Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2449

Search results for: carbon sequestration

2449 Investigation of the Catalytic Role of Surfactants on Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Formation in Sediments

Authors: Ehsan Heidaryan

Abstract:

Gas hydrate sediments are ice like permafrost in deep see and oceans. Methane production in sequestration process and reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide, a main source of greenhouse gas, has been accentuated recently. One focus is capture, separation, and sequestration of industrial carbon dioxide. As a hydrate former, carbon dioxide forms hydrates at moderate temperatures and pressures. This phenomenon could be utilized to capture and separate carbon dioxide from flue gases, and also has the potential to sequester carbon dioxide in the deep seabeds. This research investigated the effect of synthetic surfactants on carbon dioxide hydrate formation, catalysis and consequently, methane production from hydrate permafrosts in sediments. It investigated the sequestration potential of carbon dioxide hydrates in ocean sediments. Also, the catalytic effect of biosurfactants in these processes was investigated.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, hydrate, sequestration, surfactant

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2448 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, soil inorganic carbon, carbon sequestration, open burning, sugarcane

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2447 Estimation of Carbon Sequestration and Air Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Kanwal Javid, Shazia Pervaiz, Maria Mumtaz, Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram

Abstract:

Forests and grasslands ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Land management activities influence both ecosystems and enable them to absorb and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). Similarly, in Pakistan, these terrestrial ecosystems are well known to mitigate carbon emissions and have a great source to supply a variety of services such as clean air and water, biodiversity, wood products, wildlife habitat, food, recreation and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration is the main agenda of developed and developing nations to reduce the impacts of global warming. But the amount of carbon storage within these ecosystems can be affected by many factors related to air quality such as land management, land-use change, deforestation, over grazing and natural calamities. Moreover, the long-term capacity of forests and grasslands to absorb and sequester CO2 depends on their health, productivity, resilience and ability to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, the main rationale of this study is to monitor the difference in carbon amount of forests and grasslands of Northern Pakistan using MODIS data sets and map results using Geographic Information System. Results of the study conclude that forests ecosystems are more effective in reducing the CO2 level and play a key role in improving the quality of air.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, grasslands, global warming, climate change.

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2446 CO2 Sequestration for Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery: A New Approach

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

The global warming due to the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration is the most prominent issue of environment that the world is facing today. To solve this problem at global level, sequestration of CO2 in deep and unmineable coal seams has come out as one of the attractive alternatives to reduce concentration in atmosphere. This sequestration technology is not only going to help in storage of CO2 beneath the sub-surface but is also playing a major role in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery (ECBM) by displacing the adsorbed methane. This paper provides the answers for the need of CO2 injection in coal seams and how recovery is enhanced. We have discussed the recent development in enhancing the coal bed methane recovery and the economic scenario of the same. The effect of injection on the coal reservoir has also been discussed. Coal is a good absorber of CO2. That is why the sequestration of CO2 is emerged out to be a great approach, not only for storage purpose but also for enhancing coal bed methane recovery.

Keywords: global warming, carbon dioxide (CO2), CO2 sequestration, enhance coal bed methane (ECBM)

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2445 Exploring Tree Growth Variables Influencing Carbon Sequestration in the Face of Climate Change

Authors: Funmilayo Sarah Eguakun, Peter Oluremi Adesoye

Abstract:

One of the major problems being faced by human society is that the global temperature is believed to be rising due to human activity that releases carbon IV oxide (CO2) to the atmosphere. Carbon IV oxide is the most important greenhouse gas influencing global warming and possible climate change. With climate change becoming alarming, reducing CO2 in our atmosphere has become a primary goal of international efforts. Forest landsare major sink and could absorb large quantities of carbon if the trees are judiciously managed. The study aims at estimating the carbon sequestration capacity of Pinus caribaea (pine)and Tectona grandis (Teak) under the prevailing environmental conditions and exploring tree growth variables that influencesthe carbon sequestration capacity in Omo Forest Reserve, Ogun State, Nigeria. Improving forest management by manipulating growth characteristics that influences carbon sequestration could be an adaptive strategy of forestry to climate change. Random sampling was used to select Temporary Sample Plots (TSPs) in the study area from where complete enumeration of growth variables was carried out within the plots. The data collected were subjected to descriptive and correlational analyses. The results showed that average carbon stored by Pine and Teak are 994.4±188.3 Kg and 1350.7±180.6 Kg respectively. The difference in carbon stored in the species is significant enough to consider choice of species relevant in climate change adaptation strategy. Tree growth variables influence the capacity of the tree to sequester carbon. Height, diameter, volume, wood density and age are positively correlated to carbon sequestration. These tree growth variables could be manipulated by the forest manager as an adaptive strategy for climate change while plantations of high wood density speciescould be relevant for management strategy to increase carbon storage.

