Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1345

Search results for: prevalence

1345 Prevalence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Western Australia from 2015 until 2020

Authors: Kumaressan Ragunathan, Arisudhan Anantharachagan

Abstract:

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is the subtype of diabetes that has been rapidly increasing in numbers in Australia. The annual percentage of GDM has increased more than 50 percent in the last decade. According to Diabetes Australia, more than five hundred thousand women in Australia will be diagnosed with GDM. Globally, the prevalence of GDM ranges from single-digit to more than 45%. The prevalence of GDM has increased significantly last five years after the introduction of new diagnostic criteria. Hence, we have decided to investigate the trend in GDM prevalence in a tertiary maternity unit at Western Australia and compare it to national prevalence. Data is derived from STORK Perinatal Database which has been used by Maternity services in Western Australia to populate information on pregnancy and labour. We have selected data from 2015 until 2020, which includes 17508 women. Among 17508 women, 3850 women were diagnosed with GDM. In 2015, we had a total of 2213 deliveries with 345 of them were complicated by GDM. GDM prevalence was 15.6% compared to the Australian national prevalence of 12%. In 2016, total deliveries increased to 2759 with 590 of were with GDM. GDM prevalence was 21.4% compared to the Australian national prevalence of 12%. In 2017, total deliveries further increased to 3049 with 675 with GDM. GDM prevalence was 22.1%, with an Australian national prevalence of 13%. In 2018, total deliveries continued to increase, with numbers reaching 3231 with 749 with GDM. GDM prevalence was 23.2%, with an Australian National prevalence of 14%. In 2019, total deliveries were 3110, with 712 complicated by GDM. GDM prevalence was 22.9%, with Australian national prevalence 14%. In 2020, total deliveries 3146 with 819 complicated by GDM. GDM prevalence increased to 26% and we were unable to compare this to national standard as national prevalence has not been released. Among 3890 women with GDM, 2482 (64%) of them required insulin. Apart from that, a total 1642(42%) from the GDM group were delivered via the Caesarean section. 2121 (55%) women with GDM required induction of labour. Overall, we demonstrated an increase in the prevalence of GDM in our unit from 2015 until 2020. Our prevalence is also higher compared to national prevalence. This could be contributed by the increasing number of obesity and in addition, our unit accepts referrals of women with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 40. Hence, further studies are required to look at other risk factors like ethnicity, socio-economic status, health literacy and age, which could contribute to this high prevalence.

Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, prevalence, Western Australia, Australia

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1344 Prevalence of Dens Evaginatus in Adolescent Population of Melaka: A Retrospective Study

Authors: Preethy Mary Donald, Renjith George Pallivathukal

Abstract:

Dens evaginatus (DE) is a rare developmental anomaly characterized by a slender enamel-covered tubercle which projects from the occlusal surface of an otherwise normal premolar. DE can often interfere normal occlusion and can lead to complications like sensitivity, pulpal exposure and temporo mandibular joint problems. The orthopantomographs (OPGs) and dental records of patients under the age of 20 who attended the faculty of dentistry, Melaka-Manipal Medical College were examined for DE. Results: The prevalence of DE was 23% among the study group. Males presented with a higher prevalence of 67% and females with 33%. The prevalence of Dens evaginatus was distributed as 28% in maxillary central incisor, 52% in maxillary lateral incisors, 12% in mandibular second premolars. Prevalence in permanent dentitions appeared to be higher than deciduous dentition. The bilateral occurrence of Dens evaginatus is an interesting phenomenon. 57% of the cases of the DE were bilateral.

Keywords: deciduous dentition, dens evaginatus, permanent dentition, prevalence

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1343 Investigating the Epidemiological Prevalence of Diabetes in Afghanistan from 2015 to 2019

Authors: Pouriya Darabiyan, Kourosh Zarea, Saeed Ghanbari, Aseya Temori, Shokreya Ehsani

Abstract:

Introduction: Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is one of the top 10 leading causes of death in adults. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological prevalence of diabetes in Afghanistan between 2015 and 2019. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed using the information of diabetics registered in the system related to the Ministry of Health of Afghanistan from 2015 to 2019. Eventually, people's information, including age, gender, and place of residence, was entered into STATA software version 12 and analyzed using descriptive statistics tests. Results: The study, which was performed on 49,339 people with diabetes in 34 provinces and 8 regions of Afghanistan, found that most of the women studied were 55.2% (272,311) women and had the highest and lowest prevalence in the region. The order is related to South East and South. The average prevalence of diabetes per 10,000 people is about 62.13. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes in Afghanistan over a five-year period in men and women is on the rise, requiring more attention from relevant authorities to improve public health and prevent, control and treat chronic diseases such as diabetes. Keywords: Diabetes, Prevalence, Afghanistan, Epidemiology

Keywords: diabetes, prevalence, Afghanistan, epidemiology

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1342 Prevalence of Rabbit Coccidia in Medea Province, Algeria

Authors: Mohamed Sadek Bachene, Soraya Temim, Hassina Ainbaziz, Asma Bachene

Abstract:

