Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 287

Search results for: polyethylene

287 Interaction of Vegetable Fillers with Polyethylene Matrix in Biocomposites

Authors: P. V. Pantyukhov, T. V. Monakhova, A. A. Popov

Abstract:

The paper studies the diffusion of low molecular weight components from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites. In order to identify the diffusible substances a model experiment used where the hexadecane acted as a model of polyethylene. It was determined that polyphenolic compounds and chlorophyll penetrate from vegetable fillers to hexadecane to the maximum extent. There was found a correlation between the amount of polyphenolic compounds diffusible from the fillers to hexadecane and thermal oxidation kinetics of real biocomposites based on polyethylene and vegetable fillers. Thus, it has been assumed the diffusion of polyphenols and chlorophyll from vegetable fillers into polyethylene matrix during the preparation of biocomposites.

Keywords: biocomposite, composite, diffusion, polyethylene, vegetable filler

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
286 Effect of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles along with Sodium Hydroxide on Self-Cleaning and Antibacterial Properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate

Authors: Mohammad Mirjalili, Maryam Mohammdi, Loghman Karimi

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In this study, synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was carried out along with the hydrolysis of Polyethylene terephthalate using sodium hydroxide to increase the surface activity and enhance the nanoparticles adsorption. The polyester fabrics were treated with zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide at ultrasound bath, resulting in the formation of ZnO nanospheres. The presence of zinc oxide on the surface of the polyethylene terephthalate was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The self-cleaning property of treated polyethylene terephthalate was evaluated through discoloring methylene blue stain under sunlight irradiation. The antibacterial activities of the samples against two common pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were also assessed. The results indicated that the photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of the ultrasound treated polyethylene terephthalate improved significantly.

Keywords: zinc oxide, polyethylene terephthalate, self-cleaning, antibacterial

Procedia PDF Downloads 196
285 A Unified Constitutive Model for the Thermoplastic/Elastomeric-Like Cyclic Response of Polyethylene with Different Crystal Contents

Authors: A. Baqqal, O. Abduhamid, H. Abdul-Hameed, T. Messager, G. Ayoub

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In this contribution, the effect of crystal content on the cyclic response of semi-crystalline polyethylene is studied over a large strain range. Experimental observations on a high-density polyethylene with 72% crystal content and an ultralow density polyethylene with 15% crystal content are reported. The cyclic stretching does appear a thermoplastic-like response for high crystallinity and an elastomeric-like response for low crystallinity, both characterized by a stress-softening, a hysteresis and a residual strain, whose amount depends on the crystallinity and the applied strain. Based on the experimental observations, a unified viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model capturing the polyethylene cyclic response features is proposed. A two-phase representation of the polyethylene microstructure allows taking into consideration the effective contribution of the crystalline and amorphous phases to the intermolecular resistance to deformation which is coupled, to capture the strain hardening, to a resistance to molecular orientation. The polyethylene cyclic response features are captured by introducing evolution laws for the model parameters affected by the microstructure alteration due to the cyclic stretching.

Keywords: cyclic loading unloading, polyethylene, semi-crystalline polymer, viscoelastic-viscoplastic constitutive model

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
284 Investigation of Active Modified Atmosphere and Nanoparticle Packaging on Quality of Tomatoes

Authors: M. Ghasemi-Varnamkhasti, S. H. Yoosefian, A. Mohammad-Razdari

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This study investigated the effects of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere on the postharvest quality of tomatoes stored at 6 ºC. The atmosphere composition used in the packaging was 7% O2 + 7% CO2 + 86% N2, and synthetic air (control). The variables measured were weight loss, firmness, color and respiration rate over 21 days. The results showed that the combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and modified atmosphere could extend the shelf life of tomatoes to 21 days and could influence the postharvest quality of tomatoes. Also, existence of Ag nanoparticles caused preventing from increasing weight loss, a*, b*, Chroma, Hue angle and reducing firmness and L*. As well as, tomatoes at Ag nanoparticle polyethylene films had lower respiration rate than Polyethylene and paper bags to 13.27% and 23.50%, respectively. The combination of Ag nanoparticle polyethylene film and active modified atmosphere was effective with regard to delaying maturity during the storage period, and preserving the quality of tomatoes.

