Search results for: carbon fiber
3617 Research on Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique with Multi-Rolls
Authors: Soon Ok Jo, Han Kyu Jeung, Si Woo Park
Abstract:With the process of consistent expansion of carbon fiber in width (Carbon Fiber Tow Spreading Technique), it can be expected that such process can enhance the production of carbon fiber reinforced composite material and quality of the product. In this research, the method of mechanically expanding carbon fiber and increasing its width was investigated by using various geometric rolls. In addition, experimental type of carbon fiber expansion device was developed and tested using 12K carbon fiber. As a result, the effects of expansion of such fiber under optimized operating conditions and geometric structure of an elliptical roll, were analyzed.
Keywords: carbon fiber, tow spreading fiber, pre-preg, roll structureProcedia PDF Downloads 270
3616 Investigating the Fiber Content, Fiber Length, and Curing Characteristics of 3D Printed Recycled Carbon Fiber
Authors: Peng Hao Wang, Ronald Sterkenburg, Garam Kim, Yuwei He
Abstract:As composite materials continue to gain popularity in the aerospace industry; large airframe sections made out of composite materials are becoming the standard for aerospace manufacturers. However, the heavy utilization of these composite materials also increases the importance of the recycling of these composite materials. A team of Purdue University School of Aviation and Transportation Technology (SATT) faculty and students have partnered to investigate the characteristics of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber. A prototype of a 3D printed recycled carbon fiber part was provided by an industry partner and different sections of the prototype were used to create specimens. A furnace was utilized in order to remove the polymer from the specimens and the specimen’s fiber content and fiber length was calculated from the remaining fibers. A differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test was also conducted on the 3D printed recycled carbon fiber prototype in order to determine the prototype’s degree of cure at different locations. The data collected from this study provided valuable information in the process improvement and understanding of 3D printed recycled carbon fiber.
Keywords: 3D printed, carbon fiber, fiber content, recyclingProcedia PDF Downloads 99
3615 Experimental Investigation of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Operated with Nano Fiber and Nano Fiber/Nano Particle
Authors: Kevser Dincer, Basma Waisi, M. Ozan Ozdemir, Ugur Pasaogullari, Jeffrey McCutcheon
Abstract:Nanofibers are defined as fibers with diameters less than 100 nanometers. They can be produced by interfacial polymerization, electrospinning and electrostatic spinning. In this study, behaviours of activated carbon nano fiber (ACNF), carbon nano-fiber (CNF), Polyacrylonitrile/carbon nanotube (PAN/CNT), Polyvinyl alcohol/nano silver (PVA/Ag) in PEM fuel cells are investigated experimentally. This material was used as gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells. When the performances of these cells are compared to each other at 5x5 cm2 cell, it is found that the PVA/Ag exhibits the best performance among all. In this work, nano fiber and nano fiber/nano particles electrical conductivities have been studied to understand their effects on PEM fuel cell performance. According to the experimental results, the maximum electrical conductivity performance of the fuel cell with nanofiber was found to be at PVA/Ag. The electrical conductivities of CNF, ACNF, PAN/CNT are lower for PEM. The resistance of cell with PVA/Ag is lower than the resistance of cell with PAN/CNT, ACNF, CNF.
Keywords: proton exchange membrane fuel cells, electrospinning, carbon nano fiber, activate carbon nano-fiber, PVA fiber, PAN fiber, carbon nanotube, nano particle nanocompositesProcedia PDF Downloads 281
3614 Mechanical Properties of Graphene Nano-Platelets Coated Carbon-Fiber Composites
Authors: Alok Srivastava, Vidit Gupta, Aparna Singh, Chandra Sekher Yerramalli
Abstract:Carbon-fiber epoxy composites show extremely high modulus and strength in the uniaxial direction. However, they are prone to fail under low load in transverse direction due to the weak nature of the interface between the carbon-fiber and epoxy. In the current study, we have coated graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) on the carbon-fibers in an attempt to strengthen the interface/interphase between the fiber and the matrix. Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Moulding (VARTM) has been used to make the laminates of eight cross-woven fabrics. Tensile, flexural and fracture toughness tests have been performed on pristine carbon-fiber composite (P-CF), GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (GNP-CF) and functionalized-GNP coated carbon-fiber composite (F-GNP-CF). The tensile strength and flexural strength values are pretty similar for P-CF and GNP-CF. The micro-structural examination of the GNP coated carbon-fibers, as well as the fracture surfaces, have been carried out using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The micrographs reveal the deposition of GNPs onto the carbon fibers in transverse and longitudinal direction. Fracture surfaces show the debonding and pull outs of the carbon fibers in P-CF and GNP-CF samples.