Coccidiosis has an economic impact for poultry and livestock. The current study examined the prevalence ofEimeria infections in domestic rabbits in Medea province, North of Algeria. A total of 414 faecal samples were collected from 50 farms in six regions of the province. Each faecal sample was subjected to oocyst counting andisolation. The Eimeria species from samples containing isolated and sporulatedoocysts were morphologically identified microscopically. The overall prevalence of coccidial infections was 47.6% (197/414). Weaners had the highest prevalence (77%, 77/100, p<0.0001), followed by growing rabbits (46.8%, 30/64), and the adult rabbits showed the lowest prevalence (36 %, 18/50). In breeding rabbits, females were more infected with a prevalence of40% (p<0.0001). Eleven rabbit Eimeria’s species were present and identified from oocyst positive samples. Eimeriamagna and Eimeria media were the most prevalent species (47.6% and 47.3%). Sulfonamides showed a better protection against rabbit coccidiosis than colistin and trimethoprim association (p< 0.0001, the prevalence of 23.3% vs.65.3%, respectively). These results indicated that the prevalence of coccidiosis is high among the rabbit population inMedea province, North of Algeria. As a conclusion, it seems that the epidemiological situation of rabbit coccidiosisin Medea province must be taken into consideration in order to minimize the economic losses caused by this parasitosis.

Keywords: eimeria, oryctolagus cuniculus, rabbit, sulfonamides

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1341 Prevalence of Depression among Post Stroke Survivors in South Asian Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Roseminu Varghese, Laveena Anitha Barboza, Jyothi Chakrabarty, Ravishankar

Abstract:

Depression among post-stroke survivors is prevalent, but it is unidentified. The purpose of this review was to determine the pooled prevalence of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian region from all published health sciences research articles. The review also aimed to analyze the disparities in the prevalence of depression among the post-stroke survivors from different study locations. Data search to identify the relevant research articles published from 2005 to 2016 was done by using mesh terms and keywords in Web of Science, PubMed Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, J gate, IndMED databases. The final analysis comprised of 9 studies, including a population of 1,520 men and women. Meta-analysis was performed in STATA version 13.0. The overall pooled post-stroke depression prevalence was 0.46, 95% (CI), (0.3- 0.62). The prevalence rate in this systematic review is evident of depression among post-stroke survivors in the South Asian Region. Identifying the prevalence of post-stroke depression at an early stage is important to improve outcomes of the rehabilitative process of stroke survivors and for its early intervention.

Keywords: depression, post stroke survivors, prevalence, systematic review

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1340 A Machine Learning-Based Analysis of Autism Prevalence Rates across US States against Multiple Potential Explanatory Variables

Authors: Ronit Chakraborty, Sugata Banerji

Abstract:

There has been a marked increase in the reported prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) among children in the US over the past two decades. This research has analyzed the growth in state-level ASD prevalence against 45 different potentially explanatory factors, including socio-economic, demographic, healthcare, public policy, and political factors. The goal was to understand if these factors have adequate predictive power in modeling the differential growth in ASD prevalence across various states and if they do, which factors are the most influential. The key findings of this study include (1) the confirmation that the chosen feature set has considerable power in predicting the growth in ASD prevalence, (2) the identification of the most influential predictive factors, (3) given the nature of the most influential predictive variables, an indication that a considerable portion of the reported ASD prevalence differentials across states could be attributable to over and under diagnosis, and (4) identification of Florida as a key outlier state pointing to a potential under-diagnosis of ASD there.

Keywords: autism spectrum disorder, clustering, machine learning, predictive modeling

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1339 Attitude, Practice, and Prevalence of Injuries among Building Construction Workers in Lagos State

Authors: O. J. Makinde, O. A. Abiola

Abstract:

Background: Hazards and injuries are two common phenomena that have been associated with the building construction profession. Apart from injuries, deaths from injuries sustained at work have been high in this profession. This study, therefore, attempts to determine the attitude, practice, and prevalence of injuries among this group of workers. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with 285 respondents. The sampling was multi-staged. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to elicit information such as socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, attitude and practice of occupational safety and prevalence of injuries among the workers. The data were analyzed using epi-info 3.5.1 statistical software. Result: The modal age group is 25-34yrs which made up 40% of the respondents. Most of the respondents were male (86.3%). Most of the respondent (52.3%) have their highest educational level as the secondary school. Most of the respondents (64.9%) had a poor attitude to occupational safety while 91.6% had poor occupational safety practices. The prevalence of occupational injury was very high (64.9%). Particles in the eyes have the highest prevalence (52.3%) while electric shock has the least prevalence (19.6%).None of the respondent working at a height used safety belt while working. Conclusion: Attitude and practice of occupational safety are poor among this group of workers and prevalence of injuries was high.

