Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 3473

Search results for: coronary heart disease

3473 Prediction of Coronary Heart Disease Using Fuzzy Logic

Authors: Elda Maraj, Shkelqim Kuka

Abstract:

Coronary heart disease causes many deaths in the world. Unfortunately, this problem will continue to increase in the future. In this paper, a fuzzy logic model to predict coronary heart disease is presented. This model has been developed with seven input variables and one output variable that was implemented for 30 patients in Albania. Here fuzzy logic toolbox of MATLAB is used. Fuzzy model inputs are considered as cholesterol, blood pressure, physical activity, age, BMI, smoking, and diabetes, whereas the output is the disease classification. The fuzzy sets and membership functions are chosen in an appropriate manner. Centroid method is used for defuzzification. The database is taken from University Hospital Center "Mother Teresa" in Tirana, Albania.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, fuzzy logic toolbox, membership function, prediction model

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3472 Management of Coronary Heart Disease through Yoga

Authors: Subramaniam Iyer

Abstract:

The most common disease that is pertaining to all human beings is heart-related. The reasons for coronary artery disease are due to lifestyle and eating habits. Due to this, many people mentally become sick, feeling that soon they will die due to their heart problems. This results in stress and anxiety, which has become common amongst all the Indians. Medicines are the commonest curative remedy in India, but it is proposed through this article some remedies through yoga. This article does not guarantee a 100% result, but it is a preventive remedy for coronary artery disease. Yoga is giving a new lease of life to many, so to tackle chronic diseases, it provides remedies that will be lifelong. It is brought to many people by Patanjali. Yoga will provide support to patients having coronary artery disease through its various relevant postures (asanas), which can be done very easily. Yoga does not send a message that if you do it regularly, you will be relieved from a particular disease. If it is performed every day, it will add vital energy for a smooth life, even if you are suffering from any chronic disease. In this article, we will be providing 6 postures (asanas), which can be performed at any time in the day, but the early morning will always be preferred (empty stomach) to get a good result. Secondly, these postures must be implemented after due consultation with your physician. If your physician disapproves, don’t do these postures as it will be harmful to your body.

Keywords: coronary artery, yoga, disease, remedy, medicine

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3471 Correlation between Peripheral Arterial Disease and Coronary Artery Disease in Bangladeshi Population: A Five Years Retrospective Study

Authors: Syed Dawood M. Taimur

Abstract:

Background: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is under diagnosed in primary care practices, yet the extent of unrecognized PAD in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is unknown. Objective: To assess the prevalence of previously unrecognized PAD in patients undergoing coronary angiogram and to determine the relationship between the presence of PAD and severity of CAD. Material & Methods: This five years retrospective study was conducted at an invasive lab of the department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute from January 2010 to December 2014. Total 77 patients were included in this study. Study variables were age, sex, risk factors like hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, smoking habit and positive family history for ischemic heart disease, coronary artery and peripheral artery profile. Results: Mean age was 56.83±13.64 years, Male mean age was 53.98±15.08 years and female mean age was 54.5±1.73years. Hypertension was detected in 55.8%, diabetes in 87%, dyslipidaemia in 81.8%, smoking habits in 79.2% and 58.4% had a positive family history. After catheterization 88.3% had peripheral arterial disease and 71.4% had coronary artery disease. Out of 77 patients, 52 had both coronary and peripheral arterial disease which was statistically significant (p < .014). Coronary angiogram revealed 28.6% (22) patients had triple vessel disease, 23.3% (18) had single vessel disease, 19.5% (15) had double vessel disease and 28.6% (22) were normal coronary arteries. The peripheral angiogram revealed 54.5% had superficial femoral artery disease, 26% had anterior tibial artery disease, 27.3% had posterior tibial artery disease, 20.8% had common iliac artery disease, 15.6% had common femoral artery disease and 2.6% had renal artery disease. Conclusion: There is a strong and definite correlation between coronary and peripheral arterial disease. We found that cardiovascular risk factors were in fact risk factors for both PAD and CAD.

Keywords: coronary artery disease (CAD), peripheral artery disease(PVD), risk, factors, correlation, cathetarization

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3470 Long-Term Results of Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease: One Center Experience

Authors: Emil Sakharov, Alex Zotov, Ilkin Osmanov, Oleg Shelest, Aleksander Troitskiy, Robert Khabazov

Abstract:

Objective: Since 2015, our center has been actively implementing methods of surgical correction of atrial fibrillation, in particular, in patients with coronary heart disease. The study presents a comparative analysis of the late postoperative period in patients with coronary artery bypass grafting and atrial fibrillation. Methods: The study included 150 patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation for the period from 2015 to 2021. Patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group is represented by patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation who underwent coronary bypass surgery and surgical correction of atrial fibrillation (N=50). The second group is represented by patients with ischemic heart disease and atrial fibrillation who underwent only myocardial revascularization (N=100). Patients were comparable in age, gender, and initial severity of the condition. Among the patients in group 1 there were 82% were men, while in the second group, their number was 75%. Among the patients of the first group, there were 36% with persistent atrial fibrillation, 20% with long-term persistent atrial fibrillation. In the second group, 10% with persistent atrial fibrillation and 17% with long-term persistent atrial fibrillation. Results: Average follow-up for groups 1 and 2 amounted to 47 months. There were no complications in group 1, such as bleeding and stroke. There was only 1 patient in group 1, who had died from cardiovascular disease. Freedom of atrial fibrillation was in 82% without AADs therapy. In group 2 there were 8 patients who had died from cardiovascular diseases and total freedom of atrial fibrillation was in 35% of patients, among which 42.8% had additional AADs therapy. Follow-up data are presented in Table 2. Progression of heart failure was observed in 3% in group 1 and 7% in group 2. Combined endpoints (recurrence of AF, stroke, progression of heart failure, myocardial infarction) were achieved in 16% in group 1 and 34% in group 2, respectively. Freedom from atrial fibrillation without antiarrhythmic therapy was 82% for group 1 and 35% for group 2. In the first group, there is a more pronounced decrease in heart failure rates. Deaths from cardiovascular causes were recorded in 2% for group 1 and 7% for group 2. Conclusion: Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation helps to reduce adverse complications in the late postoperative period and contributes to the regression of heart failure.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, coronary artery bypass grafting, ischaemic heart disease, heart failure