Keywords: ag nanoparticles, modified atmosphere, polyethylene film, tomato

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
283 Use of Nanoclay in Various Modified Polyolefins

Authors: Michael Tupý, Alice Tesaříková-Svobodová, Dagmar Měřínská, Vít Petránek

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Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (vinyl acetate) (EVA) and Surlyn (modif-PE) nano composite samples were prepared with montmorillonite fillers Cloisite 93A and Dellite 67G. The amount of modified Na+ montmorillonite (MMT) was fixed to 5 % (w/w). For the compounding of polymer matrix and chosen nano fillers twin-screw kneader was used. The level of MMT intercalation or exfoliation in the nano composite systems was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The properties of samples were evaluated by dynamical mechanical analysis (E* modulus at 30 °C) and by the measurement of tensile properties (stress and strain at break).

Keywords: polyethylene, polypropylene, polyethylene(vinyl acetate), clay, nanocomposite, montmorillonite

Procedia PDF Downloads 346
282 Investigation of Interaction between Interferons and Polyethylene Glycol Using Molecular Dynamics Simulation

Authors: M. Dehestani, F. Kamali, M. Klantari Pour, L. Zeidabadi-Nejad

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Chemical bonding between polyethylene glycol (PEG) with pharmaceutical proteins called pegylation is one of the most effective methods of improving the pharmacological properties. The covalent attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) to proteins will increase their pharmacologic properties. For the formation of a combination of pegylated protein should first be activated PEG and connected to the protein. Interferons(IFNs) are a family of cytokines which show antiviral effects in front of the biological and are responsible for setting safety system. In this study, the nature and properties of the interaction between active positions of IFNs and polyethylene glycol have been investigated using molecular dynamics simulation. The main aspect of this theoretical work focuses on the achievement of valuable data on the reaction pathways of PEG-IFNs and the transition state energy. Our results provide a new perspective on the interactions, chemical properties and reaction pathways between IFNs and PEG.

Keywords: interaction, interferons, molecular dynamics simulation, polyethylene glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
281 Bio-Based Polyethylene/Rice Starch Composite Prepared by Twin Screw Extruder

Authors: Waris Piyaphon, Sathaphorn O-Suwankul, Kittima Bootdee, Manit Nithitanakul

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Starch from rice was used as a filler in low density polyethylene in preparation of low density polyethylene/rice starch composite. This study aims to prepare LDPE/rice starch composites. Glycerol (GC) was used as a plasticizer in order to increase dispersion and reduce agglomeration of rice starch in low density polyethylene (LDPE) matrix. Low density polyethylene grafted maleic anhydride (LDPE-g-MA) was used as a compatibilizer to increase the compatibility between LDPE and rice starch. The content of rice starch was varied between 10, 20, and 30 %wt. Results indicated that increase of rice starch content reduced tensile strength at break, elongation, and impact strength of composites. LDPE-g-MA showed positive effect on mechanical properties which increased in tensile strength and impact properties as well as compatibility between rice starch and LDPE matrix. Moreover, the addition of LDPE-g-MA significantly improved the impact strength by 50% compared to neat composite. The incorporation of GC enhanced the processability of composite. Introduction of GC affected the viscosity after blending by reducing the viscosity at all shear rate. The presence of plasticizer increased the impact strength but decreased the stiffness of composite. Water absorption of the composite was increased when plasticizer was added.

Keywords: composite material, plastic starch composite, polyethylene composite, PE grafted maleic anhydride

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
280 Valorisation of Polyethylene and Plastic Bottle Wastes as Pavement Blocks

Authors: Babagana Mohammed, Fidelis Patrick Afangide

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This research investigated the possibility of using waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles for the production of interlock pavement blocks. In many parts of the world, interlock pavement block is used widely as modern day solution to outdoor flooring applications and the blocks have different shapes, sizes and colours suiting the imagination of landscape architects. Using suitable and conventional mould having a 220 x 135 x 50 mm³ shape, the interlock blocks were produced. The material constituents of the produced blocks were waste low-dense polyethylene and waste plastic bottles mixed in varying, respective percentage-weight proportions of; 100%+0%, 75%+25%, 50%+50% and 25%+75%. The blocks were then tested for unconfined compressive strength and water absorption properties. The test results compared well with those of conventional concrete interlock blocks and the research demonstrates the possibility of value recovery from the waste streams which are currently dumped in open-spaces thereby affecting the environment.

