Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 63

Search results for: atrial fibrillation

63 Long-Term Results of Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: One Center Experience

Authors: Emil Sakharov, Alex Zotov, Ilkin Osmanov, Oleg Shelest, Aleksander Troitskiy, Robert Khabazov


Objective: Since 2015, our center has been actively implementing methods of surgical correction of atrial fibrillation, in particular, in patients with coronary heart disease. The study presents a comparative analysis of the late postoperative period in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting and atrial fibrillation. Methods: The study included 150 patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation for the period from 2015 to 2021. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group is represented by patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation who underwent coronary bypass surgery and surgical correction of atrial fibrillation (N=50). The second group is represented by patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation who underwent only myocardial revascularization (N=100). Patients were comparable in age, gender, and initial severity of the condition. Among the patients in group 1 there were 82% were men, while in the second group, their number was 75%. Among the patients of the first group, there were 36% with persistent atrial fibrillation, 20% with long-term persistent atrial fibrillation. In the second group, 10% with persistent atrial fibrillation and 17% with long-term persistent atrial fibrillation. Results: Average follow-up for groups 1 and 2 amounted to 47 months. There were no complications in group 1, such as bleeding and stroke. There was only 1 patient in group 1, who had died from cardiovascular disease. Freedom of atrial fibrillation was in 82% without AADs therapy. In group 2 there were 8 patients who had died from cardiovascular diseases and total freedom of atrial fibrillation was in 35% of patients, among which 42.8% had additional AADs therapy. Follow-up data are presented in Table 2. Progression of heart failure was observed in 3% in group 1 and 7% in group 2. Combined endpoints (recurrence of AF, stroke, progression of heart failure, myocardial infarction) were achieved in 16% in group 1 and 34% in group 2, respectively. Freedom from atrial fibrillation without antiarrhythmic therapy was 82% for group 1 and 35% for group 2. In the first group, there is a more pronounced decrease in heart failure rates. Deaths from cardiovascular causes were recorded in 2% for group 1 and 7% for group 2. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation helps to reduce adverse complications in the late postoperative period and contributes to the regression of heart failure.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, coronary artery bypass grafting, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure

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62 Signal Estimation and Closed Loop System Performance in Atrial Fibrillation Monitoring with Communication Channels

Authors: Mohammad Obeidat, Ayman Mansour


In this paper a unique issue rising from feedback control of Atrial Fibrillation monitoring system with embedded communication channels has been investigated. One of the important factors to measure the performance of the feedback control closed loop system is disturbance and noise attenuation factor. It is important that the feedback system can attenuate such disturbances on the atrial fibrillation heart rate signals. Communication channels depend on network traffic conditions and deliver different throughput, implying that the sampling intervals may change. Since signal estimation is updated on the arrival of new data, its dynamics actually change with the sampling interval. Consequently, interaction among sampling, signal estimation, and the controller will introduce new issues in remotely controlled Atrial Fibrillation system. This paper treats a remotely controlled atrial fibrillation system with one communication channel which connects between the heart rate and rhythm measurements to the remote controller. Typical and optimal signal estimation schemes is represented by a signal averaging filter with its time constant derived from the step size of the signal estimation algorithm.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, communication channels, closed loop, estimation

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61 Strategy and Maze Surgery (Atrial fibrillation Surgery)

Authors: Shirin Jalili, Ramin Ghasemi Shayan


Atrial fibrillation is the foremost common arrhythmia around the world, with expanding recurrence famous with age. Thromboembolic occasions and strokes are the number one cause of mortality and morbidity. For patients who don't react to restorative treatment for rate and beat control, the maze method offers an elective treatment mediation. pharmaco-medical treatment for atrial fibrillation is pointed at the control of rate or cadence, intrusive treatment for atrial fibrillation is pointed at cadence control. An obtrusive approach may comprise of percutaneous catheter treatment, surgery, or a crossover approach. Since the maze method is recognized as the foremost successful way to dispense with AF, combining the maze strategy amid major cardiac surgeries has been received in clinical hone. the maze strategy, moreover known as Cox¬maze iii or the ‘cut¬and¬sew’ method, involves making different incisions within the atria to make an arrangement of scars that dispose of each potential zone of re¬entry. The electrical drive is constrained through a maze of scars that coordinates the electrical drive from the sinus node to the av node. By settling the headstrong period between ranges of scar, re¬entry is disposed of. in this article, we evaluate the Maze surgery method that's the surgical method of choice for the treatment of restorative atrial fibrillation.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, congenital heart disease, procedure, maze surgery, treatment

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60 3D-printing for Ablation Planning in Patients Undergoing Atrial Fibrillation Ablation: 3D-GALA Trial

Authors: Terentes Printzios Dimitrios, Loanna Gourgouli, Vlachopoulos Charalambos


Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) remains one of the major causes of stroke, heart failure, sudden death and cardiovascular morbidity. Ablation techniques are becoming more appealing after the latest results of randomized trials showing the overall clinical benefit. On the other hand, imaging techniques and the frontier application of 3D printing are emerging as a valuable ally for cardiac procedures. However, no randomized trial has directly assessed the impact of preprocedural imaging and especially 3D printing guidance for AF ablation. The present study is designed to investigate for the first time the effect of 3D printing of the heart on the safety and effectiveness of the ablation procedure. Methods and design: The 3D-GALA trial is a randomized, open-label, controlled, multicentre clinical trial of 2 parallel groups designed to enroll a total of 100 patients undergoing ablation using cryo-balloon for paroxysmal and persistent AF. Patients will be randomized with a patient allocation ratio of 1: 1 to preprocedural MRI scan of the heart and 3D printing of left atrium and pulmonary veins and cryoablation versus standard cryoablation without imaging. Patients will be followed up to 6 months after the index procedure. The primary outcome measure is the reduction of radiation dose and contrast amount during pulmonary veins isolation. Secondary endpoints will include the percentage of atrial fibrillation relapse at 24h-Holter electrocardiogram monitoring at 6 months after initial treatment. Discussion: To our knowledge, the 3D-GALA trial will be the first study to provide evidence about the clinical impact of preprocedural imaging and 3D printing before cryoablation.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, cardiac MRI, cryoablation, 3-d printing

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59 The Efficacy of Box Lesion+ Procedure in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: Two-Year Follow-up Results

Authors: Oleg Sapelnikov, Ruslan Latypov, Darina Ardus, Samvel Aivazian, Andrey Shiryaev, Renat Akchurin


OBJECTIVE: MAZE procedure is one of the most effective surgical methods in atrial fibrillation (AF) treatment. Nowadays we are all aware of its modifications. In our study we conducted clinical analysis of “Box lesion+” approach during MAZE procedure in two-year follow-up. METHODS: We studied the results of the open-heart on-pump procedures performed in our hospital from 2017 to 2018 years. Thirty-two (32) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) were included in this study. Fifteen (15) patients had concomitant coronary bypass grafting and seventeen (17) patients had mitral valve repair. Mean age was 62.3±8.7 years; prevalence of men was admitted (56.1%). Mean duration of AF was 4.75±5.44 and 7.07±8.14 years. In all cases, we performed endocardial Cryo-MAZE procedure with one-time myocardium revascularization or mitral-valve surgery. All patients of this study underwent pulmonary vein (PV) isolation and ablation of mitral isthmus with additional isolation of LA posterior wall (Box-lesion+ procedure). Mean follow-up was 2 years. RESULTS: All cases were performed without any complications. Additional isolation of posterior wall did not prolong the operative time and artificial circulation significantly. Cryo-MAZE procedure directly lasted 20±2.1 min, the whole operation time was 192±24 min and artificial circulation time was 103±12 min. According to design of the study, we performed clinical investigation of the patients in 12 months and in 2 years from the initial procedure. In 12 months, the number of AF free patients 81.8% and 75.8% in two years of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Isolation of the left atrial posterior wall and perimitral area may considerably improve the efficacy of surgical treatment, which was demonstrated in significant decrease of AF recurrences during the whole period of follow-up.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, cryoablation, left atrium isolation, open heart procedure

