Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 299

Search results for: Basel Saeed Alghamdi

299 The Awareness of Cardiovascular Diseases among General Population in Western Regions of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali Saeed Alghamdi, Basel Mazen Alsolami, Basel Saeed Alghamdi, Muhanad Saleh Alzahrani Alamri, Salman Anwar Thabet, Abdulhalim J. Kinsara


Objectives: This study measures the knowledge of the cardiovascular disease among the general population in western regions of Saudi Arabia, and it aimed to increase the level of awareness about cardiovascular diseases among the general population by providing an awareness lecture that included information about the risk factors, major symptoms, and prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The lecture has been attached at the end of the questionnaire. Setting: This study was conducted through an online questionnaire that included our aim and main objectives that targeted the general population in the Western regions of Saudi Arabia (Makkah and Madinah regions). Participants: This study participants were 460 collected through an online questionnaire. Methods: All Saudi citizens and residents who live in the western region of Saudi Arabia aged 18 years and above will be invited to participate voluntarily. A pre-structured questionnaire was designed to collect data on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, lifestyle habits, and history of heart diseases, with cardiac symptoms and risk factors sections. Results: The majority of respondents were females (74.8%) and Saudis. The knowledge about cardiovascular disease risk factors was weak. Only (18.5%) scores an excellent response regarding risk factors awareness. Lack of exercise, stress, and obesity were the most known risk factors. Regarding cardiovascular disease symptoms, chest pain scores the highest symptom (87.6%) among other symptoms like dyspnea, syncope, and excessive sweating. Participants revealed a poor awareness regarding cardiovascular disease symptoms also (0.9%). However, preventable factors for cardiovascular diseases were more knowledgeable than others categories in this study (60% fall into excellent knowledge). Smoking cessation, normal cholesterol level, and normal blood pressure score the highest preventable methods (92.2%), (88.6%), and (78.7%) respectively. 83.7% of the participant have attended the awareness lecture, and 99 of the attendees reported that the lecture increased their knowledge about cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: This study discussed the level of community awareness of cardiovascular disease in terms of symptoms, risk factors, and protective factors. We found a huge lack of the participant's level of knowledge about the disease and how to prevent it. Moreover, we measure the prevalence of the comorbidities among our participants (diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia/ hypertriglyceridemia) and their extent of adherence to their medication. In conclusion, this study not only demonstrates awareness of cardiovascular disease risk factors, symptoms, management, and the association between each domain but also provides educational material. Further educational material and campaigns are required to increase awareness and knowledge about cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: awareness, cardiovascular diseases, education, prevention, risk factors

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298 The Role of the Basel Accords in Mitigating Systemic Risk

Authors: Wassamon Kun-Amornpong


When a financial crisis occurs, there will be a law and regulatory reform in order to manage the turmoil and prevent a future crisis. One of the most important regulatory efforts to help cope with systemic risk and a financial crisis is the third version of the Basel Accord. Basel III has introduced some measures and tools (e.g., systemic risk buffer, countercyclical buffer, capital conservation buffer and liquidity risk) in order to mitigate systemic risk. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of these measures in Basel III in adequately addressing the problem of contagious runs that can quickly spread throughout the financial system is questionable. This paper seeks to contribute to the knowledge regarding the role of the Basel Accords in mitigating systemic risk. The research question is to what extent the Basel Accords can help control systemic risk in the financial markets? The paper tackles this question by analysing the concept of systemic risk. It will then examine the weaknesses of the Basel Accords before and after the Global financial crisis in 2008. Finally, it will suggest some possible solutions in order to improve the Basel Accord. The rationale of the study is the fact that academic works on systemic risk and financial crises are largely studied from economic or financial perspective. There is comparatively little research from the legal and regulatory perspective. The finding of the paper is that there are some problems in all of the three pillars of the Basel Accords. With regards to Pillar I, the risk model is excessively complex while the benefits of its complexity are doubtful. Concerning Pillar II, the effectiveness of the risk-based supervision in preventing systemic risk still depends largely upon its design and implementation. Factors such as organizational culture of the regulator and the political context within which the risk-based supervision operates might be a barrier against the success of Pillar II. Meanwhile, Pillar III could not provide adequate market discipline as market participants do not always act in a rational way. In addition, the too-big-to-fail perception reduced the incentives of the market participants to monitor risks. There has been some development in resolution measure (e.g. TLAC and MREL) which might potentially help strengthen the incentive of the market participants to monitor risks. However, those measures have some weaknesses. The paper argues that if the weaknesses in the three pillars are resolved, it can be expected that the Basel Accord could contribute to the mitigation of systemic risk in a more significant way in the future.