Keywords: pavement blocks, polyethylene, plastic bottle, wastes, valorization

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
279 Compatibilization of Polymer Blends based on Recycled High-Density Polyethylene and Low-Density Polyethylene

Authors: Hniya Kharmoudi, Said Elkoun

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In the literature, the elaboration of polymer blends based on recycled HDPE and LDPE is challenging because of the nonmiscibility of the molecules. Ensuring the compatibility and the miscibility of blends is a must to have the best mechanical properties, this article will discuss the different methods to be adopted to assess the compatibility of polymer blends. (a) The first one aims to act on the extrusion process while varying the speed, flow rate, and residence time. (b) This method consists of incorporating additives such as Kevlar and graphene, (c) The last method has as its purpose the use of grafted anhydride maleic elastomer chains as a compatibilizer. The results of the formulations will be characterized via dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) as well as mechanical tensile and bending tests to assess whether pipes made from recycled polyethylene meet the standards.

Keywords: compatibility, miscibility, extrusion, additives, compatibilizer, grafted anhydride maleic, DMA, DSC, mechanical properties, recycled polyethylene

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278 Simple Rheological Method to Estimate the Branch Structures of Polyethylene under Reactive Modification

Authors: Mahdi Golriz

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The aim of this work is to estimate the change in molecular structure of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) during peroxide modification can be detected by a simple rheological method. For this purpose a commercial grade LLDPE (Exxon MobileTM LL4004EL) was reacted with different doses of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The samples were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with a light scattering detector. The dynamic shear oscillatory measurements showed a deviation of the δ-׀G ׀٭curve from that of the linear LLDPE, which can be attributed to the presence of long-chain branching (LCB). By the use of a simple rheological method that utilizes melt rheology, transformations in molecular architecture induced on an originally linear low density polyethylene during the early stages of reactive modification were indicated. Reasonable and consistent estimates are obtained, concerning the degree of LCB, the volume fraction of the various molecular species produced in peroxide modification of LLDPE.

Keywords: linear low-density polyethylene, peroxide modification, long-chain branching, rheological method

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
277 Experimental Study on Hardness and Impact Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi

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The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM: D6110 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels and injection pressure in 2 levels on the hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving hardness and impact strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the impact strength and hardness of the samples improved to 74% and 46.7% respectively. Also, according to the results, the effect of injection pressure on the results was much less than that of carbon nanotube weight percentage.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, mechanical properties, nanocomposite, polyethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
276 Investigation of Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Poly (trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT)/Polyethylene Blend Using Carboxylate and Ionomer as Compatibilizers

Authors: Wuttikorn Chayapanja, Sutep Charoenpongpool, Manit Nithitanakul, Brian P. Grady

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Poly (trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) is a linear aromatic polyester with good strength and stiffness, good surface appearance, low shrinkage and war page, and good dimensional stability. However, it has low impact strength which is a problem in automotive application. Thus, modification of PTT with the other polymer or polymer blending is a one way to develop a new material with excellence properties. In this study, PTT/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) blends and PTT/Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE) blends with and without compatibilizers base on maleic anhydride grafted HDPE (MAH-g-HDPE) and ethylene-methacrylic acid neutralized sodium metal (Na-EMAA) were prepared by a twin-screw extruder. The blended samples with different ratios of polymers and compatibilizers were characterized on mechanical and rheological properties. Moreover, the phase morphology and dispersion size were studied by using SEM to give better understanding of the compatibility of the blends.

Keywords: poly trimethylene terephthalate, polyethylene, compatibilizer, polymer blend

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
275 Impact of Solar Radiation Effects on the Physicochemical Properties of Unformulated Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Film

Authors: A. Adelhafidhi, I. M. Babaghayou, S. F. Chabira, M. Sebaa

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This study deals with the photodegradation of unformulated polyethylene films for greenhouse covering. The UV range of solar light appears as the most deleterious factor of plastic degradation in outdoor exposure. The reasons of this photosensitivity are structural defects which are light-absorbing. The use of FTIR as an investigation tool has revealed that the material reacts with surrounding oxygen via a photooxidation process. Although the photochemical process is quite complex, it appears through this study than crosslinking and chain scissions are the most important events taking place during aging These two key reactions change irremediably the average molecular weight affecting thus drastically the mechanical properties and reducing, in the same way, the service lifetime of the films.

