Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 126

Search results for: myocardial infarction

126 An Empirical Study to Predict Myocardial Infarction Using K-Means and Hierarchical Clustering

Authors: Md. Minhazul Islam, Shah Ashisul Abed Nipun, Majharul Islam, Md. Abdur Rakib Rahat, Jonayet Miah, Salsavil Kayyum, Anwar Shadaab, Faiz Al Faisal


The target of this research is to predict Myocardial Infarction using unsupervised Machine Learning algorithms. Myocardial Infarction Prediction related to heart disease is a challenging factor faced by doctors & hospitals. In this prediction, accuracy of the heart disease plays a vital role. From this concern, the authors have analyzed on a myocardial dataset to predict myocardial infarction using some popular Machine Learning algorithms K-Means and Hierarchical Clustering. This research includes a collection of data and the classification of data using Machine Learning Algorithms. The authors collected 345 instances along with 26 attributes from different hospitals in Bangladesh. This data have been collected from patients suffering from myocardial infarction along with other symptoms. This model would be able to find and mine hidden facts from historical Myocardial Infarction cases. The aim of this study is to analyze the accuracy level to predict Myocardial Infarction by using Machine Learning techniques.

Keywords: Machine Learning, K-means, Hierarchical Clustering, Myocardial Infarction, Heart Disease

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
125 Silent Myocardial Infarction Presented with Homonymous Hemianopia in a Non-Diabetic Middle Aged Man

Authors: Seyed Fakhroddin Hejazi, Mohammad Saleh Sadeghi, Leili Iranirad


Silent myocardial infarction is defined as the appearance of pathological Q waves in the electrocardiogram, without objective signs of myocardial infarction and any minimal or atypical symptoms. Although this condition has been known for a long time, but little is known about its phenomenon and the mechanisms of it remain unclear. Its coincidence with stroke is also still controversial. This case report introduces a middle-aged man with silent myocardial infarction presented with homonymous hemianopia, which except stage 1 hypertension, had no other major cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, family history of cardiac diseases and smoking. In conclusion, this case report indicated that existence of only one cardiovascular risk factor would lead to the development of MI or stroke.

Keywords: silent myocardial infarction, homonymous hemianopia, stroke, hypertension

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
124 Modelling Sudden Deaths from Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

Authors: Y. S. Yusoff, G. Streftaris, H. R Waters


Death within 30 days is an important factor to be looked into, as there is a significant risk of deaths immediately following or soon after, Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke. In this paper, we will model the deaths within 30 days following a Myocardial Infarction (MI) or stroke in the UK. We will see how the probabilities of sudden deaths from MI or stroke have changed over the period 1981-2000. We will model the sudden deaths using a Generalized Linear Model (GLM), fitted using the R statistical package, under a Binomial distribution for the number of sudden deaths. We parameterize our model using the extensive and detailed data from the Framingham Heart Study, adjusted to match UK rates. The results show that there is a reduction for the sudden deaths following a MI over time but no significant improvement for sudden deaths following a stroke.

Keywords: sudden deaths, myocardial infarction, stroke, ischemic heart disease

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123 Acute Myocardial Infarction Associated with Ingestion of Herbal Mixtures Containing Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Case Study

Authors: M. Hakami, A. Jammaly, I. Attafi, M. Oraiby, M. Jeraiby


We reviewed an unusual case of a 65-year-old male taking an herbal mixture containing compounds with anticholinesterase activity for a long period of time, presented with acute my myocardial infarction and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome followed by death. Clinically, there are findings correlated with anticholinesterase activity, such as bilateral miosis, diaphoresis, vomiting and fasciculation without a history of any toxic ingestion or exposure. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry screening studies identified the presence of thymol, anethole in the herbal extract and butylated hydroxytoluene in the blood sample. Hence, with this case report, we intend to highlight the necessity of evaluating the long-term use of the herbal mixture.

Keywords: cholinesterase inhibitors, thymole, anethole, butylatedhydroxytoluene, cardiac toxicity, myocardial infarction

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
122 The Development of Cardiac Tamponade after Spinal Surgery in a Patient with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

Authors: Hacer Y. Teke, Sultan Pehlivan, Mustafa Karapırlı, Asude Gökmen, Sait Özsoy


The case is here presented of a patient with DMD with electrocardiograph findings within normal limits who underwent spinal surgery then developed the rarely seen complication of cardiac tamponade which resulted in death. A 17-year old male with DMD was admitted to hospital for spinal surgery. Due to a postoperative drop in hemoglobin, blood transfusion was administered to the patient, no complication developed and he was discharged on the third day. Four days after discharge, the patient worsened at home and an ambulance was called. Before the nearest hospital was reached, the patient died in the ambulance. An autopsy was performed. A fatal but rarely seen complication of Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) is myocardial rupture. 85% of ruptures occur in the first week of AMI but just as they can be seen on the day of the infarct, they can also be seen 2 weeks later. The case presented here had infarction findings related to different times and in different areas.

Keywords: duchenne muscular dystrophy, myocardial infarction, myocardial rupture, anesthesia

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121 MicroRNA Profiling Reveals Novel Circulating Biomarkers in Acute Phase of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: A. Maciejak, M. Kiliszek, G. Opolski, D. Tulacz, A. Segiet, K. Matlak, S. Dobrzycki, G. Sygitowicz, B. Burzynska, M. Gora


Introduction and aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most severe cardiovascular diseases affecting millions of patients each year worldwide. An early and accurate diagnosis of AMI is essential for optimal treatment. Therefore, new approaches that can complement and improve current strategies for AMI diagnosis are urgently needed. Recent studies have revealed the presence of stable circulating myocardial-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in human peripheral blood, suggesting that such miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers of infarction. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Materials and methods: miRNA expression profile analysis was performed using Exiqon Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR panel in plasma samples of n=16 patients on the first day of AMI (admission) and in samples from the same patients collected six months after AMI. Selected miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR using serum samples from an independent set of n=14 AMI patients. Results: The profiling study identified 46 species of plasma miRNAs that were differentially expressed (p < 0.05) on admission compared to six months after AMI. The validation in the independent group of patients confirmed that miR-133b and miR-22-5p were significantly up-regulated upon AMI. Conclusions: Our results suggest that miRNA expression profiling provides better understanding of the changes that occur in the acute phase of MI in the myocardium and could be useful in determination of the potential role of extracellular miRNAs as paracrine signaling molecules. miR-22-5p represents a novel promising biomarker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, circulating microRNAs, microRNA expression profiling, miR-22-5p