Keywords: adaptation, carbon sequestration, climate change, growth variables, wood density

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2444 Role of Sequestration of CO2 Due to the Carbonation in Total CO2 Emission Balance in Concrete Life

Authors: P. P. Woyciechowski

Abstract:

Calculation of the carbon footprint of cement concrete is a complex process including consideration of the phase of primary life (components and concrete production processes, transportation, construction works, maintenance of concrete structures) and secondary life, including demolition and recycling. Taking into consideration the effect of concrete carbonation can lead to a reduction in the calculated carbon footprint of concrete. In this paper, an example of CO2 balance for small bridge elements made of Portland cement reinforced concrete was done. The results include the effect of carbonation of concrete in a structure and of concrete rubble after demolition. It was shown that important impact of carbonation on the balance is possible only when rubble carbonation is possible. It was related to the fact that only the sequestration potential in the secondary phase of concrete life has significant value.

Keywords: carbon footprint, balance of carbon dioxide in nature, concrete carbonation, the sequestration potential of concrete

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2443 Carbon Sequestration under Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in the Vicinity of Black Sea, Trabzon, Turkey

Authors: Mohammed Abaoli Abafogi, Sinem Satiroglu, M. Misir

Abstract:

The current study has addressed the effect of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry on carbon sequestration. Eight sample plots were collected from Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry using random sampling method. The diameter of all trees in each plot with ≥ 2cm at 1.3m DBH was measured by using a calliper. Average diameter, aboveground biomass, and carbon stock were calculated for each plot. Comparative data for natural forestland was used for C was taken from KTU, and the soil C was converted from the biomass conversion equation. Biomass carbon was significantly higher in the Natural forest (68.02Mgha⁻¹) than in the Hazelnut agroforestry (16.89Mgha⁻¹). SOC in Hazelnut agroforestry, Natural forest, and arable agricultural land were 7.70, 385.85, and 0.00 Mgha⁻¹ respectively. Biomass C, on average accounts for only 0.00% of the total C in arable agriculture, and 11.02% for the Hazelnut agroforestry while 88.05% for Natural forest. The result shows that the conversion of arable crop field to Hazelnut agroforestry can sequester a large amount of C in the soil as well as in the biomass than Arable agricultural lands.

Keywords: arable agriculture, biomass carbon, carbon sequestration, hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry, soil organic carbon

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2442 Carbon Di Oxide Sequestration by Freshwater Microalgae Isolated from River Noyyal, India and Its Biomass for Biofuel Production

Authors: K. R. Mohanapriya, D. Geetharamani

Abstract:

In last few decades, global atmospheric concentrations of green house gases have been frequently increased because of carbon di oxide (CO2) emission from combustion of fossil fuels. This green house gas emission leads to global warming. In order to reduce green house gas emission, cultivation of microalgae has received attention due to their feasibility of CO2 sequestration. Microalgae can grow and multiply in short period because of their photosynthetic simple unicellular structures and can grow using water unsuitable for human consumption with nutrients that are available at low cost. In the present study, freshwater microalgae were isolated from Noyyal river in Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The isolated strains were screened for CO2 sequestration potential. The efficient isolate namely Klebsormidium sp was subjected to further study. Quantitative determination of CO2 sequestration potential of the isolate under study has been done. The biomass of the isolate thus obtained was subjected to triglyceride and fatty acid analysis to study the potential application of the isolate for biodiesel production.

Keywords: CO2 sequestration, freshwater microalgae, Klebsormidium sp, biodiesel

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2441 Bringing the World to Net Zero Carbon Dioxide by Sequestering Biomass Carbon

Authors: Jeffrey A. Amelse

Abstract:

Many corporations aspire to become Net Zero Carbon Carbon Dioxide by 2035-2050. This paper examines what it will take to achieve those goals. Achieving Net Zero CO₂ requires an understanding of where energy is produced and consumed, the magnitude of CO₂ generation, and proper understanding of the Carbon Cycle. The latter leads to the distinction between CO₂ and biomass carbon sequestration. Short reviews are provided for prior technologies proposed for reducing CO₂ emissions from fossil fuels or substitution by renewable energy, to focus on their limitations and to show that none offer a complete solution. Of these, CO₂ sequestration is poised to have the largest impact. It will just cost money, scale-up is a huge challenge, and it will not be a complete solution. CO₂ sequestration is still in the demonstration and semi-commercial scale. Transportation accounts for only about 30% of total U.S. energy demand, and renewables account for only a small fraction of that sector. Yet, bioethanol production consumes 40% of U.S. corn crop, and biodiesel consumes 30% of U.S. soybeans. It is unrealistic to believe that biofuels can completely displace fossil fuels in the transportation market. Bioethanol is traced through its Carbon Cycle and shown to be both energy inefficient and inefficient use of biomass carbon. Both biofuels and CO₂ sequestration reduce future CO₂ emissions from continued use of fossil fuels. They will not remove CO₂ already in the atmosphere. Planting more trees has been proposed as a way to reduce atmospheric CO₂. Trees are a temporary solution. When they complete their Carbon Cycle, they die and release their carbon as CO₂ to the atmosphere. Thus, planting more trees is just 'kicking the can down the road.' The only way to permanently remove CO₂ already in the atmosphere is to break the Carbon Cycle by growing biomass from atmospheric CO₂ and sequestering biomass carbon. Sequestering tree leaves is proposed as a solution. Unlike wood, leaves have a short Carbon Cycle time constant. They renew and decompose every year. Allometric equations from the USDA indicate that theoretically, sequestrating only a fraction of the world’s tree leaves can get the world to Net Zero CO₂ without disturbing the underlying forests. How can tree leaves be permanently sequestered? It may be as simple as rethinking how landfills are designed to discourage instead of encouraging decomposition. In traditional landfills, municipal waste undergoes rapid initial aerobic decomposition to CO₂, followed by slow anaerobic decomposition to methane and CO₂. The latter can take hundreds to thousands of years. The first step in anaerobic decomposition is hydrolysis of cellulose to release sugars, which those who have worked on cellulosic ethanol know is challenging for a number of reasons. The key to permanent leaf sequestration may be keeping the landfills dry and exploiting known inhibitors for anaerobic bacteria.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, net zero, sequestration, biomass, leaves

