Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2576

Search results for: heart failure

2576 Improving Access to Palliative Care for Heart Failure Patients in England Using a Health Systems Approach

Authors: Alex Hughes

Abstract:

Patients with advanced heart failure develop specific palliative care needs due to the progressive symptom burden and unpredictable disease trajectory. NICE guidance advises that palliative care should be provided to patients with both cancer and non-cancer conditions as and when required. However, there is some way to go before this guidance is consistently and effectively implemented nationwide in conditions such as heart failure. The Ambitions for Palliative and End of Life Care: A national framework for local action in England provides a set of foundations and ambitions which outline a vision for what high-quality palliative and end-of-life care look like in England. This poster aims to critically consider how to improve access to palliative care for heart failure patients in England by analysing the foundations taken from this framework to generate specific recommendations using Soft Systems Methodology (SSM). The eight foundations analysed are: ‘Personalised care planning’, ‘Shared records’, ‘Evidence and information’, ‘Involving, supporting and caring for those important to the dying Person’, ‘Education and training’, ‘24/7 access’, ‘Co-design’ and ‘Leadership.’ A number of specific recommendations have been generated which highlight a need to close the evidence-policy gap and implement policy with sufficient evidence. These recommendations, alongside the creation of an evidence-based national strategy for palliative care and heart failure, should improve access to palliative care for heart failure patients in England. Once implemented, it will be necessary to evaluate the effect of these proposals to understand if access to palliative care for heart failure patients actually improves.

Keywords: access, health systems, heart failure, palliative care

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2575 The Survey of Relationship between Health Literacy and Knowledge of Heart Failure with Rehospitalization in Patients with Heart Failure Admitted to Heart Failure Clinic

Authors: Jaleh Mohammad Aliha, Rezvan Razazi, Nasim Naderi

Abstract:

Introduction: Despite the progress in new effective drugs in the treatment of heart failure, the disease still accompanied with frequent hospitalization, impaired quality of life, early mortality and significant economic burden. Patients with chronic disease and consequently patients with heart failure need the knowledge and optimal health literacy to improve the quality of life and minimize the rate of rehopitalizatio. So, considering to importance of knowledge and health literacy in this patients as well as contradictory literature, this study conducted to investigate the relationship between health literacy and Knowledge of heart failure with rehospitalization in patients with heart failure admitted to heart failure clinic in Rajai Heart center in 1394. Methods: The cross-sectional method with convenience sampling method was used in this study. After obtaining the necessary permissions from the ethics committee and the Shahid Rajai Heart center, 238 patients who were older than 18 years and had ejection fraction 35% or less with the ability to read and write and lack of psychiatric, neurological and cognitive disorders and signed the informed consent were recruited. Data collection were perfomed through demographic data questionnaire, short standard health literacy questionnaire 'Short-TOFHLA-16' and Vanderwall (2005) knowledge of heart failure questionnaire. Reliability was assessed by internal consistency method and Cronbach's alpha for both questionnaires was more than 0.7. Then data were analysed by SPSS-20 with descriptive statistic and analytical statistic such as T-test, Chi-square and ANOVA. Results: The majority of patients were male (66%), married (80%) and had age between 50 to 70 years old (42%). The majority of studied men and women have good health literacy and About half of them have adequate knowledge about heart failure. Fisher's exact test showed that there was a significant statistical correlation between health literacy and knowlegh about heart failure. In other words, higher health literacy associated with more knowledge about their condition. Also findings showed that there was no significant statistical correlation between health literacy and knowledge about heart failure and frequency of CCU and emergency admissions. Conclusion: The study results showed that the higher health literacy, associated with the greater knowledge about heart failure and patients' perception about caring recommendations and disease outcomes. Therefore, the knowledge about heart failure and factors which related to severity of the disease, is the important issue to problem identification and treatment and reduction of rehospitalization.

Keywords: health literacy, heart failure, knowlegde, rehospitalization

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2574 Gender Features of Left Ventricular Myocardial Remodeling and the Development of Chronic Heart Failure in Patients with Postinfarction Cardiosclerosis

Authors: G. Dadashova, A. Bakhshaliyev

Abstract:

Aim: Determine gender differences in the etiology and clinical outcomes, as well as in the remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), suffering from arterial hypertension (AH) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Material and methods: The study included 112 patients of both sexes; aged 45 to 60 years with postinfarction cardiosclerosis had functional class (FC) heart failure II-IV of NYHA which were examined on the basis of Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institute of Cardiology. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1st c. 60 males, mean age 54,8 ± 3,3 years, and 2nd gr 52 women, mean age 55,8 ± 3,1 years. To assess cardiac hemodynamic all patients underwent echocardiography (B-M-modes) using ‘Vivid 3’. Thus on the basis of indicators such as the index of the relative thickness of the left ventricle wall and the index of left ventricular mass (LVMI) was identified the architectonic model of the left ventricle. Results: According to our research leading cause of heart failure in women is 50.5% of cases of hypertension, ischemic heart disease 23.7% (with 79.5% of the cases developed in patients with chronic heart failure who did not have a history of myocardial infarction). While in men is the undisputed leader of CHD, forming 78.3% of CHF (80.3% in men with CHF occurred after myocardial infarction). According to our research in women more often than men CHF develops a type of diastolic dysfunction (DD, and left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged. Since DD occurs in men at 65,8% vs. 76,4% of women when p < 0,05. In the group of women was more common prognostic neblagopryatnye remodeling - eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle: 68% vs. 54.5% among men (p < 0,05), concentric left ventricular hypertrophy: 21% in women vs 19,1% (p > 0,05 ). Conclusions: Patients with heart failure are a number of gender-specific: the prevalence of hypertension in women, and coronary heart disease in men. While in women with heart failure often recorded diastolic dysfunction and characterized by the development of prognostically unfavorable remodeling types: eccentric and concentric LV hypertrophy.

Keywords: chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, men, women, ischemic heart disease

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2573 Wavelet-Based Classification of Myocardial Ischemia, Arrhythmia, Congestive Heart Failure and Sleep Apnea

Authors: Santanu Chattopadhyay, Gautam Sarkar, Arabinda Das

Abstract:

This paper presents wavelet based classification of various heart diseases. Electrocardiogram signals of different heart patients have been studied. Statistical natures of electrocardiogram signals for different heart diseases have been compared with the statistical nature of electrocardiograms for normal persons. Under this study four different heart diseases have been considered as follows: Myocardial Ischemia (MI), Congestive Heart Failure (CHF), Arrhythmia and Sleep Apnea. Statistical nature of electrocardiograms for each case has been considered in terms of kurtosis values of two types of wavelet coefficients: approximate and detail. Nine wavelet decomposition levels have been considered in each case. Kurtosis corresponding to both approximate and detail coefficients has been considered for decomposition level one to decomposition level nine. Based on significant difference, few decomposition levels have been chosen and then used for classification.

Keywords: arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, discrete wavelet transform, electrocardiogram, myocardial ischemia, sleep apnea

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2572 Efficacy of Heart Failure Reversal Treatment Followed by 90 Days Follow up in Chronic Heart Failure Patients with Low Ejection Fraction

Authors: Rohit Sane, Snehal Dongre, Pravin Ghadigaonkar, Rahul Mandole

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate efficacy of heart failure reversal therapy (HFRT) that uses herbal procedure (panchakarma) and allied therapies, in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients with low ejection fraction. Methods: This efficacy study was conducted in CHF patients (aged: 25-65 years, ejection fraction (EF) < 30%) wherein HFRT (60-75 minutes) consisting of snehana (external oleation), swedana (passive heat therapy), hrudaydhara(concoction dripping treatment) and basti(enema) was administered twice daily for 7 days. During this therapy and next 30 days, patients followed the study dinarcharya and were prescribed ARJ kadha in addition to their conventional treatment. The primary endpoint of this study was evaluation of maximum aerobic capacity uptake (MAC) as assessed by 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) using Cahalins equation from baseline, at end of 7 day treatment, follow-up after 30 days and 90 days. EF was assessed by 2D Echo at baseline and after 30 days of follow-up. Results: CHF patients with < 30% EF (N=52, mean [SD] age: 58.8 [10.8], 85% men) were enrolled in the study. There was a 100% compliance to study therapy. A significant improvement was observed in MAC levels (7.11%, p =0.029), at end of 7 day therapy as compared to baseline. This improvement was maintained at two follow-up visits. Moreover, ejection fraction was observed to be increased by 6.38%, p=0,012 as compared to baseline at day 7 of the therapy. Conclusions: This 90 day follow up study highlights benefit of HFRT, as a part of maintenance treatment for CHF patients with reduced ejection fraction.

Keywords: chronic heart failure, functional capacity, heart failure reversal therapy, oxygen uptake, panchakarma

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2571 Laboratory Findings as Predictors of St2 and NT-Probnp Elevations in Heart Failure Clinic, National Cardiovascular Centre Harapan Kita, Indonesia

Authors: B. B. Siswanto, A. Halimi, K. M. H. J. Tandayu, C. Abdillah, F. Nanda , E. Chandra

Abstract:

Nowadays, modern cardiac biomarkers, such as ST2 and NT-proBNP, have important roles in predicting morbidity and mortality in heart failure patients. Abnormalities of serum electrolytes, sepsis or infection, and deteriorating renal function will worsen the conditions of patients with heart failure. It is intriguing to know whether cardiac biomarkers elevations are affected by laboratory findings in heart failure patients. We recruited 65 patients from the heart failure clinic in NCVC Harapan Kita in 2014-2015. All of them have consented for laboratory examination, including cardiac biomarkers. The findings were recorded in our Research and Development Centre and analyzed using linear regression to find whether there is a relationship between laboratory findings (sodium, potassium, creatinine, and leukocytes) and ST2 or NT-proBNP. From 65 patients, 26.9% of them are female, and 73.1% are male, 69.4% patients classified as NYHA I-II and 31.6% as NYHA III-IV. The mean age is 55.7+11.4 years old; mean sodium level is 136.1+6.5 mmol/l; mean potassium level is 4.7+1.9 mmol/l; mean leukocyte count is 9184.7+3622.4 /ul; mean creatinine level is 1.2+0.5 mg/dl. From linear regression logistics, the relationship between NT-proBNP and sodium level (p<0.001), as well as leukocyte count (p=0.002) are significant, while NT-proBNP and potassium level (p=0.05), as well as creatinine level (p=0.534) are not significant. The relationship between ST2 and sodium level (p=0.501), potassium level (p=0.76), leukocyte level (p=0.897), and creatinine level (p=0.817) are not significant. To conclude, laboratory findings are more sensitive in predicting NT-proBNP elevation than ST2 elevation. Larger studies are needed to prove that NT-proBNP correlation with laboratory findings is more superior than ST2.

Keywords: heart failure, laboratory, NT-proBNP, ST2

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2570 Heart Failure Identification and Progression by Classifying Cardiac Patients

Authors: Muhammad Saqlain, Nazar Abbas Saqib, Muazzam A. Khan

Abstract:

Heart Failure (HF) has become the major health problem in our society. The prevalence of HF has increased as the patient’s ages and it is the major cause of the high mortality rate in adults. A successful identification and progression of HF can be helpful to reduce the individual and social burden from this syndrome. In this study, we use a real data set of cardiac patients to propose a classification model for the identification and progression of HF. The data set has divided into three age groups, namely young, adult, and old and then each age group have further classified into four classes according to patient’s current physical condition. Contemporary Data Mining classification algorithms have been applied to each individual class of every age group to identify the HF. Decision Tree (DT) gives the highest accuracy of 90% and outperform all other algorithms. Our model accurately diagnoses different stages of HF for each age group and it can be very useful for the early prediction of HF.

Keywords: decision tree, heart failure, data mining, classification model

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2569 Determination of Myocardial Function Using Heart Accumulated Radiopharmaceuticals

Authors: C. C .D. Kulathilake, M. Jayatilake, T. Takahashi

Abstract:

The myocardium is composed of specialized muscle which relies mainly on fatty acid and sugar metabolism and it is widely contribute to the heart functioning. The changes of the cardiac energy-producing system during heart failure have been proved using autoradiography techniques. This study focused on evaluating sugar and fatty acid metabolism in myocardium as cardiac energy getting system using heart-accumulated radiopharmaceuticals. Two sets of autoradiographs of heart cross sections of Lewis male rats were analyzed and the time- accumulation curve obtained with use of the MATLAB image processing software to evaluate fatty acid and sugar metabolic functions.

Keywords: autoradiographs, fatty acid, radiopharmaceuticals, sugar

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2568 A Crossover Study of Therapeutic Equivalence of Generic Product Versus Reference Product of Ivabradine in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

Authors: Hadeer E. Eliwa, Naglaa S. Bazan, Ebtissam A. Darweesh, Nagwa A. Sabri

Abstract:

Background: Generic substitution of brand ivabradine prescriptions can reduce drug expenditures and improve adherence. However, the distrust of generic medicines by practitioners and patients due to doubts regarding their quality and fear of counterfeiting compromise the acceptance of this practice. Aim: The goal of this study is to compare the therapeutic equivalence of brand product versus the generic product of ivabradine in adult patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (≤ 40%) (HFrEF). Methodology: Thirty-two Egyptian patients with chronic heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) were treated with branded ivabradine (Procrolan ©) and generic (Bradipect ©) during 24 (2x12) weeks. Primary outcomes were resting heart rate (HR), NYHA FC, Quality of life (QoL) using Minnesota Living with Heart Failure (MLWHF) and EF. Secondary outcomes were the number of hospitalizations for worsening HFrEF and adverse effects. The washout period was not allowed. Findings: At the 12th week, the reduction in HR was comparable in the two groups (90.13±7.11 to 69±11.41 vs 96.13±17.58 to 67.31±8.68 bpm in brand and generic groups, respectively). Also, the increase in EF was comparable in the two groups (27.44 ±4.59 to 33.38±5.62 vs 32±5.96 to 39.31±8.95 in brand and generic groups, respectively). The improvement in NYHA FC was comparable in both groups (87.5% in brand group vs 93.8% in the generic group). The mean value of the QOL improved from 31.63±15.8 to 19.6±14.7 vs 35.68±17.63 to 22.9±15.1 for the brand and generic groups, respectively. Similarly, at end of 24 weeks, no significant changes were observed from data observed at 12th week regarding HR, EF, QoL and NYHA FC. Only minor side effects, mainly phosphenes, and a comparable number of hospitalizations were observed in both groups. Conclusion: The study revealed no statistically significant differences in the therapeutic effect and safety between generic and branded ivabradine. We assume that practitioners can safely interchange between them for economic reasons.