Keywords: polyethylene, films, unformulated, FTIR, ageing

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
274 Experimental Study on Tensile Strength of Polyethylene/Carbon Injected Composites

Authors: Armin Najipour, A. M. Fattahi

Abstract:

The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of the addition of multi walled carbon nanotubes on the mechanical properties of polyethylene/carbon nanotube nanocomposites. To do so, polyethylene and carbon nanotube were mixed in different weight percentages containing 0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5% carbon nanotube in two screw extruder apparatus by fusion. Then the nanocomposite samples were molded in injection apparatus according to ASTM:D638 standard. The effects of carbon nanotube addition in 4 different levels on the tensile strength, elastic modulus and elongation of the nanocomposite samples were investigated. The results showed that the addition of carbon nanotube had a significant effect on improving tensile strength of the nanocomposite samples such that by adding 1% w/w carbon nanotube, the tensile strength 23.4%,elastic modulus 60.4%and elongation 29.7% of the samples improved. Also, according to the results, Manera approximation model at percentages about 0.5% weight and modified Halpin-Tsai at percentages about 1% weight lead to favorite and reliable results.

Keywords: carbon nanotube, injection molding, Mechanical properties, Nanocomposite, polyethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
273 Effect of Tool Geometry and Welding Parameters on Macrostructure and Weld Strength in Friction Stir Welded of High Density Polyethylene Sheets

Authors: Mustafa Kemal Bilici, Memduh Kurtulmuş, İlyas Kartal, Ahmet İrfan Yükler

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Friction stir welding is a solid-state joining process that has gained acceptable progress in recent years. This method which was first used for welding of aluminum and its alloys is now employed for welding of other materials such as polymers and composites. The aim of the present work is to investigate the mechanical properties of butt joints produced by friction stir welding (FSW) in high density polyethylene sheets of 4 mm thickness. The effects of critical welding parameters and tool design have affected on mechanical properties, weld surface and macrostructure of friction stir welded polyethylene. Experiments were performed at tool rotational speeds of 600, 900, 1200 and 1500 r/min and traverse speeds of 30, 45 and 60 mm/min, tool diameters (d) of 4, 5, 6 mm and tool shoulder diameters (D) 20, 25, 30 mm. A strength value of 80 % of the base material was achieved at the isolated optimum welding condition. According to the tool design, the welding parameters and the mechanical properties changed to a great extent. The highest tensile strength was achieved at low feed rates, high tool rotation speeds and shoulder diameters/pin diameters ratio.

Keywords: friction stir welding, mechanical properties, polyethylene, high density polyethylene, tool design

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
272 Recycling of Plastic Waste into Composites Using Kaolin as Reinforcement

Authors: Gloria P. Manu, Johnson K. Efavi, Abu Yaya, Grace K. Arkorful, Frank Godson

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Plastics have been used extensively in both food and water packaging and other applications because of their inherent properties of low bulk densities and inertness as well as its low cost. Waste management of these plastics after usage is troubling in Ghana. One way of addressing the environmental problems associated with these plastic wastes is by recycling into useful products such as composites for energy and construction applications using natural or local materials as reinforcement. In this work, composites have been formed from waste low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and kaolin at temperatures as low as 70 ֯C using low-cost solvents like kerosene. Chemical surface modifications have been employed to improve the interfacial bonding resulting in the enhancement of properties of the composites. Kaolin particles of sizes ≤ 90µm were dispersed in the polyethylene matrix. The content of the LDPE was varied between 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %wt. Results obtained indicated that all the composites exhibited impressive compressive and flexural strengths with the 50%wt. composition having the highest strength. The hardness value of the composites increased as the polyethylene composition reduces and that of the kaolin increased. The average density and water of absorption of the composites were 530kg/m³ and 1.3% respectively.

