Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2377

Search results for: carbon nano-fibres

2377 Silica Nanofibres – Promising Material for Regenerative Medicine

Authors: Miroslava Rysová, Zdena Syrová, Tomáš Zajíc, Petr Exnar

Abstract:

Currently, attention of tissue engineers has been attracted to novel nanofibrous materials having advanced properties and ability to mimic extracellular matrix (ECM) by structure which makes them interesting candidates for application in regenerative medicine as scaffolding and/or drug delivering material. Throughout the last decade, more than 200 synthetic and natural polymers have been successfully electrospun leading to the formation of nanofibres with a wide range of chemical, mechanical and degradation properties. In this family, inorganic nanofibres represent very specific group offering an opportunity to manufacture inert to body, well degradable and in properties tunable material. Aim of this work, was to reveal unique properties of silica (SiO2, CAS 7631-86-9) nanofibres and their potential in field of regenerative medicine. Silica nanofibres were prepared by sol-gel method from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS, CAS 78-10-4) as a precursor and subsequently manufactured by needleless electrospinning on NanospiderTM device. Silica nanofibres thermally stabilized under 200°C were confirmed to be fully biodegradable and soluble in several simulated body fluids. In vitro cytotoxicity tests of eluate (ES ISO 10993-5:1999) and in direct contact (ES ISO 10993-5:2009) showed no toxicity - e.g. cell viabilities reached values exceeding 80%. Those results were obtained equally from two different cell lines (Vero, 3T3). Non-toxicity of silaca nanofibres´ eluate was additionally confirmed in real time by testing on xCelligence (ACEA Biosciences, Inc.) device. Both cell types also showed good adhesion to material. To conclude, all mentioned results lead to resumption that silica nanofibres have a potential as material for regenerative medicine which opens door to further research.

Keywords: cytotoxicity, electrospinning, nanofibres, silica, tissue engineering

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2376 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha

Abstract:

Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

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2375 Preparation and Modeling Carbon Nanofibers as an Adsorbent to Protect the Environment

Authors: Maryam Ziaei, Saeedeh Rafiei, Leila Mivehi, Akbar Khodaparast Haghi

Abstract:

Carbon nanofibers possess properties that are rarely present in any other types of carbon adsorbents, including a small cross-sectional area, combined with a multitude of slit shaped nanopores that are suitable for adsorption of certain types of molecules. Because of their unique properties these materials can be used for the selective adsorption of organic molecules. On the other hand, activated carbon fiber (ACF) has been widely applied as an effective adsorbent for micro-pollutants in recent years. ACF effectively adsorbs and removes a full spectrum of harmful substances. Although there are various methods of fabricating carbon nanofibres, electrospinning is perhaps the most versatile procedure. This technique has been given great attention in current decades because of the nearly simple, comfortable and low cost. Spinning process control and achieve optimal conditions is important in order to effect on its physical properties, absorbency and versatility with different industrial purposes. Modeling and simulation are suitable methods to obtain this approach. In this paper, activated carbon nanofibers were produced during electrospinning of polyacrylonitrile solution. Stabilization, carbonization and activation of electrospun nanofibers in optimized conditions were achieved, and mathematical modelling of electrosinning process done by focusing on governing equations of electrified fluid jet motion (using FeniCS software). Experimental and theoretical results will be compared with each other in order to estimate the accuracy of the model. The simulation can provide the possibility of predicting essential parameters, which affect the electrospinning process.

Keywords: carbon nanofibers, electrospinning, electrospinning modeling, simulation

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2374 Carbon Credits in Voluntary Carbon Markets: A Proposal for Iran

Authors: Saeed Mohammadirad

Abstract:

During the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries were forced to restrict carbon emissions. Although Iran was one of the countries of Kyoto protocol, due to some special conditions, it was not required to restrict its carbon emissions. Flexible mechanisms were developed to assist countries responsible for reducing their carbon emissions, and regulated carbon markets were introduced. Carbon credits which are provided by organizations in countries with no responsibility to restrict their carbon emissions are traded in voluntary markets. This study focuses on how to measure and report the carbon allowances and carbon credits from accounting view point under both regulated and voluntary markets.

Keywords: carbon credits, carbon markets, accounting, flexible mechanisms

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2373 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextiles

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2372 Research on Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique with Multi-Rolls

Authors: Soon Ok Jo, Han Kyu Jeung, Si Woo Park

Abstract:

With the process of consistent expansion of carbon fiber in width (Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique), it can be expected that such process can enhance the production of carbon fiber reinforced composite material and quality of the product. In this research, the method of mechanically expanding carbon fiber and increasing its width was investigated by using various geometric rolls. In addition, experimental type of carbon fiber expansion device was developed and tested using 12K carbon fiber. As a result, the effects of expansion of such fiber under optimized operating conditions and geometric structure of an elliptical roll, were analyzed.