Keywords: Basel accords, financial regulation, risk-based supervision, systemic risk

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297 A Data Mining Approach for Analysing and Predicting the Bank's Asset Liability Management Based on Basel III Norms

Authors: Nidhin Dani Abraham, T. K. Sri Shilpa


Asset liability management is an important aspect in banking business. Moreover, the today’s banking is based on BASEL III which strictly regulates on the counterparty default. This paper focuses on prediction and analysis of counter party default risk, which is a type of risk occurs when the customers fail to repay the amount back to the lender (bank or any financial institutions). This paper proposes an approach to reduce the counterparty risk occurring in the financial institutions using an appropriate data mining technique and thus predicts the occurrence of NPA. It also helps in asset building and restructuring quality. Liability management is very important to carry out banking business. To know and analyze the depth of liability of bank, a suitable technique is required. For that a data mining technique is being used to predict the dormant behaviour of various deposit bank customers. Various models are implemented and the results are analyzed of saving bank deposit customers. All these data are cleaned using data cleansing approach from the bank data warehouse.

Keywords: data mining, asset liability management, BASEL III, banking

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296 Macroeconomic Reevaluation of CNY/USD Exchange Rate: Quantitative Impact on EUR/USD Exchange Rate

Authors: R. Henry, H. Andriamboavonjy, J. B. Paulin, S. Drahy, R. Gourichon


During past decade, Chinese monetary policy has been to maintain stability of exchange rate CNY/USD by creating parity between the two currencies. This policy, against market equilibrium, impacts the exchange rate in having low Yuan currency, and keeping attractiveness of Chinese industries. Using macroeconomic and statistic approach, the impact of such policy onto CNY/USD exchange rate is quantitatively determined. It is also pointed out how Chinese banks respect Basel III ratios, in particular the foreign exchange ratio. The main analysis is focusing on how Chinese banks will respect these ratios in the future.

Keywords: macroeconomics models, yuan floating exchange rate, basel iii, china banking system

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295 The Differences and the Similarities between Corporate Governance Principles in Islamic Banks and Conventional Banks

Authors: Osama Shibani


Corporate governance effective is critical to the proper functioning of the banking sector and the economy as a whole, the Basel Committee have issued principles of corporate governance inspired from Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), but there is no single model of corporate governance that can work well in every country; each country, or even each organization should develop its own model that can cater for its specific needs and objectives, the corporate governance in Islamic Institutions is unique and offers a particular structure and guided by a control body which is Shariah supervisory Board (SSB), for this reason Islamic Financial Services Board in Malaysia (IFSB) has amended BCBS corporate governance principles commensurate with Islamic financial Institutions to suit the nature of the work of Islamic institutions, this paper highlight these amended by using comparative analysis method in context of the differences of corporate governance structure of Islamic banks and conventional banks. We find few different between principles (Principle 1: The Board's overall responsibilities, Principles 3: Board’s own structure and practices, Principles 9: Compliance, Principle 10: Internal audit, Principle 12: Disclosure and transparency) and there are similarities between principles (Principle 2: Board qualifications and composition, Principles 4: Senior Management (composition and tasks), Principle 6: Risk Management and Principle 8: Risk communication). Finally, we found that corporate governance principles issued by Islamic Financial Services Board (IFSB) are complemented to CG principles of Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) with some modifications to suit the composition of Islamic banks, there are deficiencies in the interest of the Basel Committee to Islamic banks.

Keywords: basel committee (BCBS), corporate governance principles, Islamic financial services board (IFSB), agency theory

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294 Maturity Transformation Risk Factors in Islamic Banking: An Implication of Basel III Liquidity Regulations

Authors: Haroon Mahmood, Christopher Gan, Cuong Nguyen


Maturity transformation risk is highlighted as one of the major causes of recent global financial crisis. Basel III has proposed new liquidity regulations for transformation function of banks and hence to monitor this risk. Specifically, net stable funding ratio (NSFR) is introduced to enhance medium- and long-term resilience against liquidity shocks. Islamic banking is widely accepted in many parts of the world and contributes to a significant portion of the financial sector in many countries. Using a dataset of 68 fully fledged Islamic banks from 11 different countries, over a period from 2005 – 2014, this study has attempted to analyze various factors that may significantly affect the maturity transformation risk in these banks. We utilize 2-step system GMM estimation technique on unbalanced panel and find bank capital, credit risk, financing, size and market power are most significant among the bank specific factors. Also, gross domestic product and inflation are the significant macro-economic factors influencing this risk. However, bank profitability, asset efficiency, and income diversity are found insignificant in determining the maturity transformation risk in Islamic banking model.

Keywords: Basel III, Islamic banking, maturity transformation risk, net stable funding ratio

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293 The Promotion of a Risk Culture: a Descriptive Study of Ghanaian Banks