Keywords: polyethylene, recycling, waste, composite, kaolin

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
271 Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of High Barrier Polymer Packaging for Selecting Resource Efficient and Environmentally Low-Impact Materials

Authors: D. Kliaugaitė, J. K, Staniškis

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In this study tree types of multilayer gas barrier plastic packaging films were compared using life cycle assessment as a tool for resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials selection. The first type of multilayer packaging film (PET-AlOx/LDPE) consists of polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer AlOx (PET-AlOx) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). The second type of polymer film (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) is made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and co-extrusion film PE-EVOH-PE as barrier layer. And the third one type of multilayer packaging film (PET-PVOH/LDPE) is formed from polyethylene terephthalate with barrier layer PVOH (PET-PVOH) and low density polyethylene (LDPE). All of analyzed packaging has significant impact to resource depletion, because of raw materials extraction and energy use and production of different kind of plastics. Nevertheless the impact generated during life cycle of functional unit of II type of packaging (PET/PE-EVOH-PE) was about 25% lower than impact generated by I type (PET-AlOx/LDPE) and III type (PET-PVOH/LDPE) of packaging. Result revealed that the contribution of different gas barrier type to the overall environmental problem of packaging is not significant. The impact are mostly generated by using energy and materials during raw material extraction and production of different plastic materials as plastic polymers material as PE, LDPE and PET, but not gas barrier materials as AlOx, PVOH and EVOH. The LCA results could be useful in different decision-making processes, for selecting resource efficient and environmentally low-impact materials.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, polymer packaging, resource efficiency, materials extraction, polyethylene terephthalate

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
270 Extraction of Dyes Using an Aqueous Two-Phase System in Stratified and Slug Flow Regimes of a Microchannel

Authors: Garima, S. Pushpavanam

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In this work, analysis of an Aqueous two-phase (polymer-salt) system for extraction of sunset yellow dye is carried out. A polymer-salt ATPS i.e.; Polyethylene glycol-600 and anhydrous sodium sulfate is used for the extraction. Conditions are chosen to ensure that the extraction results in a concentration of the dye in one of the phases. The dye has a propensity to come to the Polyethylene glycol-600 phase. This extracted sunset yellow dye is degraded photo catalytically into less harmful components. The cloud point method was used to obtain the binodal curve of ATPS. From the binodal curve, the composition of salt and Polyethylene glycol -600 was chosen such that the volume of Polyethylene glycol-600 rich phase is low. This was selected to concentrate the dye from a dilute solution in a large volume of contaminated solution into a small volume. This pre-concentration step provides a high reaction rate for photo catalytic degradation reaction. Experimentally the dye is extracted from the salt phase to Polyethylene glycol -600 phase in batch extraction. This was found to be very fast and all dye was extracted. The concentration of sunset yellow dye in salt and polymer phase is measured at 482nm by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry. The extraction experiment in micro channels under stratified flow is analyzed to determine factors which affect the dye extraction. Focus will be on obtaining slug flow by adding nanoparticles in micro channel. The primary aim is to exploit the fact that slug flow will help improve mass transfer rate from one phase to another through internal circulation in dispersed phase induced by shear.

Keywords: aqueous two phase system, binodal curve, extraction, sunset yellow dye

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
269 An Investigation on Fresh and Hardened Properties of Concrete While Using Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) as Aggregate

Authors: Md. Jahidul Islam, A. K. M. Rakinul Islam, M. Salamah Meherier

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This study investigates the suitability of using plastic, such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET), as a partial replacement of natural coarse and fine aggregates (for example, brick chips and natural sand) to produce lightweight concrete for load bearing structural members. The plastic coarse aggregate (PCA) and plastic fine aggregate (PFA) were produced from melted polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Tests were conducted using three different water–cement (w/c) ratios, such as 0.42, 0.48, and 0.57, where PCA and PFA were used as 50% replacement of coarse and fine aggregate respectively. Fresh and hardened properties of concrete have been compared for natural aggregate concrete (NAC), PCA concrete (PCC) and PFA concrete (PFC). The compressive strength of concrete at 28 days varied with the water–cement ratio for both the PCC and PFC. Between PCC and PFC, PFA concrete showed the highest compressive strength (23.7 MPa) at 0.42 w/c ratio and also the lowest compressive strength (13.7 MPa) at 0.57 w/c ratio. Significant reduction in concrete density was mostly observed for PCC samples, ranging between 1977–1924 kg/m³. With the increase in water–cement ratio PCC achieved higher workability compare to both NAC and PFC. It was found that both the PCA and PFA contained concrete achieved the required compressive strength to be used for structural purpose as partial replacement of the natural aggregate; but to obtain the desired lower density as lightweight concrete the PCA is most suited.

