions. The non-woven nanofibers structures were successfully prepared using an electrospinning process. The following instruments were used to analyze the characteristics of non-woven nanofibers structures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers. 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of nanofibers. FE-SEM was used to explore the morphology of non-woven structures. XRD was used to identify crystal structures in the non-woven structures. The evolution of morphology of non-woven structures was changed dramatically in different durations, because of the moisture absorption and decreasing glass transition temperature; the non-woven nanofiber structures can be applied to uniform and rapid drug release for trauma dressing application.

Keywords: nanofibers, non-woven, electrospinning process, rapid drug releasing

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99 Electrospinning and Characterization of Silk Fibroin/Gelatin Nanofibre Mats

Authors: S. Mohammadzadehmoghadam, Y. Dong


In this study, Bombyx mori silk fibroin/gelatin (SF/GT) nanocomposite with different GT ratio (SF/GT 100/0, 90/10 and 70/30) were prepared by electrospinning process and crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (GA) vapor. Properties of crosslinked SF/GT nanocomposites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), mechanical test, water uptake capacity (WUC) and porosity. From SEM images, it was found that fiber diameter increased as GT content increased. The results of mechanical test indicated that the SF/GT 70/30 nanocomposites had both the highest Young’s modulus of 342 MPa and the highest tensile strength of about 14 MPa. However, porosity and WUC decreased from 62% and 405% for pristine SF to 47% and 232% for SF/GT 70/30, respectively. This behavior can be related to higher degree of crosslinking as GT ratio increased which altered the structure and physical properties of scaffolds. This study showed that incorporation of GT into SF nanofibers can enhance mechanical properties of resultant nanocomposite, but the GA treatment should be optimized to control and fine-tune other properties to warrant their biomedical application.

Keywords: electrospinning, gelatin, silk fibroin, mechanical properties, nanocomposites

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98 Morphological and Electrical Characterization of Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers Synthesized Using Electrospinning Method for Electrical Application

Authors: Divyanka Sontakke, Arpit Thakre, D. K Shinde, Sujata Parmeshwaran


Electrospinning is the most widely utilized method to create nanofibers because of the direct setup, the capacity to mass-deliver consistent nanofibers from different polymers, and the ability to produce ultrathin fibers with controllable diameters. Smooth and much arranged ultrafine Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with diameters going from submicron to nanometer were delivered utilizing Electrospinning technique. PAN powder was used as a precursor to prepare the solution utilized as a part of this process. At the point when the electrostatic repulsion contradicted surface tension, a charged stream of polymer solution was shot out from the head of the spinneret and along these lines ultrathin nonwoven fibers were created. The effect of electrospinning parameter such as applied voltage, feed rate, concentration of polymer solution and tip to collector distance on the morphology of electrospun PAN nanofibers were investigated. The nanofibers were heat treated for carbonization to examine the changes in properties and composition to make for electrical application. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed before and after carbonization to study electrical conductivity and morphological characterization. The SEM images have shown the uniform fiber diameter and no beads formation. The average diameter of the PAN fiber observed 365nm and 280nm for flat plat and rotating drum collector respectively. The four probe strategy was utilized to inspect the electrical conductivity of the nanofibers and the electrical conductivity is significantly improved with increase in oxidation temperature exposed.

Keywords: electrospinning, polyacrylonitrile carbon nanofibres, heat treatment, electrical conductivity

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97 Preparation and Modeling Carbon Nanofibers as an Adsorbent to Protect the Environment

Authors: Maryam Ziaei, Saeedeh Rafiei, Leila Mivehi, Akbar Khodaparast Haghi


Carbon nanofibers possess properties that are rarely present in any other types of carbon adsorbents, including a small cross-sectional area, combined with a multitude of slit shaped nanopores that are suitable for adsorption of certain types of molecules. Because of their unique properties these materials can be used for the selective adsorption of organic molecules. On the other hand, activated carbon fiber (ACF) has been widely applied as an effective adsorbent for micro-pollutants in recent years. ACF effectively adsorbs and removes a full spectrum of harmful substances. Although there are various methods of fabricating carbon nanofibres, electrospinning is perhaps the most versatile procedure. This technique has been given great attention in current decades because of the nearly simple, comfortable and low cost. Spinning process control and achieve optimal conditions is important in order to effect on its physical properties, absorbency and versatility with different industrial purposes. Modeling and simulation are suitable methods to obtain this approach. In this paper, activated carbon nanofibers were produced during electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile solution. Stabilization, carbonization and activation of electrospun nanofibers in optimized conditions were achieved, and mathematical modelling of electrosinning process done by focusing on governing equations of electrified fluid jet motion (using FeniCS software). Experimental and theoretical results will be compared with each other in order to estimate the accuracy of the model. The simulation can provide the possibility of predicting essential parameters, which affect the electrospinning process.