Keywords: carbon fiber, graphene nanoplatelets, strength, VARTM, Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer MouldingProcedia PDF Downloads 88
3613 Strengthening RC Columns Using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites Modified with Carbon Nanotubes
Authors: Mohammad R. Irshidat, Mohammed H. Al-Saleh, Mahmoud Al-Shoubaki
Abstract:This paper investigates the viability of using carbon fiber reinforced epoxy composites modified with carbon nano tubes to strengthening reinforced concrete (RC) columns. Six RC columns was designed and constructed according to ASCE standards. The columns were wrapped using carbon fiber sheets impregnated with either neat epoxy or CNTs modified epoxy. These columns were then tested under concentric axial loading. Test results show that; compared to the unwrapped specimens; wrapping concrete columns with carbon fiber sheet embedded in CNTs modified epoxy resulted in an increase in its axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 24%, 109% and 232%, respectively. These results reveal that adding CNTs into epoxy resin enhanced the confinement effect, specifically, increased the axial load resistance, maximum displacement, and toughness values by 11%, 6%, and 19%, respectively compared with columns strengthening with carbon fiber sheet embedded in neat epoxy.
Keywords: CNT, epoxy, carbon fiber, RC columnsProcedia PDF Downloads 291
3612 Electromagnetic Interference Shielding Characteristics for Stainless Wire Mesh and Number of Plies of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic
Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Seong Woo Hong, Min Jae Yu, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac
Abstract:In this paper, the electromagnetic shielding characteristics of an up-to-date typical carbon filler material, carbon fiber used with a metal mesh were investigated. Carbon fiber 12k-prepregs, where carbon fibers were impregnated with epoxy, were laminated with wire meshes, vacuum bag-molded and hardened to manufacture hybrid-type specimens, with which an electromagnetic shield test was performed in accordance with ASTM D4935-10, through which was known as the most excellent reproducibility is obtainable among electromagnetic shield tests. In addition, glass fiber prepress whose electromagnetic shielding effect were known as insignificant were laminated and formed with wire meshes to verify the validity of the electromagnetic shield effect of wire meshes in order to confirm the electromagnetic shielding effect of metal meshes corresponding existing carbon fiber 12k-prepregs. By grafting carbon fibers, on which studies are being actively underway in the environmental aspects and electromagnetic shielding effect, with hybrid-type wire meshes that were analyzed through the tests, in this study, the applicability and possibility are proposed.
Keywords: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic(CFRP), Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic(GFRP), stainless wire mesh, electromagnetic shieldingProcedia PDF Downloads 349
3611 Separation of Composites for Recycling: Measurement of Electrostatic Charge of Carbon and Glass Fiber Particles
Authors: J. Thirunavukkarasu, M. Poulet, T. Turner, S. Pickering
Abstract:Composite waste from manufacturing can consist of different fiber materials, including blends of different fiber. Commercially, the recycling of composite waste is currently limited to carbon fiber waste and recycling glass fiber waste is currently not economically viable due to the low cost of virgin glass fiber and the reduced mechanical properties of the recovered fibers. For this reason, the recycling of hybrid fiber materials, where carbon fiber is combined with a proportion of glass fiber, cannot be processed economically. Therefore, a separation method is required to remove the glass fiber materials during the recycling process. An electrostatic separation method is chosen for this work because of the significant difference between carbon and glass fiber electrical properties. In this study, an experimental rig has been developed to measure the electrostatic charge achievable as the materials are passed through a tube. A range of particle lengths (80-100 µm, 6 mm and 12 mm), surface state conditions (0%SA, 2%SA and 6%SA), and several tube wall materials have been studied. A polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tube and recycled without sizing agent was identified as the most suitable parameters for the electrical separation method. It was also found that shorter fiber lengths helped to encourage particle flow and attain higher charge values. These findings can be used to develop a separation process to enable the cost-effective recycling of hybrid fiber composite waste.
Keywords: electrostatic charging, hybrid fiber composites, recycling, short fiber compositesProcedia PDF Downloads 59
3610 Materials for Electrically Driven Aircrafts: Highly Conductive Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites
Authors: Simon Bard, Martin Demleitner, Florian Schonl, Volker Altstadt
Abstract:For an electrically driven aircraft, whose engine is based on semiconductors, alternative materials are needed. The avoid hotspots in the materials thermally conductive polymers are necessary. Nevertheless, the mechanical properties of these materials should remain. Herein, the work of three years in a project with airbus and Siemens is presented. Different strategies have been pursued to achieve conductive fiber-reinforced composites: Metal-coated carbon fibers, pitch-based fibers and particle-loaded matrices have been investigated. In addition, a combination of copper-coated fibers and a conductive matrix has been successfully tested for its conductivity and mechanical properties. First, prepregs have been produced with a laboratory scale prepreg line, which can handle materials with maximum width of 300 mm. These materials have then been processed to fiber-reinforced laminates. For the PAN-fiber reinforced laminates, it could be shown that there is a strong dependency between fiber volume content and thermal conductivity. Laminates with 50 vol% of carbon fiber offer a conductivity of 0.6 W/mK, those with 66 vol% of fiber a thermal conductivity of 1 W/mK. With pitch-based fiber, the conductivity enhances to 1.5 W/mK for 61 vol% of fiber, compared to 0.81 W/mK with the same amount of fibers produced from PAN (+83% in conducitivity). The thermal conductivity of PAN-based composites with 50 vol% of fiber is at 0.6 W/mK, their nickel-coated counterparts with the same fiber volume content offer a conductivity of 1 W/mK, an increase of 66%.