Authors: Gerhard Grebe, Johan Marx


The aim of the study is to assess the state of operational risk management and the adoption of an appropriate risk culture in Ghanaian banks. The Bank of Ghana (BoG) joined the Basel Consultative Group (BCG) of the Basel Committee on Bank Supervision (BCBS) in 2021 and is proceeding with the implementation of the Basel III international regulatory framework for banks. The BoG’s Directive about risk management encourages, inter alia, the creation of an appropriate risk culture by Ghanaian banks. However, it is not evident how the risk management staff of Ghanaian banks experience the risk culture and the implementation of operational risk management in the banks where they are employed. Ghana is a developing economy, and it is addressing challenges with its organisational culture. According to Transparency International, successive Ghanaian governments claim to be fighting corruption, but little success has been achieved so far. This points to a possible lack of accountability, transparency, and integrity in the environment in which Ghanaian banks operate and which could influence their risk culture negatively. Purposive sampling was used for the survey, and the questionnaire was completed byGhanaian bank personnel who specializesin operational risk management, risk governance, and compliance, bank supervision, risk analyses, as well as the implementation of the operational risk management requirements of the Basel regulatory frameworks. The respondents indicated that they are fostering a risk culture and implementing monitoring and reporting procedures; the three lines of defence (3LOD); compliance; internal auditing; disclosure of operational risk information; and receiving guidance from the bank supervisor in an attempt to improve their operational risk management practices. However, the respondents reported the following challenges with staff members who are not inside the risk management departments(in order of priority), namelydemonstrating a risk culture, training and development; communication; reporting and disclosure; roles and responsibilities; performance appraisal; and technological and environmental barriers. Recommendations to address these challenges are provided

Keywords: ghana, operational risk, risk culture, risk management

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292 Variable Shunt Reactors for Reactive Power Compensation of HV Subsea Cables

Authors: Saeed A. AlGhamdi, Nabil Habli, Vinoj Somasanran


This paper presents an application of 230 kV Variable Shunt Reactors (VSR) used to compensate reactive power of dual 90 KM subsea cables. VSR integrates an on-load tap changer (OLTC) that adjusts reactive power compensation to maintain acceptable bus voltages under variable load profile and network configuration. An automatic voltage regulator (AVR) or a power management system (PMS) that allows VSR rating to be changed in discrete steps typically controls the OLTC. Typical regulation range start as minimum as 20% up to 100% and are available for systems up to 550kV. The regulation speed is normally in the order of seconds per step and approximately a minute from maximum to minimum rating. VSR can be bus or line connected depending on line/cable length and compensation requirements. The flexible reactive compensation ranges achieved by recent VSR technologies have enabled newer facilities design to deploy line connected VSR through either disconnect switches, which saves space and cost, or through circuit breakers. Lines with VSR are typically energized with lower taps (reduced reactive compensation) to minimize or remove the presence of delayed zero crossing.

Keywords: power management, reactive power, subsea cables, variable shunt reactors

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291 Credit Risk and Financial Stability

Authors: Zidane Abderrezzaq


In contrast to recent successful developments in macro monetary policies, the modelling, measurement and management of systemic financial stability has remained problematical. Indeed, the focus of most effort has been on improving individual, rather than systemic, bank risk management; the Basel II objective has been to bring regulatory bank capital into line with the (sophisticated) banks’ assessment of their own economic capital. Even at the individual bank level there are concerns over appropriate diversification allowances, differing objectives of banks and regulators, the need for a buffer over regulatory minima, and the distinction between expected and unexpected losses (EL and UL). At the systemic level the quite complex and prescriptive content of Basel II raises dangers of ‘endogenous risk’ and procyclicality. Simulations suggest that this latter could be a serious problem. In an extension to the main analysis we study how liquidity effects interact with banking structure to produce a greater chance of systemic breakdown. We finally consider how the risk of contagion might depend on the degree of asymmetry (tiering) inherent in the structure of the banking system. A number of our results have important implications for public policy, which this paper also draws out.

Keywords: systemic stability, financial regulation, credit risk, systemic risk

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290 Islamic Banks and the Most Important Contemporary Challenges

Authors: Mahmood Mohammed Abdulsattar Aljumaili


Praise be to Allah and peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah. Islamic banks have not only made a lot of great achievements in a short period, but they imposed themselves in the global market, not to mention the transformation of some conventional interest-based banks to Islamic banks to the large demand on them, this transformation has pushed the Dow Jones Global Foundation to develop a new economic indicator released it (the Dow Jones Islamic market) for those who wish to invest in Islamic financial institutions. The success of Islamic financial institutions today face significant and serious challenges, that embody the serious consequences created by the current events on Islamic banking industry. This modest study, deals with these serious challenges facing the Islamic banking industry, and reflected on the success recorded in the previous period. The study deals with four main topics: The emergence of Islamic banks, the goals of Islamic banks, International challenges facing Islamic banks, internal challenges facing Islamic banks, and finally it touches on, (Basel 1-2) Agreement and its implications for Islamic banks.

Keywords: Islamic banks, Basel 1-2 agreement, most important contemporary challenges, islamic banking industry, Dow Jones Islamic market

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289 A Literature Review on Banks’ Profitability and Risk Adjustment Decisions

Authors: Libena Cernohorska, Barbora Sutorova, Petr Teply


There are pending discussions over an impact of global regulatory efforts on banks. In this paper we present a literature review on the profitability-risk-capital relationship in banking. Research papers dealing with this topic can be divided into two groups: the first group focusing on a capital-risk relationship and the second group analyzing a capital-profitability relationship. The first group investigates whether the imposition of stricter capital requirements reduces risk-taking incentives of banks based on a simultaneous equations model. Their model pioneered the idea that the changes in both capital and risk have endogenous and exogenous components. The results obtained by the authors indicate that changes in the capital level are positively related to the changes in asset risk. The second group of the literature concentrating solely on the relationship between the level of held capital and bank profitability is limited. Nevertheless, there are a lot of studies dealing with the banks’ profitability as such, where bank capital is very often included as an explanatory variable. Based on the literature review of dozens of relevant papers in this study, an empirical research on banks’ profitability and risk adjustment decisions under new banking rules Basel III rules can be easily undertaken.