Keywords: building, construction, Hazard, injury, workers

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1338 Studies on the Prevalence and Determination of Associated Risk Factors of Babesia in Goats of District Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Tauseef-ur-Rehman, Rao Zahid Abbas, Wasim Babar, Arbab Sikandar

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Babesiosis is an infection due to the multiplication of tick borne parasite, Babesia sp., in erythrocytes of host (variety of vertebrates) including small ruminants and is responsible for decreased livestock output and hence economic losses. A cross-sectional study was designed in order to evaluate the prevalence of Babesia and its relation with various associated factors in district Toba Tek Singh, Central Punjab, Pakistan in 2009-2010. A total 10.84% (50/461) out of 461 examined cases for Babesia were found positive for Babesia infection. Month-wise peak prevalence was observed in July (17.95%), while no positive case was recorded in Dec-2009 and Jan-2010. The prevalence of infection in different goat breeds was found as non-significant (P < 0.05) for Babesia infection. The prevalence of Babesia was found significantly (P < 0.05) dependent to the goat age and sex. The feeding system, housing system, floor type and herd size revealed strong correlation with Babesia prevalence, while watering system and body conditions were found to be non-significant (P < 0.05), and hence it is suggested that with the improvement of management precautions Babesiosis can be avoided.

Keywords: Babesia, goat, prevalence, Pakistan, risk factors

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1337 Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Lesions in Malaysia: A Teaching Hospital Based Study

Authors: Renjith George Pallivathukal, Preethy Mary Donald

Abstract:

Asymptomatic oral lesions are often ignored by the patients and usually will be identified only in advanced stages. Early detection of precancerous lesions is important for better prognosis. It is also important for the oral health care person to be aware of the regional prevalence of oral lesions in order to provide early care for the same. We conducted a retrospective study to assess the prevalence of oral lesions based on the information available from patient records in a teaching dental school. Dental records of patients who attended the department of Oral medicine and diagnosis between September 2014 and September 2016 were retrieved and verified for oral lesions. Results: The ages of the patients ranged from 13 to 38 years with a mean age of 21.8 years. The lesions were classified as white (40.5%), red (23%), ulcerated (10.5%), pigmented (15.2%) and soft tissue enlargements (10.8%). 52% of the patients were unaware of the oral lesions before the dental visit. Overall, the prevalence of lesions in dental patients lower to national estimates, but the prevalence of some lesions showed variations.

Keywords: oral mucosal lesion, pre-cancer, prevalence, soft tissue lesion

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1336 Assessment of Dietary Intake of Pregnant Women

Authors: Tuleshova Gulnara, Abduldayeva Aigul

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The goal is based on the studying the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies among children and women of reproductive age to develop evidence-based recommendations aimed at improving the effectiveness of programs to prevent micronutrient deficiency. Subject: In our study we used a representative, random sample, carried out with the cluster method in the precinct of the principle areas of medical care for children 5 years of old. If the site has at least 60 children under 5 years of old, each second child was sampled, and if more than 60 children - each third child (first child selected by random sampling). The total number of investigated persons was within 80-86 women of reproductive age and children - within 80-92 people. Results: The studies found that the average prevalence of anemia among children aged 6-59 months was 35.2%, with the most susceptible to iron deficiency anemia in infants aged 6-23 months (53.3%). The prevalence of anemia among non-pregnant women was 39.0% among pregnant women - 43.8%. In children, the prevalence of folate deficiency was the highest (27.6%). Among non-pregnant women, frequent prevalence of folic acid deficiency was 37.0%. The prevalence of vitamin A deficiency was higher among children living in Astana (37.4%) compared with the medium-republican level (23.2%).

Keywords: nutrition, pregnant women, micronutrients, macronutrients

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1335 Universal Screening for GBS and Efficacy of GBS Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis [IAP] an Al Rahba Experience

Authors: Ritu Nambiar, Shazia Tariq, Sumaira Jamil, Farida Munawar, Imelda Israell

Abstract:

GBS has emerged as a leading cause of neonatal infections worldwide and clinical trials have demonstrated that giving IAP was effective in reducing early onset GBS (EOGBS) disease of the newborn. There is no available data on the prevalence of GBS in the UAE, therefore, a retrospective chart analysis of our parturients were done to look at our prevalence. The aim of this study is: 1. To study the prevalence of GBS colonization of parturients at al Rahba Hospital following universal screening between 35-37 week. 2. To look at efficacy of GBS intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis by NICU admission for EO GBS disease of the newborn. 1) The prevalence of GBS in our patient population is 24.15%. 2) Incidence of EO GBS disease of the newborn was 0.6%.

Keywords: GBS Screening, universal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, parturients, newborn

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1334 Factors Influencing Prevalence of HIV/AIDS Among Men Who Have Sex With men (MSM) Aged 18-24 years in Mtwapa Town, Kilifi County, Kenya

Authors: Oscar Maina Irungu

Abstract:

Background: Men who have sex with men (MSM) in Mtwapa Town, Kilifi County are at high risk of HIV infection. Probability sample surveys to determine HIV prevalence among MSM in Mtwapa are needed to inform prevention and care services. Methods: In 2013, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among MSM aged 18-24 years old, using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) in Mtwapa. Consenting MSM were tested for HIV (fingerstick rapid test). Population-based prevalence and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using RDS Analysis Tool (RDSAT). Results: Among 274 MSM, the median age was 20 years (IQR: 19-23 years). Fifty percent of MSM reported not selling sex, while 13.2 % reported sex work as their “main occupation”, and another 28.4 % reported selling sex in the past two months (but not as their main occupation).Overall HIV prevalence was 19.2 % (CI: 12.2-23.6%). HIV prevalence was higher among MSM who reported sex work as their main occupation (28.3%,CI: 12.1-42.3%) or selling sex in the past two months (26.6 %, CI: 17.2-35.7 %),than among MSM who did not sell sex (11.6%,CI: 7.0-18.1%). Conclusion: HIV prevalence among MSM were high than among Kilifi’s general population aged 15-64 years (8.8%; 2010 KAIS) and highest in male sex workers. Health programs need to address concerns and modify services to meet needs of diverse subgroups of MSM. We recommend continued, periodic surveillance to monitor HIV prevalence among MSM in Mtwapa, and expansion to other areas in Kenya.

Keywords: power point, Kenya, homosexuality, sex

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1333 Progression Rate, Prevalence, Incidence of Black Band Disease on Stony (Scleractinia) in Barranglompo Island, South Sulawesi

Authors: Baso Hamdani, Arniati Massinai, Jamaluddin Jompa

Abstract:

Coral diseases are one of the factors affect reef degradation. This research had analysed the progression rate, incidence, and prevalence of Black Band Disease (BBD) on stony coral (Pachyseris sp.) in relation to the environmental parameters (pH, nitrate, phospate, Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM), and turbidity). The incidence of coral disease was measured weekly for 6 weeks using Belt Transect Method. The progression rate of BBD was measured manually. Furthermore, the prevalence and incidence of BBD were calculated each colonies infected. The relationship between environmental parameters and the progression rate, prevalence and incidence of BBD was analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The results showed the average of progression rate is 0,07 ± 0,02 cm/ hari. The prevalence of BBD increased from 0,92% - 19,73% in 7 weeks observation with the average incidence of new infected colonies coral 0,2 - 0,65 colony/day The environment factors which important were pH, Nitrate, Phospate, DOM, and Turbidity.

Keywords: progression rate, incidence, prevalence, Black Band Disease, Barranglompo

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1332 Estimating and Forecasting the Prevalence and Incidence of Dysphagia in New Zealand

Authors: Shnece Duncan, Andrea Menclova, Philip Gunby, Maggie-Lee Huckabee

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The incidence and prevalence of dysphagia in New Zealand havenot been well researched and are the focus of this paper. In 2020, 1.5% of the general New Zealand population were estimated to be living withdysphagia, while 9,300 individuals newly developed the condition. By 2073, this prevalence is projected to increase to 2.6% and incidence to 24,500 individuals. Our results indicate a significant number of New Zealanders are likely living with dysphagia. This number is predicted to increase in the future, indicating an increased burden on thepopulation and the healthcare system. Objectives: This paper aims to estimate the prevalence and incidence of dysphagia in the New Zealand general population and to use these estimates to predict the future number and demographic composition of individuals affected by dysphagia. Methods: Prevalence and incidence rates of dysphagia within medical conditions causing the disorder were sourced from existing literature. Median population estimates from Statistics New Zealand, by age and ethnicity, were used to project estimates to 2073. Contributions: Our work provides a useful starting point to assess future healthcare resource demands associated with dysphagia, assisting with healthcare provision planning, and to analyse the cost-effectiveness of new interventions for dysphagic patients.

Keywords: dysphagia, prevalence, incidence, New Zealand

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1331 The Global Relationship between the Prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus and Incidence of Tuberculosis: 2000-2012

Authors: Alaa Badawi, Suzan Sayegh, Mohamed Sallam, Eman Sadoun, Mohamed Al-Thani, Muhammad W. Alam, Paul Arora

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Background: The dual burden of tuberculosis (TB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has increased over the past decade with DM prevalence increasing in countries already afflicted with a high burden of TB. The coexistence of the two conditions presents a serious threat to global public health. Objective: The present study examines the global relationship between the prevalence of DM and the incidence of TB to evaluate their coexistence worldwide and their contribution to one another. Methods: This is an ecological longitudinal study covering the period between years 2000 to 2012. We utilized data from the WHO and World Bank sources and International Diabetes Federation to estimate prevalence of DM (%) and the incidence of TB (per 100,000). Measures of central tendency and dispersion as well as the harmonic mean and linear regression were used for different WHO regions. The association between DM prevalence and TB incidence was examined by quartile of DM prevalence. Results: The worldwide average (±S.D.) prevalence of DM within the study period was 6.6±3.8% whereas TB incidence was 135.0±190.5 per 100,000. DM prevalence was highest in the Eastern Mediterranean (8.3±4.1) and West Pacific (8.2±5.6) regions and lowest in the Africa (3.5±2.6). TB incidence was highest in Africa (313.1±275.9 per 100,000) and South-East Asia (216.7±124.9) and lowest in the European (46.5±68.6) and American (47.2±52.9) regions. Only countries with high DM prevalence (>7.6%) showed a significant positive association with TB incidence (r=0.17, p=0.013). Conclusion: A positive association between DM and TB may exist in some – but not all – world regions, a dual burden that necessitates identifying the nature of this coexistence to assist in developing public health approaches that curb their rising burden.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, tuberculosis, disease burden, global association