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3469 The Incidence of Postoperative Atrial Fibrillation after Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with Local and Diffuse Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Kamil Ganaev, Elina Vlasova, Andrei Shiryaev, Renat Akchurin

Abstract:

De novo atrial fibrillation (AF) after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common complication. To date, there are no data on the possible effect of diffuse lesions of coronary arteries on the incidence of postoperative AF complications. Methods. Patients operated on-pump under hypothermic conditions during the calendar year (2020) were studied. Inclusion criteria - isolated CABG and achievement of complete myocardial revascularization. Patients with a history of AF moderate and severe valve dysfunction, hormonal thyroid pathology, initial CHF(Congestive heart failure), as well as patients with developed perioperative complications (IM, acute heart failure, massive blood loss) and deceased were excluded. Thus 227 patients were included; mean age 65±9 years; 69% were men. 89% of patients had a 3-vessel lesion of the coronary artery; the remainder had a 2-vessel lesion. Mean LV size: 3.9±0.3 cm, indexed LV volume: 29.4±5.3 mL/m2. Two groups were considered: D (n=98), patients with diffuse coronary heart disease, and L (n=129), patients with local coronary heart disease. Clinical and demographic characteristics in the groups were comparable. Rhythm assessment: continuous bedside ECG monitoring up to 5 days; ECG CT at 5-7 days after CABG; daily routine ECG registration. Follow-up period - postoperative hospital period. Results. The Median follow-up period was 9 (7;11) days. POFP (Postoperative atrial fibrillation) was detected in 61/227 (27%) patients: 34/98 (35%) in group D versus 27/129 (21%) in group L; p<0.05. Moreover, the values of revascularization index in groups D and L (3.9±0.7 and 3.8±0.5, respectively) were equal, and the mean time Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (107±27 and 80±13min), as well as the mean ischemic time (67±17 and 55±11min) were significantly longer in group D (p<0.05). However, a separate analysis of these parameters in patients with and without developed AF did not reveal any significant differences in group D (CPB time 99±21.2 min, ischemic time 63±12.2 min), or in group L (CPB time 88±13.1 min, ischemic time 58.7±13.2 min). Conclusion. With the diffuse nature of coronary lesions, the incidence of AF in the hospital period after isolated CABG definitely increases. To better understand the role of severe coronary atherosclerosis in the development of POAF, it is necessary to distinguish the influence of organic features of atrial and ventricular myocardium (as a consequence of chronic coronary disease) from the features of surgical correction in diffuse coronary lesions.

Keywords: atrial fibrillation, diffuse coronary artery disease, coronary artery bypass grafting, local coronary artery disease

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3468 Analysis of Cardiovascular Diseases Using Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Jyotismita Talukdar

Abstract:

In this paper, a study has been made on the possibility and accuracy of early prediction of several Heart Disease using Artificial Neural Network. (ANN). The study has been made in both noise free environment and noisy environment. The data collected for this analysis are from five Hospitals. Around 1500 heart patient’s data has been collected and studied. The data is analysed and the results have been compared with the Doctor’s diagnosis. It is found that, in noise free environment, the accuracy varies from 74% to 92%and in noisy environment (2dB), the results of accuracy varies from 62% to 82%. In the present study, four basic attributes considered are Blood Pressure (BP), Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Thalach (THAL) and Cholesterol (CHOL.). It has been found that highest accuracy(93%), has been achieved in case of PPI( Post-Permanent-Pacemaker Implementation ), around 79% in case of CAD(Coronary Artery disease), 87% in DCM (Dilated Cardiomyopathy), 89% in case of RHD&MS(Rheumatic heart disease with Mitral Stenosis), 75 % in case of RBBB +LAFB (Right Bundle Branch Block + Left Anterior Fascicular Block), 72% for CHB(Complete Heart Block) etc. The lowest accuracy has been obtained in case of ICMP (Ischemic Cardiomyopathy), about 38% and AF( Atrial Fibrillation), about 60 to 62%.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, chronic stable angina, sick sinus syndrome, cardiovascular disease, cholesterol, Thalach

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3467 Quality of Life of Patients on Oral Antiplatelet Therapy in Outpatient Cardiac Department Dr. Hasan Sadikin Central General Hospital Bandung

Authors: Andhiani Sharfina Arnellya, Mochammad Indra Permana, Dika Pramita Destiani, Ellin Febrina

Abstract:

Health Research Data, Ministry of Health of Indonesia in 2007, showed coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary artery disease (CAD) was the third leading cause of death in Indonesia after hypertension and stroke with 7.2% incidence rate. Antiplatelet is one of the important therapy in management of patients with CHD. In addition to therapeutic effect on patients, quality of life is one aspect of another assessment to see the success of antiplatelet therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the quality of life of patients on oral antiplatelet therapy in outpatient cardiac department Dr. Hasan Sadikin central general hospital, Bandung, Indonesia. This research is a cross sectional by collecting data through quality of life questionnaire of patients which performed prospectively as primary data and secondary data from medical record of patients. The results of this study showed that 54.3% of patients had a good quality of life, 45% had a moderate quality of life, and 0.7% had a poor quality of life. There are no significant differences in quality of life-based on age, gender, diagnosis, and duration of drug use.