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2440 Carbon Sequestration in Spatio-Temporal Vegetation Dynamics

Authors: Nothando Gwazani, K. R. Marembo

Abstract:

An increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO₂) from fossil fuel and land use change necessitates identification of strategies for mitigating threats associated with global warming. Oceans are insufficient to offset the accelerating rate of carbon emission. However, the challenges of oceans as a source of reducing carbon footprint can be effectively overcome by the storage of carbon in terrestrial carbon sinks. The gases with special optical properties that are responsible for climate warming include carbon dioxide (CO₂), water vapors, methane (CH₄), nitrous oxide (N₂O), nitrogen oxides (NOₓ), stratospheric ozone (O₃), carbon monoxide (CO) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s). Amongst these, CO₂ plays a crucial role as it contributes to 50% of the total greenhouse effect and has been linked to climate change. Because plants act as carbon sinks, interest in terrestrial carbon sequestration has increased in an effort to explore opportunities for climate change mitigation. Removal of carbon from the atmosphere is a topical issue that addresses one important aspect of an overall strategy for carbon management namely to help mitigate the increasing emissions of CO₂. Thus, terrestrial ecosystems have gained importance for their potential to sequester carbon and reduce carbon sink in oceans, which have a substantial impact on the ocean species. Field data and electromagnetic spectrum bands were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.2, QGIS 2.8 and ERDAS IMAGINE 2015 to examine the vegetation distribution. Satellite remote sensing data coupled with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was employed to assess future potential changes in vegetation distributions in Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The observed 5-year interval analysis examines the amount of carbon absorbed using vegetation distribution. In 2015, the numerical results showed low vegetation distribution, therefore increased the acidity of the oceans and gravely affected fish species and corals. The outcomes suggest that the study area could be effectively utilized for carbon sequestration so as to mitigate ocean acidification. The vegetation changes measured through this investigation suggest an environmental shift and reduced vegetation carbon sink, and that threatens biodiversity and ecosystem. In order to sustain the amount of carbon in the terrestrial ecosystems, the identified ecological factors should be enhanced through the application of good land and forest management practices. This will increase the carbon stock of terrestrial ecosystems thereby reducing direct loss to the atmosphere.

Keywords: remote sensing, vegetation dynamics, carbon sequestration, terrestrial carbon sink

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2439 Carbon Sequestration and Carbon Stock Potential of Major Forest Types in the Foot Hills of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, India

Authors: B. Palanikumaran, N. Kanagaraj, M. Sangareswari, V. Sailaja, Kapil Sihag

Abstract:

The present study aimed to estimate the carbon sequestration potential of major forest types present in the foothills of Nilgiri biosphere reserve. The total biomass carbon stock was estimated in tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest and tropical moist deciduous forest as 14.61 t C ha⁻¹ 75.16 t C ha⁻¹ and 187.52 t C ha⁻¹ respectively. The density and basal area were estimated in tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest, tropical moist deciduous forest as 173 stems ha⁻¹, 349 stems ha⁻¹, 391 stems ha⁻¹ and 6.21 m² ha⁻¹, 31.09 m² ha⁻¹, 67.34 m² ha⁻¹ respectively. The soil carbon stock of different forest ecosystems was estimated, and the results revealed that tropical moist deciduous forest (71.74 t C ha⁻¹) accounted for more soil carbon stock when compared to tropical dry deciduous forest (31.80 t C ha⁻¹) and tropical thorn forest (3.99 t C ha⁻¹). The tropical moist deciduous forest has the maximum annual leaf litter which was 12.77 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ followed by 6.44 t ha⁻¹ year⁻¹ litter fall of tropical dry deciduous forest. The tropical thorn forest accounted for 3.42 t ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ leaf litter production. The leaf litter carbon stock of tropical thorn forest, tropical dry deciduous forest and tropical moist deciduous forest found to be 1.02 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ 2.28 t⁻¹ C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ and 5.42 t C ha⁻¹ yr⁻¹ respectively. The results explained that decomposition percent at the soil surface in the following order.tropical dry deciduous forest (77.66 percent) > tropical thorn forest (69.49 percent) > tropical moist deciduous forest (63.17 percent). Decomposition percent at soil subsurface was studied, and the highest decomposition percent was observed in tropical dry deciduous forest (80.52 percent) followed by tropical moist deciduous forest (77.65 percent) and tropical thorn forest (72.10 percent). The decomposition percent was higher at soil subsurface. Among the three forest type, tropical moist deciduous forest accounted for the highest bacterial (59.67 x 105cfu’s g⁻¹ soil), actinomycetes (74.87 x 104cfu’s g⁻¹ soil) and fungal (112.60 x10³cfu’s g⁻¹ soil) population. The overall observation of the study helps to conclude that, the tropical moist deciduous forest has the potential of storing higher carbon content as biomass with the value of 264.68 t C ha⁻¹ and microbial populations.