Keywords: bank, Basel III, capital, decision making, profitability, risk, simultaneous equations model

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288 Regulation, Supervision and Accounting Conservatism: Interaction of the Three Pillars of Basel II to Achieve Quality of Reporting Earnings in Worldwide Banks

Authors: I. Diaz Sanchez, I. M. Martinez-Conesa, M. Illueca


Accounting conservatism is a desirable quality of earnings that is positively associated with the stridency of regulatory and supervisory regimen and high market discipline. But how these three pillars interact each other is the main research question that is not empirically solved. We analyze how regulatory and supervisory regimes interact with the market discipline measures, such as listing status, ownership and market concentration using a sample of 14,651 bank-year observations covering 54 countries over the period 1997-2009. We evidence that regulation a supervision and extend on which they are enforcement is a strong mechanism to achieved accounting conservatism in those countries or situations where the market discipline fails. Generally, the supervisory power reinforces the effect of listing status, ownership and concentration on conservatism, while capital regulatory mitigates the effect of market discipline on conservatism. This paper may contribute to debate about the mechanism introduced by Basel III that strongly increases the regulation, his enforcement, and the supervisory power after long deregulation period. Although Market discipline is relevant to achieve the financial stability, strong Pillar I and II can ensure the quality of the accounting earnings to prevent bank failures.

Keywords: accounting conservatism, bank regulation, bank supervision, loan loss recognition, market discipline

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287 Study of the Effect of Using Corn-Cob Ash on Mortar and Concrete Properties: Case Study of Sudan

Authors: Taghried I. M. Abdel-Magid, Gheida T. A. Al-Khelifa, Ahmed O. Adam, Esra G. A. Mohamed, Saeed M. S. Saeed


The use of pozzolanic materials in concrete industry is facing challenges due to unpredictable behavior of natural materials. Corncob ash (CCA) is considered to be one of the promising plant-based materials that possess cementitious properties. Corn is one of the major planted crops in Sudan. Corncob is considered as waste and normally thrown away or burnt. The main purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that CCA can sufficiently replace cement in a concrete mixture or a cement mortar. In this study, CCA was used to replace cement in mortar in three percentages: 0, 20, and 25%. The effect of this replacement was found to be positive in terms of long-term compressive strength, while not as such in short-term compressive strength. In the concrete mix, the introduction of CCA was found to have a positive impact on the slump test characteristics, whereas the early and late compressive strengths deteriorated by approximately 30%. More research is needed in this area to upgrade the efficient use of CCA in cement mortar and concrete properties.

Keywords: cementitious materials, compressive strength, corncob ash, pozzolanic materials

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286 Evaluation of Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor A (TNF-A) Changes in Synovial Fluid and Serum in Dogs with Osteoarthritis; An Experimental Study

Authors: Behrooz Nikahval, Mohammad Saeed Ahrari-Khafi, Sakineh Behroozpoor, Saeed Nazifi


Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and degenerative condition of the articular cartilage and other joints’ structures. It is essential to diagnose this condition as early as possible. The present research was performed to measure the Osteoprotegrin (OPG) and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNF-α) in synovial fluid and blood serum of dogs with surgically transected cruciate ligament as a model of OA, to evaluate if measuring of these parameters can be used as a way of early diagnosis of OA. In the present study, four mature, clinically healthy dogs were selected to investigate the effect of experimental OA, on OPG and TNF-α as a way of early detection of OA. OPG and TNF-α were measured in synovial fluid and blood serum on days 0, 14, 28, 90 and 180 after surgical transaction of cranial cruciate ligament in one stifle joint. Statistical analysis of the results showed that there was a significant increase in TNF-α in both synovial fluid and blood serum. OPG showed a decrease two weeks after OA induction. However, it fluctuated afterward. In conclusion, TNF-α could be used in both synovial fluid and blood serum as a way of early detection of OA; however, further research still needs to be conducted on OPG values in OA detection.

Keywords: osteoarthritis, osteoprotegrin, tumor necrosis factor α, synovial fluid, serum, dog

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285 Towards Development of a Framework for Saudi Education Software Ecosystem

Authors: Fazal-e-Amin, Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Iftikhar Ahmad


Software ecosystems’ concept is an inspiration from the natural ecosystem. Software ecosystems refer to large systems developed on top of a platform composed of different components developed by different entities of that ecosystem. Ecosystems improve information access, dissemination and coordination considerably. The ability to evolve and accommodate new subsystems gives a boost to the software ecosystems. In this paper, Saudi education software ecosystem is discussed and its need and potential benefits are highlighted. This work will provide a basis for further research in this area and foundation in development of Saudi education ecosystem.