Keywords: bradipect©, heart failure, ivabradine, Procrolan ©, therapeutic equivalence

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2567 An Attempt of Cost Analysis of Heart Failure Patients at Cardiology Department at Kasr Al Aini Hospitals: A Micro-Costing Study from Social Perspective

Authors: Eman Elsebaie, A. Sedrak, R. Ziada

Abstract:

Introduction: In the recent decades, heart failure (HF) has become one of the most prevalent cardio-vascular disease (CVDs), especially in the elderly and the main cause of hospitalization in Egypt cardiology departments. By 2030, the prevalence of HF is expected to increase by 25%. Total direct costs will increase to $818 billion, and the total indirect cost in terms of lost productivity is close to $275 billion. The current study was conducted to estimate the economic costs of services delivered for heart failure patients at the cardiology department in Cairo University Hospitals (CUHs). Aim: To gain an understanding of the cost of heart failure disease and its main drivers aiming to minimize associated health care costs. Subjects and Methods: Economic cost analysis study was conducted for a prospective group of all cases of HF admitted to the cardiology department in CUHs from end of March till end of April 2016 and another retrospective randomized sample from patients with HF, during the first 3 months of 2016 to measure estimated average cost per patient per day. Results: The mean age of the prospective group was 48.6 ± 17.16 years versus 52.3 ± 11.5 years for the retrospective group. The median (IQR) of Length of stay was 15 (15) days in the prospective group versus 9 (16) days in the retrospective group. The average HF inpatient cost/day in the cardiology department during April 2016 was 362.32 (255.5) L.E. versus 391.2(255.9) L.E. during January and February 2016. Conclusion: Up to 70% of expenditure in the management of HF is related to hospital admission. The average cost of such an admission was 5540.03 (IQR=7507.8) L.E. and 4687.4 (IQR=7818.8) L.E. with the average cost per day estimated at 362.32 (IQR=255.5) L.E. and 386.2(IQR=255.9) L.E. in prospective and retrospective groups respectively.

Keywords: health care cost, heart failure, hospitalization, inpatient

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2566 Hypocalcaemia Inducing Heart Failure: A Rare Presentation

Authors: A. Kherraf, M. Bouziane, L. Azzouzi, R. Habbal

Abstract:

Introduction: Hypocalcaemia is a rare cause of heart failure. We report the clinical case of a young patient with reversible dilated cardiomyopathy secondary to hypocalcaemia in the context of hyperparathyroidism. Clinical case: We report the clinical case of a 23-year-old patient with a history of thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma 3 years previously, who presented to the emergency room with a progressive onset dyspnea and edema of the lower limbs. Clinical examination showed hypotension at 90/70 mmHg, tachycardia at 102 bpm, and edema of the lower limbs. The ECG showed a regular sinus rhythm with a prolonged corrected QT interval to 520ms. The chest x-ray showed cardiomegaly. Echocardiography revealed dilated cardiomyopathy with biventricular dysfunction and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 45%, as well as moderate mitral insufficiency by restriction of the posterior mitral leaflet, moderate tricuspid insufficiency, and a dilated inferior vena cava with a pulmonary arterial pressure estimated at 46 mmHg. Blood tests revealed severe hypocalcemia at 38 mg / l with normal albumin and thyroxine levels, as well as hyperphosphatemia and increased TSH. The patient received calcium intake and vitamin D supplementation and was treated with beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, and diuretics with good progress and progressive normalization of cardiac function. Discussion: The cardiovascular manifestations of hypocalcaemia usually appear with deeply low serum calcium levels. This can lead to hypotension, arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation, prolonged QT interval, or even heart failure. Heart failure is a rare and serious complication of hypocalcemia but most often characterized by complete normalization of myocardial function after treatment. The etiology of the hypocalcaemia, in this case, was probably related to accidental parathyroid removal during thyroidectomy. This is why careful monitoring of calcium levels is recommended after surgery. Conclusion: Hypocalcemic heart failure is rare but reversible heart disease. Systematic monitoring of serum calcium should be performed in all patients after thyroid surgery to avoid any complications related to hypoparathyroidism.