Keywords: antiplatelet, quality of life, coronary artery disease, coronary heart disease

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3466 Computed Tomography Myocardial Perfusion on a Patient with Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

Authors: Jitendra Pratap, Daphne Prybyszcuk, Luke Elliott, Arnold Ng

Abstract:

Introduction: Coronary CT angiography is a non-invasive imaging technique for the assessment of coronary artery disease and has high sensitivity and negative predictive value. However, the correlation between the degree of CT coronary stenosis and the significance of hemodynamic obstruction is poor. The assessment of myocardial perfusion has mostly been undertaken by Nuclear Medicine (SPECT), but it is now possible to perform stress myocardial CT perfusion (CTP) scans quickly and effectively using CT scanners with high temporal resolution. Myocardial CTP is in many ways similar to neuro perfusion imaging technique, where radiopaque iodinated contrast is injected intravenously, transits the pulmonary and cardiac structures, and then perfuses through the coronary arteries into the myocardium. On the Siemens Force CT scanner, a myocardial perfusion scan is performed using a dynamic axial acquisition, where the scanner shuffles in and out every 1-3 seconds (heart rate dependent) to be able to cover the heart in the z plane. This is usually performed over 38 seconds. Report: A CT myocardial perfusion scan can be utilised to complement the findings of a CT Coronary Angiogram. Implementing a CT Myocardial Perfusion study as part of a routine CT Coronary Angiogram procedure provides a ‘One Stop Shop’ for diagnosis of coronary artery disease. This case study demonstrates that although the CT Coronary Angiogram was within normal limits, the perfusion scan provided additional, clinically significant information in regards to the haemodynamics within the myocardium of a patient with Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardio Myopathy (HOCM). This negated the need for further diagnostics studies such as cardiac ECHO or Nuclear Medicine Stress tests. Conclusion: CT coronary angiography with adenosine stress myocardial CTP was utilised in this case to specifically exclude coronary artery disease in conjunction with accessing perfusion within the hypertrophic myocardium. Adenosine stress myocardial CTP demonstrated the reduced myocardial blood flow within the hypertrophic myocardium, but the coronary arteries did not show any obstructive disease. A CT coronary angiogram scan protocol that incorporates myocardial perfusion can provide diagnostic information on the haemodynamic significance of any coronary artery stenosis and has the potential to be a “One Stop Shop” for cardiac imaging.

Keywords: CT, cardiac, myocardium, perfusion

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3465 Analysis and Rule Extraction of Coronary Artery Disease Data Using Data Mining

Authors: Rezaei Hachesu Peyman, Oliyaee Azadeh, Salahzadeh Zahra, Alizadeh Somayyeh, Safaei Naser

Abstract:

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is one major cause of disability in adults and one main cause of death in developed. In this study, data mining techniques including Decision Trees, Artificial neural networks (ANNs), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) analyze CAD data. Data of 4948 patients who had suffered from heart diseases were included in the analysis. CAD is the target variable, and 24 inputs or predictor variables are used for the classification. The performance of these techniques is compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. The most significant factor influencing CAD is chest pain. Elderly males (age > 53) have a high probability to be diagnosed with CAD. SVM algorithm is the most useful way for evaluation and prediction of CAD patients as compared to non-CAD ones. Application of data mining techniques in analyzing coronary artery diseases is a good method for investigating the existing relationships between variables.

Keywords: classification, coronary artery disease, data-mining, knowledge discovery, extract

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3464 Prediction of Coronary Artery Stenosis Severity Based on Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Yu-Jia Jian, Emily Chia-Yu Su, Hui-Ling Hsu, Jian-Jhih Chen

Abstract:

Coronary artery is the major supplier of myocardial blood flow. When fat and cholesterol are deposit in the coronary arterial wall, narrowing and stenosis of the artery occurs, which may lead to myocardial ischemia and eventually infarction. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), estimated 740 million people have died of coronary heart disease in 2015. According to Statistics from Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan, heart disease (except for hypertensive diseases) ranked the second among the top 10 causes of death from 2013 to 2016, and it still shows a growing trend. According to American Heart Association (AHA), the risk factors for coronary heart disease including: age (> 65 years), sex (men to women with 2:1 ratio), obesity, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history, lack of exercise and more. We have collected a dataset of 421 patients from a hospital located in northern Taiwan who received coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography. There were 300 males (71.26%) and 121 females (28.74%), with age ranging from 24 to 92 years, and a mean age of 56.3 years. Prior to coronary CT angiography, basic data of the patients, including age, gender, obesity index (BMI), diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking, family history of coronary heart disease and exercise habits, were collected and used as input variables. The output variable of the prediction module is the degree of coronary artery stenosis. The output variable of the prediction module is the narrow constriction of the coronary artery. In this study, the dataset was randomly divided into 80% as training set and 20% as test set. Four machine learning algorithms, including logistic regression, stepwise regression, neural network and decision tree, were incorporated to generate prediction results. We used area under curve (AUC) / accuracy (Acc.) to compare the four models, the best model is neural network, followed by stepwise logistic regression, decision tree, and logistic regression, with 0.68 / 79 %, 0.68 / 74%, 0.65 / 78%, and 0.65 / 74%, respectively. Sensitivity of neural network was 27.3%, specificity was 90.8%, stepwise Logistic regression sensitivity was 18.2%, specificity was 92.3%, decision tree sensitivity was 13.6%, specificity was 100%, logistic regression sensitivity was 27.3%, specificity 89.2%. From the result of this study, we hope to improve the accuracy by improving the module parameters or other methods in the future and we hope to solve the problem of low sensitivity by adjusting the imbalanced proportion of positive and negative data.