Keywords: basal area, carbon sequestration, carbon stock, Nilgiri biosphere reserve

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2438 Carbon Stock Estimation of Urban Forests in Selected Public Parks in Addis Ababa

Authors: Meseret Habtamu, Mekuria Argaw

Abstract:

Urban forests can help to improve the microclimate and air quality. Urban forests in Addis Ababa are important sinks for GHGs as the number of vehicles and the traffic constrain is steadily increasing. The objective of this study was to characterize the vegetation types in selected public parks and to estimate the carbon stock potential of urban forests by assessing carbon in the above, below ground biomass, in the litter and soil. Species which vegetation samples were taken using a systematic transect sampling within value DBH ≥ 5cm were recorded to measure the above, the below ground biomass and the amount of C stored. Allometric models (Y= 34.4703 - 8.0671(DBH) + 0.6589(DBH2) were used to calculate the above ground and Below ground biomass (BGB) = AGB × 0.2 and sampling of soil and litter was based on quadrates. There were 5038 trees recorded from the selected study sites with DBH ≥ 5cm. Most of the Parks had large number of indigenous species, but the numbers of exotic trees are much larger than the indigenous trees. The mean above ground and below ground biomass is 305.7 ± 168.3 and 61.1± 33.7 respectively and the mean carbon in the above ground and below ground biomass is 143.3±74.2 and 28.1 ± 14.4 respectively. The mean CO2 in the above ground and below ground biomass is 525.9 ± 272.2 and 103.1 ± 52.9 respectively. The mean carbon in dead litter and soil carbon were 10.5 ± 2.4 and 69.2t ha-1 respectively. Urban trees reduce atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) through sequestration which is important for climate change mitigation, they are also important for recreational, medicinal value and aesthetic and biodiversity conservation.

Keywords: biodiversity, carbon sequestration, climate change, urban forests

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2437 Carbon Stock of the Moist Afromontane Forest in Gesha and Sayilem Districts in Kaffa Zone: An Implication for Climate Change Mitigation

Authors: Admassu Addi, Sebesebe Demissew, Teshome Soromessa, Zemede Asfaw

Abstract:

This study measures the carbon stock of the Moist Afromontane Gesha-Sayilem forest found in Gesha and Sayilem District in southwest Ethiopia. A stratified sampling method was used to identify the number of sampling point through the Global Positioning System. A total of 90 plots having nested plots to collect tree species and soil data were demarcated. The results revealed that the total carbon stock of the forest was 362.4 t/ha whereas the above ground carbon stock was 174.95t/ha, below ground litter, herbs, soil, and dead woods were 34.3,1.27, 0.68, 128 and 23.2 t/ha (up to 30 cm depth) respectively. The Gesha- Sayilem Forest is a reservoir of high carbon and thus acts as a great sink of the atmospheric carbon. Thus conservation of the forest through introduction REDD+ activities is considered an appropriate action for mitigating climate change.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, carbon stock, climate change, allometric, Ethiopia

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2436 Carbon Sequestration Modeling in the Implementation of REDD+ Programmes in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwafemi Samuel Oyamakin

Abstract:

The forest in Nigeria is currently estimated to extend to around 9.6 million hectares, but used to expand over central and southern Nigeria decades ago. The forest estate is shrinking due to long-term human exploitation for agricultural development, fuel wood demand, uncontrolled forest harvesting and urbanization, amongst other factors, compounded by population growth in rural areas. Nigeria has lost more than 50% of its forest cover since 1990 and currently less than 10% of the country is forested. The current deforestation rate is estimated at 3.7%, which is one of the highest in the world. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation plus conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks constituted what is referred to as REDD+. This study evaluated some of the existing way of computing carbon stocks using eight indigenous tree species like Mansonia, Shorea, Bombax, Terminalia superba, Khaya grandifolia, Khaya senegalenses, Pines and Gmelina arborea. While these components are the essential elements of REDD+ programme, they can be brought under a broader framework of systems analysis designed to arrive at optimal solutions for future predictions through statistical distribution pattern of carbon sequestrated by various species of tree. Available data on height and diameter of trees in Ibadan were studied and their respective potentials of carbon sequestration level were assessed and subjected to tests so as to determine the best statistical distribution that would describe the carbon sequestration pattern of trees. The result of this study suggests a reasonable statistical distribution for carbons sequestered in simulation studies and hence, allow planners and government in determining resources forecast for sustainable development especially where experiments with real-life systems are infeasible. Sustainable management of forest can then be achieved by projecting future condition of forests under different management regimes thereby supporting conservation and REDD+ programmes in Nigeria.