Keywords: software ecosystem, education software, framework, software engineering

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284 Optimal Data Selection in Non-Ergodic Systems: A Tradeoff between Estimator Convergence and Representativeness Errors

Authors: Jakob Krause


Past Financial Crisis has shown that contemporary risk management models provide an unjustified sense of security and fail miserably in situations in which they are needed the most. In this paper, we start from the assumption that risk is a notion that changes over time and therefore past data points only have limited explanatory power for the current situation. Our objective is to derive the optimal amount of representative information by optimizing between the two adverse forces of estimator convergence, incentivizing us to use as much data as possible, and the aforementioned non-representativeness doing the opposite. In this endeavor, the cornerstone assumption of having access to identically distributed random variables is weakened and substituted by the assumption that the law of the data generating process changes over time. Hence, in this paper, we give a quantitative theory on how to perform statistical analysis in non-ergodic systems. As an application, we discuss the impact of a paragraph in the last iteration of proposals by the Basel Committee on Banking Regulation. We start from the premise that the severity of assumptions should correspond to the robustness of the system they describe. Hence, in the formal description of physical systems, the level of assumptions can be much higher. It follows that every concept that is carried over from the natural sciences to economics must be checked for its plausibility in the new surroundings. Most of the probability theory has been developed for the analysis of physical systems and is based on the independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) assumption. In Economics both parts of the i.i.d. assumption are inappropriate. However, only dependence has, so far, been weakened to a sufficient degree. In this paper, an appropriate class of non-stationary processes is used, and their law is tied to a formal object measuring representativeness. Subsequently, that data set is identified that on average minimizes the estimation error stemming from both, insufficient and non-representative, data. Applications are far reaching in a variety of fields. In the paper itself, we apply the results in order to analyze a paragraph in the Basel 3 framework on banking regulation with severe implications on financial stability. Beyond the realm of finance, other potential applications include the reproducibility crisis in the social sciences (but not in the natural sciences) and modeling limited understanding and learning behavior in economics.

Keywords: banking regulation, non-ergodicity, risk management, semimartingale modeling

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283 Preventing Violent Extremism through Augmenting Community Resilience and Empowering Community Members in Swat

Authors: Dr. Muhammad Idris Idris, Dr. Said Saeed Saeed


Terrorism is the chronic issue of the hour. It is the disciplined practice of vicious activities like assassinating, slaughtering, mutilating, and frightening of the innocents to attain religious, fiscal, and political goals and to question the authority of the government. Leaders of the world promised to transform the planet by empowering community members and building community resilience (CR) against terrorism. This study concentrates to explore building community resilience against terrorism and empowering community members and implement strategies for strengthening community resilience. For data collection a mixed methods methodology will be used. Means, STD deviation, Pearson correlation, and thematic analysis will be employed to analyze the gathered data. The findings of the study will be interpreted and recommendations will be furnished accordingly. Study results will be disseminated to all concerned through conferences and seminar sessions. It is predicted that after the completion, the project team will be in a robust position to start writing the report that concentrates on strengthening community resilience, which is the crucial goal of this project. The publication will contribute effectively to all stakeholders and society, particularly to the lower rungs of social order. Moreover, it is expected that this project will contribute to future research in the domain of community resilience. This project will also reveal the remarkable potential of archival research on community resilience.

Keywords: Violent Extremism, community Role, community resilience, community empowerment, Leadership role

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282 The Influence of Work Experience on Conflict Management Styles of Organizational Members

Authors: Faris Alghamdi


Identifying which conflict management styles organizational members prefer, and what variables influence these selections, is an essential component of organizational conflict management as well as human resource management, particularly in training and development strategies. This study aims to examine the relationship between work experience and preferred conflict management styles. Utilizing the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory- II Form C, data were collected from 109 full-time employees of various organizations in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis showed a statistically significant relationship between the integrating conflict management style and the length of work experience. Nevertheless, this relationship was negative, not positive as hypothesized.

Keywords: conflict management style, organizational members, work experience

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281 Two Concurrent Convolution Neural Networks TC*CNN Model for Face Recognition Using Edge

Authors: T. Alghamdi, G. Alaghband


In this paper we develop a model that couples Two Concurrent Convolution Neural Network with different filters (TC*CNN) for face recognition and compare its performance to an existing sequential CNN (base model). We also test and compare the quality and performance of the models on three datasets with various levels of complexity (easy, moderate, and difficult) and show that for the most complex datasets, edges will produce the most accurate and efficient results. We further show that in such cases while Support Vector Machine (SVM) models are fast, they do not produce accurate results.

Keywords: Convolution Neural Network, Edges, Face Recognition , Support Vector Machine.

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280 Artificial Intelligence in Duolingo

Authors: Jwana Khateeb, Lamar Bawazeer, Hayat Sharbatly, Mozoun Alghamdi


This research paper explores the idea of learning new languages through an innovative-mobile based learning technology. Throughout this paper we will discuss and examine a mobile-based application called Duolingo. Duolingo is a college standard application for learning foreign languages such as Spanish and English. It is a smart application where it uses smart adaptive technologies to advance the level of their students at each period of time by offering new tasks. Furthermore, we will discuss the history of the application and the methodology used within it. We have conducted a study in which we surveyed ten people about their experience using Duolingo. The results are examined and analyzed in which it indicates the effectiveness on Duolingo students who are seeking to learn new languages. Thus, the research paper will furthermore discuss the diverse methods and approaches in learning new languages through this mobile-based application.