Keywords: carbon, electric aircraft, polymer, thermal conductivityProcedia PDF Downloads 100
3609 Effect of Different Types of Nano/Micro Fillers on the Interfacial Shear Properties of Polyamide 6 with De-Sized Carbon Fiber
Authors: Mohamed H. Gabr, Kiyoshi Uzawa
Abstract:The current study aims to investigate the effect of fillers with different geometries and sizes on the interfacial shear properties of PA6 composites with de-sized carbon fiber. The fillers which have been investigated are namely; nano-layer silicates (nanoclay), sub-micro aluminum titanium (ALTi) particles, and multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT). By means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), epoxide group which defined as a sizing agent, has been removed. Sizing removal can reduce the acid parameter of carbon fibers surface promoting bonding strength at the fiber/matrix interface which is a desirable property for the carbon fiber composites. Microdroplet test showed that the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) has been enhanced with the addition of 10wt% ALTi by about 23% comparing with neat PA6. However, with including other types of fillers into PA6, the results did not show enhancement of IFSS.
Keywords: sub-micro particles, nano-composites, interfacial shear strength, polyamide 6Procedia PDF Downloads 184
3608 Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Conditions to Improve Interfacial Adhesion
Authors: Filip Stojcevski, Tim Hilditch, Luke Henderson
Abstract:Although carbon fibre composites are becoming ever more prominent in the engineering industry, interfacial failure still remains one of the most common limitations to material performance. Carbon fiber surface treatments have played a major role in advancing composite properties however research into the influence of manufacturing variables on a fiber manufacturing line is lacking. This project investigates the impact of altering carbon fiber manufacturing conditions on a production line (specifically electrochemical oxidization and sizing variables) to assess fiber-matrix adhesion. Pristine virgin fibers were manufactured and interfacial adhesion systematically assessed from a microscale (single fiber) to a mesoscale (12k tow), and ultimately a macroscale (laminate). Correlations between interfacial shear strength (IFSS) at each level is explored as a function of known interfacial bonding mechanisms; namely mechanical interlocking, chemical adhesion and fiber wetting. Impact of these bonding mechanisms is assessed through extensive mechanical, topological and chemical characterisation. They are correlated to performance as a function of IFSS. Ultimately this study provides a bottoms up approach to improving composite laminates. By understanding the scaling effects from a singular fiber to a composite laminate and linking this knowledge to specific bonding mechanisms, material scientists can make an informed decision on the manufacturing conditions most beneficial for interfacial adhesion.
Keywords: carbon fibers, interfacial adhesion, surface treatment, sizingProcedia PDF Downloads 207
3607 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile
Authors: Ezgi Ismar
Abstract:Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.
Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextilesProcedia PDF Downloads 295
3606 Effect of Temperature Condition in Extracting Carbon Fibers on Mechanical Properties of Injection Molded Polypropylene Reinforced by Recycled Carbon Fibers
Authors: Shota Nagata, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to investigate the proper condition in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of composite molded by injection method. Recycled carbon fibers were extracted from wasted CFRP by pyrolyzing epoxy matrix of CFRP under air atmosphere at different temperature conditions 400, 600 and 800°C in this study. Recycled carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene (RCF/PP) pellets were prepared using twin screw extruder. The RCF/PP specimens were molded into dumbbell shaped specimens using injection molding machine. The tensile strength of recycled carbon fiber was decreased with rising pyrolysis temperature from 400 to 800°C. However, superior mechanical properties of tensile strength, tensile modulus and fracture strain of RCF/PP specimen were obtained when the extracting temperature was 600°C. Almost fibers in RCF/PP specimens were aligned in the mold filling direction in this study when the extracting temperature was 600°C. To discuss the results, the failure mechanisms of RCF/PP specimens was shown schematically. Finally, it was concluded that the temperature condition at 600°C should be selected in extracting carbon fibers as the reinforcement of RCF/PP composite molded by injection method.