Keywords: carbon fiber, tow spreading fiber, pre-preg, roll structure

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2371 The Effect of the Proportion of Carbon on the Corrosion Rate of Carbon-Steel

Authors: Abdulmagid A. Khattabi, Ahmed A. Hablous, Mofied M. Elnemry

Abstract:

The carbon steel is of one of the most common mineral materials used in engineering and industrial applications in order to have access to the required mechanical properties, especially after the change of carbon ratio, but this may lead to stimulate corrosion. It has been used in models of solids with different carbon ratios such as 0.05% C, 0.2% C, 0.35% C, 0.5% C, and 0.65% C and have been studied using three testing durations which are 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks and among different corrosion environments such as atmosphere, fresh water, and salt water. This research is for the purpose of finding the effect of the carbon content on the corrosion resistance of steels in different corrosion medium by using the weight loss technique as a function of the corrosion resistance. The results that have been obtained through this research shows that a correlation can be made between corrosion rates and steel's carbon content, and the corrosion resistance decreases with the increase in carbon content.

Keywords: proportion of carbon in the steel, corrosion rate, erosion, corrosion resistance in carbon-steel

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2370 Framework Development of Carbon Management Software Tool in Sustainable Supply Chain Management of Indian Industry

Authors: Sarbjit Singh

Abstract:

This framework development explored the status of GSCM in manufacturing SMEs and concluded that there was a significant gap w.r.t carbon emissions measurement in the supply chain activities. The measurement of carbon emissions within supply chains is important green initiative toward its reduction. The majority of the SMEs were facing the problem to quantify the green house gas emissions in its supply chain & to make it a low carbon supply chain or GSCM. Thus, the carbon management initiatives were amalgamated with the supply chain activities in order to measure and reduce the carbon emissions, confirming the GHG protocol scopes. Henceforth, it covers the development of carbon management software (CMS) tool to quantify carbon emissions for effective carbon management. This tool is cheap and easy to use for the industries for the management of their carbon emissions within the supply chain.

Keywords: w.r.t carbon emissions, carbon management software, supply chain management, Indian Industry

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2369 The Carbon Trading Price and Trading Volume Forecast in Shanghai City by BP Neural Network

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the BP neural network model is established to predict the carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City. First of all, we find the data of carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City from September 30, 2015 to December 23, 2016. The carbon trading price and trading volume data were processed to get the average value of each 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 carbon trading price and trading volume. Then, these data are used as input of BP neural network model. Finally, after the training of BP neural network, the prediction values of Shanghai carbon trading price and trading volume are obtained, and the model is tested.

Keywords: Carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, BP neural network model, Shanghai City

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2368 Produced Gas Conversion of Microwave Carbon Receptor Reforming

Authors: Young Nam Chun, Mun Sup Lim

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide and methane, the major components of biomass pyrolysis/gasification gas and biogas, top the list of substances that cause climate change, but they are also among the most important renewable energy sources in modern society. The purpose of this study is to convert carbon dioxide and methane into high-quality energy using char and commercial activated carbon obtained from biomass pyrolysis as a microwave receptor. The methane reforming process produces hydrogen and carbon. This carbon is deposited in the pores of the microwave receptor and lowers catalytic activity, thereby reducing the methane conversion rate. The deposited carbon was removed by carbon gasification due to the supply of carbon dioxide, which solved the problem of microwave receptor inactivity. In particular, the conversion rate remained stable at over 90% when the ratio of carbon dioxide to methane was 1:1. When the reforming results of carbon dioxide and methane were compared after fabricating nickel and iron catalysts using commercial activated carbon as a carrier, the conversion rate was higher in the iron catalyst than in the nickel catalyst and when no catalyst was used. 

Keywords: microwave, gas reforming, greenhouse gas, microwave receptor, catalyst

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2367 The Carbon Emission Seesaw Effect

Authors: Adel Elomri

Abstract:

The notion of carbon footprinting is ever more widespread as companies are becoming increasingly aware that tackling carbon emissions and being seen to do so is a key issue to face governments, customers and other stakeholders’ pressures towards delivering environmentally friendly services and activities. In this contest, many firms are taking self-initiatives to reduce their own carbon emissions while some other are constrained to obey to different regulations/policies (e.g. carbon tax or carbon Cap) designed by higher authorities targeting a low-carbon environment. Using buyer-vendor framework, this paper provides some insights on how effective are these self-initiatives and regulatory policies when only concerning firms at the individual level and not the whole supply chain they are part of. We show that when firms individually engage in reducing their direct carbon emissions either under self-initiatives or regulatory policy, an opposite expected outcome resulting in a higher global supply chain emission can occur. This effect is referred to as the carbon seesaw effect. Moreover, we show that coordinating or centralizing the supply chain -contrary to what one may think at first- is not often the appropriate solution to get rid of this effect.