Keywords: carbon nanofibers, electrospinning, electrospinning modeling, simulation

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96 Fabrication of Titania and Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning Process

Authors: R. F. Louh, Cathy Chou, Victor Wang, Howard Yan


The aim of this study is to manufacture titania and reduced graphene oxide (TiO2/rGO) composite nanofibers via electrospinning (ESP) of precursor fluid consisted of titania sol containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) and GO solution. The GO nanoparticles were derived from Hummers’ method. A metal grid ring was used to provide the bias voltage to reach higher ESP yield and nonwoven fabric with dense network of TiO2/GO composite nanofibers. The ESP product was heat treated at 500°C for 2 h in nitrogen atmosphere to acquire TiO2/rGO nanofibers by thermal reduction of GO and phase transformation into anatase TiO2. The TiO2/rGO nanofibers made from various volume fractions of GO solution by ESP were analyzed by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, BET and FTIR. Such TiO2/rGO fibers having photocatalytic property, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity can be used for photovoltaics and chemical sensing applications.

Keywords: electrospinning process, titanium oxide, thermally reduced graphene oxide, composite nanofibers

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95 Development of Electrospun Porous Carbon Fibers from Cellulose/Polyacrylonitrile Blend

Authors: Zubair Khaliq, M. Bilal Qadir, Amir Shahzad, Zulfiqar Ali, Ahsan Nazir, Ali Afzal, Abdul Jabbar


Carbon fibers are one of the most demanding materials on earth due to their potential application in energy, high strength materials, and conductive materials. The nanostructure of carbon fibers offers enhanced properties of conductivity due to the larger surface area. The next generation carbon nanofibers demand the porous structure as it offers more surface area. Multiple techniques are used to produce carbon fibers. However, electrospinning followed by carbonization of the polymeric materials is easy to carry process on a laboratory scale. Also, it offers multiple diversity of changing parameters to acquire the desired properties of carbon fibers. Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) is the most used material for the production of carbon fibers due to its promising processing parameters. Also, cellulose is one of the highest yield producers of carbon fibers. However, the electrospinning of cellulosic materials is difficult due to its rigid chain structure. The combination of PAN and cellulose can offer a suitable solution for the production of carbon fibers. Both materials are miscible in the mixed solvent of N, N, Dimethylacetamide and lithium chloride. This study focuses on the production of porous carbon fibers as a function of PAN/Cellulose blend ratio, solution properties, and electrospinning parameters. These single polymer and blend with different ratios were electrospun to give fine fibers. The higher amount of cellulose offered more difficulty in electrospinning of nanofibers. After carbonization, the carbon fibers were studied in terms of their blend ratio, surface area, and texture. Cellulose contents offered the porous structure of carbon fibers. Also, the presence of LiCl contributed to the porous structure of carbon fibers.

Keywords: cellulose, polyacrylonitrile, carbon nanofibers, electrospinning, blend

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94 Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants Using Strontium Titanate Synthesized by Electrospinning Method

Authors: Hui-Hsin Huang, Yi-Feng Lin, Che-Chia Hu


To date, photocatalytic wastewater treatment using solar energy has attracted considerable attention. In this study, strontium titanates with various morphologies, i.e., nanofibers and cubic-like particles, were prepared as photocatalysts using the electrospinning (ES), solid-state (SS), and sol-gel (SG) methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis showed that ES and SS can be assigned to pure phase SrTiO3, while SG was referred to Sr2TiO4. These samples displayed optical absorption edges at 385-395 nm, indicating they can be activated in UV light irradiation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses revealed that ES SrTiO3 has a uniform fibrous structure with length and diameter of several microns and 100-200 nm, respectively. After loading of nanoparticulate Ag as a co-catalyst onto the surface of strontium titanates, ES sample exhibited highest photocatalytic activity to degrade methylene orange dye solution in comparison to that of SS and SG ones. These results indicate that Ag-loaded ES SrTiO3, which has a desirable SrTiO3 phase and a facile electron transfer along the preferential direction in fibrous structure, can be a promising photocatalyst.