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120 An Autopsy Case of Blunt Chest Trauma from a Traffic Accident Complicated by Chest Compression Due to Resuscitation Attempts

Authors: Satoshi Furukawa, Satomu Morita, Katsuji Nishi, Masahito Hitosugi


Coronary artery dissection leading to acute myocardial infarction after blunt chest trauma is extremely rare. A 67-year-old woman suffered blunt chest trauma following a traffic accident. The electrocardiogram revealed acute posterior ST-segment elevation and myocardial infarction and coronary angiography demonstrated acute right coronary artery dissection. Following the death of the victim an autopsy was performed after cardiopulmonary support had been carried out. In this case report, we describe the case of a woman with blunt chest trauma, who developed an acute myocardial infarction secondary to right coronary artery dissection. Although there was additional the blunt chest trauma due to chest compression, we confirmed the injury at autopsy and by histological findings.

Keywords: blunt chest trauma, right coronary artery dissection, coronary angiography, autopsy, histological examination

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
119 Clinical Features of Acute Aortic Dissection Patients Initially Diagnosed with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Min Jee Lee, Young Sun Park, Shin Ahn, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong Woo Seo, Jae Ho Lee, Yoon Seon Lee, Kyung Soo Lim, Won Young Kim


Background: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) concomitant with acute aortic syndrome (AAS) is rare but prompt recognition of concomitant AAS is crucial, especially in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) because misdiagnosis with early thrombolytic or anticoagulant treatment may result in catastrophic consequences. Objectives: This study investigated the clinical features of patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS that may lead to the diagnostic clue. Method: Between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2014, 22 patients who were the initial diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (AMI and unstable angina) and AAS (aortic dissection, intramural hematoma and ruptured thoracic aneurysm) in our emergency department were reviewed. Among these, we excluded 10 patients who were transferred from other hospital and 4 patients with non-STEMI, leaving a total of 8 patients of STEMI concomitant with AAS for analysis. Result: The mean age of study patients was 57.5±16.31 years and five patients were Standford type A and three patients were type B aortic dissection. Six patients had ST-segment elevation in anterior leads and two patients had in inferior leads. Most of the patients had acute onset, severe chest pain but no patients had dissecting nature chest pain. Serum troponin I was elevated in three patients but all patients had D-dimer elevation. Aortic regurgitation or regional wall motion abnormality was founded in four patients. However, widened mediastinum was seen in all study patients. Conclusion: When patients with STEMI have elevated D-dimer and widened mediastinum, concomitant AAS may have to be suspected.

Keywords: aortic dissection, myocardial infarction, ST-segment, d-dimer

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118 A Review of Pharmacological Prevention of Peri-and Post-Procedural Myocardial Injury After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Syed Dawood Md. Taimur, Md. Hasanur Rahman, Syeda Fahmida Afrin, Farzana Islam


The concept of myocardial injury, although first recognized from animal studies, is now recognized as a clinical phenomenon that may result in microvascular damage, no-reflow phenomenon, myocardial stunning, myocardial hibernation and ischemic preconditioning. The final consequence of this event is left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The typical clinical case of reperfusion injury occurs in acute myocardial infarction (MI) with ST segment elevation in which an occlusion of a major epicardial coronary artery is followed by recanalization of the artery. This may occur either spontaneously or by means of thrombolysis and/or by primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with efficient platelet inhibition by aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), clopidogrel and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors. In recent years, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has become a well-established technique for the treatment of coronary artery disease. PCI improves symptoms in patients with coronary artery disease and it has been increasing the safety of procedures. However, peri- and post-procedural myocardial injury, including angiographical slow coronary flow, microvascular embolization, and elevated levels of cardiac enzyme, such as creatine kinase and troponin-T and -I, has also been reported even in elective cases. Furthermore, myocardial reperfusion injury at the beginning of myocardial reperfusion, which causes tissue damage and cardiac dysfunction, may occur in cases of the acute coronary syndrome. Because patients with myocardial injury is related to larger myocardial infarction and have a worse long-term prognosis than those without myocardial injury, it is important to prevent myocardial injury during and/or after PCI in patients with coronary artery disease. To date, many studies have demonstrated that adjunctive pharmacological treatment suppresses myocardial injury and increases coronary blood flow during PCI procedures. In this review, we highlight the usefulness of pharmacological treatment in combination with PCI in attenuating myocardial injury in patients with coronary artery disease.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, percutaneous coronary intervention, myocardial injury, pharmacology

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117 Evaluation of Apolipoprotein Profile in HIV/Aids Subjects in Pre and Post 12 Months Antiretroviral Therapy Using 1.5 NG/ML Troponin Diagnostic Cut-off for Myocardial Infarction in Nauth Nnewi, South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: I. P. Ezeugwunne, C. C. Onyenekwe, J. E. Ahaneku, G. I. Ahaneku


Introduction: It has been reported that acute myocardial infarction (AMI) might occur at 1.5 ng/ml troponin level. HIV infection has been documented to influence antiviral drugs, stimulate the production of proteins that enhance fatty acids synthesis. Information on cardiac status in HIV-infected subjects in Nigeria is scanty. Aim: To evaluate the Apolipoprotein profile of HIV subjects in pre-and-post 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 1.5 ng/ml troponin diagnostic cut-off for myocardial infarction (MI) in Nnewi, South Eastern, Nigeria. Methodology: A total of 30 symptomatic HIV subjects without malaria co-infection with a mean age of 40.70 ±10.56 years were randomly recruited for this prospective case-controlled study. Serum apolipoproteins (Apo A1, A2, B, C2,C3 and Apo E), troponin and CD4 counts were measured using standard laboratory methods. Parameters were re-classified based on 1.5 ng/ml troponin diagnostic cut-off for MI. Analysis of variance and student paired t-tests were used for data analyses. Results: paired-wise comparison showed that there were significantly higher levels of CD4 counts, Apo A2, Apo C2, Apo E but lower levels of ApoA1, ApoB and ApoC3 in symptomatic HIV subjects before antiretroviral therapy (ART) when compared with after therapy at p<0.05 respectively. The troponin value was significantly higher amongst the group studied at p<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The increased values of troponin observed among the groups were higher than the diagnostic cut-off for AMI. This may imply that AMI may occur at any group of studies. But the significant reduction in the serum levels of Apo A2, Apo B, Apo C3, Apo E and a significant increase in serum levels of Apo A1, Apo C2 and blood CD4 counts as the length of therapy lengthened may indicate possible cardio-protective effects of the ART on the heart, which may connote recovery.