Keywords: carbon emissions, supply chain coordination, EOQ, sustainable operations

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2366 Synthesis and Characterization of Green Coke-Derived Activated Carbon by KOH Activation

Authors: Richard, Iyan Subiyanto, Chairul Hudaya

Abstract:

Activated carbon has been playing a significant role for many applications, especially in energy storage devices. However, commercially activated carbons generally require complicated processes and high production costs. Therefore, in this study, an activated carbon originating from green coke waste, that is economically affordable will be used as a carbon source. To synthesize activated carbon, KOH as an activator was employed with variation of C:KOH in ratio of 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, and 1:5, respectively, with an activation temperature of 700°C. The characterizations of activated carbon are obtained from Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-Ray, Raman Spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller. The optimal activated carbon sample with specific surface area of 2,024 m²/g with high carbon content ( > 80%) supported by the high porosity carbon image obtained by SEM was prepared at C:KOH ratio of 1:4. The result shows that the synthesized activated carbon would be an ideal choice for energy storage device applications. Therefore, this study is expected to reduce the costs of activated carbon production by expanding the utilization of petroleum waste.

Keywords: activated carbon, energy storage material, green coke, specific surface area

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2365 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor, carbon

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2364 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, hydrate, sequestration, surfactant

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2363 Statistically Significant Differences of Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide Emission in Photocopying Process

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Oros B. Ivana

Abstract:

Experimental results confirmed the temporal variation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide concentration during the working shift of the photocopying process in a small photocopying shop in Novi Sad, Serbia. The statistically significant differences of target gases were examined with two-way analysis of variance without replication followed by Scheffe's post hoc test. The existence of statistically significant differences was obtained for carbon monoxide emission which is pointed out with F-values (12.37 and 31.88) greater than Fcrit (6.94) in contrary to carbon dioxide emission (F-values of 1.23 and 3.12 were less than Fcrit).  Scheffe's post hoc test indicated that sampling point A (near the photocopier machine) and second time interval contribute the most on carbon monoxide emission.

Keywords: analysis of variance, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, photocopying indoor, Scheffe's test

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2362 A Brief Exploration on the Green Urban Design for Carbon Neutrality

Authors: Gaoyuan Wang, Tian Chen

Abstract:

China’s emission peak and carbon neutrality strategies lead to the transformation of development patterns and call for new green urban design thinking. This paper begins by revealing the evolution of green urban design thinking during the periods of carbon enlightenment, carbon dependency, and carbon decoupling from the perspective of the energy transition. Combined with the current energy situation, national strengths, and technological trends, the emergence of green urban design towards carbon neutrality becomes inevitable. Based on the preliminary analysis of its connotation, the characteristics of the new type of green urban design are generalized as low-carbon orientation, carbon-related objects, carbon-reduction means, and carbon-control patterns. Its theory is briefly clarified in terms of the human-earth synergism, quality-energy interconnection, and form-flow interpromotion. Then, its mechanism is analyzed combined with the core tasks of carbon neutrality, and the scope of design issues is defined, including carbon flow mapping, carbon source regulation, carbon sink construction, and carbon emission management. Finally, a multi-scale spatial response system is proposed across the region, city, cluster, and neighborhood level. The discussion aims to provide support for the innovation of green urban design theories and methods in the context of peak neutrality.

Keywords: carbon neutrality, green urban design, energy transition, theoretical exploration

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2361 Acidity and Aridity: Soil Carbon Storage and Myeloablation

Authors: Tom Spears, Zotique Laframboise

Abstract:

Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 arid soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the Nepean Desert, Canada, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. We investigated the possible implications for tectonic platelet activity but identified none.