Keywords: Duolingo, AI, personalized, customized

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279 Assessment of Physical Activity and Sun Exposure of Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods

Authors: Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Khaled Alghamdi, Richard O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris


Background: Physical activity is an important factor in the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Reduction in HbA1c level, an important diabetes biomarker, was reported in patients who increased their daily physical activity. Although the ambient temperature was reported to be positively correlated to a negative impact on health and increase the incidences of diabetes, the exposure to bright sunlight was recently found to be associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity and improved beta-cell function. How Ramadan alters physical activity, and especially sunlight exposure, has not been adequately investigated. Aim: This study aimed to assess the physical activity and sun exposure of Saudis with T2DM over different periods (before, during, and after Ramadan) and related this to HbA1c levels. Methods: This study recruited 82 Saudis with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for this study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Physical activity and sun exposure were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Physical activity was estimated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), while the sun exposure was assessed by asking the patients about their hours per week of direct exposure to the sun, and daily hours spent outdoors. Blood samples were collected in each period for measuring HbA1c. Results: Low physical activity was observed in more than 60% of the patients, with no significant changes between periods. There were no significant variances between periods in the daily hours spent outdoors and the total number of weekly hours of direct exposure to the sun. The majority of patients reported only few hours of exposure to the sun (1h or less per week) and time spent outdoors (1h or less per day). The mean HbA1c significantly changed between periods (P = 0.001), with lowest level during Ramadan. There were significant differences in the mean HbA1c between the groups for the level of physical activity (P < 0.001), with significant lower mean HbA1c in the higher-level group. There were no significant variances in the mean of HbA1c between the groups for the daily hours spent outdoors. The mean HbA1c of the patients, who reported never in their total weekly hours of exposure to the sun, was significantly lower than the mean HbA1c of those who reported 1 hour or less (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Physical inactivity was prevalent among the study population with very little exposure to the sun or time spent outdoors. Higher level of physical activity was associated with lower mean HbA1c levels. Encouraging T2DM patients to achieve the recommended levels of physical activity may help them to obtain greater benefits of Ramadan fasting, such as reducing their HbA1c levels. The impact of low direct exposure to the sun and the time spent outdoors needs to be further investigated in both healthy and diabetic patients.

Keywords: diabetes, fasting, physical activity, sunlight, Ramadan

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278 Assessment of Dietary Patterns of Saudi Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods

Authors: Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Khaled Alghamdi, Richard O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris


Background: Unhealthy diet is one of the modifiable risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Improvement in diet can be beneficial for countering diabetes. For example, HbA1c, an important biomarker for diabetes, can be reduced by 1.1% through only alteration in diet. Ramadan fasting has been reported to provide positive health benefits. However, optimal benefits are not achieved, often due to poor dietary habits and lifestyle. There is a need to better understand the dietary habits of people fasting during Ramadan, so that necessary improvements can be made to develop this form of fasting as a non-pharmacological strategy for management and prevention of T2DM. Aim: This study aimed to assess the dietary patterns of Saudi adult patients with T2DM over three different periods (before, during, and after Ramadan) and relate this to HbA1c levels. Methods: This study recruited 82 Saudi with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for the study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Dietary patterns were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire in each period. This assessment included the diet type and frequency. Blood samples were collected in each period for determination of HbA1c. Results: The number of meals per day for the participants significantly decreased during Ramadan (P < 0.001). The consumption of fruit and vegetables significantly increased during Ramadan (P = 0.017). However, the consumption of sugary drinks significantly increased during and after Ramadan (P = 0.005). Approximately 60% of the patients indicated that they ate sugary foods at least once per week. The consumption of bread and rice was reported to be at least two times per week. The consumption of rice significantly reduced during Ramadan (P = 0.002). The mean HbA1c significantly varied between periods (P = 0.001), with lowest level during Ramadan compared to before and after Ramadan. The increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables had a medium effect size on the reduction in HbA1c during Ramadan. There was a variance of 7.7% in the mean difference in HbA1c levels between groups (who changed their fruit and vegetable consumption) which can be accounted for by the increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Likewise, 9.3% of the variance in the mean HbA1c difference between the groups was accounted for by a decrease in the consumption of rice. Conclusion: The increase in the frequency of fruit and vegetables intake, and especially the reduction in the frequency of rice consumption, during Ramadan produce beneficial effects in reducing HbA1c level. Therefore, further improving the dietary habits of patients with T2DM, such as reducing their sugary drinks intake, may help them to obtain greater benefits from Ramadan fasting in the management of their diabetes. It is recommended that dietary guidance is provided to the public to maximise health benefits through Ramadan fasting.