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58 Real-time Rate and Rhythms Feedback Control System in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

Authors: Mohammad A. Obeidat, Ayman M. Mansour


Capturing the dynamic behavior of the heart to improve control performance, enhance robustness, and support diagnosis is very important in establishing real time models for the heart. Control Techniques and strategies have been utilized to improve system costs, reliability, and estimation accuracy for different types of systems such as biomedical, industrial, and other systems that required tuning input/output relation and/or monitoring. Simulations are performed to illustrate potential applications of the technology. In this research, a new control technology scheme is used to enhance the performance of the Af system and meet the design specifications.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, dynamic behavior, closed loop, signal, filter

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57 Multivariate Data Analysis for Automatic Atrial Fibrillation Detection

Authors: Zouhair Haddi, Stephane Delliaux, Jean-Francois Pons, Ismail Kechaf, Jean-Claude De Haro, Mustapha Ouladsine


Atrial fibrillation (AF) has been considered as the most common cardiac arrhythmia, and a major public health burden associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, telemedical approaches targeting cardiac outpatients situate AF among the most challenged medical issues. The automatic, early, and fast AF detection is still a major concern for the healthcare professional. Several algorithms based on univariate analysis have been developed to detect atrial fibrillation. However, the published results do not show satisfactory classification accuracy. This work was aimed at resolving this shortcoming by proposing multivariate data analysis methods for automatic AF detection. Four publicly-accessible sets of clinical data (AF Termination Challenge Database, MIT-BIH AF, Normal Sinus Rhythm RR Interval Database, and MIT-BIH Normal Sinus Rhythm Databases) were used for assessment. All time series were segmented in 1 min RR intervals window and then four specific features were calculated. Two pattern recognition methods, i.e., Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) neural network were used to develop classification models. PCA, as a feature reduction method, was employed to find important features to discriminate between AF and Normal Sinus Rhythm. Despite its very simple structure, the results show that the LVQ model performs better on the analyzed databases than do existing algorithms, with high sensitivity and specificity (99.19% and 99.39%, respectively). The proposed AF detection holds several interesting properties, and can be implemented with just a few arithmetical operations which make it a suitable choice for telecare applications.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, multivariate data analysis, automatic detection, telemedicine

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56 An Electrocardiography Deep Learning Model to Detect Atrial Fibrillation on Clinical Application

Authors: Jui-Chien Hsieh


Background:12-lead electrocardiography(ECG) is one of frequently-used tools to detect atrial fibrillation (AF), which might degenerate into life-threaten stroke, in clinical Practice. Based on this study, the AF detection by the clinically-used 12-lead ECG device has only 0.73~0.77 positive predictive value (ppv). Objective: It is on great demand to develop a new algorithm to improve the precision of AF detection using 12-lead ECG. Due to the progress on artificial intelligence (AI), we develop an ECG deep model that has the ability to recognize AF patterns and reduce false-positive errors. Methods: In this study, (1) 570-sample 12-lead ECG reports whose computer interpretation by the ECG device was AF were collected as the training dataset. The ECG reports were interpreted by 2 senior cardiologists, and confirmed that the precision of AF detection by the ECG device is 0.73.; (2) 88 12-lead ECG reports whose computer interpretation generated by the ECG device was AF were used as test dataset. Cardiologist confirmed that 68 cases of 88 reports were AF, and others were not AF. The precision of AF detection by ECG device is about 0.77; (3) A parallel 4-layer 1 dimensional convolutional neural network (CNN) was developed to identify AF based on limb-lead ECGs and chest-lead ECGs. Results: The results indicated that this model has better performance on AF detection than traditional computer interpretation of the ECG device in 88 test samples with 0.94 ppv, 0.98 sensitivity, 0.80 specificity. Conclusions: As compared to the clinical ECG device, this AI ECG model promotes the precision of AF detection from 0.77 to 0.94, and can generate impacts on clinical applications.

Keywords: 12-lead ECG, atrial fibrillation, deep learning, convolutional neural network

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55 Detection of Atrial Fibrillation Using Wearables via Attentional Two-Stream Heterogeneous Networks

Authors: Huawei Bai, Jianguo Yao, Fellow, IEEE


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common form of heart arrhythmia and is closely associated with mortality and morbidity in heart failure, stroke, and coronary artery disease. The development of single spot optical sensors enables widespread photoplethysmography (PPG) screening, especially for AF, since it represents a more convenient and noninvasive approach. To our knowledge, most existing studies based on public and unbalanced datasets can barely handle the multiple noises sources in the real world and, also, lack interpretability. In this paper, we construct a large- scale PPG dataset using measurements collected from PPG wrist- watch devices worn by volunteers and propose an attention-based two-stream heterogeneous neural network (TSHNN). The first stream is a hybrid neural network consisting of a three-layer one-dimensional convolutional neural network (1D-CNN) and two-layer attention- based bidirectional long short-term memory (Bi-LSTM) network to learn representations from temporally sampled signals. The second stream extracts latent representations from the PPG time-frequency spectrogram using a five-layer CNN. The outputs from both streams are fed into a fusion layer for the outcome. Visualization of the attention weights learned demonstrates the effectiveness of the attention mechanism against noise. The experimental results show that the TSHNN outperforms all the competitive baseline approaches and with 98.09% accuracy, achieves state-of-the-art performance.

Keywords: PPG wearables, atrial fibrillation, feature fusion, attention mechanism, hyber network

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54 The Incidence of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Local and Diffuse Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Kamil Ganaev, Elina Vlasova, Andrei Shiryaev, Renat Akchurin


De novo atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common complication. To date, there are no data on the possible effect of diffuse lesions of coronary arteries on the incidence of postoperative AF complications. Methods. Patients operated on-pump under hypothermic conditions during the calendar year (2020) were studied. Inclusion criteria - isolated CABG and achievement of complete myocardial revascularization. Patients with a history of AF moderate and severe valve dysfunction, hormonal thyroid pathology, initial CHF(Congestive heart failure), as well as patients with developed perioperative complications (IM, acute heart failure, massive blood loss) and deceased were excluded. Thus 227 patients were included; mean age 65±9 years; 69% were men. 89% of patients had a 3-vessel lesion of the coronary artery; the remainder had a 2-vessel lesion. Mean LV size: 3.9±0.3 cm, indexed LV volume: 29.4±5.3 mL/m2. Two groups were considered: D (n=98), patients with diffuse coronary heart disease, and L (n=129), patients with local coronary heart disease. Clinical and demographic characteristics in the groups were comparable. Rhythm assessment: continuous bedside ECG monitoring up to 5 days; ECG CT at 5-7 days after CABG; daily routine ECG registration. Follow-up period - postoperative hospital period. Results. The Median follow-up period was 9 (7;11) days. POFP (Postoperative atrial fibrillation) was detected in 61/227 (27%) patients: 34/98 (35%) in group D versus 27/129 (21%) in group L; p<0.05. Moreover, the values of revascularization index in groups D and L (3.9±0.7 and 3.8±0.5, respectively) were equal, and the mean time Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (107±27 and 80±13min), as well as the mean ischemic time (67±17 and 55±11min) were significantly longer in group D (p<0.05). However, a separate analysis of these parameters in patients with and without developed AF did not reveal any significant differences in group D (CPB time 99±21.2 min, ischemic time 63±12.2 min), or in group L (CPB time 88±13.1 min, ischemic time 58.7±13.2 min). Conclusion. With the diffuse nature of coronary lesions, the incidence of AF in the hospital period after isolated CABG definitely increases. To better understand the role of severe coronary atherosclerosis in the development of POAF, it is necessary to distinguish the influence of organic features of atrial and ventricular myocardium (as a consequence of chronic coronary disease) from the features of surgical correction in diffuse coronary lesions.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, diffuse coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting, local coronary artery disease