Keywords: soil, carbon storage, acidity, soil inorganic carbon (SIC)

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2360 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, soil inorganic carbon, carbon sequestration, open burning, sugarcane

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2359 Experimental Study on Hardness and Impact Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM: D6110 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels and injection pressure in 2 levels on the hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the impact strength and hardness of the samples improved to 74% and 46.7% respectively. Also, according to the results, the effect of injection pressure on the results was much less than that of carbon nanotube weight percentage.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, mechanical properties, nanocomposite, polyethylene

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2358 Influence of Shear Deformation on Carbon Onions Stability under High Pressure

Authors: D. P. Evdokimov, A. N. Kirichenko, V. D. Blank, V. N. Denisov, B. A. Kulnitskiy

Abstract:

In this study we investigated the stability of polyhedral carbon onions under influence of shear deformation and high pressures above 43 GPa by means of by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). It was found that at pressures up to 29 GPa and shear deformations of 40 degrees the onions are stable. At shear deformation applying at pressures above 30 GPa carbon onions collapsed with formation of amorphous carbon. At pressures above 43 GPa diamond-like carbon (DLC) was obtained.

Keywords: carbon onions, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron spectroscopy

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2357 The Development Practice and SystemConstruction of Low- Carbon City in China

Authors: Xu Xiao China, Xu Lei China

Abstract:

After the 1990s, the concept of urban sustainable development has been increasing attention in urban planning and urban design. High carbon city, not a sustainable city construction model, has become an important problem which restricts the sustainable development of the city. Therefore, low-carbon city construction is the urgent need to solve the problem, and China is one of the core areas of low-carbon city construction in the world. The research work of low-carbon cities were participated by the Chinese government and academic institutes on theory and practice since 2007, and nowadays it comes to a practice stage with six low-carbon pilot provinces and 36 low-carbon pilot cities identified. To achieve the low-carbon target, developing low-carbon energy, adopting non-pollution technique, constructing green buildings and adopting ecolife-style are suggest by the government. Meanwhile, besides a new standard system and a new eco-environmental status evaluation method, the government also established the Chinese urban development institute including the Low-Carbon City Group. Finally, we want to transform the modern industrial civilization into an ecological civilization and realize sustainable urban development.

Keywords: low-carbon city, China, development practice, system construction, urban sustainability

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2356 Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field

Authors: M. Kalbac, T. Verhagen, K. Drogowska, J. Vejpravova

Abstract:

One- and two-dimensional carbon nano structures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nano tubes and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic structure. In this paper, we present a comparative study of graphene and single-wall carbon nano tubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nano structures induced by a strong magnetic field.

Keywords: carbon nano structures, magnetic field, raman spectroscopy, spectro-microscopy

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2355 Adsorption of Chromium Ions from Aqueous Solution by Carbon Adsorbent

Authors: S. Heydari, H. Sharififard, M. Nabavinia, H. Kiani, M. Parvizi

Abstract:

Rapid industrialization has led to increased disposal of heavy metals into the environment. Activated carbon adsorption has proven to be an effective process for the removal of trace metal contaminants from aqueous media. This paper was investigated chromium adsorption efficiency by commercial activated carbon. The sorption studied as a function of activated carbon particle size, dose of activated carbon and initial pH of solution. Adsorption tests for the effects of these factors were designed with Taguchi approach. According to the Taguchi parameter design methodology, L9 orthogonal array was used. Analysis of experimental results showed that the most influential factor was initial pH of solution. The optimum conditions for chromium adsorption by activated carbons were found to be as follows: Initial feed pH 6, adsorbent particle size 0.412 mm and activated carbon dose 6 g/l. Under these conditions, nearly %100 of chromium ions was adsorbed by activated carbon after 2 hours.

Keywords: chromium, adsorption, Taguchi method, activated carbon

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2354 Viable Use of Natural Extract Solutions from Tuberous and Cereals to Enhance the Synthesis of Activated Carbon-Graphene Composite

Authors: Pamphile Ndagijimana, Xuejiao Liu, Zhiwei Li, Yin Wang

Abstract:

Enhancing the properties of activated carbon is very imperative for various applications. Indeed, the activated carbon has promising physicochemical properties desired for a considerable number of applications. In this regard, we are proposing an enhanced and green technology for increasing the efficiency and performance of the activated carbon to various applications. The technique poses on the use of natural extracts from tuberous and cereals based-solutions. These solutions showed high potentiality to be used in the synthesis of activated carbon-graphene composite with only 3 mL. The extracted liquid from tuberous sourcing was enough to induce precipitation within a fraction of a minute in contrast to that from cereal sourced. Using these extracts, a synthesis of activated carbon-graphene composite was successful. Different characterization techniques such as XRD, SEM, FTIR, BET, and Raman spectroscopy were performed to investigate the composite materials. The results confirmed a conjugation between activated carbon and graphene material.