Keywords: CFRP, recycled carbon fiber, injection molding, mechanical properties, fiber orientation, failure mechanismProcedia PDF Downloads 378
3605 Effective Layer-by-layer Chemical Grafting of a Reactive Oxazoline Polymer and MWCNTs onto Carbon Fibers for Enhancing Mechanical Properties of Composites using Polystyrene as a Model Thermoplastic Matrix
Authors: Ryoma Tokonami, Teruya Goto, Tatsuhiro Takahashi,
Abstract:For enhancing the mechanical property ofcarbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP), the surface modification of carbon fiber (CF) by multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) has received considerable attention using direct MWCNT growth on CF with a catalysis, MWCNT electrophoresis, and layer-by-layer of MWCNT with reactive polymers, etc. Among above approaches, the layer-by-layer method is the simplest process, however, the amount of MWCNTs on CF is very little, resulting in the small amount of improvement of the mechanical property of the composite. The remaining amount of MWCNT on CF after melt mixing of CF (short fiber) with thermoplastic matrix polymer was not examined clearly in the former studies. The present research aims to propose an effective layer-by-layer chemical grafting of a highly reactive oxazoline polymer, which has not been used before, and MWCNTs onto CF using the highly reactivity of oxazoline and COOH on the surface of CF and MWCNTs.With layer-by-layer method, the first uniform chemically bonded mono molecular layer on carbon fiber was formed by chemical surface reaction of carbon fiber, a reactive oxazoline polymer solution between COOH of carbon fiber and oxazoline. The second chemically bonded uniform layer of MWCNTs on the first layer was prepared through the first layer coated carbon fiber in MWCNT dispersion solution by chemical reaction between oxazoline and COOH of MWCNTs. The quantitative analysis of MWCNTs on carbon fiber was performed, showing 0.44 wt.% of MWCNTs based on carbon fiber, which is much larger amount compared with the former studies in layer-by-layer method. In addition, MWCNTs were also observed uniform coating on carbon fiber by scanning electron micrograph (SEM). Carbon fiber composites were prepared by melting mixing using polystyrene (PS) as a thermoplastic matrix because of easy removal of PS by solvent for additional analysis, resulting the 20% of enhancement of tensile strength and modulus by tensile strength test. It was confirmed bySEM the layer-by-layer structure on carbon fibers were remained after the melt mixing by removing PS with a solvent. As a conclusion, the effectiveness for the enhancement of the mechanical properties of CF(short fiber)/PS composite using the highly reactive oxazoline polymer for the first layer and MWCNT for the second layer, which act as the physical anchor, was demonstrated.
Keywords: interface, layer-by-layer, multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), oxazolineProcedia PDF Downloads 131
3604 Nano-Filled Matrix Reinforced by Woven Carbon Fibers Used as a Sensor
Authors: K. Hamdi, Z. Aboura, W. Harizi, K. Khellil
Abstract:Improving the electrical properties of organic matrix composites has been investigated in several studies. Thus, to extend the use of composites in more varied application, one of the actual barrier is their poor electrical conductivities. In the case of carbon fiber composites, organic matrix are in charge of the insulating properties of the resulting composite. However, studying the properties of continuous carbon fiber nano-filled composites is less investigated. This work tends to characterize the effect of carbon black nano-fillers on the properties of the woven carbon fiber composites. First of all, SEM observations were performed to localize the nano-particles. It showed that particles penetrated on the fiber zone (figure1). In fact, by reaching the fiber zone, the carbon black nano-fillers created network connectivity between fibers which means an easy pathway for the current. It explains the noticed improvement of the electrical conductivity of the composites by adding carbon black. This test was performed with the four points electrical circuit. It shows that electrical conductivity of 'neat' matrix composite passed from 80S/cm to 150S/cm by adding 9wt% of carbon black and to 250S/cm by adding 17wt% of the same nano-filler. Thanks to these results, the use of this composite as a strain gauge might be possible. By the way, the study of the influence of a mechanical excitation (flexion, tensile) on the electrical properties of the composite by recording the variance of an electrical current passing through the material during the mechanical testing is possible. Three different configuration were performed depending on the rate of carbon black used as nano-filler. These investigation could lead to develop an auto-instrumented material.