Keywords: Diabetes, Diet, Fasting, HbA1c, Ramadan

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277 Biochemical Evaluation of Air Conditioning West Water in Jeddah City: Concept of Sustainable Water Resources

Authors: D. Alromi, A. Alansari, S. Alghamdi, E. Jambi


As the need for water is increasing globally, and the available water resources are barely meeting the current quality of life and economy. Air conditioning (AC) condensate water could be explored as an alternative water source, which could be considered within the global calculations of the water supply. The objective of this study is to better understand the potential for recovery of condensate water from air conditioning systems. The results generated so far showed that the AC produces a high quantity of water, and data analysis revealed that the amount of water is positively and significantly correlated with the humidity (P <= 0.05). In the meantime, the amount of heavy metals has been measuring using ICP-OES. The results, in terms of quantity, clearly show that the AC can be used as an alternative source of water, especially in the regions characterized by high humidity. The results also showed that the amount of produced water depends on the type of AC.

Keywords: air conditioning systems, water quantity, water resources, wastewater

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276 Change Point Analysis in Average Ozone Layer Temperature Using Exponential Lomax Distribution

Authors: Amjad Abdullah, Amjad Yahya, Bushra Aljohani, Amani Alghamdi


Change point detection is an important part of data analysis. The presence of a change point refers to a significant change in the behavior of a time series. In this article, we examine the detection of multiple change points of parameters of the exponential Lomax distribution, which is broad and flexible compared with other distributions while fitting data. We used the Schwarz information criterion and binary segmentation to detect multiple change points in publicly available data on the average temperature in the ozone layer. The change points were successfully located.

Keywords: binary segmentation, change point, exponentialLomax distribution, information criterion

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275 Energy Saving Techniques for MIMO Decoders

Authors: Zhuofan Cheng, Qiongda Hu, Mohammed El-Hajjar, Basel Halak


Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can allow significantly higher data rates compared to single-antenna-aided systems. They are expected to be a prominent part of the 5G communication standard. However, these decoders suffer from high power consumption. This work presents a design technique in order to improve the energy efficiency of MIMO systems; this facilitates their use in the next generation of battery-operated communication devices such as mobile phones and tablets. The proposed optimization approach consists of the use of low complexity lattice reduction algorithm in combination with an adaptive VLSI implementation. The proposed design has been realized and verified in 65nm technology. The results show that the proposed design is significantly more energy-efficient than conventional K-best MIMO systems.

Keywords: energy, lattice reduction, MIMO, VLSI

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274 Stochastic Control of Decentralized Singularly Perturbed Systems

Authors: Walid S. Alfuhaid, Saud A. Alghamdi, John M. Watkins, M. Edwin Sawan


Designing a controller for stochastic decentralized interconnected large scale systems usually involves a high degree of complexity and computation ability. Noise, observability, and controllability of all system states, connectivity, and channel bandwidth are other constraints to design procedures for distributed large scale systems. The quasi-steady state model investigated in this paper is a reduced order model of the original system using singular perturbation techniques. This paper results in an optimal control synthesis to design an observer based feedback controller by standard stochastic control theory techniques using Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) approach and Kalman filter design with less complexity and computation requirements. Numerical example is given at the end to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

Keywords: decentralized, optimal control, output, singular perturb

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273 Assessment of Sleeping Patterns of Saudis with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Ramadan and Non-Ramadan Periods Using a Wearable Device and a Questionnaire

Authors: Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Khaled Alghamdi, Richard O. Jenkins, Parvez I. Haris


Background: Quantity and quality of sleep have been reported to be significant risk factors for obesity and development of metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The relationship between diabetes and sleep quantity was reported to be U-shaped, which means increased or decreased sleeping hours can increase the risk of diabetes. The plasma glucagon levels were found to continuously decrease during night-time sleep in healthy individuals, independently of blood glucose and insulin levels. The disturbance of the circadian rhythm is also important and has been linked with an increased the chance of diabetes incidence. There is a lack of research on sleep patterns on Saudis with T2DM and how this is affected by Ramadan fasting. Aim: To assess the sleeping patterns of Saudis with T2DM (before, during, and after Ramadan), using two different techniques and relate this to their HbA1c levels. Method: This study recruited 82 Saudi with T2DM, who chose to fast during Ramadan, from the Endocrine and Diabetic Centre of Al Iman General Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Ethical approvals for the study were obtained from De Montfort University and Saudi Ministry of Health. Their sleeping patterns were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire (before, during, and after Ramadan). The assessment included the daily total sleeping hours (DTSH), and total night-time sleeping hours (TNTSH) of the participants. In addition, sleeping patterns of 36 patients, randomly selected from the 82 participants, were further tracked during and after Ramadan by using Fitbit Flex 2™ accelerometer. Blood samples were collected in each period for measuring HbA1c. Results: Questionnaire analysis revealed that the sleeping patterns significantly changed between the periods, with shorter hours during Ramadan (P < 0.001 for DTSH, and P < 0.001 for TNTSH). These findings were confirmed by the Fitbit data, which also indicated significant shorter sleeping hours for the DTSH, and the TNTSH during Ramadan (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Although there were no significant correlations between the questionnaire and Fitbit data, the TNTSH were shorter among the participants in all periods by both techniques. The mean HbA1c significantly varied between periods, with lowest level during Ramadan. Although the statistical tests did not show significant variances in the mean HbA1c between the groups of participants regarding their hours of sleeping, the lowest mean HbA1c was observed in the group of participants who slept for 6-8 hours and had longer night-time sleeping hours. Conclusion: A short sleep duration, and absence of night-time sleep were significantly observed among the majority of the study population during Ramadan, which could suppress the full benefits of Ramadan fasting for diabetic patients. This study showed that there is a good agreement between the findings of the questionnaire and the Fitbit device for evaluating sleeping patterns in a Saudi population. A larger study is needed in the future to investigate the impact of Ramadan fasting on sleep quality and quantity and its relationship with health and disease.