Keywords: REDD+, carbon, climate change, height and diameter

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2435 Indoor and Outdoor Forest Farming for Year-Round Food and Medicine Production, Carbon Sequestration, Soil-Building, and Climate Change Mitigation

Authors: Jerome Osentowski

Abstract:

The objective at Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute has been to put in practice a sustainable way of life while growing food, medicine, and providing education. This has been done by applying methods of farming such as agroforestry, forest farming, and perennial polycultures. These methods have been found to be regenerative to the environment through carbon sequestration, soil-building, climate change mitigation, and the provision of food security. After 30 years of implementing carbon farming methods, the results are agro-diversity, self-sustaining systems, and a consistent provision of food and medicine. These results are exhibited through polyculture plantings in an outdoor forest garden spanning roughly an acre containing about 200 varieties of fruits, nuts, nitrogen-fixing trees, and medicinal herbs, and two indoor forest garden greenhouses (one Mediterranean and one Tropical) containing about 50 varieties of tropical fruits, beans, herbaceous plants and more. While the climate zone outside the greenhouse is 6, the tropical forest garden greenhouse retains an indoor climate zone of 11 with near-net-zero energy consumption through the use of a climate battery, allowing the greenhouse to serve as a year-round food producer. The effort to source food from the forest gardens is minimal compared to annual crop production. The findings at Central Rocky Mountain Permaculture Institute conclude that agroecological methods are not only beneficial but necessary in order to revive and regenerate the environment and food security.

Keywords: agroecology, agroforestry, carbon farming, carbon sequestration, climate battery, food security, forest farming, forest garden, greenhouse, near-net-zero, perennial polycultures

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2434 Production of Natural Gas Hydrate by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Yun-Ho Ahn, Hyery Kang, Dong-Yeun Koh, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

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2433 Nondestructive Natural Gas Hydrate Production by Using Air and Carbon Dioxide

Authors: Ahn Yun-Ho, Hyery Kang, Koh Dong-Yeun, Huen Lee

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate the production of natural gas hydrates from permeable marine sediments with simultaneous mechanisms for methane recovery and methane-air or methane-air/carbon dioxide replacement. The simultaneous melting happens until the chemical potentials become equal in both phases as natural gas hydrate depletion continues and self-regulated methane-air replacement occurs over an arbitrary point. We observed certain point between dissociation and replacement mechanisms in the natural gas hydrate reservoir, and we call this boundary as critical methane concentration. By the way, when carbon dioxide was added, the process of chemical exchange of methane by air/carbon dioxide was observed in the natural gas hydrate. The suggested process will operate well for most global natural gas hydrate reservoirs, regardless of the operating conditions or geometrical constraints.

Keywords: air injection, carbon dioxide sequestration, hydrate production, natural gas hydrate

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2432 Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System

Authors: Taekyoon Park, Seokgoo Lee, Sungho Kim, Ung Lee, Jong Min Lee, Chonghun Han

Abstract:

CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.

Keywords: CCS, caron dioxide, carbon capture and storage, simulation, optimization

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2431 Potential Contribution of Combined High-Resolution and Fluorescence Remote Sensing to Coastal Ecosystem Service Assessments

Authors: Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An

Abstract:

Although most studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services, there is still a knowledge gap on coastal ecosystem services and an urgent need to assess them. Lau (2013) clearly defined five types of costal ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, shoreline protection, fish nursery, biodiversity, and water quality. While high-resolution remote sensing can provide the more direct, spatially estimates of biophysical parameters, such as species distribution relating to biodiversity service, and Fluorescence information derived from remote sensing direct relate to photosynthesis, availing in estimation of carbon sequestration and the response to environmental changes in coastal wetland. Here, we review the capabilities of high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing for describing biodiversity, vegetation condition, ecological processes and highlight how these prodicts may contribute to costal ecosystem service assessment. In so doing, we anticipate rapid progress to combine the high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing to estimate the spatial pattern of costal ecosystem services.

Keywords: ecosystem services, high resolution, remote sensing, chlorophyll fluorescence

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2430 Carbon Capture and Storage: Prospects in India

Authors: Abhinav Sirvaiya, Karan Gupta, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

The demand of energy is increasing at every part of the world. Thus, use of fossil fuel is efficient which results in large liberation of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. Tons of this CO2 raises the risk of dangerous climate changes. To minimize the risk carbon capture and storage (CCS) has to be used so that the emitted carbon dioxide do not reach the atmosphere. CCS is being considered as one of the options that could have a major role to play in India.With the growing awareness towards the global warming, carbon capture and sequestration has a great importance. New technologies and theories are in use to capture CO2. This paper contains the methodology and technologies that is in use to capture carbon dioxide in India. The present scenario of CCS is also being discussed. CCS is playing a major role in enhancing recovery of oil (ERO). Both the purpose 1) minimizing percentage of carbon dioxide in atmosphere and 2) enhancing recovery of oil are fulfilled from the CCS. The CO2 is usually captured from coal based power plant and from some industrial sources and then stored in the geological formations like oil and gas reservoir and deep aquifers or in oceans. India has large reservoirs of coal which are being used for storing CO2, as coal is a good absorbent of CO2. New technologies and studies are going on for injection purposes. Government has initiated new plans for CCS as CCS is technically feasible and economically attractive. A discussion is done on new schemes that should bring up CCS plans and approaches. Stakeholders are welcomed for suitability of CCS. There is still a need to potentially capture the CO2 and avail its storage in developing country like India.