Keywords: ART, apolipoprotein, HIV, myocardial infarction

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116 Detection and Classification of Myocardial Infarction Using New Extracted Features from Standard 12-Lead ECG Signals

Authors: Naser Safdarian, Nader Jafarnia Dabanloo


In this paper we used four features i.e. Q-wave integral, QRS complex integral, T-wave integral and total integral as extracted feature from normal and patient ECG signals to detection and localization of myocardial infarction (MI) in left ventricle of heart. In our research we focused on detection and localization of MI in standard ECG. We use the Q-wave integral and T-wave integral because this feature is important impression in detection of MI. We used some pattern recognition method such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to detect and localize the MI. Because these methods have good accuracy for classification of normal and abnormal signals. We used one type of Radial Basis Function (RBF) that called Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) because of its nonlinearity property, and used other classifier such as k-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) and Naive Bayes Classification. We used PhysioNet database as our training and test data. We reached over 80% for accuracy in test data for localization and over 95% for detection of MI. Main advantages of our method are simplicity and its good accuracy. Also we can improve accuracy of classification by adding more features in this method. A simple method based on using only four features which extracted from standard ECG is presented which has good accuracy in MI localization.

Keywords: ECG signal processing, myocardial infarction, features extraction, pattern recognition

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115 Paraoxonase 1 (PON 1) Arylesterase Activity and Apolipoprotein B: Predictors of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Mukund Ramchandra Mogarekar, Pankaj Kumar, Shraddha Vilas More


Background: Myocardial infarction (MI) is defined as myocardial cell death due to prolonged ischemia as a consequence of atherosclerosis. TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), Apo B, and lipoprotein(a) was found as atherogenic factors while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was anti-atherogenic. Methods and Results: The study group consists of 40, MI subjects and 40 healthy individuals in control group. PON 1 Arylesterase activity (ARE) was measured by using phenylacetate. Phenotyping was done by double substrate method, serum AOPP by using chloramine T and Apo B by Turbidimetric immunoassay. PON 1 ARE activities were significantly lower (p< 0.05) and AOPPs & Apo B were higher in MI subjects (p> 0.05). Trimodal distribution of QQ, QR, and RR phenotypes of study population showed no significant difference among cases and controls (p> 0.05). Univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed independent association of TC, HDL, LDL, AOPP, Apo B, and PON 1 ARE activity with MI and multiple forward binary logistic regression showed PON 1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI. Conclusions: Decrease in PON 1 ARE activity in MI subjects than in controls suggests increased oxidative stress in MI which is reflected by significantly increased AOPP and Apo B. PON1 polymorphism of QQ, QR and RR showed no significant difference in protection against MI. Univariate and multiple binary logistic regression showed PON1 ARE activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI.

Keywords: advanced oxidation protein product, apolipoprotein B, PON 1 arylesterase activity, myocardial infarction

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114 The Clinical Manifestations of Myocardial Bridging in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Authors: Alexey Yu. Martynov, Sulejman Bayramov


Introduction: The myocardial bridging is the most common anomaly of the coronary arteries (CA). Depending on the examination method, the frequency of detected myocardial bridges (MB) varies in a rather wide range. The typical clinical manifestations of MB are angina pectoris, arrhythmias, sudden cardiac death. Objective: To study the incidence of MB in patients hospitalized with coronary artery disease (CAD). To assess clinical manifestations of MB in patients admitted with CAD. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 19159 case histories of patients admitted at clinical city hospital in Moscow from 01.01.2018 to 31.12 2019 with CAD was performed. 9384 patients’ coronary angiographies (CAG) were examined for MB. The localization of MB, the degree of coronary contraction by MB, the number of MB, isolated MB and combined with CAD were assessed. The clinical manifestations of MB were determined. Results: MB was detected in 52 patients all with one myocardial bridge. 20 patients with MB have intact CA, and 32 patients have MB combined with CAD. Among 20 patients with intact CA: I degree of MB contraction (up to 50%) was detected in 9 patients. Clinical manifestations in five cases were angina pectoris, in 3 myocardial infarction (MI) - 1 patients with ST segment elevation MI (STEMI), 2 without ST segment elevation MI (NSTEMI), 1 post-infarction cardiosclerosis (PICS). Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, vasospastic angina (VSA) in 1 patient. II degree of MB contraction (up to 50-70%) was determined in 9 patients: in seven cases angina pectoris was detected, 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Stable angina II FC in 3, III FC in 1, VSA in 3 patients. III degree of MB contraction (> 70%) detected in 2 patients. II FC stable angina in one case, PICS in another. Among 32 patients having MB combined with CAD I degree of MB contraction was observed in 20 patients. Clinical manifestations in 12 cases were angina pectoris in 8 II FC and in 4 III FC, 7 MI 6 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI, 1 PICS. II degree of MB contraction was detected in 7 patients, 4 of them had angina pectoris, 3 MI 2 with STEMI and 1 NSTEMI. Stable angina II FC in 3, VSA in 1 patients. III degree of MB contraction was diagnosed in five patients. In two cases, II FC and III FC stable angina were observed, 2 MI with STEMI and NSTEMI, 1 PICS. Conclusions: MB incidence is one in 368 patients with CAD. The most common involvement (68%) is MB combined with CA atherosclerotic lesions. MB with intact CA are detected in one-third (32%) of patients. The first-degree MB contraction is most frequent condition. MI is more often detected in intact CA with first degree MB than in the second degree. The degree of MB contraction was not correlated with the severity of the clinical manifestations.