Keywords: photocatalytic degradation, strontium titanate, electrospinning, co-catalyst

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93 The Effect of Parameters on Production of NİO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique

Authors: F. Sevim, E. Sevimli, F. Demir, T. Çalban


For the first time, nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters of 500 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by TG/DTA, FT-IR, XRD and SEM analyses.

Keywords: nano fibers, NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite, sol-gel processing, electro spinning

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92 Increase of the Nanofiber Degradation Rate Using PCL-PEO and PCL-PVP as a Shell in the Electrospun Core-Shell Nanofibers Using the Needleless Blades

Authors: Matej Buzgo, Erico Himawan, Ksenija JašIna, Aiva Simaite


Electrospinning is a versatile and efficient technology for producing nanofibers for biomedical applications. One of the most common polymers used for the preparation of nanofibers for regenerative medicine and drug delivery applications is polycaprolactone (PCL). PCL is a biocompatible and bioabsorbable material that can be used to stimulate the regeneration of various tissues. It is also a common material used for the development of drug delivery systems by blending the polymer with small active molecules. However, for many drug delivery applications, e.g. cancer immunotherapy, PCL biodegradation rate that may exceed 9 months is too long, and faster nanofiber dissolution is needed. In this paper, we investigate the dissolution and small molecule release rates of PCL blends with two hydrophilic polymers: polyethylene oxide (PEO) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). We show that adding hydrophilic polymer to the PCL reduces the water contact angle, increases the dissolution rate, and strengthens the interactions between the hydrophilic drug and polymer matrix that further sustain its release. Finally using this method, we were also able to increase the nanofiber degradation rate when PCL-PEO and PCL-PVP were used as a shell in the electrospun core-shell nanofibers and spread up the release of active proteins from their core. Electrospinning can be used for the preparation of the core-shell nanofibers, where active ingredients are encapsulated in the core and their release rate is regulated by the shell. However, such fibers are usually prepared by coaxial electrospinning that is an extremely low-throughput technique. An alternative is emulsion electrospinning that could be upscaled using needleless blades. In this work, we investigate the possibility of using emulsion electrospinning for encapsulation and sustained release of the growth factors for the development of the organotypic skin models. The core-shell nanofibers were prepared using the optimized formulation and the release rate of proteins from the fibers was investigated for 2 weeks – typical cell culture conditions.

Keywords: electrospinning, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)

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91 Luminescent Dye-Doped Polymer Nanofibers Produced by Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Monica Enculescu, A. Evanghelidis, I. Enculescu


Among the numerous methods for obtaining polymer nanofibers, the electrospinning technique distinguishes itself due to the more growing interest induced by its proved utility leading to developing and improving of the method and the appearance of novel materials. In particular, production of polymeric nanofibers in which different dopants are introduced was intensively studied in the last years because of the increased interest for the obtaining of functional electrospun nanofibers. Electrospinning is a facile method of obtaining polymer nanofibers with diameters from tens of nanometers to micrometrical sizes that are cheap, flexible, scalable, functional and biocompatible. Besides the multiple applications in medicine, polymeric nanofibers obtained by electrospinning permit manipulation of light at nanometric dimensions when doped with organic dyes or different nanoparticles. It is a simple technique that uses an electrical field to draw fine polymer nanofibers from solutions and does not require complicated devices or high temperatures. Different morphologies of the electrospun nanofibers can be obtained for the same polymeric host when different parameters of the electrospinning process are used. Consequently, we can obtain tuneable optical properties of the electrospun nanofibers (e.g. changing the wavelength of the emission peak) by varying the parameters of the fabrication method. We focus on obtaining doped polymer nanofibers with enhanced optical properties using the electrospinning technique. The aim of the paper is to produce dye-doped polymer nanofibers’ mats incorporating uniformly dispersed dyes. Transmission and fluorescence of the fibers will be evaluated by spectroscopy methods. The morphological properties of the electrospun dye-doped polymer fibers will be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We will tailor the luminescent properties of the material by doping the polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone or polymethylmetacrilate) with different dyes (coumarins, rhodamines and sulforhodamines). The tailoring will be made taking into consideration the possibility of changing the luminescent properties of electrospun polymeric nanofibers that are doped with different dyes by using different parameters for the electrospinning technique (electric voltage, distance between electrodes, flow rate of the solution, etc.). Furthermore, we can evaluated the influence of the concentration of the dyes on the emissive properties of dye-doped polymer nanofibers using different concentrations. The advantages offered by the electrospinning technique when producing polymeric fibers are given by the simplicity of the method, the tunability of the morphology allowed by the possibility of controlling all the process parameters (temperature, viscosity of polymeric solution, applied voltage, distance between electrodes, etc.), and by the absence of necessity of using harsh and supplementary chemicals such as the ones used in the traditional nanofabrication techniques. Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the financial support received through IFA CEA Project No. C5-08/2016.