Keywords: decision support, computed tomography, coronary artery, machine learning

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3463 Gender Features of Left Ventricular Myocardial Remodeling and the Development of Chronic Heart Failure in Patients with Postinfarction Cardiosclerosis

Authors: G. Dadashova, A. Bakhshaliyev

Abstract:

Aim: Determine gender differences in the etiology and clinical outcomes, as well as in the remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), suffering from arterial hypertension (AH) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Material and methods: The study included 112 patients of both sexes; aged 45 to 60 years with postinfarction cardiosclerosis had functional class (FC) heart failure II-IV of NYHA which were examined on the basis of Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institute of Cardiology. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1st c. 60 males, mean age 54,8 ± 3,3 years, and 2nd gr 52 women, mean age 55,8 ± 3,1 years. To assess cardiac hemodynamic all patients underwent echocardiography (B-M-modes) using ‘Vivid 3’. Thus on the basis of indicators such as the index of the relative thickness of the left ventricle wall and the index of left ventricular mass (LVMI) was identified the architectonic model of the left ventricle. Results: According to our research leading cause of heart failure in women is 50.5% of cases of hypertension, ischemic heart disease 23.7% (with 79.5% of the cases developed in patients with chronic heart failure who did not have a history of myocardial infarction). While in men is the undisputed leader of CHD, forming 78.3% of CHF (80.3% in men with CHF occurred after myocardial infarction). According to our research in women more often than men CHF develops a type of diastolic dysfunction (DD, and left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged. Since DD occurs in men at 65,8% vs. 76,4% of women when p < 0,05. In the group of women was more common prognostic neblagopryatnye remodeling - eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle: 68% vs. 54.5% among men (p < 0,05), concentric left ventricular hypertrophy: 21% in women vs 19,1% (p > 0,05 ). Conclusions: Patients with heart failure are a number of gender-specific: the prevalence of hypertension in women, and coronary heart disease in men. While in women with heart failure often recorded diastolic dysfunction and characterized by the development of prognostically unfavorable remodeling types: eccentric and concentric LV hypertrophy.

Keywords: chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, men, women, ischemic heart disease

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3462 Computational Study of Blood Flow Analysis for Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Radhe Tado, Ashish B. Deoghare, K. M. Pandey

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to estimate the effect of blood flow through the coronary artery in human heart so as to assess the coronary artery disease.Velocity, wall shear stress (WSS), strain rate and wall pressure distribution are some of the important hemodynamic parameters that are non-invasively assessed with computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These parameters are used to identify the mechanical factors responsible for the plaque progression and/or rupture in left coronary arteries (LCA) in coronary arteries.The initial step for CFD simulations was the construction of a geometrical model of the LCA. Patient specific artery model is constructed using computed tomography (CT) scan data with the help of MIMICS Research 19.0. For CFD analysis ANSYS FLUENT-14.5 is used.Hemodynamic parameters were quantified and flow patterns were visualized both in the absence and presence of coronary plaques. The wall pressure continuously decreased towards distal segments and showed pressure drops in stenotic segments. Areas of high WSS and high flow velocities were found adjacent to plaques deposition.

Keywords: angiography, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), time-average wall shear stress (TAWSS), wall pressure, wall shear stress (WSS)

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3461 Applying the Regression Technique for ‎Prediction of the Acute Heart Attack ‎

Authors: Paria Soleimani, Arezoo Neshati

Abstract:

Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of ‎death in the world. Some of these deaths occur even before the patient ‎reaches the hospital. Myocardial infarction occurs as a result of ‎impaired blood supply. Because the most of these deaths are due to ‎coronary artery disease, hence the awareness of the warning signs of a ‎heart attack is essential. Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, but ‎most of them start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort, then early ‎detection and successful treatment of these symptoms is vital to save ‎them. Therefore, importance and usefulness of a system designing to ‎assist physicians in the early diagnosis of the acute heart attacks is ‎obvious.‎ The purpose of this study is to determine how well a predictive ‎model would perform based on the only patient-reportable clinical ‎history factors, without using diagnostic tests or physical exams. This ‎type of the prediction model might have application outside of the ‎hospital setting to give accurate advice to patients to influence them to ‎seek care in appropriate situations. For this purpose, the data were ‎collected on 711 heart patients in Iran hospitals. 28 attributes of clinical ‎factors can be reported by patients; were studied. Three logistic ‎regression models were made on the basis of the 28 features to predict ‎the risk of heart attacks. The best logistic regression model in terms of ‎performance had a C-index of 0.955 and with an accuracy of 94.9%. ‎The variables, severe chest pain, back pain, cold sweats, shortness of ‎breath, nausea, and vomiting were selected as the main features.‎

Keywords: Coronary heart disease, Acute heart attacks, Prediction, Logistic ‎regression‎

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3460 Investigation the Effect of Velocity Inlet and Carrying Fluid on the Flow inside Coronary Artery

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

Abstract:

In this study OpenFOAM 4.4.2 was used to investigate flow inside the coronary artery of the heart. This step is the first step of our future project, which is to include conjugate heat transfer of the heart with three main coronary arteries. Three different velocities were used as inlet boundary conditions to see the effect of velocity increase on velocity, pressure, and wall shear of the coronary artery. Also, three different fluids, namely the University of Wisconsin solution, gelatin, and blood was used to investigate the effect of different fluids on flow inside the coronary artery. A code based on Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes (RANS) equations was written and implemented with the real boundary condition that was calculated based on MRI images. In order to improve the accuracy of the current numerical scheme, hex dominant mesh is utilized. When the inlet velocity increases to 0.5 m/s, velocity, wall shear stress, and pressure increase at the narrower parts.