Keywords: clinical manifestations, coronary angiography, coronary artery disease, myocardial bridging, myocardial infarction, stable angina

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113 Cardioprotective Effect of the Leaf Extract of Andrographis Paniculata in Isoproterenol-Induced Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Emmanuel Ikechuckwu Onwubuya, Afees Adebayo Oladejo


Background: The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of chronic diseases especially myocardial infarction, is gaining wide acceptance globally. Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly known as the king of bitters in Nigeria and has been acclaimed for several therapeutic activities. Materials and methods: This study investigated the cardio-protective effect of the leaf extract of A. paniculata in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction. Fresh green leaves of A paniculata were harvested from the Faculty of Agriculture farmland, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Identification and authentication of the plant were carried out at the Department of Botany, Nnamdi Azikiwe University and a voucher specimen was deposited at the herbarium. The plant material was then shredded, air-dried under shade and pulverized. The fine powders obtained were weighed and extraction was done via a solvent combination of water and ethanol (3:7) for 72 hr via maceration. The filtrate gotten was evaporated to dryness to obtain the ethanol extract, which was used for further bioassay study. The bioactive constituents of the plant extract were quantitatively analyzed by Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The animals were administered the extract of A. paniculata orally for seven days at a divided dose of 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weights. On the eighth day, myocardial infarction was induced through subcutaneous administration of isoproterenol at a dose of 150 mg/kg/day diluted in 2 ml of saline on two consecutive days. Subsequently, the blood pressures were monitored and blood was collected for bioassay studies. Results: The results of the study showed that the leaf extract of A. paniculata was rich in Dodecanoic acid (8.261%), 4-Dibenzofuranamine (6.03%), Cyclotrisiloxane (4.679 %). The findings also showed a significant decrease (p>0.05) in the Mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, creatinine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of the treatment group compared with the untreated control group while the antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione) activities were significantly increased in the treatment group, compared with the untreated control group. Conclusion: The findings of this work have shown that the leaf of A. paniculata was rich in bioactive compounds, which could be synthesized to produce plant-based products to fight cardiovascular diseases, especially myocardial infarction.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, myocardial infarction, medicinal plant, andrographis paniculata, isoproterenol

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112 Comparing Performance of Neural Network and Decision Tree in Prediction of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Reza Safdari, Goli Arji, Robab Abdolkhani Maryam zahmatkeshan


Background and purpose: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most common diseases in all societies. The most important step in minimizing myocardial infarction and its complications is to minimize its risk factors. The amount of medical data is increasingly growing. Medical data mining has a great potential for transforming these data into information. Using data mining techniques to generate predictive models for identifying those at risk for reducing the effects of the disease is very helpful. The present study aimed to collect data related to risk factors of heart infarction from patients’ medical record and developed predicting models using data mining algorithm. Methods: The present work was an analytical study conducted on a database containing 350 records. Data were related to patients admitted to Shahid Rajaei specialized cardiovascular hospital, Iran, in 2011. Data were collected using a four-sectioned data collection form. Data analysis was performed using SPSS and Clementine version 12. Seven predictive algorithms and one algorithm-based model for predicting association rules were applied to the data. Accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values were determined and the final model was obtained. Results: five parameters, including hypertension, DLP, tobacco smoking, diabetes, and A+ blood group, were the most critical risk factors of myocardial infarction. Among the models, the neural network model was found to have the highest sensitivity, indicating its ability to successfully diagnose the disease. Conclusion: Risk prediction models have great potentials in facilitating the management of a patient with a specific disease. Therefore, health interventions or change in their life style can be conducted based on these models for improving the health conditions of the individuals at risk.

Keywords: decision trees, neural network, myocardial infarction, Data Mining

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111 Outcomes of Using Guidelines for Caring and Referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital, Thailand

Authors: Thanom Kaeniam


ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) is a state of sudden death of the heart muscle due to sudden blockage of the artery. STEMI patients are usually in critical condition and with a potential opportunity for sudden death. Therefore, management guidelines for safety in caring and referring STEMI patients are needed. The objective of this developmental research was to assess the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department of Songkhla Hospital. The subjects of the study were 22 nurses in the emergency room, and doctors on duty in the accident and emergency room selected using purposive sampling with inclusion criteria. The research instruments were the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients, and record forms for the effectiveness of using the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients (a general record form for STEMI patients, a record form for SK administering, a referring record form for PCI, and a record form for dead patient in the accident and emergency room and during referring). The instruments were tested for content validity by three experts, and the reliability was tested using Kuder-Richardson 20 (KR20). The descriptive statistic employed was the percentage. The outcomes of using the guidelines for caring and referring ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI) Patients at the Accident and Emergency Department revealed that before using the guidelines in 2009, 2010, and 2011, there were 84, 73, and 138 STEMI patients receiving services at the accident and emergency room, of which, only 9, 32, and 48 patients were referred for PCI/SK medications, or 10.74; 43.84; and 34.78 percent, and the death rates were 10.71; 10.95; and 11.59 percent, respectively. However, after the use of the guidelines in 2012, 2013, and 2014, there were 97, 77, and 57 patients, of which, the increases to 77, 72, and 55 patients were referred for PCI /SK medications or 79.37; 93.51; and 96.49 percent, and the death rates were reduced to 10.30; 6.49; and 1.76 percent, respectively. The results of the study revealed that the use of the guidelines for caring and referring STEMI patients at the Accident and Emergency Department increased the effectiveness and quality of nursing, especially in terms of SK medication, caring and referring patients for PCI to reduce the death rate.