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1330 Incidence and Prevalence of Dry Eye Syndrome in Different Occupational Sector of Society

Authors: Vergeena Varghese, G. Gajalakshmi, Jayarajini Vasanth

Abstract:

The present study deals with the indication of prevalence of dry eye and evaluates environmental risk factors attributed to dry eye in different occupational sectors. 240 subjects above 20 years and below 45 years of age were screened for dry eye. Mcmonnies dry eye questionnaire based history and Schirmer’s test were used to diagnose dry eye. For Schirmer’s test Whatman strip and paracaine drop used as an anesthetic. Subject’s demographics include age, sex, smoking, alcoholism, occupation history and working environment. Out of a total of 240 subjects, 52 subjects were positive for dry eye syndrome (21.7%). The highest prevalence of dry eye syndrome in software sector was 14subjects (26.9%) out of a total of 40 subjects. In the construction sector, the prevalence of dry eye syndrome had 12 subjects (23.1%) out of 40 subjects and 9 subjects (17.3%) out of 40 subjects in agriculture sector. 7 subjects (13.5%) who had dry eye out of 40 subjects in the transport sector and in industrial 6 subjects (11.5%). In a normal sector, this was taken as control group had dry eye in 4 subjects (7.7%) out of 40 subjects. We also found the prevalence of dry eye in OS was higher than OD. Dry eye is a most common ocular condition. The highest prevalence of dry eye syndrome in software sector was 14 members than other sector. There was a significant correlation between environmental and occupational factors to cause dry eye. Excessive exposure to sunlight, wind, high temperature, and air pollution, electromagnetic radiation are the factors affect the tear film and ocular surface causing the dry eye syndrome.

Keywords: DES – dry eye syndrome, Mcmonnies dry eye questionnaire, schirmer’s test, whatman vstrip

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1329 Prevalence of Selected Cardiovascular Risk Factors Obesity among University of Venda Staff

Authors: Avhasei Dorothy Rasifudi, Josephine Mandizha

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Cardiovascular risk factors continue to be the leading cause of death in the majority of developed and developing countries. In 2011, the World Health Organization reported that every year an estimated 17 million people globally die of CVD, representing 30% of all global deaths, particularly caused by heart attacks and strokes. The purpose of the study was to determine and describe the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors among university of Venda staff. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 100 staff aged 20-65 years. The anthropometric measurements were conducted in accordance to and with standardized procedures advocated by the International Society for the Advanced Kinanthropometry. Weight, Height, waist circumference and hip circumference were measured for calculation of body mass index and waist-hip ratio. Blood pressure was measured using a Heine cuff and sphygmomanometer. Questionnaire was administered to gather demographic details and cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. The parameter t-test was applied to test significance level at p ≤ 0.05 between sexes. The statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. The prevalence of hypertension was 23% with the highest prevalence amongst those aged 40 years and above. Factors found to be to be significantly associated with hypertension were gender, age, physical inactivity and family history. Prevalence of obesity was 43%, with the highest prevalence among those aged 40 years. The factors associated with obesity were diet, age and physical activity. The prevalence of hypertension and obesity in the study were high.

Keywords: cardiovascular, prevalence, risk factors, staff

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1328 Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Estuarine Fish from Dhaka City Markets

Authors: Fahmida Khalique Nitu

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Little is known on the biosafety level of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish in Bangladesh. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and concentration of V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fishes using the Polymerase Chain Reaction( PCR) method . The study was conducted on 37 fishes of different species from different types of estuarine fish commonly sold at city markets. Sampling was done on the intestinal tract and gills of each fish. The prevalence of V. parahaemolyticus was found to be 29.72% with higher percentages detected in samples from the gills (89.28%) followed by the intestinal tract (10.71%). The density of Vibrio spp. in the gill of estuarine fishes with an average was 4.4 x103CFU/g and in the intestine samples was 1.5x103 CFU/g. The outcome of the biosafety assessment V. parahaemolyticus in estuarine fish indicates another potential source of food safety issues to consumers.

Keywords: biosafety, estuarine, prevalence, Vibrios

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1327 Survey on Prevalence of Endo and Ecto-Parasites of Rattus rattus in Mazandaran Province, North of Iran

Authors: Fatemeh Rezaei, Afsaneh Amouei, Iman Bakouei, Mahdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mohammad Taghi Rahimi, Ahmad Daryani

Abstract:

Background: Rodents act as reservoir host and important potential source for many zoonotic pathogens which pose a public health risk to humans. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites among rodents. Materials and Methods: 118 Rattus rattus were captured using snap live traps. Each rat was combed with a fine tooth comb to dislodge ectoparasite and studied. Various samples were collected from feces, examined wet smear, formalin-ether method and stained with modified acid-fast staining and trichrome. Result: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of examined rats was 75.4%. Cryptosporidium 30.5%, was the most prevalent protozoan which was followed by Giardia 20.3% and Entamoeba muris 13.5%, Trichomonas muris 10.1% and Spironucleus muris 3.3%. The prevalence of helminth egg was as following Syphacia obvelata 24.5%, Hymenolepis diminuta 10.1% and Trichuris muris 9.3%. 86.4% rodents were found to be infested with ectoparasites including mite 35.6%, flea 28.4%, and lice 42.7%. A significant statistical difference was observed between prevalence and gender of infected individuals. Conclusions: The prevalence of gastrointestinal and ectoparasites of collected rats in studied area is remarkably high. In addition, Rattus rattus can be considered as potential risk for human health.