Keywords: Diabetes, Fasting, Fitbit, HbA1c, IPAQ, Ramadan, Sleep

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272 Accounting and Prudential Standards of Banks and Insurance Companies in EU: What Stakes for Long Term Investment?

Authors: Sandra Rigot, Samira Demaria, Frederic Lemaire


The starting point of this research is the contemporary capitalist paradox: there is a real scarcity of long term investment despite the boom of potential long term investors. This gap represents a major challenge: there are important needs for long term financing in developed and emerging countries in strategic sectors such as energy, transport infrastructure, information and communication networks. Moreover, the recent financial and sovereign debt crises, which have respectively reduced the ability of financial banking intermediaries and governments to provide long term financing, questions the identity of the actors able to provide long term financing, their methods of financing and the most appropriate forms of intermediation. The issue of long term financing is deemed to be very important by the EU Commission, as it issued a 2013 Green Paper (GP) on long-term financing of the EU economy. Among other topics, the paper discusses the impact of the recent regulatory reforms on long-term investment, both in terms of accounting (in particular fair value) and prudential standards for banks. For banks, prudential and accounting standards are also crucial. Fair value is indeed well adapted to the trading book in a short term view, but this method hardly suits for a medium and long term portfolio. Banks’ ability to finance the economy and long term projects depends on their ability to distribute credit and the way credit is valued (fair value or amortised cost) leads to different banking strategies. Furthermore, in the banking industry, accounting standards are directly connected to the prudential standards, as the regulatory requirements of Basel III use accounting figures with prudential filter to define the needs for capital and to compute regulatory ratios. The objective of these regulatory requirements is to prevent insolvency and financial instability. In the same time, they can represent regulatory constraints to long term investing. The balance between financial stability and the need to stimulate long term financing is a key question raised by the EU GP. Does fair value accounting contributes to short-termism in the investment behaviour? Should prudential rules be “appropriately calibrated” and “progressively implemented” not to prevent banks from providing long-term financing? These issues raised by the EU GP lead us to question to what extent the main regulatory requirements incite or constrain banks to finance long term projects. To that purpose, we study the 292 responses received by the EU Commission during the public consultation. We analyze these contributions focusing on particular questions related to fair value accounting and prudential norms. We conduct a two stage content analysis of the responses. First, we proceed to a qualitative coding to identify arguments of respondents and subsequently we run a quantitative coding in order to conduct statistical analyses. This paper provides a better understanding of the position that a large panel of European stakeholders have on these issues. Moreover, it adds to the debate on fair value accounting and its effects on prudential requirements for banks. This analysis allows us to identify some short term bias in banking regulation.

Keywords: basel 3, fair value, securitization, long term investment, banks, insurers

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271 Relationship between Growth of Non-Performing Assets and Credit Risk Management Practices in Indian Banks

Authors: Sirus Sharifi, Arunima Haldar, S. V. D. Nageswara Rao


The study attempts to analyze the impact of credit risk management practices of Indian scheduled commercial banks on their non-performing assets (NPAs). The data on credit risk practices was collected by administering a questionnaire to risk managers/executives at different banks. The data on NPAs (from 2012 to 2016) is sourced from Prowess, a database compiled by the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE). The model was estimated using cross-sectional regression method. As expected, the findings suggest that there is a negative relationship between credit risk management and NPA growth in Indian banks. The study has implications for Indian banks given the high level of losses, and the implementation of Basel III norms by the central bank, i.e. Reserve Bank of India (RBI). Evidence on credit risk management in Indian banks, and their relationship with non-performing assets held by them.

Keywords: credit risk, identification, Indian Banks, NPAs, ownership

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270 Best Option for Countercyclical Capital Buffer Implementation: Scenarios for Baltic States

Authors: Ģirts Brasliņš, Ilja Arefjevs, Nadežda Tarakanova


The objective of countercyclical capital buffer is to encourage banks to build up buffers in good times that can be drawn down in bad times. The aim of the report is to assess such decisions by banks derived from three approaches. The approaches are the aggregate credit-to-GDP ratio, credit growth as well as banking sector profits. The approaches are implemented for Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania for the time period 2000-2012. The report compares three approaches and analyses their relevance to the Baltic states by testing the correlation between a growth in studied variables and a growth of corresponding gaps. Methods used in the empirical part of the report are econometric analysis as well as economic analysis, development indicators, relative and absolute indicators and other methods. The research outcome is a cross-Baltic comparison of two alternative approaches to establish or release a countercyclical capital buffer by banks and their implications for each Baltic country.

Keywords: basel III, countercyclical capital buffer, banks, credit growth, baltic states

Procedia PDF Downloads 319