Keywords: outcomes, guidelines for caring, referring, myocardial infarction, STEMI

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110 Mathematical Based Forecasting of Heart Attack

Authors: Razieh Khalafi


Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analyzing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behavior of these signals were checked. Results shows this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

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109 A New Mathematical Method for Heart Attack Forecasting

Authors: Razi Khalafi


Myocardial Infarction (MI) or acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analysing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behaviour of these signals were checked. Results show this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

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108 Total Longitudinal Displacement (tLoD) of the Common Carotid Artery (CCA) Does Not Differ between Patients with Moderate or High Cardiovascular Risk (CV) and Patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI)

Authors: P. Serpytis, K. Azukaitis, U. Gargalskaite, R. Navickas, J. Badariene, V. Dzenkeviciute


Purpose: Total longitudinal displacement (tLoD) of the common carotid artery (CCA) wall is a novel ultrasound marker of vascular function that can be evaluated using modified speckle tracking techniques. Decreased CCA tLoD has already been shown to be associated with diabetes and was shown to predict one year cardiovascular outcome in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) . The aim of our study was to evaluate if CCA tLoD differ between patients with moderate or high cardiovascular (CV) risk and patients after recent acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Methods: 49 patients (54±6 years) with moderate or high CV risk and 42 patients (58±7 years) after recent AMI were included. All patients were non-diabetic. CCA tLoD was evaluated using GE EchoPAC speckle tracking software and expressed as mean of both sides. Data on systolic blood pressure, total and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) level, smoking status and family history of early CV events was evaluated and assessed for association with CCA tLoD. Results: tLoD of CCA did not differ between patients with moderate or high CV risk and patients with very high CV risk after MI (0.265±0.128 mm vs. 0.237±0.103 mm, p>0.05). Lower tLoD was associated with lower HDL cholesterol levels (r=0.211, p=0.04) and male sex (0.228±0.1 vs. 0.297±0.134, p=0.01). Conclusions: tLoD of CCA did not differ between patients with moderate or high CV risk and patients with very high CV risk after AMI. However, lower CCA tLoD was significantly associated with low HDL cholesterol levels and male sex.

Keywords: total longitudinal displacement, carotid artery, cardiovascular risk, acute myocardial infarction

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107 Comparative Outcomes of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Smokers versus Non Nonsmokers Patients: Observational Studies

Authors: Pratima Tatke, Archana Avhad, Bhanu Duggal, Meeta Rajivlochan, Sujata Saunik, Pradip Vyas, Nidhi Pandey, Aditee Dalvi, Jyothi Subramanian


Background: Smoking is well established risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. It is strongly related to morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular causes. The aim of this study is to observe effect of smoking status on percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI) after 1 year. Methods: 2527 patients who underwent PCI at different hospital of Maharashtra(India) from 2012 to 2015 under the health insurance scheme which is launched by Health department, Government of Maharashtra for below poverty line(BPL) families which covers cardiology. Informed consent of patients was taken .They were followed by telephonic survey after 6months to 1year of PCI . Outcomes of interest included myocardial infarction, restenosis, cardiac rehospitalization, death, and a composite of events after PCI. Made group of two non smokers-1861 and smokers (including patients who quit at time of PCI )-659. Results: Statistical Analysis using Pearson’s chi square test revealed that there was trend seen of increasing incidence of death, Myocardial infarction and Restenosis in smokers than non smokers .Smokers had a greater death risk compared to nonsmoker; 5.7% and 5.1% respectively p=0.518. Also Repeat procedures (2.1% vs. 1.5% p=0.222), breathlessness (17.8% vs. 18.20% p=0.1) and Myocardial Infarction (7.3% vs. 10%) high in smoker than non smokers. Conclusion: Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were observed even after successful PCI in smokers. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention should be encouraged to stop smoking.

Keywords: coronary artery diseases, major adverse cardiovascular events, percutaneous coronary intervention, smoking

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106 Role of Lipid-Lowering Treatment in the Monocyte Phenotype and Chemokine Receptor Levels after Acute Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Carolina N. França, Jônatas B. do Amaral, Maria C.O. Izar, Ighor L. Teixeira, Francisco A. Fonseca


Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a progressive disease, characterized by lipid and fibrotic element deposition in large-caliber arteries. Conditions related to the development of atherosclerosis, as dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking are associated with endothelial dysfunction. There is a frequent recurrence of cardiovascular outcomes after acute myocardial infarction and, at this sense, cycles of mobilization of monocyte subtypes (classical, intermediate and nonclassical) secondary to myocardial infarction may determine the colonization of atherosclerotic plaques in different stages of the development, contributing to early recurrence of ischemic events. The recruitment of different monocyte subsets during inflammatory process requires the expression of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CX3CR1, to promote the migration of monocytes to the inflammatory site. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lipid-lowering treatment by six months in the monocyte phenotype and chemokine receptor levels of patients after Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI). Methods: This is a PROBE (prospective, randomized, open-label trial with blinded endpoints) study ( Identifier: NCT02428374). Adult patients (n=147) of both genders, ageing 18-75 years, were randomized in a 2x2 factorial design for treatment with rosuvastatin 20 mg/day or simvastatin 40 mg/day plus ezetimibe 10 mg/day as well as ticagrelor 90 mg 2x/day and clopidogrel 75 mg, in addition to conventional AMI therapy. Blood samples were collected at baseline, after one month and six months of treatment. Monocyte subtypes (classical - inflammatory, intermediate - phagocytic and nonclassical – anti-inflammatory) were identified, quantified and characterized by flow cytometry, as well as the expressions of the chemokine receptors (CCR2, CCR5 and CX3CR1) were also evaluated in the mononuclear cells. Results: After six months of treatment, there was an increase in the percentage of classical monocytes and reduction in the nonclassical monocytes (p=0.038 and p < 0.0001 Friedman Test), without differences for intermediate monocytes. Besides, classical monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 after treatment, without differences related to CCR2 (p < 0.0001 for CCR5 and CX3CR1; p=0.175 for CCR2). Intermediate monocytes had higher expressions of CCR5 and CX3CR1 and lower expression of CCR2 (p = 0.003; p < 0.0001 and p = 0.011, respectively). Nonclassical monocytes had lower expressions of CCR2 and CCR5, without differences for CX3CR1 (p < 0.0001; p = 0.009 and p = 0.138, respectively). There were no differences after the comparison between the four treatment arms. Conclusion: The data suggest a time-dependent modulation of classical and nonclassical monocytes and chemokine receptor levels. The higher percentage of classical monocytes (inflammatory cells) suggest a residual inflammatory risk, even under preconized treatments to AMI. Indeed, these changes do not seem to be affected by choice of the lipid-lowering strategy.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, chemokine receptors, lipid-lowering treatment, monocyte subtypes