Keywords: prevalence, rodent, intestinal parasites, ecto-parasites, zoonose

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1326 Prevalence of the Musculoskeletal Disorder amongst School Teachers

Authors: Nirav Vaghela, Sanket Parekh

Abstract:

Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) represent one of the most common and important occupational health problems in working populations, being responsible for a substantial impact on quality of life and incurring a major economic burden in compensation cost and lost wages. School teachers represent an occupational group among which there appears to be a high prevalence of MSD. Design: Three hundred and fourteen teachers were enrolled in this study. Teachers were interview with the Modified Nordic Questionnaire. Result: In current study total 314 participants have been recruited in that minimum age of participants is 22 and maximum age is 59 with mean 40.5± 9.88. Total prevalence of the MSD is 71.95% among the teachers. In that Female were more affected with 72% than the males with 28%. Conclusion: The teachers here in reported a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain in the shoulder, knee and back.

Keywords: repetitive stress injury, pain, occupational hazards, disability, abneetism, physical health, quality of life

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1325 Real-World Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nigeria

Authors: F. Fatoye, C. E. Mbada, T. Gebrye, A. O. Ogunsola, C. Fatoye, O. Oyewole

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Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major cause of pain and disability. It is likely to become a greater economic and public health burden that is unnecessary. Thus, reliable prevalence figures are important for both clinicians and policy-makers to plan health care needs for those affected with the disease. This study estimated hospital based real-world prevalence of MSDs in Nigeria. A review of medical charts for adult patients attending Physiotherapy Outpatient Clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Osun State, Nigeria between 2009 and 2018 was carried out to identify common MSDs including low back pain (LBP), cervical spondylosis (CSD), post immobilization stiffness (PIS), sprain, osteoarthritis (OA), and other conditions. Occupational class of the patients was determined using the International Labour Classification (ILO). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency and percentages. Overall, medical charts of 3,340 patients were reviewed within the span of ten years (2009 to 2018). Majority of the patients (62.8%) were in the middle class, and the remaining were in low class (25.1%) and high class (10.5%) category. An overall prevalence of 47.35% of MSD was found within the span of ten years. Of this, the prevalence of LBP, CSD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other conditions was 21.6%, 10%, 18.9%, 2%, 6.3%, and 41.3%, respectively. The highest (14.2%) and lowest (10.5%) prevalence of MSDs was recorded in the year of 2012 and 2018, respectively. The prevalence of MSDs is considerably high among Nigerian patients attending outpatient a physiotherapy clinic. The high prevalence of MSDs underscores the need for clinicians and decision makers to put in place appropriate strategies to reduce the prevalence of these conditions. In addition, they should plan and evaluate healthcare services to improve the health outcomes of patients with MSDs. Further studies are required to determine the economic burden of the condition and examine the clinical and cost-effectiveness of physiotherapy interventions for patients with MSDs.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, Nigeria, prevalence, real world

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1324 Prevalence and Correlates of Anxiety and Depression among Family Carers of Cancer

Authors: Godfrey Katende, Lillian Nakimera

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The process of caregiving may cause emotional distress in form of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients. Little is known about the prevalence anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients in Uganda. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers of cancer patients and related factors associated with abnormal levels of anxiety and depression. A total of 119 family carers from Uganda Cancer Institute (UCI) were assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) standardized questionnaire. The prevalence of anxiety and depression among family carers was high (45% and 26 % respectively); (2) abnormal levels of anxiety (ALA) and depression (ALD) was significantly associated with being a relative carer. Incorporating evidence based psychological therapies targeting family carers into usual care of cancer patients is imperative.

Keywords: anxiety, cancer, carer, cross-sectional design, depression, Uganda

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1323 Prevalence of Cerebral Microbleeds in Apparently Healthy, Elderly Population: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Vidishaa Jali, Amit Sinha, Kameshwar Prasad

Abstract:

Background and Objective: Cerebral microbleeds are frequently found in healthy elderly individuals. We performed a meta- analysis to determine the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds in apparently healthy, elderly population and to determine the effect of age, smoking and hypertension on the occurrence of cerebral microbleeds. Methods: Relevant literature was searched using electronic databases such as MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane database, Google scholar to identify studies on the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds in general elderly population till March 2016. STATA version 13 software was used for analysis. Fixed effect model was used if heterogeneity was less than 50%. Otherwise, random effect model was used. Meta- regression analysis was performed to check any effect of important variables such as age, smoking, hypertension. Selection Criteria: We included cross-sectional studies performed in apparently healthy elderly population, who had age more than 50 years. Results: The pooled proportion of cerebral microbleeds in healthy population is 12% (95% CI, 0.11 to 0.13). No significant effect of age was found on the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds (p= 0.99). A linear relationship between increase in hypertension and the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds was found, however, this linear relationship was not statistically significant (p=0.16). Similarly, A linear relationship between increase in smoking and the prevalence of cerebral microbleeds was found, however, this linear relationship was also not statistically significant (p=0.21). Conclusion: Presence of cerebral microbleeds is evident in apparently healthy, elderly population, in more than 10% of individuals.