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53 Evaluation of Cryoablation Procedures in Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation from 3 Years' Experiences in a Single Heart Center

Authors: J. Yan, B. Pieper, B. Bucsky, B. Nasseri, S. Klotz, H. H. Sievers, S. Mohamed


Cryoablation is evermore applied for interventional treatment of paroxysmal (PAAF) or persistent atrial fibrillation (PEAF). In the cardiac surgery, this procedure is often combined with coronary arterial bypass graft (CABG) and valve operations. Three different methods are feasible in this sense in respect to practicing extents and mechanisms such as lone left atrial cryoablation, Cox-Maze IV and III in our heart center. 415 patients (68 ± 0.8ys, male 68.2%) with predisposed atrial fibrillation who initially required either coronary or valve operations were enrolled and divided into 3 matched groups according to deployed procedures: CryoLA-group (cryoablation of lone left atrium, n=94); Cox-Maze-IV-group (n=93) and Cox-Maze-III-group (n=8). All patients additionally received closure of the left atrial appendage (LAA) and regularly underwent three-year ambulant follow-up assessments (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months). Burdens of atrial fibrillation were assessed directly by means of cardiac monitor (Reveal XT, Medtronic) or of 3-day Holter electrocardiogram. Herewith, attacks frequencies of AF and their circadian patterns were systemically analyzed. Furthermore, anticoagulants and regular rate-/rhythm-controlling medications were evaluated and listed in terms of anti-rate and anti-rhythm regimens. Concerning PAAF treatment, Cox Maze IV procedure provided therapeutically acceptable effect as lone left atrium (LA) cryoablation did (5.25 ± 5.25% vs. 10.39 ± 9.96% AF-burden, p > 0.05). Interestingly, Cox Maze III method presented a better short-term effect in the PEAF therapy in comparison to lone cryoablation of LA and Cox Maze IV (0.25 ± 0.23% vs. 15.31 ± 5.99% and 9.10 ± 3.73% AF-burden within the first year, p < 0.05). But this therapeutic advantage went lost during ongoing follow-ups (26.65 ± 24.50% vs. 8.33 ± 8.06% and 15.73 ± 5.88% in 3rd follow-up year). In this way, lone LA-cryoablation established its antiarrhythmic efficacy and 69.5% patients were released from the Vit-K-antagonists, while Cox Maze IV liberated 67.2% patients from continuous anticoagulant medication. The AF-recurrences mostly performed such attacks property as less than 60min duration for all 3 procedures (p > 0.05). In the sense of the circadian distribution of the recurrence attacks, weighted by ongoing follow-ups, lone LA cryoablation achieved and stabilized the antiarrhythmic effects over time, which was especially observed in the treatment of PEAF, while Cox Maze IV and III had their antiarrhythmic effects weakened progressively. This phenomenon was likewise evaluable in the therapy of circadian rhythm of reverting AF-attacks. Furthermore, the strategy of rate control was much more often applied to support and maintain therapeutic successes obtained than the one of rhythm control. Derived from experiences in our heart center, lone LA cryoablation presented equivalent effects in the treatment of AF in comparison to Cox Maze IV and III procedures. These therapeutic successes were especially investigable in the patients suffering from persistent AF (PEAF). Additional supportive strategies such as rate control regime should be initialized and implemented to improve the therapeutic effects of the cryoablations according to appropriate criteria.

Keywords: AF-burden, atrial fibrillation, cardiac monitor, COX MAZE, cryoablation, Holter, LAA

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52 Retrospective Study on the Prognosis of Patients with New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation to Evaluate the Risk of Developing Occult Cancer in Absence of Concurrent Chronic Inflammatory Disease

Authors: Helen Huang, Francisco Javier Quesada Ocet, Blanca Quesada Oce, Javier Jimenez Bello, Victor Palanca Gil, Alba Cervero Rubio, Ana Paya Chaume, Alejandro Herreros-Pomares, Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha, Rafael Paya Serrano, Aurelio Quesada Dorador, Monica Soliman


Background: Cancer favors both the pro-inflammatory state and autonomic dysfunction, two important mechanisms in the genesis of AF. Atrial remodeling might be caused as a result of paraneoplastic conditions or the result of direct expression of neoplasia. Here, we hypothesize that cancer, through inflammatory mediators, may favor the appearance of AF and patients with the first episode of AF could have a higher risk of developing cancer. Method: Data was collected from patients who attended the emergency department of our hospital for the first episode of AF, diagnosed electrocardiographically, between 2010-2015 (n = 712). The minimum follow-up was 2 years, recording the appearance of cancer, total mortality, recurrences of AF and other events. Patients who developed cancer and those who did not during the 2 years after the onset of AF were compared, as well as with the incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012. Results: After 2 years, 35 patients (4.91%) were diagnosed with cancer, with an annual incidence of 2.45%. Hematological neoplasms were the most frequent (34.28%). The cancer group was older (76.68 +/-12.75 years vs 74.16 +/-12.71; p <0.05) and had fewer typical symptoms (palpitations) (33.38% vs 14.28% , p <0.05). The incidence of cancer in Spain during 2012 was 0.46%, much lower than our sample. When comparing the incidence by age, these differences were maintained both in those over 65 years of age and in those under 65 years of age (2.17% vs. 0.28%; 0.28% vs. 0.18% respectively). Discussion: Therefore, a high incidence of cancer in patients with the first episode of AF was observed (the annual incidence of 2.45% after the onset of AF is 6.1 times that of the general population). After the evaluation of patients with AF in their first detected episode, surveillance of the appearance of cancer should be considered in clinical practice.