Keywords: hypocalcemia, heart failure, thyroid surgery, hypoparathyroidism

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2565 Product Design and Development of Wearable Assistant Device

Authors: Hao-Jun Hong, Jung-Tang Huang

Abstract:

The world is gradually becoming an aging society, and with the lack of laboring forces, this phenomenon is affecting the nation’s economy growth. Although nursing centers are booming in recent years, the lack of medical resources are yet to be resolved, thus creating an innovative wearable medical device could be a vital solution. This research is focused on the design and development of a wearable device which obtains a more precise heart failure measurement than products on the market. The method used by the device is based on the sensor fusion and big data algorithm. From the test result, the modified structure of wearable device can significantly decrease the MA (Motion Artifact) and provide users a more cozy and accurate physical monitor experience.

Keywords: big data, heart failure, motion artifact, sensor fusion, wearable medical device

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2564 Mathematical Based Forecasting of Heart Attack

Authors: Razieh Khalafi

Abstract:

Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analyzing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behavior of these signals were checked. Results shows this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

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2563 A New Mathematical Method for Heart Attack Forecasting

Authors: Razi Khalafi

Abstract:

Myocardial Infarction (MI) or acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analysing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behaviour of these signals were checked. Results show this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

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2562 Sudden Death of a Cocaine Body Packer: An Autopsy Examination Findings

Authors: Parthasarathi Pramanik

Abstract:

Body packing is a way of transfer drugs across the international border or any drug prohibited area. The drugs are usually hidden in body packets inside the anatomical body cavities like mouth, intestines, rectum, ear, vagina etc. Cocaine is a very common drug for body packing across the world. A 48 year old male was reported dead in his hotel after complaining of chest pain and vomiting. At autopsy, there were eighty-two white cylindrical body packs in the stomach, small and large intestines. Seals of few of the packets were opened. Toxicological examination revealed presence of cocaine in the stomach, liver, kidney and hair samples. Microscopically, presence of myocardial necrosis with interstitial oedema along with hypertrophy and fibrosis of the myocardial fibre suggested heart failure due to cocaine cardio toxicity. However, focal lymphocyte infiltration and perivascular fibrosis in the myocardium also indicated chronic cocaine toxicity of the deceased. After careful autopsy examination it was considered the victim was died due congestive heart failure secondary to acute and chronic cocaine poisoning.

Keywords: cardiac failure, cocaine, body packer, sudden death

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2561 Heart Murmurs and Heart Sounds Extraction Using an Algorithm Process Separation

Authors: Fatima Mokeddem

Abstract:

The phonocardiogram signal (PCG) is a physiological signal that reflects heart mechanical activity, is a promising tool for curious researchers in this field because it is full of indications and useful information for medical diagnosis. PCG segmentation is a basic step to benefit from this signal. Therefore, this paper presents an algorithm that serves the separation of heart sounds and heart murmurs in case they exist in order to use them in several applications and heart sounds analysis. The separation process presents here is founded on three essential steps filtering, envelope detection, and heart sounds segmentation. The algorithm separates the PCG signal into S1 and S2 and extract cardiac murmurs.

Keywords: phonocardiogram signal, filtering, Envelope, Detection, murmurs, heart sounds

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2560 Statistical Analysis of Failure Cases in Aerospace

Authors: J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang, S.W. Liu

Abstract:

The major concern in the aviation industry is the flight safety. Although great effort has been put onto the development of material and system reliability, the failure cases of fatal accidents still occur nowadays. Due to the complexity of the aviation system, and the interaction among the failure components, the failure analysis of the related equipment is a little difficult. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases in aviation, which are extracted from failure analysis journals, including Engineering Failure Analysis and Case studies in Engineering Failure Analysis, in order to obtain the failure sensitive factors or failure sensitive parts. The analytical results show that, among the failure cases, fatigue failure is the largest in number of occurrence. The most failed components are the disk, blade, landing gear, bearing, and fastener. The frequently failed materials consist of steel, aluminum alloy, superalloy, and titanium alloy. Therefore, in order to assure the safety in aviation, more attention should be paid to the fatigue failures.

Keywords: aerospace, disk, failure analysis, fatigue

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2559 Causes of Death in Neuromuscular Disease Patients: 15-Year Experience in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Po-Ching Chou, Wen-Chen Liang, I. Chen Chen, Jong-Hau Hsu, Yuh-Jyh Jong

Abstract:

Background:Cardiopulmonary complications seem to cause high morbidity and mortality in patients with neuromuscular diseases (NMD) but so far there is no domestic data reported in Taiwan. We, therefore attempted to analyze the factors to cause the death in NMD patients from our cohort. Methods:From 1998 to 2013, we retrospectively collected the information of the NMD patients treated and followed up in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital. Forty-two patients with NMD who expired during these fifteen years were enrolled. The medical records of these patients were reviewed and the causes of death and the associated affecting factors were analyzed. Results:Eighteen patients with NMD (mean age=13.3, SD=12.4) with complete medical record and detailed information were finally included in this study, including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) (n=9, 7/9: type 1), Duchenne muscular dystrophy (n=6), congenital muscular dystrophy (n=1), carnitine acyl-carnitine translocase (CACT) deficiency (n=1) and spinal muscular atrophy with respiratory distress (SMARD)(n=1). The place of death was in ICU (n=11, 61%), emergency room (n=3, 16.6%) or home (n=4, 22.2%). For SMA type 1 patients, most of them (71.4%, 5/7) died in emergency room or home and the other two expired during an ICU admission. The causes of death included acute respiratory failure due to pneumonia (n=13, 72.2 %), ventilator failure or dislocation (n=2, 11.1%), suffocation/choking (n=2, 11.1%), and heart failure with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n=1, 5.55%). Among the 15 patients died of respiratory failure or choking, 73.3% of the patients (n=11) received no ventilator care at home. 80% of the patients (n=12) received no cough assist at home. The patient died of cardiomyopathy received no medications for heart failure until the last admission. Conclusion: Respiratory failure and choking are the leading causes of death in NMD patients. Appropriate respiratory support and airway clearance play the critical role to reduce the mortality.

Keywords: neuromuscular disease, cause of death, tertiary care hospital, medical sciences

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2558 Failure Localization of Bipolar Integrated Circuits by Implementing Active Voltage Contrast

Authors: Yiqiang Ni, Xuanlong Chen, Enliang Li, Linting Zheng, Shizheng Yang

Abstract:

Bipolar ICs are playing an important role in military applications, mainly used in logic gates, such as inverter and NAND gate. The defect of metal break located on the step is one of the main failure mechanisms of bipolar ICs, resulting in open-circuit or functional failure. In this situation, general failure localization methods like optical beam-induced resistance change (OBIRCH) and photon emission microscopy (PEM) might not be fully effective. However, active voltage contrast (AVC) can be used as a voltage probe, which may pinpoint the incorrect potential and thus locate the failure position. Two case studies will be present in this paper on how to implement AVC for failure localization, and the detailed failure mechanism will be discussed.

Keywords: bipolar IC, failure localization, metal break, open failure, voltage contrast

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2557 Intelligent System for Diagnosis Heart Attack Using Neural Network

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao

Abstract:

Misdiagnosis has been the major problem in health sector. Heart attack has been one of diseases that have high level of misdiagnosis recorded on the part of physicians. In this paper, an intelligent system has been developed for diagnosis of heart attack in the health sector. Dataset of heart attack obtained from UCI repository has been used. This dataset is made up of thirteen attributes which are very vital in diagnosis of heart disease. The system is developed on the multilayer perceptron trained with back propagation neural network then simulated with feed forward neural network and a recognition rate of 87% was obtained which is a good result for diagnosis of heart attack in medical field.

Keywords: heart attack, artificial neural network, diagnosis, intelligent system

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2556 Ibrutinib and the Potential Risk of Cardiac Failure: A Review of Pharmacovigilance Data

Authors: Abdulaziz Alakeel, Roaa Alamri, Abdulrahman Alomair, Mohammed Fouda

Abstract:

Introduction: Ibrutinib is a selective, potent, and irreversible small-molecule inhibitor of Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). It forms a covalent bond with a cysteine residue (CYS-481) at the active site of Btk, leading to inhibition of Btk enzymatic activity. The drug is indicated to treat certain type of cancers such as mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and Waldenström's macroglobulinaemia (WM). Cardiac failure is a condition referred to inability of heart muscle to pump adequate blood to human body organs. There are multiple types of cardiac failure including left and right-sided heart failure, systolic and diastolic heart failures. The aim of this review is to evaluate the risk of cardiac failure associated with the use of ibrutinib and to suggest regulatory recommendations if required. Methodology: Signal Detection team at the National Pharmacovigilance Center (NPC) of Saudi Food and Drug Authority (SFDA) performed a comprehensive signal review using its national database as well as the World Health Organization (WHO) database (VigiBase), to retrieve related information for assessing the causality between cardiac failure and ibrutinib. We used the WHO- Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) criteria as standard for assessing the causality of the reported cases. Results: Case Review: The number of resulted cases for the combined drug/adverse drug reaction are 212 global ICSRs as of July 2020. The reviewers have selected and assessed the causality for the well-documented ICSRs with completeness scores of 0.9 and above (35 ICSRs); the value 1.0 presents the highest score for best-written ICSRs. Among the reviewed cases, more than half of them provides supportive association (four probable and 15 possible cases). Data Mining: The disproportionality of the observed and the expected reporting rate for drug/adverse drug reaction pair is estimated using information component (IC), a tool developed by WHO-UMC to measure the reporting ratio. Positive IC reflects higher statistical association while negative values indicates less statistical association, considering the null value equal to zero. The results of (IC=1.5) revealed a positive statistical association for the drug/ADR combination, which means “Ibrutinib” with “Cardiac Failure” have been observed more than expected when compared to other medications available in WHO database. Conclusion: Health regulators and health care professionals must be aware for the potential risk of cardiac failure associated with ibrutinib and the monitoring of any signs or symptoms in treated patients is essential. The weighted cumulative evidences identified from causality assessment of the reported cases and data mining are sufficient to support a causal association between ibrutinib and cardiac failure.