Keywords: apparently healthy, elderly, prevalence, cerebral microbleeds

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1322 The Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity among Adolescents in Public and Private Schools in Two Senatorial Districts of Osun State, Nigeria

Authors: O. Akinola, R. Mustapha

Abstract:

Obesity is the most serious long-term health problem currently facing adolescents and its prevalence increasing worldwide including developing countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out among age 11-19 years in both public and private school in the urban area of the state. The data was collected using pretest self-administered questionnaire; Anthropometric measurement was also used to examine their nutritional status. Obesity status were determined using BMI cut off point, the overweight was found to be 3.06% among female and 0.6% among male whereas the prevalence of obesity was 0.46% in female and non among male. 62.6% snack daily, fruit consumption pattern was low 0.6%, and 43.7% spend between 4-5 hours watching television daily after school. A positive association exists between the lifestyle and nutritional status of the respondents. Education effort to improve nutrition knowledge can be incorporated into course curriculum and focus on various components within the system when implementing preventive measure on obesity.

Keywords: adolescent, obesity, overweight, prevalence

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1321 The Prevalence of Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia Coli O157 (VTEC) in Dairy Cattle in Tripoli Area, Libya

Authors: Imad Buishi, Almabrouk Fares, Hallowma Helmi

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Infection with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in humans can lead to mild or bloody diarrhea with the hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) as a possible complication. Cattle appear to be important reservoirs for VTEC O157. Epidemiologic studies on the prevalence of VTEC O157 in dairy cattle in Libya have never been conducted. To investigate the prevalence and the risk factors associated with VTEC O157 on dairy farms in Tripoli region, fecal samples from 200 apparently healthy cows were collected once from 15 randomly selected dairy farms in the period July 2010 through September 2010. All fecal samples were examined for the prevalence of VTEC O157 by conventional plating using Sorbitol-MacConkey agar (SMAC). Isolated of E. coli were subjected to slide agglutination test using E. coli O157 antiserum. The results pointed out that the prevalence within-herd and among herds were 9% and 60% respectively. The prevalence of VTEC O157 in fecal samples of dairy cattle was significantly associated with husbandry practices on farm-level such as signs of diarrhoea (p=0.02, OR=3.2) and sharing water trough (p= 0.03, OR=3.0). It was concluded that dairy cattle in Tripoli area are important reservoirs of VTEC O157 strains that are potentially pathogenic for humans. When aiming at reducing risks for human by intervention at farm-level, it is of importance to reduce the number of positive animals and farms. For this, more research is needed to devise mitigation strategies that will reduce the on-farm contamination of VTEC O157.

Keywords: VTEC O157, prevalence, dairy cattle, tripoli

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1320 Health Hazards among Health Care Workers and Associated Factors in Public Hospitals, Sana'a-Yemen

Authors: Makkia Ahmad Al-Falahi

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Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) in Yemen are exposed to a myriad of occupational health hazards, including biological, physical, ergonomic, chemical and psychosocial hazards. HCWs operate in an environment that is considered to be one of the most hazardous occupational settings Objective: To assess the prevalence of occupational health hazards among health care workers and associated risk factors in public hospitals in Sana'a city Yemen. Method: Descriptive cross-sectional design was utilized, out of 5443 totals of HCWs 396 were selected by multistage sampling technique was carried out in the public hospitals in Sana'a city Yemen. Results: More the half (60.6%) of health care workers aged between 20-30 years, regarding to sex (50.8%) were males, about marital status (56.3%) were married, and regarding to level of education (45.5%) they had a nursing diploma, while (65.2%) of HCWs had less than 6 years' experience. The results showed a high prevalence of occupational hazards among health workers the total prevalence was (99%). Regarding to the types of occupational hazard, it was as follows (ergonomic hazards (93.4%), biological hazards (87.6%), psychosocial (86.65%), physical hazards (83.3%), and chemical hazards (73.5%). There were no statistically significant differences between demographic characteristics and prevalence of occupational hazard (p >0.05). Conclusion and recommendations: The study showed highest prevalence of occupational hazards, regarding to the prevalence of biological hazards exposure to sharp related injury, most prevalence of physical hazards was slip/trip/and fall. Ergonomic hazards had back or neck pain during work. Chemical hazards were allergic to medical gloves powder. On psychosocial hazards was suffered from verbal and physical harassment. The study concluded by raising awareness among HCWs by conducting training courses to prevent occupational hazards.