Keywords: cancer, cardiovascular outcomes, atrial fibrillation, inflammation

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51 Comparison of Two Strategies in Thoracoscopic Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation

Authors: Osmanov Ilkin Sayat Ogly, Pidanov Oleg Yuryevich, Saharov Emil Romanovich, Shelest Oleg Olegovich, Zotov Alexandr Sergeevich, Troitskiy Alexandr Vitalyevich, Khabazov Robert Iosifovich


Objective: Thoracoscopic surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) includes two technologies in performing of operation. 1st strategy used is the AtriCure device (bipolar, nonirrigated, non clamping), 2nd strategy is- the Medtronic device (bipolar, irrigated, clamping). The study presents a comparative analysis of clinical outcomes of two strategies in thoracoscopic ablation of AF using AtriCure vs. Medtronic devices. Methods: In 2 center study, 123 patients underwent thoracoscopic ablation of AF for the period from 2016 to 2020. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group is represented by patients who applied the AtriCure device (N=63), and the second group is - the Medtronic device (N=60), respectively. Patients were comparable in age, gender, and initial severity of the condition. Among the patients, in group 1 were 65% males with a median age of 57 years, while in group 2 – 75% and 60 years, respectively. Group 1 included patients with paroxysmal form -14,3%, persistent form - 68,3%, long-standing persistent form – 17,5%, group 2 – 13,3%, 13,3% and 73,3% respectively. Median ejection fraction and indexed left atrial volume amounted in group 1 – 63% and 40,6 ml/m2, in group 2 - 56% and 40,5 ml/m2. In addition, group 1 consisted of 39,7% patients with chronic heart failure (NYHA Class II) and 4,8% with chronic heart failure (NYHA Class III), when in group 2 – 45% and 6,7%, respectively. Follow-up consisted of laboratory tests, chest Х-ray, ECG, 24-hour Holter monitor, and cardiopulmonary exercise test. Duration of freedom from AF, distant mortality rate, and prevalence of cerebrovascular events were compared between the two groups. Results: Exit block was achieved in all patients. According to the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications fraction of adverse events was 14,3% and 16,7% (1st group and 2nd group, respectively). Mean follow-up period in the 1st group was 50,4 (31,8; 64,8) months, in 2nd group - 30,5 (14,1; 37,5) months (P=0,0001). In group 1 - total freedom of AF was in 73,3% of patients, among which 25% had additional antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs) therapy or catheter ablation (CA), in group 2 – 90% and 18,3%, respectively (for total freedom of AF P<0,02). At follow-up, the distant mortality rate in the 1st group was – 4,8%, and in the 2nd – no fatal events. Prevalence of cerebrovascular events was higher in the 1st group than in the 2nd (6,7% vs. 1,7% respectively). Conclusions: Despite the relatively shorter follow-up of the 2nd group in the study, applying the strategy using the Medtronic device showed quite encouraging results. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of this strategy in the long-term period.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, clamping, ablation, thoracoscopic surgery

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50 Tracking the Effect of Ibutilide on Amplitude and Frequency of Fibrillatory Intracardiac Electrograms Using the Regression Analysis

Authors: H. Hajimolahoseini, J. Hashemi, D. Redfearn


Background: Catheter ablation is an effective therapy for symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). The intracardiac electrocardiogram (IEGM) collected during this procedure contains precious information that has not been explored to its full capacity. Novel processing techniques allow looking at these recordings from different perspectives which can lead to improved therapeutic approaches. In our previous study, we showed that variation in amplitude measured through Shannon Entropy could be used as an AF recurrence risk stratification factor in patients who received Ibutilide before the electrograms were recorded. The aim of this study is to further investigate the effect of Ibutilide on characteristics of the recorded signals from the left atrium (LA) of a patient with persistent AF before and after administration of the drug. Methods: The IEGMs collected from different intra-atrial sites of 12 patients were studied and compared before and after Ibutilide administration. First, the before and after Ibutilide IEGMs that were recorded within a Euclidian distance of 3 mm in LA were selected as pairs for comparison. For every selected pair of IEGMs, the Probability Distribution Function (PDF) of the amplitude in time domain and magnitude in frequency domain was estimated using the regression analysis. The PDF represents the relative likelihood of a variable falling within a specific range of values. Results: Our observations showed that in time domain, the PDF of amplitudes was fitted to a Gaussian distribution while in frequency domain, it was fitted to a Rayleigh distribution. Our observations also revealed that after Ibutilide administration, the IEGMs would have significantly narrower short-tailed PDFs both in time and frequency domains. Conclusion: This study shows that the PDFs of the IEGMs before and after administration of Ibutilide represents significantly different properties, both in time and frequency domains. Hence, by fitting the PDF of IEGMs in time domain to a Gaussian distribution or in frequency domain to a Rayleigh distribution, the effect of Ibutilide can easily be tracked using the statistics of their PDF (e.g., standard deviation) while this is difficult through the waveform of IEGMs itself.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, catheter ablation, probability distribution function, time-frequency characteristics

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49 Big Data and Cardiovascular Healthcare Management: Recent Advances, Future Potential and Pitfalls

Authors: Maariyah Irfan


Intro: Current cardiovascular (CV) care faces challenges such as low budgets and high hospital admission rates. This review aims to evaluate Big Data in CV healthcare management through the use of wearable devices in atrial fibrillation (AF) detection. AF may present intermittently, thus it is difficult for a healthcare professional to capture and diagnose a symptomatic rhythm. Methods: The iRhythm ZioPatch, AliveCor portable electrocardiogram (ECG), and Apple Watch were chosen for review due to their involvement in controlled clinical trials, and their integration with smartphones. The cost-effectiveness and AF detection of these devices were compared against the 12-lead ambulatory ECG (Holter monitor) that the NHS currently employs for the detection of AF. Results: The Zio patch was found to detect more arrhythmic events than the Holter monitor over a 2-week period. When patients presented to the emergency department with palpitations, AliveCor portable ECGs detected 6-fold more symptomatic events compared to the standard care group over 3-months. Based off preliminary results from the Apple Heart Study, only 0.5% of participants received irregular pulse notifications from the Apple Watch. Discussion: The Zio Patch and AliveCor devices have promising potential to be implemented into the standard duty of care offered by the NHS as they compare well to current routine measures. Nonetheless, companies must address the discrepancy between their target population and current consumers as those that could benefit the most from the innovation may be left out due to cost and access.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, big data, cardiovascular healthcare management, wearable devices

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48 Evaluation of Cardiac Rhythm Patterns after Open Surgical Maze-Procedures from Three Years' Experiences in a Single Heart Center

Authors: J. Yan, B. Pieper, B. Bucsky, H. H. Sievers, B. Nasseri, S. A. Mohamed


In order to optimize the efficacy of medications, the regular follow-up with long-term continuous monitoring of heart rhythmic patterns has been facilitated since clinical introduction of cardiac implantable electronic monitoring devices (CIMD). Extensive analysis of rhythmic circadian properties is capable to disclose the distributions of arrhythmic events, which may support appropriate medication according rate-/rhythm-control strategy and minimize consequent afflictions. 348 patients (69 ± 0.5ys, male 61.8%) with predisposed atrial fibrillation (AF), undergoing primary ablating therapies combined to coronary or valve operations and secondary implantation of CIMDs, were involved and divided into 3 groups such as PAAF (paroxysmal AF) (n=99, male 68.7%), PEAF (persistent AF) (n=94, male 62.8%), and LSPEAF (long-standing persistent AF) (n=155, male 56.8%). All patients participated in three-year ambulant follow-up (3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months). Burdens of atrial fibrillation recurrence were assessed using cardiac monitor devices, whereby attacks frequencies and their circadian patterns were systemically analyzed. Anticoagulants and regular anti-arrhythmic medications were evaluated and the last were listed in terms of anti-rate and anti-rhythm regimens. Patients in the PEAF-group showed the least AF-burden after surgical ablating procedures compared to both of the other subtypes (p < 0.05). The AF-recurrences predominantly performed such attacks’ property as shorter than one hour, namely within 10 minutes (p < 0.05), regardless of AF-subtypes. Concerning circadian distribution of the recurrence attacks, frequent AF-attacks were mostly recorded in the morning in the PAAF-group (p < 0.05), while the patients with predisposed PEAF complained less attack-induced discomforts in the latter half of the night and the ones with LSPEAF only if they were not physically active after primary surgical ablations. Different AF-subtypes presented distinct therapeutic efficacies after appropriate surgical ablating procedures and recurrence properties in sense of circadian distribution. An optimization of medical regimen and drug dosages to maintain the therapeutic success needs more attention to detailed assessment of the long-term follow-up. Rate-control strategy plays a much more important role than rhythm-control in the ongoing follow-up examinations.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, CIMD, MAZE, rate-control, rhythm-control, rhythm patterns