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105 Association of 1565C/T Polymorphism of Integrin Beta-3 (ITGB3) Gene and Increased Risk for Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Premature Coronary Artery Disease among Iranian Population

Authors: Mehrdad Sheikhvatan, Mohammad Ali Boroumand, Mehrdad Behmanesh, Shayan Ziaee


Contradictory results have been obtained regarding the role of integrin, beta 3 (ITGB3) gene polymorphisms in occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, we aimed to assess the association between 1565C/T polymorphism of ITGB3 gene and increased risk for acute MI in patients who suffered premature CAD in Iranian population. Our prospective study included 1000 patients (492 men and 508 women aged 21 to 55 years) referred to Tehran Heart center during a period of four years from 2008 to 2011 with the final diagnosis of premature CAD and classified into two groups with history of MI (n = 461) and without of MI (n = 539). The polymorphism variants were determined by PCR-RFLP technique by entering 10% of randomized samples and then genotyping of the polymorphism was also conducted by High Resolution Melting (HRM) method. Among study samples, 640 were followed with a median follow-up time 45.74 months for determining association of long-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and genotypes of polymorphisms. There was no significant difference in the frequency of 1565C/T polymorphism between the MI and non-MI groups. The frequency of wild genotype was 69.2% and 72.2%, the frequency of homozygous genotype was 21.3% and 18.4%, and the frequency of mutant genotype was 9.5% and 9.5%, respectively (p=0.505). Results were also similar when adjusted for covariates in a multivariate logistic regression model. No significant difference was also found in total-MACE free survival rate between the patients with different genotypes of 1565C/T polymorphism in both MI and non-MI group. The carriage of the 1565C/T polymorphism of ITGB3 gene seems unlikely to be a significant risk factor for the development of MI in Iranian patients with premature CAD. The presence of this ITGB3 gene polymorphism may not also predict long-term cardiac events.

Keywords: coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, gene, integrin, beta 3, polymorphism

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104 Sudden Death in Young Patients: A Study of 312 Autopsy Cases

Authors: N. Haj Salem, M. Belhadj, S. Ben Jomâa, S. Saadi, R. Dhouieb, A. Chadly


Introduction: Sudden death in young is seen as a dramatic phenomenon requiring knowledge of its impact and determining their causes. Aim: We aim to study the epidemiological characteristics of sudden death in young, and to discuss the mechanism and the importance of autopsy in these situations. Material and methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study using autopsy data from the department of forensic medicine at the University Hospital of Fattouma Bourguiba, Monastir-Tunisia. A review of all autopsies performed during 23 years was done. In each case, clinical information and circumstances of death were obtained. We have included all sudden death in persons aged between 1 year and 35 years for the male and from one year to 45 years for female. We collected 312 cases of sudden death during the studied period. The collected data were processed using SPSS 20. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Thirty-two cases of cardiac ischemic sudden death have been collected. Myocardial infarction was the second cause of sudden death in young patients. There was a male predominance. The most affected subjects were aged between 25-45 years. The death occurred more frequently at rest. Coronary artery disease has been discovered in twenty-four cases (75%). A severe coronary artery disease was observed in two children with medical history of familial hypercholesterolemia. The myocardial infarction occurred in healthy coronary arteries in eight cases. An anomalous course of coronary arteries, in particular, myocardial bridging, was found in eight cases (25%). Toxicological screening was negative in all cases. Second cause of death was hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Neurological and respiratory causes of death were implicated respectively in 10% and 15%. Conclusion: Identifying epidemiological characteristics of sudden death in this population is important for guiding approaches to prevention that must be based on dietary hygienic measures and the control of cardiovascular risk factors.

Keywords: autopsy, cardiac death, sudden death, young

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103 Regenerative Therapeutic Effect of Statin Nanoparticle-Loaded Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Masaaki Ii, Takashi Saito, Yasuhiko Tabata, Shintaro Nemoto


Background: Clinical trials of autologous adipose-derived stem cell (AdSC) therapy for ischemic heart diseases (IHD) are now on-going. We have investigated the hypothesis that combination of AdSCs and statin, an agent with pleiotropic effects, could augment the therapeutic effect on myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results: Human AdSC functions with different doses of simvastatin-conjugated nanoparticle (STNP) uptake were evaluated by in vitro assays. STNP promoted the migration activity without changing the proliferation activity, and also up-regulated growth factors. Next, MI was induced by LAD ligation in nude mice, and the mice were assigned in the following groups 3 days after MI: 1) PBS (control), 2) NP-AdSCs (50000 cells), 3) STNP, and 4) STNP-AdSCs (50000 cells). Cardiac functional recovery assessed by echocardiography was improved at 4 weeks after surgery in STNP-AdSC group. Masson’s trichrome-stained sections revealed that LV fibrosis length was reduced, and the number of TUNEL-positive cardiomyocytes was less in STNP-AdSC group. Surprisingly, a number of de novo endogenous Nkx-2.5/GATA4 positive immature cardiomyocytes as well as massive vascular formation were observed in outer layer of infarcted myocardium despite of a few recruited/retained transfused STNP-AdSCs 4 weeks after MI in STNP-AdSC group. Finally, massive myocardial regeneration was observed 8 weeks after MI. Conclusions: Intravenously injected small number of statin nanoparticle-loaded hAdSCs exhibited a potent therapeutic effect inducing endogenous cardiac tissue regeneration.