Keywords: carbon fibers composites, nano-fillers, strain-sensors, auto-instrumentedProcedia PDF Downloads 344
3603 Thixomixing as Novel Method for Fabrication Aluminum Composite with Carbon and Alumina Fibers
Authors: Ebrahim Akbarzadeh, Josep A. Picas Barrachina, Maite Baile Puig
Abstract:This study focuses on a novel method for dispersion and distribution of reinforcement under high intensive shear stress to produce metal composites. The polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based short carbon fiber (Csf) and Nextel 610 alumina fiber were dispersed under high intensive shearing at mushy zone in semi-solid of A356 by a novel method. The bundles and clusters were embedded by infiltration of slurry into the clusters, thus leading to a uniform microstructure. The fibers were embedded homogenously into the aluminum around 576-580°C with around 46% of solid fraction. Other experiments at 615°C and 568°C which are contained 0% and 90% solid respectively were not successful for dispersion and infiltration of aluminum into bundles of Csf. The alumina fiber has been cracked by high shearing load. The morphologies and crystalline phase were evaluated by SEM and XRD. The adopted thixo-process effectively improved the adherence and distribution of Csf into Al that can be developed to produce various composites by thixomixing.
Keywords: aluminum, carbon fiber, alumina fiber, thixomixing, adhesionProcedia PDF Downloads 480
3602 A Study on the Non-Destructive Test Characterization of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Using Thermo-Graphic Camera
Authors: Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Min Sang Lee, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Tae Ho Kim, Yoon Sun Lee, Lee Ku Kwac, Hong Gun Kim
Abstract:Non-destructive testing and evaluation techniques for assessing the integrity of composite structures are essential to both reduce manufacturing costs and out of service time of transport means due to maintenance. In this study, Analyze into non-destructive test characterization of carbon fiber reinforced plastics(CFRP) internal and external defects using thermo-graphic camera and transient thermography method. non-destructive testing were characterized by defect size(∅8,∅10,∅12,∅14) and depth(1.2mm,2.4mm).
Keywords: Non-Destructive Test (NDT), thermal characteristic, thermographic camera, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics(CFRP).Procedia PDF Downloads 464
3601 On Strengthening Program of Sixty Years Old Dome Using Carbon Fiber
Authors: Humayun R. H. Kabir
Abstract:A reinforced concrete dome-built 60 years ago- of circular shape of diameter of 30 m was in distressed conditions due to adverse weathering effects, such as high temperature, wind, and poor maintenance. It was decided to restore the dome to its full strength for future use. A full material strength and durability check including petrography test were conducted. It was observed that the concrete strength was in acceptable range, while bars were corroded more than 40% to their original configurations. Widespread cracks were almost in every meter square. A strengthening program with filling the cracks by injection method, and carbon fiber layup and wrap was considered. Ultra Sound Pulse Velocity (UPV) test was conducted to observe crack depth. Ground Penetration Radar (GPR) test was conducted to observe internal bar conditions and internal cracks. Finally, a load test was conducted to certify the carbon fiber effectiveness, injection method procedure and overall behavior of dome.
Keywords: dome, strengthening program, carbon fiber, load testProcedia PDF Downloads 195
3600 Studying the Effect of Different Sizes of Carbon Fiber on Locally Developed Copper Based Composites
Authors: Tahir Ahmad, Abubaker Khan, Muhammad Kamran, Muhammad Umer Manzoor, Muhammad Taqi Zahid Butt
Abstract:Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) is a class of weight efficient structural materials that are becoming popular in engineering applications especially in electronic, aerospace, aircraft, packaging and various other industries. This study focuses on the development of carbon fiber reinforced copper matrix composite. Keeping in view the vast applications of metal matrix composites,this specific material is produced for its unique mechanical and thermal properties i.e. high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion at elevated temperatures. The carbon fibers were not pretreated but coated with copper by electroless plating in order to increase the wettability of carbon fiber with the copper matrix. Casting is chosen as the manufacturing route for the C-Cu composite. Four different compositions of the composite were developed by varying the amount of carbon fibers by 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt. % of the copper. The effect of varying carbon fiber content and sizes on the mechanical properties of the C-Cu composite is studied in this work. The tensile test was performed on the tensile specimens. The yield strength decreases with increasing fiber content while the ultimate tensile strength increases with increasing fiber content. Rockwell hardness test was also performed and the result followed the increasing trend for increasing carbon fibers and the hardness numbers are 30.2, 37.2, 39.9 and 42.5 for sample 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The microstructures of the specimens were also examined under the optical microscope. Wear test and SEM also done for checking characteristic of C-Cu marix composite. Through casting may be a route for the production of the C-Cu matrix composite but still powder metallurgy is better to follow as the wettability of carbon fiber with matrix, in that case, would be better.