Keywords: health workers, occupational hazard, prevalence, risk factors

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1319 Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors Associated with Skin Affection in Donkeys

Authors: Mohamed Z. Sayed-Ahmed, Ahmed M. Ahdy, Emad E. Younis, Sabry A. El-Khodary

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Little research information is available on the prevalence of diseases of donkeys in Egypt. Across sectional study was undertaken between March 2009 and February 2010 to verify the prevalence of skin affection of donkeys. A total of 1134 donkeys in northern Egypt were investigated. A questionnaire was constructed to verify the number of infected contact animals as well as the associated factors. Physical examination was carried out, and the distribution of skin lesions was recorded. Skin scraping and biopsy were obtained to perform bacteriological, mycological, and histopathological examinations. Thirty-five (3.09%) out of 1134 noticed donkeys had skin affections including mange (18/35), dermatophytosis (6/35), bacterial dermatitis (6/35) urticaria (2/35) and allergic dermatitis (3/35). The present results indicate that mange and dermatophytosis are the prevalent skin diseases in donkeys. Contact with other animal species of contaminated environment may contribute to the occurrence of the diseases.

Keywords: donkeys, Egypt, prevalence, skin affection

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1318 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella spp. Isolated from Pigs at Slaughterhouses in Northeast of Thailand

Authors: Sunpetch Angkititrakul, Seree Klaengair, Dusadee Phongaran, Arunee Ritthipanun

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The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella spp. isolated from pigs at slaughterhouses in the northeast of Thailand. During 2015-2016, all samples were isolated and identified by ISO 6579:2002. A total of 699 samples of rectal swab were collected and isolated for the presence of Salmonella. Salmonella was detected in 275 of 699 (39.34%) samples. 24 serovars were identified in the 275 isolates. The most prevalent serovars were rissen (36.97%), S. enterica ser.4,5,12:i: (25.35%) and typhimurium (21.33%). In this study, 76.30% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial drug and 38.39% were multidrug resistant. The highest resistances were found in ampicillin (69.20%), tetracycline (66.35%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (35.55%) and chloramphenicol (9.00%) The results showed high prevalence of Salmonella spp. in pigs and high antimicrobial resistance among the isolates, and indicated the need for monitoring program to control Salmonella contamination and reduce the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in pig supply chain.

Keywords: prevalence, antimicrobial resistance, Salmonella spp., pig

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1317 The Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Their Associated Factors among Nurses in Jordan

Authors: Khader A. Almhdawi, Hassan Alrabbaie

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Background: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) represent a significant challenge for registered nurses. To our best knowledge, there is no published study that investigated the prevalence of MSDs among nurses and their associated factors comprehensively in Jordan. This study aimed to find the prevalence of MSDs, their possible predictors among registered nurses in Jordanian hospitals. Methods: A cross-sectional design was used. Outcome measures included Nordic Musculoskeletal Questioner (NMQ), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), IPAQ, and sociodemographic data. Prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was reported using descriptive analysis. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify predictors of MSDs. Results: 597 nurses from different hospitals in Jordan participated in this study. Reported MSDs prevalence was the highest at neck (61.1%), followed by upper back (47.2%), shoulder (46.7%), wrist and hands (27.3%), and elbow (13.9%). Significant predictors of MSDs among Jordanian nurses included: being a female, poor sleep quality, high physical activity levels, poor ergonomics, increased workload, and mental stress. Conclusion: This study showed a high prevalence of MSDs among Jordanian nurses and identified their significant predictors. Future studies are needed to investigate the progressive nature of MSDs and their effective treatment strategies.

Keywords: musculoskeletal disorders, nursing, ergonomic, occupational stress

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1316 Prevalence of Sarcocystosis in Slaughtered Sheep and Goats

Authors: Shivan N. Hussein, Ihsan K. Zangana

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A total of 2358 sheep and 532 goats were examined for the presence of macrocystis of Sarcocystis. For microcysts, different muscle tissues were randomly taken from 118 sheep and 110 goats. Macrocystis were examined through naked eye inspection, while microcysts were examined microscopically by using histopathology, pepsin digestion, mincing & squeezing, and muscle squash method. Overall prevalence of macrocystis was 1.2% in sheep and 2.6% in goats. The intensity rate of the cysts was 4 cysts/ gram in sheep & 3 cysts/ gram in goats, respectively, while the overall prevalence of microcysts in sheep and goats was 96.5%. The infection rate in sheep was 96.6% and in goats was 96.4%. The total intensity rate of microcysts was 32.4 cysts/ field in sheep and 16.8 cysts/ field in goats, respectively. Histopathological examination found different shapes, size, wall thickness, and intensity rates of microcysts in muscle tissues of sheep & goats. The pathological reaction showed mild to moderate granulocytosis, and mononuclear cells infiltrated surrounding the microcysts with necrotizing and degeneration of myofibrils. The largest average size of spindle and round shaped cysts (290 ± 89.7 x 76.1 ± 10 µm and 88.8 ± 10.3 µm) in goats and (127.2 ± 18.9 x 53.3 ± 5.4 µm and 74.4 ± 7.5 µm) in sheep, was detected in the esophageal muscle. Statistically, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the prevalence of macrocystis in sheep and goats, while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was observed in the prevalence of microcysts between both animal species.

Keywords: macrocystis, microcysts, intensity rate, measurement size

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