Keywords: electrospinning, luminescence, polymer nanofibers, scanning electron microscopy

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90 Preparation of Melt Electrospun Polylactic Acid Nanofibers with Optimum Conditions

Authors: Amir Doustgani


Melt electrospinning is a safe and simple technique for the production of micro and nanofibers which can be an alternative to conventional solvent electrospinning. The effects of various melt-electrospinning parameters, including molecular weight, electric field strength, flow rate and temperature on the morphology and fiber diameter of polylactic acid were studied. It was shown that molecular weight was the predominant factor in determining the obtainable fiber diameter of the collected fibers. An orthogonal design was used to examine process parameters. Results showed that molecular weight is the most effective parameter on the average fiber diameter of melt electrospun PLA nanofibers and the flow rate has the less important impact. Mean fiber diameter increased by increasing MW and flow rate, but decreased by increasing electric field strength and temperature. MFD of optimized fibers was below 100 nm and the result of software was in good agreement with the experimental condition.

Keywords: fiber formation, processing, spinning, melt blowing

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89 Preparation of Bead-On-String Alginate/Soy Protein Isolated Nanofibers via Water-Based Electrospinning and Its Application for Drug Loading

Authors: Patcharakamon Nooeaid, Piyachat Chuysrinuan


Electrospun natural polymers-based nanofibers are one of the most interesting materials used in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Bead-on-string nanofibers have gained considerable interest for sustained drug release. Vancomycin was used as the model drug and sodium alginate (SA)/soy protein isolated (SPI) as the polymer blend to fabricate the bead-on-string nanofibers by aqueous-based electrospinning. The bead-on-string SA/SPI nanofibers were successfully fabricated by the addition of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a co-blending polymer. SA-PEO with mass ratio of 70/30 showed the best spinnability with continuous nanofibers without the occurrence of beads. Bead structure formed with the addition of SPI and bead number increased with increasing SPI content. The electrospinning of 80/20 SA-PEO/SPI was obtained as a great promising bead-on-string nanofibers for drug loading, while the solution of 50/50 was not able to obtain continuous fibers. In vitro release tests showed that a more sustainable release profile up to 14 days with less initial burst release on day 1 could be obtained from the bead-on-string fibers than from smooth fibers with uniform diameter. In addition, vancomycin-loaded beaded fibers inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. Therefore, the SA-PEO/SPI nanofibers showed the potential to be used as biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

Keywords: bead-on-string fibers, electrospinning, drug delivery, tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
88 Super-Hydrophilic TFC Membrane with High Stability in Oil

Authors: M. Obaid, Nasser A. M. Barakat, Fadali O.A


Low stability in oil media and the hydrophobicity problems of the ploysulfone electrospun membranes could be overcome in the present study. Synthesis of super-hydrophilic and highly stable in oil polysulfone electrospun nanofiber membrane was achieved by electrospinning of polysulfone solution containing NaOH salt followed by activation of the dried electrospun membrane by deposition of polyamide layer on the surface using m-phenylenediamine and 1,3,5-benzenetricarbonyl chloride. The introduced membrane has super-hydrophilicity characteristic (contact angle=3o), excellent stability in oil media and distinct performance in oil-water separation process.

Keywords: electrospinning, oil-degradability, membrane, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
87 Fabrication of 3D Scaffold Consisting of Spiral-Like Micro-Sized PCL Struts and Selectively Deposited Nanofibers as a Tissue Regenerative Material

Authors: Gi-Hoon Yang, JongHan Ha, MyungGu Yeo, JaeYoon Lee, SeungHyun Ahn, Hyeongjin Lee, HoJun Jeon, YongBok Kim, Minseong Kim, GeunHyung Kim


Tissue engineering scaffolds must be biocompatible and biodegradable, provide adequate mechanical strength and cell attachment site for proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, the scaffold morphology (such as pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity) plays an important role. The electrospinning process has been widely used to fabricate micro/nano-sized fibres. Electrospinning allows for the fabrication of non-woven meshes containing micro- to nano-sized fibers providing high surface-to-volume area for cell attachment. Due to its advantageous characteristics, electrospinning is a useful method for skin, cartilage, bone, and nerve regeneration. In this study, we fabricated PCL scaffolds (SP) consisting of spiral-like struts using 3D melt-plotting system and micro/nanofibers using direct electrospinning writing. By altering the conditions of the conventional melt-plotting method, spiral-like struts were generated. Then, micro/nanofibers were deposited selectively. The control scaffold composed of perpendicular PCL struts was fabricated using the conventional melt-plotting method to compare the cellular activities. The effect on the attached cells (osteoblast-like cells (MG63)) was evaluated depending on the bending instability of the struts. The SP scaffolds showed enhanced biological properties such as initial cell attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that the SP scaffolds has potential as a bioengineered substitute for soft and hard tissue regeneration.