Keywords: polyethylene terephthalate, plastic aggregate, concrete, fresh and hardened properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
268 The Effect of Irgafos 168 in the Thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene

Authors: Mahdi Almaky

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The thermostabilization of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) is realized through the action of primary antioxidant such as phenolic antioxidants and secondary antioxidants as aryl phosphates. The efficiency of two secondary antioxidants, commercially named Irgafos 168 and Weston 399, was investigated using different physical, mechanical, spectroscopic, and calorimetric methods. The effect of both antioxidants on the processing stability and long term stability of HDPE produced in Ras Lanuf oil and gas processing Company were measured and compared. The combination of Irgafos 168 with Irganox 1010, as used in smaller concentration, results in a synergetic effect against thermo-oxidation and protect better than the combination of Weston 399 with Irganox 1010 against the colour change at processing temperature and during long term oxidation process.

Keywords: thermostabilization, high density polyethylene, primary antioxidant, phenolic antioxidant, Irgafos 168, Irganox 1010, Weston 399

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
267 The Effect of Surface Modifiers on the Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Silicon Carbide Filled High-Density Polyethylene

Authors: R. Dangtungee, A. Rattanapan, S. Siengchin

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Waste silicon carbide (waste SiC) filled high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with and without surface modifiers were studied. Two types of surface modifiers namely; high-density polyethylene-grafted-maleic anhydride (HDPE-g-MA) and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane have been used in this study. The composites were produced using a two roll mill, extruder and shaped in a hydraulic compression molding machine. The mechanical properties of polymer composites such as flexural strength and modulus, impact strength, tensile strength, stiffness and hardness were investigated over a range of compositions. It was found that, flexural strength and modulus, tensile modulus and hardness increased, whereas impact strength and tensile strength decreased with the increasing in filler contents, compared to the neat HDPE. At similar filler content, the effect of both surface modifiers increased flexural modulus, impact strength, tensile strength and stiffness but reduced the flexural strength. Morphological investigation using SEM revealed that the improvement in mechanical properties was due to enhancement of the interfacial adhesion between waste SiC and HDPE.

Keywords: high-density polyethylene, HDPE-g-MA, mechanical properties, morphological properties, silicon carbide, waste silicon carbide

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
266 Phase Diagrams and Liquid-Liquid Extraction in Aqueous Biphasic Systems Formed by Polyethylene Glycol and Potassium Sodium Tartrate at 303.15 K

Authors: Amanda Cristina de Oliveira, Elias de Souza Monteiro Filho, Roberta Ceriani

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Liquid-liquid extraction in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) constitutes a powerful tool for purifying bio-materials, such as cells, organelles, proteins, among others. In this work, the extraction of the bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied in systems formed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) (1500, 4000, and 6000 g.mol⁻¹) + potassium sodium tartrate + water at 303.15°K. Phase diagrams were obtained by turbidimetry and Merchuk’s method (1998). The experimental tie-lines were described using the Othmer-Tobias and Bancroft correlations. ATPSs were correlated with the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL) model. The results were considered excellent according to global root-mean-square deviations found which were between 0,72 and 1,13%. The concentrations of the proteins in each phase were determined by spectrophotometry at 280 nm, finding partition efficiencies greater than 71%.

Keywords: aqueous two phases systems, bovine serum albumin , liquid-liquid extraction, polyethylene glycol

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
265 The Role of Secondary Filler on the Fracture Toughness of HDPE/Clay Nanocomposites

Authors: R. Kamarudzaman, A. Kalam, N. A. Mohd Fadzil

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Oil Palm Fruit Bunch Fiber (OPEFB) was used as secondary filler in HDPE/clay nanocomposites. The composites were prepared by melt compounding which contains High Density Polyethylene (HDPE), OPEFB fibers, Maleic Anhydride Graft Polyethylene (MAPE) and four different clay loading (3, 5, 7 and 10 PE nanoclay pellets per hundred of HDPE pellets). Four OPEFB sizes (180 µm, 250 µm, 300 µm and 355 µm) were added in the composites to investigate their effects on fracture toughness. Fracture toughness of the composites were determined according to ASTM D5045 and Single Edge Notch Bending (SENB) been employed during the test. The effects of alkali treatment were also investigated in this study. The results indicate that the fracture toughness slightly increased as clay loading increased. The highest value of fracture toughness was 0.47 and 1.06 MPa.m1/2 at 5 phr for both types of clay loading. The presence of filler as reinforcement with the matrix indicates the enhancement of composites compared to those without the filler.