Keywords: statin, drug delivery system, stem cells, cardiac regeneration

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102 Early Diagnosis of Myocardial Ischemia Based on Support Vector Machine and Gaussian Mixture Model by Using Features of ECG Recordings

Authors: Merve Begum Terzi, Orhan Arikan, Adnan Abaci, Mustafa Candemir


Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death in the world. Therefore, its fast and reliable diagnosis is a major clinical need. ECG is the most important diagnostic methodology which is used to make decisions about the management of the cardiovascular diseases. In patients with acute myocardial ischemia, temporary chest pains together with changes in ST segment and T wave of ECG occur shortly before the start of myocardial infarction. In this study, a technique which detects changes in ST/T sections of ECG is developed for the early diagnosis of acute myocardial ischemia. For this purpose, a database of real ECG recordings that contains a set of records from 75 patients presenting symptoms of chest pain who underwent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is constituted. 12-lead ECG’s of the patients were recorded before and during the PCI procedure. Two ECG epochs, which are the pre-inflation ECG which is acquired before any catheter insertion and the occlusion ECG which is acquired during balloon inflation, are analyzed for each patient. By using pre-inflation and occlusion recordings, ECG features that are critical in the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are identified and the most discriminative features for the detection of acute myocardial ischemia are extracted. A classification technique based on support vector machine (SVM) approach operating with linear and radial basis function (RBF) kernels to detect ischemic events by using ST-T derived joint features from non-ischemic and ischemic states of the patients is developed. The dataset is randomly divided into training and testing sets and the training set is used to optimize SVM hyperparameters by using grid-search method and 10fold cross-validation. SVMs are designed specifically for each patient by tuning the kernel parameters in order to obtain the optimal classification performance results. As a result of implementing the developed classification technique to real ECG recordings, it is shown that the proposed technique provides highly reliable detections of the anomalies in ECG signals. Furthermore, to develop a detection technique that can be used in the absence of ECG recording obtained during healthy stage, the detection of acute myocardial ischemia based on ECG recordings of the patients obtained during ischemia is also investigated. For this purpose, a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) is used to represent the joint pdf of the most discriminating ECG features of myocardial ischemia. Then, a Neyman-Pearson type of approach is developed to provide detection of outliers that would correspond to acute myocardial ischemia. Neyman – Pearson decision strategy is used by computing the average log likelihood values of ECG segments and comparing them with a range of different threshold values. For different discrimination threshold values and number of ECG segments, probability of detection and probability of false alarm values are computed, and the corresponding ROC curves are obtained. The results indicate that increasing number of ECG segments provide higher performance for GMM based classification. Moreover, the comparison between the performances of SVM and GMM based classification showed that SVM provides higher classification performance results over ECG recordings of considerable number of patients.

Keywords: ECG classification, Gaussian mixture model, Neyman–Pearson approach, support vector machine

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101 Gender Features of Left Ventricular Myocardial Remodeling and the Development of Chronic Heart Failure in Patients with Postinfarction Cardiosclerosis

Authors: G. Dadashova, A. Bakhshaliyev


Aim: Determine gender differences in the etiology and clinical outcomes, as well as in the remodeling of the left ventricle (LV) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF), suffering from arterial hypertension (AH) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Material and methods: The study included 112 patients of both sexes; aged 45 to 60 years with postinfarction cardiosclerosis had functional class (FC) heart failure II-IV of NYHA which were examined on the basis of Azerbaijan Scientific Research Institute of Cardiology. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1st c. 60 males, mean age 54,8 ± 3,3 years, and 2nd gr 52 women, mean age 55,8 ± 3,1 years. To assess cardiac hemodynamic all patients underwent echocardiography (B-M-modes) using ‘Vivid 3’. Thus on the basis of indicators such as the index of the relative thickness of the left ventricle wall and the index of left ventricular mass (LVMI) was identified the architectonic model of the left ventricle. Results: According to our research leading cause of heart failure in women is 50.5% of cases of hypertension, ischemic heart disease 23.7% (with 79.5% of the cases developed in patients with chronic heart failure who did not have a history of myocardial infarction). While in men is the undisputed leader of CHD, forming 78.3% of CHF (80.3% in men with CHF occurred after myocardial infarction). According to our research in women more often than men CHF develops a type of diastolic dysfunction (DD, and left ventricular ejection fraction remained unchanged. Since DD occurs in men at 65,8% vs. 76,4% of women when p < 0,05. In the group of women was more common prognostic neblagopryatnye remodeling - eccentric hypertrophy of the left ventricle: 68% vs. 54.5% among men (p < 0,05), concentric left ventricular hypertrophy: 21% in women vs 19,1% (p > 0,05 ). Conclusions: Patients with heart failure are a number of gender-specific: the prevalence of hypertension in women, and coronary heart disease in men. While in women with heart failure often recorded diastolic dysfunction and characterized by the development of prognostically unfavorable remodeling types: eccentric and concentric LV hypertrophy.

Keywords: chronic heart failure, arterial hypertension, remodeling, diastolic dysfunction, men, women, ischemic heart disease

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100 Use of Thrombolytics for Acute Myocardial Infarctions in Resource-Limited Settings, Globally: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Sara Zelman, Courtney Meyer, Hiren Patel, Lisa Philpotts, Sue Lahey, Thomas Burke


Background: As the global burden of disease shifts from infectious diseases to noncommunicable diseases, there is growing urgency to provide treatment for time-sensitive illnesses, such as ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarctions (STEMIs). The standard of care for STEMIs in developed countries is Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI). However, this is inaccessible in resource-limited settings. Before the discovery of PCI, Streptokinase (STK) and other thrombolytic drugs were first-line treatments for STEMIs. STK has been recognized as a cost-effective and safe treatment for STEMIs; however, in settings which lack access to PCI, it has not become the established second-line therapy. A systematic literature review was conducted to geographically map the use of STK for STEMIs in resource-limited settings. Methods: Our literature review group searched the databases Cinhal, Embase, Ovid, Pubmed, Web of Science, and WHO’s Index Medicus. The search terms included ‘thrombolytics’ AND ‘myocardial infarction’ AND ‘resource-limited’ and were restricted to human studies and papers written in English. A considerable number of studies came from Latin America; however, these studies were not written in English and were excluded. The initial search yielded 3,487 articles, which was reduced to 3,196 papers after titles were screened. Three medical professionals then screened abstracts, from which 291 articles were selected for full-text review and 94 papers were chosen for final inclusion. These articles were then analyzed and mapped geographically. Results: This systematic literature review revealed that STK has been used for the treatment of STEMIs in 33 resource-limited countries, with 18 of 94 studies taking place in India. Furthermore, 13 studies occurred in Pakistan, followed by Iran (6), Sri Lanka (5), Brazil (4), China (4), and South Africa (4). Conclusion: Our systematic review revealed that STK has been used for the treatment of STEMIs in 33 resource-limited countries, with the highest utilization occurring in India. This demonstrates that even though STK has high utility for STEMI treatment in resource-limited settings, it still has not become the standard of care. Future research should investigate the barriers preventing the establishment of STK use as second-line treatment after PCI.