Keywords: CFD, simulation, OpenFOAM, heart

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3459 Right Atrial Tissue Morphology in Acquired Heart Diseases

Authors: Edite Kulmane, Mara Pilmane, Romans Lacis

Abstract:

Introduction: Acquired heart diseases remain one of the leading health care problems in the world. Changes in myocardium of the diseased hearts are complex and pathogenesis is still not fully clear. The aim of this study was to identify appearance and distribution of apoptosis, homeostasis regulating factors, and innervation and ischemia markers in right atrial tissue in different acquired heart diseases. Methods: During elective open heart surgery were taken right atrial tissue fragments from 12 patients. All patients were operated because of acquired heart diseases- aortic valve stenosis (5 patients), coronary heart disease (5 patients), coronary heart disease and secondary mitral insufficiency (1 patient) and mitral disease (1 patient). The mean age was (mean±SD) 70,2±7,0 years (range 58-83 years). The tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin methods for routine light-microscopical examination and for immunohistochemical detection of protein gene peptide 9.5 (PGP 9.5), human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANUP), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), chromogranin A and endothelin. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method. Results: All specimens showed degeneration of cardiomyocytes with lysis of myofibrils, diffuse vacuolization especially in perinuclear region, different size of cells and their nuclei. The severe invasion of connective tissue was observed in main part of all fragments. The apoptotic index ranged from 24 to 91%. One specimen showed region of newly performed microvessels with cube shaped endotheliocytes that were positive for PGP 9.5, endothelin, chromogranin A and VEGF. From all fragments, taken from patients with coronary heart disease, there were observed numerous PGP 9.5-containing nerve fibres, except in patient with secondary mitral insufficiency, who showed just few PGP 9.5 positive nerves. In majority of specimens there were regions observed with cube shaped mixed -VEGF immunoreactive endocardial and epicardial cells. Only VEGF positive endothelial cells were observed just in few specimens. There was no significant difference of hANUP secreting cells among all specimens. All patients operated due to the coronary heart disease moderate to numerous number of chromogranin A positive cells were seen while in patients with aortic valve stenosis tissue demonstrated just few factor positive cells. Conclusions: Complex detection of different factors may indicate selectively disordered morphopathogenetical event of heart disease: decrease of PGP 9.5 nerves suggests the decreased innervation of organ; increased apoptosis indicates the cell death without ingrowth of connective tissue; persistent presence of hANUP proves the unchanged homeostasis of cardiomyocytes probably supported by expression of chromogranins. Finally, decrease of VEGF detects the regions of affected blood vessels in heart affected by acquired heart disease.

Keywords: heart, apoptosis, protein-gene peptide 9.5, atrial natriuretic peptide, vascular endothelial growth factor, chromogranin A, endothelin

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3458 Predicting Intentions of Physical Activity in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease: Attitudes, Subjective Norms and Perceived Behavioral Control

Authors: Shadi Kanan, Ghada Shahrour, Barbara Broome, Donna Bernert, Muntaha Alibrahim, Dana Hansen

Abstract:

Coronary artery disease is responsible for over 7 million deaths a year worldwide. In developing countries, such as Jordan, the incidence of coronary artery disease exceeds that of developed countries. One contributing factor to this disparity is decreased physical activity among the population, for reasons related to specific cultural and religious values. Using the theory of planned behaviour, the purpose of this study was to investigate the intentions of Jordanian patients with coronary artery disease regarding physical activity. A total of 109 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited for this cross-sectional study from King Abdullah University Hospital in Jordan. A 15-item questionnaire based on the theory of planned behaviour was used to assess participants’ attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intentions towards engagement in physical activity. Perceived behavioural control was found to have the strongest significant relationship with participants’ intentions to engage in physical activity. Barriers to physical activity included lack of time, lack of support from family or friends, and feelings of exhaustion. Lifestyle interventions for patients with coronary artery disease should focus on fostering a sense of control over the environment to encourage patients to engage in physical activity.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, perceived behavioural control, subjective norms, theory of planned behaviour

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3457 The Associations between Self-Determined Motivation and Physical Activity in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

Authors: I. Hua Chu, Hsiang-Chi Yu, Hsuan Su

Abstract:

Purpose: To examine the associations between self-determined motivation and physical activity in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a longitudinal study. Methods: Patients with CHD were recruited for this study. Their motivations for exercise were measured by the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2 (BREQ-2). Physical activity was assessed using the 7-day physical activity recall questionnaire. Duration and energy expenditure of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were used in data analysis. All outcome measures were assessed at baseline and 12 months follow up. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis. Results: The results of the 45 participants (mean age 60.24 yr; 90.2% male) revealed that there were significant negative correlations between amotivation at baseline and duration (r=-.295, p=.049) and energy expenditure (r=-.300, p=.045) of MVPA at 12 months. In contrast, there were significant positive correlations between calculated relative autonomy index (RAI) at baseline and duration (r=.377, p=.011) and energy expenditure (r=.382, p=.010) of MVPA at 12 months. There was no significant correlation between other subscales of the BREQ-2 and duration or energy expenditure of MVPA. Regression analyses revealed that RAI was a significant predictor of duration (p=.011) and energy expenditure (p=.010) of MVPA at 12 months follow-up. Conclusions: These results suggest that the relative degree of self-determined motivation could predict long-term MVPA behaviors in CHD patients. Physical activity interventions are recommended to target enhancing one’s identified and intrinsic motivation to increase the likelihood of physical activity participation in this population.