Keywords: oil palm empty fruit bunch, fiber, polyethylene, polymer nanocomposite, impact strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
264 Effects of Additives on Thermal Decompositions of Carbon Black/High Density Polyethylene Compounds

Authors: Orathai Pornsunthorntawee, Wareerom Polrut, Nopphawan Phonthammachai

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In the present work, the effects of additives, including contents of the added antioxidants and type of the selected metallic stearates (either calcium stearate (CaSt) or zinc stearate (ZnSt)), on the thermal stabilities of carbon black (CB)/high density polyethylene (HDPE) compounds were studied. The results showed that the AO contents played a key role in the thermal stabilities of the CB/HDPE compounds—the higher the AO content, the higher the thermal stabilities. Although the CaSt-containing compounds were slightly superior to those with ZnSt in terms of the thermal stabilities, the remaining solid residue of CaSt after heated to the temperature of 600 °C (mainly calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique) seemed to catalyze the decomposition of CB in the HDPE-based compounds. Hence, the quantification of CB in the CaSt-containing compounds with a muffle furnace gave an inaccurate CB content—much lower than actual value. However, this phenomenon was negligible in the ZnSt-containing system.

Keywords: antioxidant, stearate, carbon black, polyethylene

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
263 Standard and Processing of Photodegradable Polyethylene

Authors: Nurul-Akidah M. Yusak, Rahmah Mohamed, Noor Zuhaira Abd Aziz

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The introduction of degradable plastic materials into agricultural sectors has represented a promising alternative to promote green agriculture and environmental friendly of modern farming practices. Major challenges of developing degradable agricultural films are to identify the most feasible types of degradation mechanisms, composition of degradable polymers and related processing techniques. The incorrect choice of degradable mechanisms to be applied during the degradation process will cause premature losses of mechanical performance and strength. In order to achieve controlled process of agricultural film degradation, the compositions of degradable agricultural film also important in order to stimulate degradation reaction at required interval of time and to achieve sustainability of the modern agricultural practices. A set of photodegradable polyethylene based agricultural film was developed and produced, following the selective optimization of processing parameters of the agricultural film manufacturing system. Example of agricultural films application for oil palm seedlings cultivation is presented.

Keywords: photodegradable polyethylene, plasticulture, processing schemes

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
262 Role of Ionic Solutions Affect Water Treeing Propagation in XLPE Insulation for High Voltage Cable

Authors: T. Boonraksa, B. Marungsri

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This paper presents the experimental results on role of ionic solutions affect water treeing propagation in cross-linked polyethylene insulation for high voltage cable. To study the water treeing expansion due to the ionic solutions, discs of 4mm thickness and 4cm diameter were taken from 115 kV XLPE insulation cable and were used as test specimen in this study. Ionic solutions composed of CuSO4, FeSO4, Na2SO4 and K2SO4 were used. Each specimen was immersed in 0.1 mole ionic solutions and was tested for 120 hrs. under a voltage stress at 7 kV AC rms, 1000 Hz. The results show that Na2SO4 and CuSO4solutions play an important role in the expansion of water treeing and cause degradation of the cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) in the presence of the applied electric field.

Keywords: ionic solutions, water treeing, water treeing expansion, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
261 Co-Pyrolysis of Olive Pomace with Plastic Wastes and Characterization of Pyrolysis Products

Authors: Merve Sogancioglu, Esra Yel, Ferda Tartar, Nihan Canan Iskender

Abstract:

Waste polyethylene (PE) is classified as waste low density polyethylene (LDPE) and waste high density polyethylene (HDPE) according to their densities. Pyrolysis of plastic waste may have an important role in dealing with the enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world, by decreasing their negative impact on the environment. This waste may be converted into economically valuable hydrocarbons, which can be used both as fuels and as feed stock in the petrochemical industry. End product yields and properties depend on the plastic waste composition. Pyrolytic biochar is one of the most important products of waste plastics pyrolysis. In this study, HDPE and LDPE plastic wastes were co-pyrolyzed together with waste olive pomace. Pyrolysis runs were performed at temperature 700°C with heating rates of 5°C/min. Higher pyrolysis oil and gas yields were observed by the using waste olive pomace. The biochar yields of HDPE- olive pomace and LDPEolive pomace were 6.37% and 7.26% respectively for 50% olive pomace doses. The calorific value of HDPE-olive pomace and LDPE-olive pomace of pyrolysis oil were 8350 and 8495 kCal.