Keywords: cardiovascular disease, global health, resource-limited setting, ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction, Streptokinase

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99 Monocytic Paraoxonase 2 (PON 2) Lactonase Activity Is Related to Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Mukund Ramchandra Mogarekar, Pankaj Kumar, Shraddha V. More


Background: Total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), Apo B, and lipoprotein(a) was found as atherogenic factors while high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was anti-atherogenic. Methods and Results: The study group consists of 40 MI subjects as cases and 40 healthy as controls. Monocytic PON 2 Lactonase (LACT) activity was measured by using Dihydrocoumarine (DHC) as substrate. Phenotyping was done by method of Mogarekar MR et al, serum AOPP by modified method of Witko-Sarsat V et al and Apo B by Turbidimetric immunoassay. PON 2 LACT activities were significantly lower (p< 0.05) and AOPPs & Apo B were higher in MI subjects (p> 0.05). Trimodal distribution of QQ, QR & RR phenotypes of study population showed no significant difference among cases and controls (p> 0.05). Univariate binary logistic regression analysis showed independent association of TC, HDL, LDL, AOPP, Apo B, and PON 2 LACT activity with MI and multiple forward binary logistic regression showed PON 2 LACT activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI. Conclusions- Decrease in PON 2 LACT activity in MI subjects than in controls suggests increased oxidative stress in MI which is reflected by significantly increased AOPP and Apo B. PON 1 polymorphism of QQ, QR and RR showed no significant difference in protection against MI. Univariate and multiple forward binary logistic regression showed PON 2 LACT activity and serum Apo B as an independent predictor of MI.

Keywords: advanced oxidation protein products, apolipoprotein-B, myocardial infarction, paraoxonase 2 lactonase

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98 Applying the Regression Technique for ‎Prediction of the Acute Heart Attack ‎

Authors: Paria Soleimani, Arezoo Neshati


Myocardial infarction is one of the leading causes of ‎death in the world. Some of these deaths occur even before the patient ‎reaches the hospital. Myocardial infarction occurs as a result of ‎impaired blood supply. Because the most of these deaths are due to ‎coronary artery disease, hence the awareness of the warning signs of a ‎heart attack is essential. Some heart attacks are sudden and intense, but ‎most of them start slowly, with mild pain or discomfort, then early ‎detection and successful treatment of these symptoms is vital to save ‎them. Therefore, importance and usefulness of a system designing to ‎assist physicians in the early diagnosis of the acute heart attacks is ‎obvious.‎ The purpose of this study is to determine how well a predictive ‎model would perform based on the only patient-reportable clinical ‎history factors, without using diagnostic tests or physical exams. This ‎type of the prediction model might have application outside of the ‎hospital setting to give accurate advice to patients to influence them to ‎seek care in appropriate situations. For this purpose, the data were ‎collected on 711 heart patients in Iran hospitals. 28 attributes of clinical ‎factors can be reported by patients; were studied. Three logistic ‎regression models were made on the basis of the 28 features to predict ‎the risk of heart attacks. The best logistic regression model in terms of ‎performance had a C-index of 0.955 and with an accuracy of 94.9%. ‎The variables, severe chest pain, back pain, cold sweats, shortness of ‎breath, nausea, and vomiting were selected as the main features.‎

Keywords: Coronary heart disease, Acute heart attacks, Prediction, Logistic ‎regression‎

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97 A Case Series on Isolated Lead aVR ST-Segment Elevation Clinical Significance and Outcome

Authors: Fae Princess Bermudez


Background: One of the least significant leads on a 12-lead electrocardiogram is the augmented right lead (aVR), as it is not as specific compared to the other leads. In this case series, the value of lead aVR, which is more often than not ignored, is highlighted. Three cases of aVR ST segment elevation on 12-lead electrocardiogram are described, with the end outcome of demise of all three patients. The importance of immediate revascularization is described to improve prognosis in this group of patients. Objectives: This case series aims to primarily present under-reported cases of isolated aVR ST-segrment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), their course and outcome. More specific aims are to identify the criteria in determination of isolated aVR STEMI, know its clinical significance, and determine appropriate management for patients with this ECG finding. Method: A short review of previous studies, case reports, articles and guidelines from 2011-2016 was done. The author reviewed available literature, sorted out those that proved to be significant for the presented cases, and described them in conjunction with the aforementioned cases. Findings: Based on the limited information on these rare or under-reported cases, it was found that isolated aVR STEMI had a poorer prognosis that led to significant mortality and morbidity of patients. The significance of aVR ST-elevation was that of an occlusion of the left coronary artery or a severe three-vessel disease in the presence of an Acute Coronary Syndrome. Guidelines from American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Foundation in 2013 already recognized ST-elevation of lead aVR in isolation as a STEMI; hence, recommended that patients with this particular ECG finding should undergo reperfusion strategies to improve prognosis. Conclusion: The indispensability of isolated aVR ST-segment elevation on ECG should alert physicians, especially Emergency physicians, to the high probability of Acute Coronary Syndrome with a very poor prognosis. If this group of patients is not promptly managed, demise may ensue, with cardiogenic shock as the most probable cause. With this electrocardiogram finding, physicians must be quick to make clinical decisions to increase chances of survival of this group of patients.

Keywords: AVR ST-elevation, diffuse ST-segment depression, left coronary artery infarction, myocardial infarction

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