Keywords: copper based composites, mechanical properties, wear properties, microstructureProcedia PDF Downloads 290
3599 Preparation of Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membranes for CO2 Capture
Authors: Kai-Wei Huang, Yi-Feng Lin
Abstract:The purpose of this study is to have chemical resistance, high heat resistance and mechanical strength of ceramic hollow fiber membrane into a membrane contactor, and the combustion process is applied (Post-combustion capture) of the carbon dioxide absorption device. In this paper, we would investigate the effect of the ceramic membrane hydrophobicity to the flux of the carbon dioxide adsorption. To improve the applicability of the ceramic film. We use the dry-wet spinning method with the high temperature sintering process for preparing a ceramic hollow fiber membranes to increase the filling density per unit volume of the membrane. The PESf/Al2O3 ratio of 1:5 was prepared ceramic hollow fibers membrane precursors and investigate the relationship of the different sintering temperature to the membrane pore size and porosity. It can be found that the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1400 °C prepared with the highest porosity of 70%, while the membrane via the sintering temperature of 1600 °C prepared although has a minimum porosity of about 54%, but also has the smallest average pore size of about 0.2 μm. The hydrophilic ceramic hollow fiber membranes which after high-temperature sintering were changed into hydrophobic successfully via the 0.02M FAS modifier. The hydrophobic ceramic hollow fiber membranes with different sintering temperature, the membrane which was prepared via 1400 °C sintering has the highest carbon dioxide adsorption about 4.2 × 10-4 (mole/m2s). The membrane prepared via 1500 °C sintering has the carbon dioxide adsorption about 3.8 × 10-3 (mole/m2s),and the membrane prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the lowest carbon dioxide adsorption about 2.68 × 10-3 (mole/m2s).All of them have reusability and in long time operation, the membrane which was prepared via 1600 °C sintering has the smallest pores and also could operate for three days. After the test, the 1600 °C sintering ceramic hollow fiber membrane was most suitable for the factory.
Keywords: carbon dioxide capture, membrane contactor, ceramic membrane, ceramic hollow fiber membraneProcedia PDF Downloads 253
3598 A Rapid Reinforcement Technique for Columns by Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composite Materials
Authors: Faruk Elaldi
Abstract:There are lots of concrete columns and beams around in our living cities. Those columns are mostly open to aggressive environmental conditions and earthquakes. Mostly, they are deteriorated by sand, wind, humidity and other external applications at times. After a while, these beams and columns need to be repaired. Within the scope of this study, for reinforcement of concrete columns, samples were designed and fabricated to be strengthened with carbon fiber reinforced composite materials and conventional concrete encapsulation and followed by, and they were put into the axial compression test to determine load-carrying performance before column failure. In the first stage of this study, concrete column design and mold designs were completed for a certain load-carrying capacity. Later, the columns were exposed to environmental deterioration in order to reduce load-carrying capacity. To reinforce these damaged columns, two methods were applied, “concrete encapsulation” and the other one “wrapping with carbon fiber /epoxy” material. In the second stage of the study, the reinforced columns were applied to the axial compression test and the results obtained were analyzed. Cost and load-carrying performance comparisons were made and it was found that even though the carbon fiber/epoxy reinforced method is more expensive, this method enhances higher load-carrying capacity and reduces the reinforcement processing period.
Keywords: column reinforcement, composite, earth quake, carbon fiber reinforcedProcedia PDF Downloads 3
3597 Study of Structure and Properties of Polyester/Carbon Blends for Technical Applications
Authors: Manisha A. Hira, Arup Rakshit
Abstract:Textile substrates are endowed with flexibility and ease of making–up, but are non-conductors of electricity. Conductive materials like carbon can be incorporated into textile structures to make flexible conductive materials. Such conductive textiles find applications as electrostatic discharge materials, electromagnetic shielding materials and flexible materials to carry current or signals. This work focuses on use of carbon fiber as conductor of electricity. Carbon fibers in staple or tow form can be incorporated in textile yarn structure to conduct electricity. The paper highlights the process for development of these conductive yarns of polyester/carbon using Friction spinning (DREF) as well as ring spinning. The optimized process parameters for processing hybrid structure of polyester with carbon tow on DREF spinning and polyester with carbon staple fiber using ring spinning have been presented. The studies have been linked to highlight the electrical conductivity of the developed yarns. Further, the developed yarns have been incorporated as weft in fabric and their electrical conductivity has been evaluated. The paper demonstrates the structure and properties of fabrics developed from such polyester/carbon blend yarns and their suitability as electrically dissipative fabrics.
Keywords: carbon fiber, conductive textiles, electrostatic dissipative materials, hybrid yarnsProcedia PDF Downloads 227
3596 Multi-Wavelength Q-Switched Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Photonic Crystal Fiber and Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes
Authors: Zian Cheak Tiu, Harith Ahmad, Sulaiman Wadi Harun
Abstract:A simple multi-wavelength passively Q-switched Erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) is demonstrated using low cost multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) based saturable absorber (SA), which is prepared using polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a host polymer. The multi-wavelength operation is achieved based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect by incorporating 50 m long photonic crystal fiber (PCF) in the ring cavity. The EDFL produces a stable multi-wavelength comb spectrum for more than 14 lines with a fixed spacing of 0.48 nm. The laser also demonstrates a stable pulse train with the repetition rate increases from 14.9 kHz to 25.4 kHz as the pump power increases from the threshold power of 69.0 mW to the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW. The minimum pulse width of 4.4 µs was obtained at the maximum pump power of 133.8 mW while the highest energy of 0.74 nJ was obtained at pump power of 69.0 mW.