Keywords: Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), carbon dioxide (CO2), enhance oil recovery, geological formations, stakeholders

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2429 Carbon Dioxide Capture, Utilization, and Storage: Sequestration

Authors: Ankur Sachan

Abstract:

Carbon dioxide being the most anthropogenic greenhouse gas,it needs to be isolated from entering into atmosphere. Carbon capture and storage is process that captures CO2 emitted from various sources, separates it from other gases and stores it in a safe place preferably in underground geological formations for large period of time. It is then purified and monitored so that can be made to reuse. Monoethanolamine, zeolitic imidazolate framework, microalgae, membranes etc are utilized to capture CO2. Post-combustion, pre-combustion and oxyfuel combustion along with chemical looping combustion are technologies for scrubbing CO2. The properties of CO2 being easily miscible and readily dissolving in oil with impurities makes it capable for numerous applications such as in producing oil by enhanced oil recovery (EOR), Bio CCS Algal Synthesis etc. CO2-EOR operation is capable to produce million barrels of oil and extend the field's lifetime as in case of Weyburn Oil Field in Canada. The physical storage of CO2 is technically the most feasible direction provided that the associated safety and sustainability issues can be met and new materials for CCUS process at low cost are urgently found so that so that fossil based systems with carbon capture are cost competitive.

Keywords: carbon capture, CCUS, sustainability, oil

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2428 Potential of Pyrolytic Tire Char Use in Agriculture

Authors: M. L. Moyo

Abstract:

Concerns about climate change, food productivity, and the ever-increasing cost of commercial fertilizer products is forcing have spurred interest in the production of alternatives or substitutes for commercial fertilizer products. In this study, the potential of pyrolytic tire char (PT-char) to improve soil productivity was investigated. The use of carbonized biomass, which is commonly termed biochar or biofertilizer and exhibits similar properties to PT-char in agriculture is not new, with historical evidence pointing to the use of charcoal for soil improvement by indigenous Amazon people for several centuries. Due to minimal market value or use of PT-char, huge quantities are currently stockpiled in South Africa. This successively reduces revenue and decreases investments in waste tire recycling efforts as PT-char constitutes 40 % weight of the total waste tire pyrolysis products. The physicochemical analysis results reported in this study showed that PT-char contains a low concentration of essential plant elements (P and K) and, therefore, cannot be used for increasing nutrient availability in soils. A low presence of heavy metals (Ni, Pb, and Cd), which may be harmful to the environment at high application rates was also observed. In addition, the results revealed that PT-char contains very high levels of Zn, a widely known phytotoxicity causing agents in plants. However, the study also illustrated that PT-char is made up of a highly aromatic and condensed carbon structure. PT-char is therefore highly stable, less prone to microbial degradation, and has a low chemical reactivity in soils. Considering these characteristics, PT-char meets the requirements for use as a carbon sequestration agent, which may be useful in mitigating climate change.

Keywords: agriculture, carbon sequestration, physicochemical analysis, pyrolytic tire char, soil amendment.

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2427 Carbon Pool Assessment in Two Community Forest in Nepal

Authors: Khemnath Kharel

Abstract:

Forest itself is a factory as well as product. It supplies tangible and intangible goods and services. It supplies timber, fuel wood, fodder, grass leaf litter as well as non timber edible goods and medicinal and aromatic products additionally provides environmental services. These environmental services are of local, national, or even global importance. In Nepal more than 19 thousands community forests are providing environmental service in less economic benefit than actual efficiency. There is a risk of cost of management of those forest exceeds benefits and forests get converted to open access resources in future. Most of the environmental goods and services don’t have markets which mean no prices at which they are available to the consumers therefore the valuation of these services goods and services establishment of paying mechanism for such services and insure the benefit to community is more relevant in local as well as global scale. There are few examples of carbon trading in domestic level to meet the country wide emission goal. In this contest the study aims to explore the public attitude towards carbon offsetting and their responsibility over service providers. This study helps in promotion of environment service awareness among general people and service provider; community forest. The research helps to unveil the carbon pool scenario in community forest and willingness to pay for carbon offsetting of people who are consuming more energy than general people and emitting relatively more carbon in atmosphere. The study has assessed the carbon pool status in two community forest. In the study in two community forests carbon pools were assessed following the guideline “Forest Carbon Inventory Guideline 2010” prescribed by Ministry of Forest and soil Conservation, Nepal. Final out comes of analysis in intensively managed area of Hokse CF recorded as 103.58 tons C /ha with 6173.30 tons carbon stock. Similarly in Hariyali CF carbon density was recorded 251.72 mg C /ha. The total carbon stock of intensively managed blocks in Hariyali CF is 35839.62 tons carbon.