Keywords: cardiac failure, drug safety, ibrutinib, pharmacovigilance, signal detection

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2555 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: sleep, sleep quality, heart rate, statistical analysis

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2554 Study of the Design and Simulation Work for an Artificial Heart

Authors: Mohammed Eltayeb Salih Elamin

Abstract:

This study discusses the concept of the artificial heart using engineering concepts, of the fluid mechanics and the characteristics of the non-Newtonian fluid. For the purpose to serve heart patients and improve aspects of their lives and since the Statistics review according to world health organization (WHO) says that heart disease and blood vessels are the first cause of death in the world. Statistics shows that 30% of the death cases in the world by the heart disease, so simply we can consider it as the number one leading cause of death in the entire world is heart failure. And since the heart implantation become a very difficult and not always available, the idea of the artificial heart become very essential. So it’s important that we participate in the developing this idea by searching and finding the weakness point in the earlier designs and hoping for improving it for the best of humanity. In this study a pump was designed in order to pump blood to the human body and taking into account all the factors that allows it to replace the human heart, in order to work at the same characteristics and the efficiency of the human heart. The pump was designed on the idea of the diaphragm pump. Three models of blood obtained from the blood real characteristics and all of these models were simulated in order to study the effect of the pumping work on the fluid. After that, we study the properties of this pump by using Ansys15 software to simulate blood flow inside the pump and the amount of stress that it will go under. The 3D geometries modeling was done using SOLID WORKS and the geometries then imported to Ansys design modeler which is used during the pre-processing procedure. The solver used throughout the study is Ansys FLUENT. This is a tool used to analysis the fluid flow troubles and the general well-known term used for this branch of science is known as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Basically, Design Modeler used during the pre-processing procedure which is a crucial step before the start of the fluid flow problem. Some of the key operations are the geometry creations which specify the domain of the fluid flow problem. Next is mesh generation which means discretization of the domain to solve governing equations at each cell and later, specify the boundary zones to apply boundary conditions for the problem. Finally, the pre–processed work will be saved at the Ansys workbench for future work continuation.

Keywords: Artificial heart, computational fluid dynamic heart chamber, design, pump

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2553 A Universal Approach to Categorize Failures in Production

Authors: Konja Knüppel, Gerrit Meyer, Peter Nyhuis

Abstract:

The increasing interconnectedness and complexity of production processes raise the susceptibility of production systems to failure. Therefore, the ability to respond quickly to failures is increasingly becoming a competitive factor. The research project "Sustainable failure management in manufacturing SMEs" is developing a methodology to identify failures in the production and select preventive and reactive measures in order to correct failures and to establish sustainable failure management systems.

Keywords: failure categorization, failure management, logistic performance, production optimization

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2552 The Genetic Architecture Underlying Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Singaporeans

Authors: Feng Ji Mervin Goh, Edmund Chee Jian Pua, Stuart Alexander Cook

Abstract:

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common cause of heart failure. Genetic mutations account for 50% of DCM cases with TTN mutations being the most common, accounting for up to 25% of DCM cases. However, the genetic architecture underlying Asian DCM patients is unknown. We evaluated 68 patients (female= 17) with DCM who underwent follow-up at the National Heart Centre, Singapore from 2013 through 2014. Clinical data were obtained and analyzed retrospectively. Genomic DNA was subjected to next-generation targeted sequencing. Nextera Rapid Capture Enrichment was used to capture the exons of a panel of 169 cardiac genes. DNA libraries were sequenced as paired-end 150-bp reads on Illumina MiSeq. Raw sequence reads were processed and analysed using standard bioinformatics techniques. The average age of onset of DCM was 46.1±10.21 years old. The average left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular diastolic internal diameter (LVIDd), left ventricular systolic internal diameter (LVIDs) were 26.1±11.2%, 6.20±0.83cm, and 5.23±0.92cm respectively. The frequencies of mutations in major DCM-associated genes were as follows TTN (5.88% vs published frequency of 20%), LMNA (4.41% vs 6%), MYH7 (5.88% vs 4%), MYH6 (5.88% vs 4%), and SCN5a (4.41% vs 3%). The average callability at 10 times coverage of each major gene were: TTN (99.7%), LMNA (87.1%), MYH7 (94.8%), MYH6 (95.5%), and SCN5a (94.3%). In conclusion, TTN mutations are not common in Singaporean DCM patients. The frequencies of other major DCM-associated genes are comparable to frequencies published in the current literature.