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47 Utilizing Artificial Intelligence to Predict Post Operative Atrial Fibrillation in Non-Cardiac Transplant

Authors: Alexander Heckman, Rohan Goswami, Zachi Attia, Paul Friedman, Peter Noseworthy, Demilade Adedinsewo, Pablo Moreno-Franco, Rickey Carter, Tathagat Narula


Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is associated with adverse health consequences, higher costs, and longer hospital stays. Utilizing existing predictive models that rely on clinical variables and circulating biomarkers, multiple societies have published recommendations on the treatment and prevention of POAF. Although reasonably practical, there is room for improvement and automation to help individualize treatment strategies and reduce associated complications. Methods and results: In this retrospective cohort study of solid organ transplant recipients, we evaluated the diagnostic utility of a previously developed AI-based ECG prediction for silent AF on the development of POAF within 30 days of transplant. A total of 2261 non-cardiac transplant patients without a preexisting diagnosis of AF were found to have a 5.8% (133/2261) incidence of POAF. While there were no apparent sex differences in POAF incidence (5.8% males vs. 6.0% females, p=.80), there were differences by race and ethnicity (p<0.001 and 0.035, respectively). The incidence in white transplanted patients was 7.2% (117/1628), whereas the incidence in black patients was 1.4% (6/430). Lung transplant recipients had the highest incidence of postoperative AF (17.4%, 37/213), followed by liver (5.6%, 56/1002) and kidney (3.6%, 32/895) recipients. The AUROC in the sample was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.58-0.67). The relatively low discrimination may result from undiagnosed AF in the sample. In particular, 1,177 patients had at least 1 AI-ECG screen for AF pre-transplant above .10, a value slightly higher than the published threshold of 0.08. The incidence of POAF in the 1104 patients without an elevated prediction pre-transplant was lower (3.7% vs. 8.0%; p<0.001). While this supported the hypothesis that potentially undiagnosed AF may have contributed to the diagnosis of POAF, the utility of the existing AI-ECG screening algorithm remained modest. When the prediction for POAF was made using the first postoperative ECG in the sample without an elevated screen pre-transplant (n=1084 on account of n=20 missing postoperative ECG), the AUROC was 0.66 (95% CI: 0.57-0.75). While this discrimination is relatively low, at a threshold of 0.08, the AI-ECG algorithm had a 98% (95% CI: 97 – 99%) negative predictive value at a sensitivity of 66% (95% CI: 49-80%). Conclusions: This study's principal finding is that the incidence of POAF is rare, and a considerable fraction of the POAF cases may be latent and undiagnosed. The high negative predictive value of AI-ECG screening suggests utility for prioritizing monitoring and evaluation of the transplant patients with a positive AI-ECG screening. Further development and refinement of a post-transplant-specific algorithm may be warranted further to enhance the diagnostic yield of the ECG-based screening.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, atrial fibrillation, cardiology, transplant, medicine, ECG, machine learning

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46 Novel Oral Anticoagulants (NOACS) Adherence and Bleeding Events in Atrial Fibrillation Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Akshaya Srikanth Bahagavathula, Abdulla Shehab Sheab, Asim Hassen


Objectives: Non-adherence and discontinuation of anticoagulant therapy lead to increased ischemic stroke risk and contributes to suboptimal outcomes of the anticoagulant treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis were aimed to investigate the adherence to NOACs and adverse events in patients with AF. Methods: Original research articles conducted on patients with AF and using any NOACs (dabigatran, rivoraxaban and apixaban) reporting adherence for at least 35 days were included. Scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar were searched using MeSH keywords to obtaining literature researched between 2008 to till June, 2016. Study characteristics, patient’s sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, medication adherence levels and bleeding events reported were recorded. Results: The overall sample size of the six studies is 1,640,157, with CHADS2 scores < 2 in 551 patients, CHADS2-VASc ≥ 2 in 62,232 AF patients. Three-forth [75.6% (95%CI= 66.5-84.8), p < 0.001] are adherent to NOACs. However, a higher rate [72.7% (62.5-82.9), p < 0.001] of adherence was observed with Dabigatran than Apixaban [59.9% (3.2-123.1), p=0.063] and Rivaroxaban [59.3% (38.7-80.0), p<0.001]. Sub-group analysis revealed that nearly 57% of the AF patients on NOACs have CHADS2 scores < 2 and 20% of these patients were non-adherent to NOACs. Overall bleeding events rate associated with NOACs non-adherent AF patients was found to be 7.5% (0.2-14.8), p=0.045. However, nearly 11.2% of AF patients experienced bleeding events were non-adherent to NOAC medications. A higher proportion of bleeding events were noticed with Dabigatran (14.7%). Conclusions: Adherence rates, while uniformly suboptimal, nevertheless varied considerably, lowest at 59.3% for rivaroxaban and 59.9% for apixaban, followed by dabigatran (75.6%). Overall bleeding events associated with NOACs rates were 7.5%. However, lower adherence to NOACs was associated with worse outcomes among patients with greater stroke risk.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, bleeding events, meta-analysis, novel oral anticoagulants

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45 Recurrent Torsades De Pointes Post Direct Current Cardioversion for Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response

Authors: Taikchan Lildar, Ayesha Samad, Suraj Sookhu


Atrial fibrillation with the rapid ventricular response (AF-RVR) results in the loss of atrial kick and shortened ventricular filling time, which often leads to decompensated heart failure. Pharmacologic rhythm control is the treatment of choice, and patients frequently benefit from the restoration of sinus rhythm. When pharmacologic treatment is unsuccessful or a patient declines hemodynamically, direct cardioversion is the treatment of choice. Torsades de pointes, or “twisting of the points'' in French, is a rare but under-appreciated risk of cardioversion therapy. torsades de pointes account for fewer than 5% of the estimated 300,000 sudden cardiac deaths annually in the United States. A 61-year-old female with no significant past medical history presented to the ED with worsening dyspnea. An electrocardiogram (ECG) showed AF-RVR, and a chest X-ray was significant for bilateral pulmonary vascular congestion. Full dose anticoagulation and diuresis were initiated with moderate improvement in symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed biventricular systolic dysfunction with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30%. After consultation with an electrophysiologist, the consensus was to proceed with the restoration of sinus rhythm, which would likely improve the patient’s heart failure symptoms and possibly the ejection fraction. Transesophageal echocardiogram was negative for left atrial appendage thrombus. The patient was treated with a loading dose of amiodarone and underwent successful direct current cardioversion with 200 Joules. The patient was placed on telemetry monitoring for 24-hours and was noted to have frequent premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) with subsequent degeneration to torsades de pointes. The patient was found unresponsive and pulseless; cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated with cardioversion, and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved after four minutestonormal sinus rhythm. Post-cardiac arrest ECG showed sinus bradycardia with a calculated QTc of 592msec. The patient continued to have frequent PVCs and required two additional cardioversions to achieve ROSC with intravenous magnesium and lidocaine. An automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (AICD) was subsequently implanted for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. The backup pacing rate of the AICD was set higher than usual in an attempt to prevent PVC-induced torsades de pointes. The patient did not have any further ventricular arrhythmias after implantation of the AICD. Overdrive pacing is a method utilized to treat PVC-induced torsades de pointes by preventing a patient’s susceptibility to R on T-wave induced ventricular arrhythmias. Pacing at a rate of 90 beats per minute succeeded in controlling the arrhythmia without the need for traumatic cardiac defibrillation. In our patient, conversion of AF-RVR to NSR resulted in a slower heart rate and an increased probability of PVC occurring on the T-wave and ensuing ventricular arrhythmia. This case highlights direct current cardioversion for AF-RVR resulting in persistent ventricular arrhythmia requiring ICD placement with overdrive pacing to prevent a recurrence.