Keywords: carbon, offsetting, sequestration, valuation

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2426 Rubber Wood as a Potential Biomass Feedstock for Biochar via Slow Pyrolysis

Authors: Adilah Shariff, Radin Hakim, Nurhayati Abdullah

Abstract:

Utilisation of biomass feedstock for biochar has received increasing attention because of their potential for carbon sequestration and soil amendment. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of rubber wood as a biomass feedstock for biochar via slow pyrolysis process. This was achieved by using proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) as well as heating value, pH and lignocellulosic determination. Rubber wood contains 4.13 mf wt.% moisture, 86.30 mf wt.% volatile matter, 0.60 mf wt.% ash content, and 13.10 mf wt.% fixed carbon. The ultimate analysis shows that rubber wood consists of 44.33 mf wt.% carbon, 6.26 mf wt.% hydrogen, 19.31 mf wt.% nitrogen, 0.31 mf wt.% sulphur, and 29.79 mf wt.% oxygen. The higher heating value of rubber wood is 22.5 MJ/kg, and its lower heating value is 21.2 MJ/kg. At 27 °C, the pH value of rubber wood is 6.83 which is acidic. The lignocellulosic analysis revealed that rubber wood composition consists of 2.63 mf wt.% lignin, 20.13 mf wt.% cellulose, and 65.04 mf wt.% hemicellulose. The volatile matter to fixed carbon ratio is 6.58. This led to a biochar yield of 25.14 wt.% at 500 °C. Rubber wood is an environmental friendly feedstock due to its low sulphur content. Rubber wood therefore is a suitable and a potential feedstock for biochar production via slow pyrolysis.

Keywords: biochar, biomass, rubber wood, slow pyrolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
2425 Carbon Pool Assessment in Community Forests, Nepal

Authors: Medani Prasad Rijal

Abstract:

Forest itself is a factory as well as product. It supplies tangible and intangible goods and services. It supplies timber, fuel wood, fodder, grass leaf litter as well as non timber edible goods and medicinal and aromatic products additionally provides environmental services. These environmental services are of local, national or even global importance. In Nepal, more than 19 thousands community forests are providing environmental service in less economic benefit than actual efficiency. There is a risk of cost of management of those forest exceeds benefits and forests get converted to open access resources in future. Most of the environmental goods and services do not have markets which mean no prices at which they are available to the consumers, therefore the valuation of these services goods and services establishment of paying mechanism for such services and insure the benefit to community is more relevant in local as well as global scale. There are few examples of carbon trading in domestic level to meet the country wide emission goal. In this contest, the study aims to explore the public attitude towards carbon offsetting and their responsibility over service providers. This study helps in promotion of environment service awareness among general people, service provider and community forest. The research helps to unveil the carbon pool scenario in community forest and willingness to pay for carbon offsetting of people who are consuming more energy than general people and emitting relatively more carbon in atmosphere. The study has assessed the carbon pool status in two community forest and valuated carbon service from community forest through willingness to pay in Dharan municipality situated in eastern. In the study, in two community forests carbon pools were assessed following the guideline “Forest Carbon Inventory Guideline 2010” prescribed by Ministry of Forest and soil Conservation, Nepal. Final outcomes of analysis in intensively managed area of Hokse CF recorded as 103.58 tons C /ha with 6173.30 tons carbon stock. Similarly in Hariyali CF carbon density was recorded 251.72 mg C /ha. The total carbon stock of intensively managed blocks in Hariyali CF is 35839.62 tons carbon.

Keywords: carbon, offsetting, sequestration, valuation, willingness to pay

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
2424 Economic and Environmental Impact of the Missouri Grazing Schools

Authors: C. A. Roberts, S. L. Mascaro, J. R. Gerrish, J. L. Horner

Abstract:

Management-intensive Grazing (MiG) is a practice that rotates livestock through paddocks in a way that best matches the nutrient requirements of the animal to the yield and quality of the pasture. In the USA, MiG has been taught to livestock producers throughout the state of Missouri in 2- and 3-day workshops called “Missouri Grazing Schools.” The economic impact of these schools was quantified using IMPLAN software. The model included hectares of adoption, animal performance, carrying capacity, and input costs. To date, MiG, as taught in the Missouri Grazing Schools, has been implemented on more than 70,000 hectares in Missouri. The economic impact of these schools is presently $125 million USD per year added to the state economy. This magnitude of impact is the result not only of widespread adoption but also because of increased livestock carrying capacity; in Missouri, a capacity increase of 25 to 30% has been well documented. Additional impacts have been MiG improving forage quality and reducing the cost of feed and fertilizer. The environmental impact of MiG in the state of Missouri is currently being estimated. Environmental impact takes into account the reduction in the application of commercial fertilizers; in MiG systems, nitrogen is supplied by N fixation from legumes, and much of the P and K is recycled naturally by well-distributed manure. The environmental impact also estimates carbon sequestration and methane production; MiG can increase carbon sequestration and reduce methane production in comparison to default grazing practices and feedlot operations in the USA.