Keywords: multi-wavelength Q-switched, multi-walled carbon nanotube, photonic crystal fiberProcedia PDF Downloads 470
3595 Graphene Oxide Fiber with Different Exfoliation Time and Activated Carbon Particle
Authors: Nuray Uçar, Mervin Ölmez, Özge Alptoğa, Nilgün K. Yavuz, Ayşen Önen
Abstract:In recent years, research on continuous graphene oxide fibers has been intensified. Therefore, many factors of production stages are being studied. In this study, the effect of exfoliation time and presence of activated carbon particle (ACP) on graphene oxide fiber’s properties has been analyzed. It has been seen that cross-sectional appearance of sample with ACP is harsh and porous because of ACP. The addition of ACP did not change the electrical conductivity. However, ACP results in an enormous decrease of mechanical properties. Longer exfoliation time results to higher crystallinity degree, C/O ratio and less d space between layers. The breaking strength and electrical conductivity of sample with less exfoliation time is some higher than sample with high exfoliation time.
Keywords: activated carbon, coagulation by wet spinning, exfoliation, graphene oxide fiberProcedia PDF Downloads 277
3594 Recycling of Tea: A Prepared Lithium Anode Material Research
Authors: Yea-Chyi Lin, Shinn-Dar Wu, Chien-Ping Chung
Abstract:Tea is not only part of the daily lives of the Chinese people, but also represents an essence of their culture. A manufactured tea is prepared with other complicated steps for self-cultivation. Tea drinking promotes friendship and is etiquette in Chinese ceremony. Tea was discovered in China and introduced worldwide. Tea is generally used as herbal medicine. Paowan of tea can be used as plant composts and deodorant as well as for moisture proof-package. Tea prepared via carbon material technology resulted in the increase of its value. Carbon material technology uses graphite. With the battery anode material, tea can also become a new carbon material element. It has a fiber carbon structure that can retain the advantage of tea ontology. Therefore, this study provides a new preparation method through special sintering technology equipment with a gas counter-current system of 300°C to 400°C and 400°C to 900°C. The recovery of carbonization was up to 80% or more. This study addresses tea recycling technology and shows charred sintering method and loss from solving grinder to obtain a good fiber carbon structure.
Keywords: recycling technology, tea, carbonization, sintering technology, manufacturingProcedia PDF Downloads 366
3593 Damage Strain Analysis of Parallel Fiber Eutectic
Authors: Jian Zheng, Xinhua Ni, Xiequan Liu
Abstract:According to isotropy of parallel fiber eutectic, the no- damage strain field in parallel fiber eutectic is obtained from the flexibility tensor of parallel fiber eutectic. Considering the damage behavior of parallel fiber eutectic, damage variables are introduced to determine the strain field of parallel fiber eutectic. The damage strains in the matrix, interphase, and fiber of parallel fiber eutectic are quantitatively analyzed. Results show that damage strains are not only associated with the fiber volume fraction of parallel fiber eutectic, but also with the damage degree.
Keywords: damage strain, initial strain, fiber volume fraction, parallel fiber eutecticProcedia PDF Downloads 351
3592 High Temperature Oxidation of Additively Manufactured Silicon Carbide/Carbon Fiber Nanocomposites
Authors: Saja M. Nabat Al-Ajrash, Charles Browning, Rose Eckerle, Li Cao, Robyn L. Bradford, Donald Klosterman
Abstract:An additive manufacturing process and subsequent pyrolysis cycle were used to fabricate SiC matrix/carbon fiber hybrid composites. The matrix was fabricated using a mixture of preceramic polymer and acrylate monomers, while polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursor was used to fabricate fibers via electrospinning. The precursor matrix and reinforcing fibers at 0, 2, 5, or 10 wt% were printed using digital light processing, and both were simultaneously pyrolyzed to yield the final ceramic matrix composite structure. After pyrolysis, XRD and SEAD analysis proved the existence of SiC nanocrystals and turbostratic carbon structure in the matrix, while the reinforcement phase was shown to have a turbostratic carbon structure similar to commercial carbon fibers. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in the air up to 1400 °C was used to evaluate the oxidation resistance of this material. TGA results showed some weight loss due to oxidation of SiC and/or carbon up to about 900 °C, followed by weight gain to about 1200 °C due to the formation of a protective SiO2 layer. Although increasing carbon fiber content negatively impacted the total mass loss for the first heating cycle, exposure of the composite to second-run air revealed negligible weight chance. This is explained by SiO2 layer formation, which acts as a protective film that prevents oxygen diffusion. Oxidation of SiC and the formation of a glassy layer has been proven to protect the sample from further oxidation, as well as provide healing of surface cracks and defects, as revealed by SEM analysis.