Keywords: torsades, afib, cardioversion, refractory afib

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44 Diagnosis of the Heart Rhythm Disorders by Using Hybrid Classifiers

Authors: Sule Yucelbas, Gulay Tezel, Cuneyt Yucelbas, Seral Ozsen


In this study, it was tried to identify some heart rhythm disorders by electrocardiography (ECG) data that is taken from MIT-BIH arrhythmia database by subtracting the required features, presenting to artificial neural networks (ANN), artificial immune systems (AIS), artificial neural network based on artificial immune system (AIS-ANN) and particle swarm optimization based artificial neural network (PSO-NN) classifier systems. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the performance of hybrid AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN classifiers with regard to the ANN and AIS. For this purpose, the normal sinus rhythm (NSR), atrial premature contraction (APC), sinus arrhythmia (SA), ventricular trigeminy (VTI), ventricular tachycardia (VTK) and atrial fibrillation (AF) data for each of the RR intervals were found. Then these data in the form of pairs (NSR-APC, NSR-SA, NSR-VTI, NSR-VTK and NSR-AF) is created by combining discrete wavelet transform which is applied to each of these two groups of data and two different data sets with 9 and 27 features were obtained from each of them after data reduction. Afterwards, the data randomly was firstly mixed within themselves, and then 4-fold cross validation method was applied to create the training and testing data. The training and testing accuracy rates and training time are compared with each other. As a result, performances of the hybrid classification systems, AIS-ANN and PSO-ANN were seen to be close to the performance of the ANN system. Also, the results of the hybrid systems were much better than AIS, too. However, ANN had much shorter period of training time than other systems. In terms of training times, ANN was followed by PSO-ANN, AIS-ANN and AIS systems respectively. Also, the features that extracted from the data affected the classification results significantly.

Keywords: AIS, ANN, ECG, hybrid classifiers, PSO

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43 Effect of Atrial Flutter on Alcoholic Cardiomyopathy

Authors: Ibrahim Ahmed, Richard Amoateng, Akhil Jain, Mohamed Ahmed


Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) is a type of acquired cardiomyopathy caused by chronic alcohol consumption. Frequently ACM is associated with arrhythmias such as atrial flutter. Our aim was to characterize the patient demographics and investigate the effect of atrial flutter (AF) on ACM. This was a retrospective cohort study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database to identify admissions in adults with principal and secondary diagnoses of alcoholic cardiomyopathy and atrial flutter from 2019. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for age, gender, race, household income, insurance status, Elixhauser comorbidity score, hospital location, bed size, and teaching status. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality, and secondary outcomes were the length of stay (LOS) and total charge in USD. There was a total of 21,855 admissions with alcoholic cardiomyopathy, of which 1,635 had atrial flutter (AF-ACM). Compared to Non-AF-ACM cohort, AF-ACM cohort had fewer females (4.89% vs 14.54%, p<0.001), were older (58.66 vs 56.13 years, p<0.001), fewer Native Americans (0.61% vs2.67%, p<0.01), had fewer smaller (19.27% vs 22.45%, p<0.01) & medium-sized hospitals (23.24% vs28.98%, p<0.01), but more large-sized hospitals (57.49% vs 48.57%, p<0.01), more Medicare (40.37% vs 34.08%, p<0.05) and fewer Medicaid insured (23.55% vs 33.70%, p=<0.001), fewer hypertension (10.7% vs 15.01%, p<0.05), and more obesity (24.77% vs 16.35%, p<0.001). Compared to Non-AF-ACM cohort, there was no difference in AF-ACM cohort mortality rate (6.13% vs 4.20%, p=0.0998), unadjusted mortality OR 1.49 (95% CI 0.92-2.40, p=0.102), adjusted mortality OR 1.36 (95% CI 0.83-2.24, p=0.221), but there was a difference in LOS 1.23 days (95% CI 0.34-2.13, p<0.01), total charge $28,860.30 (95% CI 11,883.96-45,836.60, p<0.01). In patients admitted with ACM, the presence of AF was not associated with a higher all-cause mortality rate or odds of all-cause mortality; however, it was associated with 1.23 days increase in LOS and a $28,860.30 increase in total hospitalization charge. Native Americans, older age and obesity were risk factors for the presence of AF in ACM.

Keywords: alcoholic cardiomyopathy, atrial flutter, cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia

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42 Quantitative Comparisons of Different Approaches for Rotor Identification

Authors: Elizabeth M. Annoni, Elena G. Tolkacheva


Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia that is a known prognostic marker for stroke, heart failure and death. Reentrant mechanisms of rotor formation, which are stable electrical sources of cardiac excitation, are believed to cause AF. No existing commercial mapping systems have been demonstrated to consistently and accurately predict rotor locations outside of the pulmonary veins in patients with persistent AF. There is a clear need for robust spatio-temporal techniques that can consistently identify rotors using unique characteristics of the electrical recordings at the pivot point that can be applied to clinical intracardiac mapping. Recently, we have developed four new signal analysis approaches – Shannon entropy (SE), Kurtosis (Kt), multi-scale frequency (MSF), and multi-scale entropy (MSE) – to identify the pivot points of rotors. These proposed techniques utilize different cardiac signal characteristics (other than local activation) to uncover the intrinsic complexity of the electrical activity in the rotors, which are not taken into account in current mapping methods. We validated these techniques using high-resolution optical mapping experiments in which direct visualization and identification of rotors in ex-vivo Langendorff-perfused hearts were possible. Episodes of ventricular tachycardia (VT) were induced using burst pacing, and two examples of rotors were used showing 3-sec episodes of a single stationary rotor and figure-8 reentry with one rotor being stationary and one meandering. Movies were captured at a rate of 600 frames per second for 3 sec. with 64x64 pixel resolution. These optical mapping movies were used to evaluate the performance and robustness of SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques with respect to the following clinical limitations: different time of recordings, different spatial resolution, and the presence of meandering rotors. To quantitatively compare the results, SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques were compared to the “true” rotor(s) identified using the phase map. Accuracy was calculated for each approach as the duration of the time series and spatial resolution were reduced. The time series duration was decreased from its original length of 3 sec, down to 2, 1, and 0.5 sec. The spatial resolution of the original VT episodes was decreased from 64x64 pixels to 32x32, 16x16, and 8x8 pixels by uniformly removing pixels from the optical mapping video.. Our results demonstrate that Kt, MSF and MSE were able to accurately identify the pivot point of the rotor under all three clinical limitations. The MSE approach demonstrated the best overall performance, but Kt was the best in identifying the pivot point of the meandering rotor. Artifacts mildly affect the performance of Kt, MSF and MSE techniques, but had a strong negative impact of the performance of SE. The results of our study motivate further validation of SE, Kt, MSF and MSE techniques using intra-atrial electrograms from paroxysmal and persistent AF patients to see if these approaches can identify pivot points in a clinical setting. More accurate rotor localization could significantly increase the efficacy of catheter ablation to treat AF, resulting in a higher success rate for single procedures.