Keywords: biochar, co-pyrolysis, waste plastic, waste olive pomace

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260 Investigation into the Possibility of Using Recycled Polyethelene to Replace Natural Rubber in the Production of Different Products

Authors: Otokiti Mojeed Jimoh

Abstract:

This work investigates the possibility of using recycled polyethylene LDPE as a base polymer in production of different products (shoe sole, foot mat, and many more) using carbon black as a filler to improve its mechanical properties, like hardness, tensile stress properties and elongation at break properties, from the result so far gotten there is a possibility that there is an increase in the mechanical properties of the sample compare to natural rubber sample.

Keywords: recycled polyethylene, base polymer, hardness, stress properties

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259 Synthesis and Characterisation of Different Blends of Virgin Polyethylene Modified by Naturel Fibres Alfa

Authors: Benalia Kouini

Abstract:

The basic idea of this study is to promote a polyethylene recycle and local vegetable fiber (alfa) in the development and characterization of a new composite material. In this work, different sizes of fiber alfa (<63 microns, between 63 and 125 microns, 125 and 250 microns) were incorporated into the blends (HDPE / recycled HDPE) with different methods elaboration (extruder twin-screw and twin-cylinder mixer). The fiber was modified by sodium hydroxide in order to evaluate the effect of alkaline treatment on the interfacial adhesion and therefore the properties of composites prepared. These were characterized by various techniques: mechanical (tensile and Charpy impact test), Rheological (melt flow), morphological (SEM). The demonstration of the effect of alkali treatment on alfa fiber was examined by FTIR spectroscopy and morphological analysis. The introduction of alfa treated fiber in the (HDPE/recycled HDPE) increased stress, impact strength and Young's modulus on the contrary, the elongation at break decreased. The results of the mechanical properties showed an improvement is better in extrusion twin-screw mixer than two cylinders.

Keywords: naturel fiber, alfa, recycling, blends, polyethylene

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258 Using MALDI-TOF MS to Detect Environmental Microplastics (Polyethylene, Polyethylene Terephthalate, and Polystyrene) within a Simulated Tissue Sample

Authors: Kara J. Coffman-Rea, Karen E. Samonds

Abstract:

Microplastic pollution is an urgent global threat to our planet and human health. Microplastic particles have been detected within our food, water, and atmosphere, and found within the human stool, placenta, and lung tissue. However, most spectrometric microplastic detection methods require chemical digestion which can alter or destroy microplastic particles and makes it impossible to acquire information about their in-situ distribution. MALDI TOF MS (Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) is an analytical method using a soft ionization technique that can be used for polymer analysis. This method provides a valuable opportunity to both acquire information regarding the in-situ distribution of microplastics and also minimizes the destructive element of chemical digestion. In addition, MALDI TOF MS allows for expanded analysis of the microplastics including detection of specific additives that may be present within them. MALDI TOF MS is particularly sensitive to sample preparation and has not yet been used to analyze environmental microplastics within their specific location (e.g., biological tissues, sediment, water). In this study, microplastics were created using polyethylene gloves, polystyrene micro-foam, and polyethylene terephthalate cable sleeving. Plastics were frozen using liquid nitrogen and ground to obtain small fragments. An artificial tissue was created using a cellulose sponge as scaffolding coated with a MaxGel Extracellular Matrix to simulate human lung tissue. Optimal preparation techniques (e.g., matrix, cationization reagent, solvent, mixing ratio, laser intensity) were first established for each specific polymer type. The artificial tissue sample was subsequently spiked with microplastics, and specific polymers were detected using MALDI-TOF-MS. This study presents a novel method for the detection of environmental polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate, and polystyrene microplastics within a complex sample. Results of this study provide an effective method that can be used in future microplastics research and can aid in determining the potential threats to environmental and human health that they pose.

Keywords: environmental plastic pollution, MALDI-TOF MS, microplastics, polymer identification

Procedia PDF Downloads 35