Keywords: self-determined motivation, physical activity, coronary heart disease, relative autonomy index (RAI)

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3456 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam

Abstract:

The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

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3455 Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Ankle-Brachial Index as Predictors of the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Ali Kassem, Yaser Kamal, Mohamed Abdel Wahab, Mohamed Hussen

Abstract:

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Recently, there is an increasing interest in Carotid Intima-Medial Thickness (CIMT) and Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) as non-invasive tools for identifying subclinical atherosclerosis. We aim to examine the role of CIMT and ABI as predictors of the severity of angiographically documented coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted on 60 patients who were investigated by coronary angiography at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt. CIMT: After the carotid arteries were located by transverse scans, the probe was rotated 90 ° to obtain and record longitudinal images of bilateral carotid arteries ABI: Each patient was evaluated in the supine position after resting for 5 min. ABI was measured in each leg using a Doppler Ultrasound while the patient remained in the same position. The lowest ABI obtained for either leg was taken as the ABI measurement for the patient. Results: Patients with carotid mean IMT ≥ 0.9 mm had significantly more severe coronary artery disease than patients without thickening (mean IMT > 0.9 mm). Similarly, patients with low ABI (< 0.9) had significantly more severe coronary artery disease than patients with ABI ≥ 0.9. When the patients were divided into 4 groups (group A, n = 15, mean IMT < 0.9 mm, ABI ≥ 0.9; group B, n = 25, mean IMT < 0.9 mm, low ABI; group C, n = 5, mean IMT ≥ 0.9 mm, ABI ≥ 0.9; group D, n = 19, mean IMT ≤ 0.9 mm, low ABI), the presence of significant coronary stenosis (> 50%) of the groups were significantly different (group A, n = 5: (33.3%); group B, n = 11: (52.4%); group C, n = 4: (60%); group D, n=15, (78.9%), P = 0.001). Conclusion: CIMT and ABI provide useful information on the severity of CAD. Early and aggressive intervention should be considered in patients with CAD and abnormalities in one or both of these non-invasive modalities.

Keywords: ankle brachial index, carotid intima media thickness, coronary artery disease, predictors of severity

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3454 Liquid Biopsy Based Microbial Biomarker in Coronary Artery Disease Diagnosis

Authors: Eyup Ozkan, Ozkan U. Nalbantoglu, Aycan Gundogdu, Mehmet Hora, A. Emre Onuk

Abstract:

The human microbiome has been associated with cardiological conditions and this relationship is becoming to be defined beyond the gastrointestinal track. In this study, we investigate the alteration in circulatory microbiota in the context of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). We received circulatory blood samples from suspected CAD patients and maintain 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to identify each patient’s microbiome. It was found that Corynebacterium and Methanobacteria genera show statistically significant differences between healthy and CAD patients. The overall biodiversities between the groups were observed to be different revealed by machine learning classification models. We also achieve and demonstrate the performance of a diagnostic method using circulatory blood microbiome-based estimation.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, blood microbiome, machine learning, angiography, next-generation sequencing

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3453 A Study on Coronary Artery Dominance and Divisions of Main Trunk of Left Coronary Artery in Adult Human Cadaveric Hearts of South Indian Population

Authors: Chethan Purushothama

Abstract:

Coronary artery disease is one of the major causes of death in developing countries. The coronary arteries show wide range of variations and these variations have not been dealt with different population groups. The present study aims to focus on the pattern and variations of coronary artery in south Indian population. The study was performed to analyze the coronary artery dominance and divisions of main trunk of left coronary artery in 81 isolated adult human cadaveric hearts of South Indian population. The specimens were fixed in 10% formalin and were dissected manually. In our specimens, 74.1% of the hearts were right dominant, 11.1% were left dominant, and 14.8% were co-dominant. Bifurcation, trifurcation, and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen in 49.4%, 48.1%, and 2.5% cases respectively. The right dominant hearts had bifurcation, trifurcation and quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 46.7%, 50% and 3.3% hearts respectively. The left dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 55.6% and 44.4% cases respectively. The co-dominant hearts had bifurcation and trifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery in 58.3% and 41.7% respectively. Quadrifurcation of main trunk of left coronary artery were seen only in right dominant hearts. We believe that the data obtained from the present study are important to the interventional cardiologists and radiologists. The details obtained will also be helpful for the clinical anatomists.

Keywords: bifurcation, coronary artery, trifurcation, quadrifurcation

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3452 Data Analytics of Electronic Medical Records Shows an Age-Related Differences in Diagnosis of Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Maryam Panahiazar, Andrew M. Bishara, Yorick Chern, Roohallah Alizadehsani, Dexter Hadleye, Ramin E. Beygui

Abstract:

Early detection plays a crucial role in enhancing the outcome for a patient with coronary artery disease (CAD). We utilized a big data analytics platform on ~23,000 patients with CAD from a total of 960,129 UCSF patients in 8 years. We traced the patients from their first encounter with a physician to diagnose and treat CAD. Characteristics such as demographic information, comorbidities, vital, lab tests, medications, and procedures are included. There are statistically significant gender-based differences in patients younger than 60 years old from the time of the first physician encounter to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a p-value=0.03. There are no significant differences between the patients between 60 and 80 years old (p-value=0.8) and older than 80 (p-value=0.4) with a 95% confidence interval. This recognition would affect significant changes in the guideline for referral of the patients for diagnostic tests expeditiously to improve the outcome by avoiding the delay in treatment.