Keywords: silicon carbide, carbon fibers, additive manufacturing, compositeProcedia PDF Downloads 9
3591 Effect of Nanofibers on the Behavior of Cement Mortar and Concrete
Authors: Mostafa Osman, Ata El-Kareim Shoeib
Abstract:The main objective of this paper is study the influence of carbon nano-tubes fibers and nano silica fibers on the characteristic compressive strength and flexural strength on concrete and cement mortar. Twelve tested specimens were tested with square section its dimensions (40*40*160) mm, divided into four groups. The first and second group studied the effect of carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0, 0.11 %, 0.22 %, and 0.33 % by weight of cement and effect of nano-silica (nS) fibers with different percentages equal to 0.0, 1.0 %, 2.0 %, and 3.0 % by weight of cement on the cement mortar. The third and fourth groups studied the effect of CNTs fiber with different percentage equal to 0.0 %, 0.11 %, and 0.22 % by weight of cement, and effect of nS fibers with different percentages were equal to 0.0 %, 1.0%, and 2.0 % by weight of cement on the concrete. The compressive strength and flexural strength at 7, 28, and 90 days is determined. From analysis of tested results concluded that the nano-fiber is more effective when used with cement mortar than that of used with concrete because of increasing the surface area, decreasing the pore and the collection of nano-fiber. And also by adding nano-fiber the improvement of flexural strength of concrete and cement mortar is more than improvement of compressive strength.
Keywords: carbon nano-tubes (CNTs) fibres, nano-silica (nS) fibres, compressive strength, flexural strengthProcedia PDF Downloads 253
3590 Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Doped Polymer Composites
Authors: Atilla Evcin, Bahri Ersoy, Süleyman Akpınar, I. Sinan Atlı
Abstract:Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.
Keywords: electrospinning, characterization, composites, nanofiberProcedia PDF Downloads 329
3589 Strengthening Bridge Piers by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP): A Case Study for Thuan Phuoc Suspension Bridge in Vietnam
Authors: Lan Nguyen, Lam Cao Van
Abstract:Thuan Phuoc is a suspension bridge built in Danang city, Vietnam. Because this bridge locates near the estuary, its structure has degraded rapidly. Many cracks have currently occurred on most of the concrete piers of the curved approach spans. This paper aims to present the results of diagnostic analysis of causes for cracks as well as some calculations for strengthening piers by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Besides, it describes how to use concrete nonlinear analysis software ATENA to diagnostically analyze cracks, strengthening designs. Basing on the results of studying the map of distributing crack on Thuan Phuoc bridge’s concrete piers is analyzed by the software ATENA is suitable for the real conditions and CFRP would be the best solution to strengthen piers in a sound and fast way.
Keywords: ATENA, bridge pier strengthening, carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), crack prediction analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 174
3588 A Study on the Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics Depending on the Lamination Methods
Authors: Min Sang Lee, Hee Jae Shin, In Pyo Cha, Sun Ho Ko, Hyun Kyung Yoon, Hong Gun Kim, Lee Ku Kwac
Abstract:The prepreg process among the CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic) forming methods is the short term of ‘Pre-impregnation’, which is widely used for aerospace composites that require a high quality property such as a fiber-reinforced woven fabric, in which an epoxy hardening resin is impregnated. the reality is, however, that this process requires continuous researches and developments for its commercialization because the delamination characteristically develops between the layers when a great weight is loaded from outside. to supplement such demerit, three lamination methods among the prepreg lamination methods of CFRP were designed to minimize the delamination between the layers due to external impacts. Further, the newly designed methods and the existing lamination methods were analyzed through a mechanical characteristic test, Interlaminar Shear Strength test. The Interlaminar Shear Strength test result confirmed that the newly proposed three lamination methods, i.e. the Roll, Half and Zigzag laminations, presented more excellent strengths compared to the conventional Ply lamination. The interlaminar shear strength in the roll method with relatively dense fiber distribution was approximately 1.75% higher than that in the existing ply lamination method, and in the half method, it was approximately 0.78% higher.
Keywords: carbon fiber reinforced plastic(CFRP), pre-impregnation, laminating method, interlaminar shear strength (ILSS)Procedia PDF Downloads 319