Keywords: heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, genetics, next-generation sequencing

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2551 The Influence of Winding Angle on Functional Failure of FRP Pipes

Authors: Roham Rafiee, Hadi Hesamsadat

Abstract:

In this study, a parametric finite element modeling is developed to analyze failure modes of FRP pipes subjected to internal pressure. First-ply failure pressure and functional failure pressure was determined by a progressive damage modeling and then it is validated using experimental observations. The influence of both winding angle and fiber volume fraction is studied on the functional failure of FRP pipes and it corresponding pressure. It is observed that despite the fact that increasing fiber volume fraction will enhance the mechanical properties, it will be resulted in lower values for functional failure pressure. This shortcoming can be compensated by modifying the winding angle in angle plies of pipe wall structure.

Keywords: composite pipe, functional failure, progressive modeling, winding angle

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2550 Simulation of Human Heart Activation Based on Diffusion Tensor Imaging

Authors: Ihab Elaff

Abstract:

Simulating the heart’s electrical stimulation is essential in modeling and evaluating the electrophysiology behavior of the heart. For achieving that, there are two structures in concern: the ventricles’ Myocardium, and the ventricles’ Conduction Network. Ventricles’ Myocardium has been modeled as anisotropic material from Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) scan, and the Conduction Network has been extracted from DTI as a case-based structure based on the biological properties of the heart tissues and the working methodology of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner. Results of the produced activation were much similar to real measurements of the reference model that was presented in the literature.

Keywords: diffusion tensor, DTI, heart, conduction network, excitation propagation

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2549 Heart Rate Variability Responses Pre-, during, and Post-Exercise among Special Olympics Athletes

Authors: Kearney Dover, Viviene Temple, Lynneth Stuart-Hill

Abstract:

Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is the beat-to-beat variation in adjacent heartbeats. HRV is a non-invasive measure of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and provides information about the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic (PNS) nervous systems. The HRV of a well-conditioned heart is generally high at rest, whereas low HRV has been associated with adverse outcomes/conditions, including congestive heart failure, diabetic neuropathy, depression, and hospital admissions. HRV has received very little research attention among individuals with intellectual disabilities in general or Special Olympic athletes. Purpose: 1) Having a longer post-exercise rest and recovery time to establish how long it takes for the athletes’ HRV components to return to pre-exercise levels, 2) To determine if greater familiarization with the testing processes influences HRV. Participants: Two separate samples of 10 adult Special Olympics athletes will be recruited for 2 separate studies. Athletes will be between 18 and 50 years of age and will be members of Special Olympics BC. Anticipated Findings: To answer why the Special Olympics athletes display poor cardiac responsiveness to changes in autonomic modulation during exercise. By testing the cortisol levels in the athletes, we can determine their stress levels which will then explain their measured HRV.

Keywords: 6MWT, autonomic modulation, cortisol levels, intellectual disability

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2548 Chest Pain as a Predictor for Heart Issues in Geriatrics

Authors: Leila Kargar, Homa Abri, Golsa Safai

Abstract:

The occurrence of chest pain among geriatrics could be considered as a predictor of heart issues. There is a need for attention to this pain among this population. This review paper has tried to collect the recent data with attention to the chest pain among geriatrics. This review paper has focused on specific keywords, including chest pain, heart issues, and geriatrics, among published papers from 2015 till 2020. To collect data for this purpose, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and PubMed were used. After inserting related papers to the Endnote, an independent researcher checked the abstract, and papers with unclear methods or non-English language were excluded. Finally, 7-papers were included in this review paper. The findings of those papers showed that chest pain could be a predictor for heart issues, and also, there is a direct relationship between chest pain and heart issues among geriatrics. So, early detection and an accurate decision could be helpful to prevent heart issues in this population.

Keywords: pain, heart issue, geriatrics, health

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2547 Failure Cases Analysis in Petrochemical Industry

Authors: S. W. Liu, J. H. Lv, W. Z. Wang

Abstract:

In recent years, the failure accidents in petrochemical industry have been frequent, and have posed great security problems in personnel and property. The improvement of petrochemical safety is highly requested in order to prevent re-occurrence of severe accident. This study focuses on surveying the failure cases occurred in petrochemical field, which were extracted from journals of engineering failure, including engineering failure analysis and case studies in engineering failure analysis. The relation of failure mode, failure mechanism, type of components, and type of materials was analyzed in this study. And the analytical results showed that failures occurred more frequently in vessels and piping among the petrochemical equipment. Moreover, equipment made of carbon steel and stainless steel accounts for the majority of failures compared to other materials. This may be related to the application of the equipment and the performance of the material. In addition, corrosion failures were the largest in number of occurrence in the failure of petrochemical equipment, in which stress corrosion cracking accounts for a large proportion. This may have a lot to do with the service environment of the petrochemical equipment. Therefore, it can be concluded that the corrosion prevention of petrochemical equipment is particularly important.

Keywords: cases analysis, corrosion, failure, petrochemical industry

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