Keywords: Atrial Fibrillation, Optical Mapping, Signal Processing, Rotors

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41 Shared Heart with a Common Atrial Complex and Persistent Right Dorsal Aorta in Conjoined Twins

Authors: L. C. Prasanna, Antony Sylvan D’Souza, Kumar M. R. Bhat


Although life as a conjoined twin would seem intolerable, there has recently been an increased interest in this subject because of the increasing number of cases where attempts have been made to separate them surgically. We have reviewed articles on cardiovascular anomalies in conjoined twins and presenting rarest anomaly in dicephalus parapagus fetus having two heads attached to one body from the neck or upper chest downwards, with a pair of limbs and a set of reproductive organs. Both the twins shared a common thoracic cavity with a single sternum. When the thoracic cavity was opened, a common anterior mediastinum was found. On opening the pericardium, two separate, closely apposed hearts were exposed. The two cardia are placed side by side. The left heart was slightly larger than the right and were joined at the atrial levels. Four atrial appendages were present, two for each twin. The atrial complex was a common chamber posterior to the ventricles. A single large tributary which could be taken as inferior vena cava drains into the common atrial chamber. In this case, the heart could not be assigned to either twin and therefore, it is referred to as the shared heart within a common pericardial sac. The right and left descending thoracic aorta have joined with each other just above the diaphragm to form a common descending thoracic aorta which has an opening in the diaphragm to be continued as common abdominal aorta which has a normal branching pattern. Upon an interior dissection, it is observed that the two atria have a wide communication which could be a wide patent foramen ovale and this common atrial cavity has a communication with a remnant of a possible common sinus venosus.

Keywords: atrium, congenital anomaly, conjoined twin, sinus venosus

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40 Towards the Inhibition Mechanism of Lysozyme Fibrillation by Hydrogen Sulfide

Authors: Indra Gonzalez Ojeda, Tatiana Quinones, Manuel Rosario, Igor Lednev, Juan Lopez Garriga


Amyloid fibrils are stable aggregates of misfolded protein associated with many neurodegenerative disorders. It has been shown that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), inhibits the fibrillation of lysozyme through the formation of trisulfide (S-S-S) bonds. However, the overall mechanism remains elusive. Here, the concentration dependence of H2S effect was investigated using Atomic force microscopy (AFM), non-resonance Raman spectroscopy, Deep-UV Raman spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD). It was found that small spherical aggregates with trisulfide bonds and a unique secondary structure were formed instead of amyloid fibrils when adding concentrations of 25 mM and 50 mM of H2S. This could indicate that H2S might serve as a protecting agent for the protein. However, further characterization of these aggregates and their trisulfide bonds is needed to fully unravel the function H2S has on protein fibrillation.

Keywords: amyloid fibrils, hydrogen sulfide, protein folding, raman spectroscopy

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39 Anti-Fibrillation Propensity of a Flavonoid Baicalein against the Fibrils of Hen Egg White Lysozyme: Potential Therapeutics for Lysozyme Amyloidosis

Authors: Naveed Ahmad Fazili


More than 20 human diseases involve the fibrillation of a specific protein/peptide which forms pathological deposits at various sites. Hereditary lysozyme amyloidosis is a systemic disorder which mostly affects liver, spleen and kidney. This conformational disorder is featured by lysozyme fibril formation. In vivo lysozyme fibrillation was simulated under in vitro conditions using a strong denaturant GdHCl at 3M concentration. Sharp decline in the ANS fluorescence intensity compared to the partially unfolded states, almost 20 fold increase in ThT fluorescence intensity, increase in absorbance at 450 nm suggesting turbidity, negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD at 217 nm, red shift of 50 nm compared to the native state in congo red assay and appearance of a network of long rope like fibrils in TEM analysis suggested HEWL fibrillation. Anti-fibrillation potency of baicalein against the preformed fibrils of HEWL was investigated following ThT assay in which there was a dose dependent decrease in ThT fluorescence intensity compared to the fibrillar state of HEWL with the maximum effect observed at 150 μM baicalein concentration, loss of negative ellipticity peak in the far-UVCD region, dip in the Rayleigh scattering intensity and absorbance at 350 nm and 450 nm respectively together with a reduction in the density of fibrillar structure in TEM imaging. Thus, it could be suggested that baicalein could prove to be a positive therapeutics for hereditary human lysozyme amyloidosis.

Keywords: amyloid fibrils, baicalein, congo red, negative ellipticity, therapeutics

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38 Building a Framework for Digital Emergency Response System for Aged, Long Term Care and Chronic Disease Patients in Asia Pacific Region

Authors: Nadeem Yousuf Khan


This paper proposes the formation of a digital emergency response system (dERS) in the aged, long-term care, and chronic disease setups in the post-COVID healthcare ecosystem, focusing on the Asia Pacific market where the aging population is increasing significantly. It focuses on the use of digital technologies such as wearables, a global positioning system (GPS), and mobile applications to build an integrated care system for old folks with co-morbidities and other chronic diseases. The paper presents a conceptual framework of a connected digital health ecosystem that not only provides proactive care to registered patients but also prevents the damages due to sudden conditions such as strokes by alerting and treating the patients in a digitally connected and coordinated manner. A detailed review of existing digital health technologies such as wearables, GPS, and mobile apps was conducted in context with the new post-COVID healthcare paradigm, along with a detailed literature review on the digital health policies and usability. A good amount of research papers is available in the application of digital health, but very few of them discuss the formation of a new framework for a connected digital ecosystem for the aged care population, which is increasing around the globe. A connected digital emergency response system has been proposed by the author whereby all registered patients (chronic disease and aged/long term care) will be connected to the proposed digital emergency response system (dERS). In the proposed ecosystem, patients will be provided with a tracking wrist band and a mobile app through which the control room will be monitoring the mobility and vitals such as atrial fibrillation (AF), blood sugar, blood pressure, and other vital signs. In addition to that, an alert in case if the patient falls down will add value to this system. In case of any variation in the vitals, an alert is sent to the dERS 24/7, and dERS clinical staff immediately trigger that alert which goes to the connected hospital and the adulatory service providers, and the patient is escorted to the nearest connected tertiary care hospital. By the time, the patient reaches the hospital, dERS team is ready to take appropriate clinical action to save the life of the patient. Strokes or myocardial infarction patients can be prevented from disaster if they are accessible to engagement healthcare. This dERS will play an effective role in saving the lives of aged patients or patients with chronic co-morbidities.