Keywords: agricultural education, forage quality, management-intensive grazing, nutrient cycling, stock density, sustainable agriculture

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2423 Carbon Credits in Voluntary Carbon Markets: A Proposal for Iran

Authors: Saeed Mohammadirad

Abstract:

During the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries were forced to restrict carbon emissions. Although Iran was one of the countries of Kyoto protocol, due to some special conditions, it was not required to restrict its carbon emissions. Flexible mechanisms were developed to assist countries responsible for reducing their carbon emissions, and regulated carbon markets were introduced. Carbon credits which are provided by organizations in countries with no responsibility to restrict their carbon emissions are traded in voluntary markets. This study focuses on how to measure and report the carbon allowances and carbon credits from accounting view point under both regulated and voluntary markets.

Keywords: carbon credits, carbon markets, accounting, flexible mechanisms

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2422 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextiles

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
2421 Livelihood Security and Mitigating Climate Changes in the Barind Tract of Bangladesh through Agroforestry Systems

Authors: Md Shafiqul Bari, Md Shafiqul Islam Sikdar

Abstract:

This paper summarizes the current knowledge on Agroforestry practices in the Barind tract of Bangladesh. The part of greater Rajshahi, Dinajpur, Rangpur and Bogra district of Bangladesh is geographically identified as the Barind tract. The hard red soil of these areas is very significant in comparison to that of the other parts of the country. A typical dry climate with comparatively high temperature prevails in the Barind area. Scanty rainfall and excessive extraction of groundwater have created an alarming situation among the Barind people and others about irrigation to the rice field. In addition, the situation may cause an adverse impact on the people whose livelihood largely depends on agriculture. The groundwater table has been declined by at least 10 to 15 meters in some areas of the Barind tract during the last 20 years. Due to absent of forestland in the Barind tract, the soil organic carbon content can decrease more rapidly because of the higher rate of decomposition. The Barind soils are largely carbon depleted but can be brought back to carbon-carrying capacity by bringing under suitable Agroforestry systems. Agroforestry has tremendous potential for carbon sequestration not only in above C biomass but also root C biomass in deeper soil depths. Agroforestry systems habitually conserve soil organic carbon and maintain a great natural nutrient pool. Cultivation of trees with arable crops under Agroforestry systems help in improving soil organic carbon content and sequestration carbon, particularly in the highly degraded Barind lands. Agroforestry systems are a way of securing the growth of cash crops that may constitute an alternative source of income in moments of crisis. Besides being a source of fuel wood, a greater presence of trees in cropping system contributes to decreasing temperatures and to increasing rainfall, thus contrasting the negative environmental impact of climate changes. In order to fulfill the objectives of this study, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment was survey on the impact of existing agroforestry system on the livelihood security in the Barind tract of Bangladesh and the second one was the role of agroforestry system on the improvement of soil properties in a multilayered coconut orchard. Agroforestry systems have been generated a lot of employment opportunities in the Barind area. More crops mean involvement of more people in various activities like involvements in dairying, sericulture, apiculture and additional associated agro-based interventions. Successful adoption of Agroforestry practices in the Barind area has shown that the Agroforestry practitioners of this area were very sound positioned economically, and had added social status too. However, from the findings of the present study, it may be concluded that the majority rural farmers of the Barind tract of Bangladesh had a very good knowledge and medium extension contact related to agroforestry production system. It was also observed that 85 per cent farmers followed agroforestry production system and received benefits to a higher extent. Again, from the research study on orchard based mutistoried agroforestry cropping system, it was evident that there was an important effect of agroforestry cropping systems on the improvement of soil chemical properties. As a result, the agroforestry systems may be helpful to attain the development objectives and preserve the biosphere core.

Keywords: agroforestry systems, Barind tract, carbon sequestration, climate changes

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2420 Impact of Nitrogen Fertilization on Soil Respiration and Net Ecosystem Production in Maize

Authors: Shirley Lamptey, Lingling Li, Junhong Xie

Abstract:

Agriculture in the semi-arid is often challenged by overuse of N, inadequate soil water, and heavy carbon emissions thereby threatening sustainability. Field experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of nitrogen fertilization levels (0-N₀, 100-N₁₀₀, 200-N₂₀₀, and 300 kg ha⁻¹-N₃₀₀) on soil water dynamics, soil respiration (Rs), net ecosystem production (NEP), and biomass yield. Zero nitrogen soils decreased Rs by 23% and 16% compared to N₃₀₀ and N₂₀₀ soils, respectively. However, biomass yield was greatest under N₃₀₀ compared with N₀, which therefore translated into increased net primary production (NPP) by 89% and NEP by 101% compared to N₀. To a lesser extent, N₂₀₀ increased net primary production by 69% and net ecosystem production by 79% compared to N₀. Grain yields were greatest under N₃₀₀ compared with N₁₀₀ and N₀, which therefore translated into increased carbon emission efficiency (CEE) by 53%, 39% and 3% under N₃₀₀ compared to N₀, N₁₀₀, and N₂₀₀ treatments respectively. Under the conditions of this study, crop yield and CEE may be optimized at nitrogen application rates in the range of 200-300 kg ha⁻¹. Based on these results, there appears potential for 200 kg N ha⁻¹ to be used to improve yield and increase CEE in the context of the rainfall-limiting environment.

Keywords: carbon emission, carbon emission efficiency, C sequestration, N rates, semi-arid

Procedia PDF Downloads 163