Keywords: electronic medical records, coronary artery disease, data analytics, young women

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3451 A Dynamic Solution Approach for Heart Disease Prediction

Authors: Walid Moudani

Abstract:

The healthcare environment is generally perceived as being information rich yet knowledge poor. However, there is a lack of effective analysis tools to discover hidden relationships and trends in data. In fact, valuable knowledge can be discovered from application of data mining techniques in healthcare system. In this study, a proficient methodology for the extraction of significant patterns from the coronary heart disease warehouses for heart attack prediction, which unfortunately continues to be a leading cause of mortality in the whole world, has been presented. For this purpose, we propose to enumerate dynamically the optimal subsets of the reduced features of high interest by using rough sets technique associated to dynamic programming. Therefore, we propose to validate the classification using Random Forest (RF) decision tree to identify the risky heart disease cases. This work is based on a large amount of data collected from several clinical institutions based on the medical profile of patient. Moreover, the experts’ knowledge in this field has been taken into consideration in order to define the disease, its risk factors, and to establish significant knowledge relationships among the medical factors. A computer-aided system is developed for this purpose based on a population of 525 adults. The performance of the proposed model is analyzed and evaluated based on set of benchmark techniques applied in this classification problem.

Keywords: multi-classifier decisions tree, features reduction, dynamic programming, rough sets

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3450 Development and Validation of a Coronary Heart Disease Risk Score in Indian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

Authors: Faiz N. K. Yusufi, Aquil Ahmed, Jamal Ahmad

Abstract:

Diabetes in India is growing at an alarming rate and the complications caused by it need to be controlled. Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the complications that will be discussed for prediction in this study. India has the second most number of diabetes patients in the world. To the best of our knowledge, there is no CHD risk score for Indian type 2 diabetes patients. Any form of CHD has been taken as the event of interest. A sample of 750 was determined and randomly collected from the Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology, J.N.M.C., A.M.U., Aligarh, India. Collected variables include patients data such as sex, age, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood sugar fasting (BSF), post prandial sugar (PP), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), systolic blood pressure (SBP), smoking, alcohol habits, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), physical activity, duration of diabetes, diet control, history of antihypertensive drug treatment, family history of diabetes, waist circumference, hip circumference, medications, central obesity and history of CHD. Predictive risk scores of CHD events are designed by cox proportional hazard regression. Model calibration and discrimination is assessed from Hosmer Lemeshow and area under receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Overfitting and underfitting of the model is checked by applying regularization techniques and best method is selected between ridge, lasso and elastic net regression. Youden’s index is used to choose the optimal cut off point from the scores. Five year probability of CHD is predicted by both survival function and Markov chain two state model and the better technique is concluded. The risk scores for CHD developed can be calculated by doctors and patients for self-control of diabetes. Furthermore, the five-year probabilities can be implemented as well to forecast and maintain the condition of patients.

Keywords: coronary heart disease, cox proportional hazard regression, ROC curve, type 2 diabetes Mellitus

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
3449 Intelligent Prediction System for Diagnosis of Heart Attack

Authors: Oluwaponmile David Alao

Abstract:

Due to an increase in the death rate as a result of heart attack. There is need to develop a system that can be useful in the diagnosis of the disease at the medical centre. This system will help in preventing misdiagnosis that may occur from the medical practitioner or the physicians. In this research work, heart disease dataset obtained from UCI repository has been used to develop an intelligent prediction diagnosis system. The system is modeled on a feedforwad neural network and trained with back propagation neural network. A recognition rate of 86% is obtained from the testing of the network.

Keywords: heart disease, artificial neural network, diagnosis, prediction system

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
3448 Simulation to Detect Virtual Fractional Flow Reserve in Coronary Artery Idealized Models

Authors: Nabila Jaman, K. E. Hoque, S. Sawall, M. Ferdows

Abstract:

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most lethal diseases of the cardiovascular diseases. Coronary arteries stenosis and bifurcation angles closely interact for myocardial infarction. We want to use computer-aided design model coupled with computational hemodynamics (CHD) simulation for detecting several types of coronary artery stenosis with different locations in an idealized model for identifying virtual fractional flow reserve (vFFR). The vFFR provides us the information about the severity of stenosis in the computational models. Another goal is that we want to imitate patient-specific computed tomography coronary artery angiography model for constructing our idealized models with different left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) bifurcation angles. Further, we want to analyze whether the bifurcation angles has an impact on the creation of narrowness in coronary arteries or not. The numerical simulation provides the CHD parameters such as wall shear stress (WSS), velocity magnitude and pressure gradient (PGD) that allow us the information of stenosis condition in the computational domain.

Keywords: CAD, CHD, vFFR, bifurcation angles, coronary stenosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
3447 Relationship of Silent Myocardial Ischemia to Erectile Dysfunction in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Ali Kassem, Esam Nada, Amro Abdelhamed, Shigeo Horie

Abstract:

Objective: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with macrovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD), and microvascular complications that contribute to the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED). On the other hand, silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) is more common in diabetic patients and is a strong predictor of cardiac events and mortality in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Recently, Multidetector computed tomographic coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) has become a reliable non-invasive imaging modality for screening diabetic patients for SMI. We aim to evaluate the presence of SMI using (MDCT-CA) in patients with type 2DM having ED. Methods: This study evaluated 20 patients (mean age 61.45 ± 10.7 years), with DM and ED without any history of angina or angina equivalent. ED was tested with the Sexual Health Inventory for Men score, erection hardness score (EHS), and maximal penile circumferential change by an erect meter. Results: Of twenty studied patients, coronary artery stenosis was detected in 13 (65%) patients in the form of one-vessel disease (n = 6, 30%), two-vessel disease (n = 2, 10%), and three-vessel disease (n = 5, 25%). Maximum coronary artery stenosis was positively correlated with age (P < 0.016,) and negatively correlated with EHS (P <04). Multivariate regression analysis using age and EHS showed that age was the only independent predictor of SMI (P <04). Conclusion: MDCT-CA is a useful tool to identify SMI in patients with diabetes mellitus and ED. One should consider the possibility of SMI especially in elderly patients with DM who have ED.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, erectile dysfunction, microvascular, silent ischemia