Keywords: aged care, atrial fibrillation, digital health, digital emergency response system, digital technology

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37 The Effect of Fish and Krill Oil on Warfarin Control

Authors: Rebecca Pryce, Nijole Bernaitis, Andrew K. Davey, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie


Background: Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant widely used in the prevention of strokes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and in the treatment and prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Regular monitoring of Internationalised Normalised Ratio (INR) is required to ensure therapeutic benefit with time in therapeutic range (TTR) used to measure warfarin control. A number of factors influence TTR including diet, concurrent illness, and drug interactions. Extensive literature exists regarding the effect of conventional medicines on warfarin control, but documented interactions relating to complementary medicines are limited. It has been postulated that fish oil and krill oil supplementation may affect warfarin due to their association with bleeding events. However, to date little is known as to whether fish and krill oil significantly alter the incidence of bleeding with warfarin or impact on warfarin control. Aim:To assess the influence of fish oil and krill oil supplementation on warfarin control in AF and DVT patients by determining the influence of these supplements on TTR and bleeding events. Methods:A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted utilising patient information from a large private pathology practice in Queensland. AF and DVT patients receiving warfarin management by the pathology practice were identified and their TTR calculated using the Rosendaal method. Concurrent medications were analysed and patients taking no other interacting medicines were identified and divided according to users of fish oil and krill oil supplements and those taking no supplements. Study variables included TTR and the incidence of bleeding with exclusion criteria being less than 30 days of treatment with warfarin. Subject characteristics were reported as the mean and standard deviation for continuous data and number and percentages for nominal or categorical data. Data was analysed using GraphPad InStat Version 3 with a p value of <0.05 considered to be statistically significant. Results:Of the 2081 patients assessed for inclusion into this study, a total of 573 warfarin users met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 416 (72.6%) patients were AF patients and 157 (27.4%) DVT patients and overall there were 316 (55.1%) male and 257 (44.9%) female patients. 145 patients were included in the fish oil/krill oil group (supplement) and 428 were included in the control group. The mean TTR of supplement users was 86.9% and for the control group 84.7% with no significant difference between these groups. Control patients experienced 1.6 times the number of minor bleeds per person compared to supplement patients and 1.2 times the number of major bleeds per person. However, this was not statistically significant nor was the comparison between thrombotic events. Conclusion: No significant difference was found between supplement and control patients in terms of mean TTR, the number of bleeds and thrombotic events. Fish oil and krill oil supplements when used concurrently with warfarin do not significantly affect warfarin control as measured by TTR and bleeding incidence.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, deep vein thormbosis, fish oil, krill oil, warfarin

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36 Relationship between Left Ventricle Position and Hemodynamic Parameters during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in a Pig Model

Authors: Hyun Chang Kim, Yong Hun Jung, Kyung Woon Jeung


Background: From the viewpoint of cardiac pump theory, the area of the left ventricle (LV) subjected to compression increases as the LV lies closer to the sternum, possibly resulting in higher blood flow in patients with LV closer to the sternum. However, no study has evaluated LV position during cardiac arrest or its relationship with hemodynamic parameters during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The objectives of this study were to determine whether the position of the LV relative to the anterior-posterior axis representing the direction of chest compression shifts during cardiac arrest and to examine the relationship between LV position and hemodynamic parameters during CPR. Methods: Subcostal view echocardiograms were obtained from 15 pigs with the transducer parallel to the long axis of the sternum before inducing ventricular fibrillation (VF) and during cardiac arrest. Computed tomography was performed in three pigs to objectively observe LV position during cardiac arrest. LV position parameters including the shortest distance between the anterior-posterior axis and the mid-point of the LV chamber (DAP-MidLV), the shortest distance between the anterior-posterior axis and the LV apex (DAP-Apex), and the area fraction of the LV located on the right side of the anterior-posterior axis (LVARight/LVATotal) were measured. Results: DAP-MidLV, DAP-Apex, and LVARight/LVATotal decreased progressively during untreated VF and basic life support (BLS), and then increased during advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed significant time effects for these parameters. During BLS, the end-tidal carbon dioxide and systolic right atrial pressure were significantly correlated with the LV position parameters. During ACLS, systolic arterial pressure and systolic right atrial pressure were significantly correlated with DAP-MidLV and DAP-Apex. Conclusions: LV position changed significantly during cardiac arrest compared to the pre-arrest baseline. LV position during CPR had significant correlations with hemodynamic parameters.

Keywords: heart arrest, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, heart ventricle, hemodynamics

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35 The Incidence of Cardiac Arrhythmias Using Trans-Telephonic, Portable Electrocardiography Recorder, in Out-Patients Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Urasri Imsomboon, Sopita Areerob, Kanchaporn Kongchauy, Tuchapong Ngarmukos


Objective: The Trans-telephonic Electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring is used to diagnose of infrequent cardiac arrhythmias and improve outcome of early detection and treatment on suspected cardiac patients. The objectives of this study were to explore incidence of cardiac arrhythmia using Trans-Telephonic and to explore time to first symptomatic episode and documented cardiac arrhythmia in outpatients. Methods: Descriptive research study was conducted between February 1, 2016, and December 31, 2016. A total of 117 patients who visited outpatient clinic were purposively selected. Research instruments in this study were the personal data questionnaire and the record form of incidence of cardiac arrhythmias using Trans-Telephonic ECG recorder. Results: A total of 117 patients aged between 15-92 years old (mean age 52.7 ±17.1 years), majority of studied sample was women (64.1%). The results revealed that 387 ECGs (Average 2.88 ECGs/person, SD = 3.55, Range 0 – 21) were sent to Cardiac Monitoring Center at Coronary Care Unit. Of these, normal sinus rhythm was found mostly 46%. Top 5 of cardiac arrhythmias were documented at the time of symptoms: sinus tachycardia 43.5%, premature atrial contraction 17.7%, premature ventricular contraction 14.3%, sinus bradycardia 11.5% and atrial fibrillation 8.6%. Presenting symptom were tachycardia 94%, palpitation 83.8%, dyspnea 51.3%, chest pain 19.6%, and syncope 14.5%. Mostly activities during symptom were no activity 64.8%, sleep 55.6% and work 25.6%.The mean time until the first symptomatic episode occurred on average after 6.88 ± 7.72 days (median 3 days). The first documented cardiac arrhythmia occurred on average after 9 ± 7.92 days (median 7 day). The treatments after patients known actual cardiac arrhythmias were observe themselves 68%, continue same medications 15%, got further investigations (7 patients), and corrected causes of cardiac arrhythmias via invasive cardiac procedures (5 patients). Conclusion: Trans-telephonic: portable ECGs recorder is effective in the diagnosis of suspected symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias in outpatient clinic.

Keywords: cardiac arrhythmias, diagnosis, outpatient clinic, trans-telephonic: portable ECG recorder

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34 Analysis of Patient No-Shows According to Health Conditions

Authors: Sangbok Lee


There has been much effort on process improvement for outpatient clinics to provide quality and acute care to patients. One of the efforts is no-show analysis or prediction. This work analyzes patient no-shows along with patient health conditions. The health conditions refer to clinical symptoms that each patient has, out of the followings; hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metastatic solid tumor, dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, myocardial infraction, congestive heart failure, atrial fibrillation, stroke, drug dependence abuse, schizophrenia, major depression, and pain. A dataset from a regional hospital is used to find the relationship between the number of the symptoms and no-show probabilities. Additional analysis reveals how each symptom or combination of symptoms affects no-shows. In the above analyses, cross-classification of patients by age and gender is carried out. The findings from the analysis will be used to take extra care to patients with particular health conditions. They will be forced to visit clinics by being informed about their health conditions and possible consequences more clearly. Moreover, this work will be used in the preparation of making institutional guidelines for patient reminder systems.

Keywords: healthcare system, no show analysis, process improvment, statistical data analysis

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