Keywords: activated carbon, cereals, extract solution, graphene, tuberous

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2353 Characterization of Carbon Dioxide-Rich Flue Gas Sources for Conversion to Chemicals and Fuels

Authors: Adesola Orimoloye, Edward Gobina

Abstract:

Flue gas is the most prevalent source of carbon dioxide off-gas from numerous processes globally. Among the lion's share of this flue gas is the ever - present electric power plant, primarily fuelled by coal, and then secondly, natural gas. The carbon dioxide found in coal fired power plant off gas is among the dirtiest forms of carbon dioxide, even with many of the improvements in the plants; still this will yield sulphur and nitrogen compounds; among other rather nasty compounds and elements; all let to the atmosphere. This presentation will focus on the characterization of carbon dioxide-rich flue gas sources with a view of eventual conversion to chemicals and fuels using novel membrane reactors.

Keywords: Flue gas, carbon dioxide, membrane, catalyst, syngas

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2352 Electromagnetic Radiation Absorbers on the Basis of Fibrous Materials with the Content of Allotropic Carbon Forms

Authors: Elena S. Belousova, Olga V. Boiprav

Abstract:

A technique for incorporating particles of allotropic forms of carbon into a fibrous material has been developed. It can be used for the manufacture of composite electromagnetic radiation absorbers. The frequency characteristics of electromagnetic radiation reflection and transmission coefficients in the microwave range of absorbers on the basis of powdered carbon black, activated carbon, shungite, graphite, manufactured in accordance with the developed technique, have been studied.

Keywords: carbon, graphite, electromagnetic radiation absorber, shungite

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2351 Experimental Study on Tensile Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Injected Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM:D638 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels on the tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongation of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving tensile strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the tensile strength 23.4%,elastic modulus 60.4%and elongation 29.7% of the samples improved. Also, according to the results, Manera approximation model at percentages about 0.5% weight and modified Halpin-Tsai at percentages about 1% weight lead to favorite and reliable results.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, Mechanical properties, Nanocomposite, polyethylene

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2350 Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production on TiO2 by Using Carbon Materials

Authors: Bashir Ahmmad, Kensaku Kanomata, Fumihiko Hirose

Abstract:

The effect of carbon materials on TiO2 for the photocatalytic hydrogen gas production from water/alcohol mixtures was investigated. Single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), carbon nanofiber (CNF), fullerene (FLN), graphite (GP), and graphite silica (GS) were used as co-catalysts by directly mixing with TiO2. Drastic synergy effects were found with increase in the amount of hydrogen gas by a factor of ca. 150 and 100 for SWNTs and GS with TiO2, repectively. The order of H2 gas production for these carbon materials was SWNTs > GS >> MWNTs > FLN > CNF > GP. To maximize the hydrogen production from SWNTs/TiO2, various parameters of experimental conditions were changed. Also, a comparison between Pt/TiO2, WNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 was made for the amount of H2 gas production. Finally, the recyclability of SWNTs/TiO2 and GS/TiO2 were tested.

Keywords: photocatalysis, carbon materials, alcohol reforming, hydrogen production, titanium oxide

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2349 Influence of Preparation, Characterisation and Application of Carbon Nano Tube

Authors: Dhaivat S. Soni, Snehal Thakor, Afroz Bhatti

Abstract:

The prepare CNTs in bulk quantity by as easiest as possible method with highly pure and small diameter. Prepared CNTs first charactered its structural parameter for the conformation of CNTs and purity. Surface morphology of CNTs stured by using various instruments finally study application of prepared CNTs in various field. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized in large scale by pyrolyzing activated carbon in sealed autoclaves.

Keywords: nanostructures, nanotubes, carbon, pyrolysis

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2348 Carbon Stock of the Moist Afromontane Forest in Gesha and Sayilem Districts in Kaffa Zone: An Implication for Climate Change Mitigation

Authors: Admassu Addi, Sebesebe Demissew, Teshome Soromessa, Zemede Asfaw

Abstract:

This study measures the carbon stock of the Moist Afromontane Gesha-Sayilem forest found in Gesha and Sayilem District in southwest Ethiopia. A stratified sampling method was used to identify the number of sampling point through the Global Positioning System. A total of 90 plots having nested plots to collect tree species and soil data were demarcated. The results revealed that the total carbon stock of the forest was 362.4 t/ha whereas the above ground carbon stock was 174.95t/ha, below ground litter, herbs, soil, and dead woods were 34.3,1.27, 0.68, 128 and 23.2 t/ha (up to 30 cm depth) respectively. The Gesha- Sayilem Forest is a reservoir of high carbon and thus acts as a great sink of the atmospheric carbon. Thus conservation of the forest through introduction REDD+ activities is considered an appropriate action for mitigating climate change.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, carbon stock, climate change, allometric, Ethiopia

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