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3446 Angiographic Evaluation of ETT (Treadmill) Positive Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Bangladesh

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Saidur Rahman Khan, Farzana Islam

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the factors which predetermine the coronary artery disease in patients having positive Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) that is treadmill results and coronary artery findings. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at Department of Cardiology, Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute,Dhaka,Bangladesh from 1st January, 2014 to 31st August, 2014. All patients who had done ETT (treadmill) for chest pain diagnosis were studied. One hundred and four patients underwent coronary angiogram after positive treadmill result. Patients were divided into two groups depending upon the angiographic findings, i.e. true positive and false positive. Positive treadmill test patients who have coronary artery involvement these are called true positive and who have no involvement they are called false positive group. Both groups were compared with each other. Results: Out of 104 patients, 81 (77.9%) patients had true positive ETT and 23 (22.1%) patients had false positive ETT. The mean age of patients in positive ETT was 53.46± 8.06 years and male mean age was 53.63±8.36 years and female was 52.87 ± 7.0 years. Sixty nine (85.19%) male patients and twelve (14.81%) female patients had true positive ETT, whereas 15 (65.21%) males and 8 (34.79%) females had false positive ETT, this was statistically significant (p<0.032)difference in the two groups(sex) in comparison of true and false positive ETT. The risk factors of these patients like diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, family history and smoking were seen among these patients. Hypertensive patients having true positive which were statically significant (p<0.004) and diabetic, dyslipidaemic patients having true positive which were statically significant (p < 0.032 & 0.030).True positive patients had family history were 68 (83.95%) and smoking were 52 (64.20%), where family history patients had statistically significant(p<0.017) between two groups of patients and smokers were significant (p<0.012). 46 true positive patients achieved THR which was not statistically significant (P<0.138)and 79 true patients had abnormal resting ECG whether it was significant (p<0.036). Amongst the vessels involvement the most common was LAD 55 (67.90%), followed by LCX 42 (51.85%), RCA 36 (44.44%) and the LMCA was 9 (11.11%), .40 patients (49.38%) had SVD, 26 (30.10%) had DVD, 15(18.52%) had TVD and 23 had normal coronary arteries. Conclusion: It can be concluded that among the female patients who have positive ETT with normal resting ECG, who had achieved target heart rate are likely to have a false positive test result. Conversely male patients,resting abnormal ECG who had not achieved THR, symptom limited ETT, have a hypertension, diabetis, dyslipidaemic, family history and smoking are likely to have a true positive treadmill test result.

Keywords: exercise tolerance test, coronary artery disease, coronary angiography, true positive, false positive

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3445 Correlation of Serum Apelin Level with Coronary Calcium Score in Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: M. Zeitoun, K. Abdallah, M. Rashwan

Abstract:

Introduction: A growing body of evidence indicates that apelin, a relatively recent member of the adipokines family, has a potential anti-atherogenic effect. An association between low serum apelin state and coronary artery disease (CAD) was previously reported; however, the relationship between apelin and the atherosclerotic burden was unclear. Objectives: Our aim was to explore the correlation of serum apelin level with coronary calcium score (CCS) as a quantitative marker of coronary atherosclerosis. Methods: This observational cross-sectional study enrolled 100 consecutive subjects referred for cardiac multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for assessment of CAD (mean age 54 ± 9.7 years, 51 male and 49 females). Clinical parameters, glycemic and lipid profile, high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), serum creatinine and complete blood count were assessed. Serum apelin levels were determined using a commercially available Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) Kit. High-resolution non-contrast CT images were acquired by a 64-raw MDCT and CCS was calculated using the Agatston scoring method. Results: Forty-three percent of the studied subjects had positive coronary artery calcification (CAC). The mean CCS was 79 ± 196.5 Agatston units. Subjects with detectable CAC had significantly higher fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, and WBCs count than subjects without detectable CAC (p < 0.05). Most importantly, subjects with detectable CAC had significantly lower serum apelin level than subjects without CAC (1.3 ± 0.4 ng/ml vs. 2.8 ± 0.6 ng/ml, p < 0.001). In addition, there was a statistically significant inverse correlation between serum apelin levels and CCS (r = 0.591, p < 0.001); on multivariate analysis this correlation was found to be independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and hs-CRP. Conclusion:To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an independent association between apelin and CCS in patients with suspected CAD. Apelin emerges as a possible novel biomarker for CAD, but this result remains to be proved prospectively.

Keywords: HbA1c, apelin, adipokines, coronary calcium score (CCS), coronary artery disease (CAD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
3444 Biochemical Characterization of Meat Goat in Algeria

Authors: Hafid Nadia, Meziane Toufik

Abstract:

The aim of this study was the characterization of the goat meat by the determination of quantity and the quality in Batna region. The first part was the evaluation of production and consumption. The investigations show that the goat meat third after mutton and beef, it’s especially consumed by the indigenous population located in the Mountain and steep area. The second part of this review treats nutritional quality of this meat by the quantification of the chemical composition, including fat profile, and establishes a link between animal age and the values of these parameters. Moisture, fat contents, and cholesterol levels varied with age. Because of the decreasing level of cholesterol in the Chevon meat, it is more recommended for consumption to prevent or reduce the incidence of coronary disease and heart attack.

Keywords: biochemical composition, cholesterol, goat meat, heart attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 574