Keywords: cell attachment, electrospinning, mechanical strength, melt-plotting

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
86 Fabrication of Poly(Ethylene Oxide)/Chitosan/Indocyanine Green Nanoprobe by Co-Axial Electrospinning Method for Early Detection

Authors: Zeynep R. Ege, Aydin Akan, Faik N. Oktar, Betul Karademir, Oguzhan Gunduz


Early detection of cancer could save human life and quality in insidious cases by advanced biomedical imaging techniques. Designing targeted detection system is necessary in order to protect of healthy cells. Electrospun nanofibers are efficient and targetable nanocarriers which have important properties such as nanometric diameter, mechanical properties, elasticity, porosity and surface area to volume ratio. In the present study, indocyanine green (ICG) organic dye was stabilized and encapsulated in polymer matrix which polyethylene oxide (PEO) and chitosan (CHI) multilayer nanofibers via co-axial electrospinning method at one step. The co-axial electrospun nanofibers were characterized as morphological (SEM), molecular (FT-IR), and entrapment efficiency of Indocyanine Green (ICG) (confocal imaging). Controlled release profile of PEO/CHI/ICG nanofiber was also evaluated up to 40 hours.

Keywords: chitosan, coaxial electrospinning, controlled releasing, drug delivery, indocyanine green, polyethylene oxide

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85 Advantages of a New Manufacturing Facility for the Production of Nanofiber

Authors: R. Knizek, D. Karhankova


The production of nanofibers and the machinery for their production is a current issue. The pioneer, in the industrial production of nanofibers, is the machinery with the sales descriptions NanospiderTM from the company Elmarco, which came into being in 2008. Most of the production facilities, like NanospiderTM, use electrospinning. There are also other methods of industrial production of nanofibers, such as the centrifugal spinning process, which is used by FibeRio Technology Corporation. However, each method and machine has its advantages, but also disadvantages and that is the reason why a new machine called as Nanomachine, which eliminates the disadvantages of other production facilities producing nanofibers, has been developed.

Keywords: nanomachine, nanospider, spinning slat, electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
84 Multifunctional Nanofiber Based Aerogels: Bridging Electrospinning with Aerogel Fabrication

Authors: Tahira Pirzada, Zahra Ashrafi, Saad Khan


We present a facile and sustainable solid templating approach to fabricate highly porous, flexible and superhydrophobic aerogels of composite nanofibers of cellulose diacetate and silica which are produced through sol gel electrospinning. Scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurement, and attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry are used to understand the structural features of the resultant aerogels while thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry demonstrate their thermal stability. These aerogels exhibit a self-supportive three-dimensional network abundant in large secondary pores surrounded by primary pores resulting in a highly porous structure. Thermal crosslinking of the aerogels has further stabilized their structure and flexibility without compromising on the porosity. Ease of processing, thermal stability, high porosity and oleophilic nature of these aerogels make them promising candidate for a wide variety of applications including acoustic and thermal insulation and oil and water separation.

Keywords: hybrid aerogels, sol-gel electrospinning, oil-water separation, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 30
83 Chloroform-Formic Acid Solvent Systems for Nanofibrous Polycaprolactone Webs

Authors: I. Yalcin Enis, J. Vojtech, T. Gok Sadikoglu


In this study, polycaprolactone (PCL) was dissolved in chloroform: ethanol solvent system at a concentration of 18 w/v %. 1, 2, 4, and 6 droplets of formic acid were added to the prepared 10ml PCL-chloroform:ethanol solutions separately. Fibrous webs were produced by electrospinning technique. Morphology of the webs was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) whereas fiber diameters were measured by Image J Software System. The effect of formic acid addition to the mostly used chloroform solvent on fiber morphology was examined.

Keywords: chloroform, electrospinning, formic acid polycaprolactone, fiber

Procedia PDF Downloads 157