Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4840

Search results for: carbon trading volume

4840 The Carbon Trading Price and Trading Volume Forecast in Shanghai City by BP Neural Network

Authors: Liu Zhiyuan, Sun Zongdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the BP neural network model is established to predict the carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City. First of all, we find the data of carbon trading price and carbon trading volume in Shanghai City from September 30, 2015 to December 23, 2016. The carbon trading price and trading volume data were processed to get the average value of each 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 carbon trading price and trading volume. Then, these data are used as input of BP neural network model. Finally, after the training of BP neural network, the prediction values of Shanghai carbon trading price and trading volume are obtained, and the model is tested.

Keywords: Carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, BP neural network model, Shanghai City

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
4839 Risk Factors’ Analysis on Shanghai Carbon Trading

Authors: Zhaojun Wang, Zongdi Sun, Zhiyuan Liu

Abstract:

First of all, the carbon trading price and trading volume in Shanghai are transformed by Fourier transform, and the frequency response diagram is obtained. Then, the frequency response diagram is analyzed and the Blackman filter is designed. The Blackman filter is used to filter, and the carbon trading time domain and frequency response diagram are obtained. After wavelet analysis, the carbon trading data were processed; respectively, we got the average value for each 5 days, 10 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 60 days. Finally, the data are used as input of the Back Propagation Neural Network model for prediction.

Keywords: Shanghai carbon trading, carbon trading price, carbon trading volume, wavelet analysis, BP neural network model

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
4838 Reverse Logistics, Green Supply Chain, and Carbon Trading

Authors: Neha Asthana, Vishal Krishna Prasad

Abstract:

Reverse logistics and green supply chain form an interconnected and interwoven network of parameters that contribute to enhancement and incremental exchange in the triple bottom line in the consistently changing and fragmenting markets of the globalizing markets of today. Reverse logistics not only contributes to completing the supply chain in a comprehensive and synchronized manner but also contributes to a significant degree in optimizing green supply chains through procedures such as recycling, refurbishing etc. contributing to waste reduction. Carbon trading, owing to its limitations in the global context and being in a nascent stage seeks plethora of research to determine its full application in synergy with reverse logistics and green supply chain.

Keywords: reverse logistics, carbon trading, carbon emissions, green supply chain

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4837 Reasons of Change in Security Prices and Price Volatility: An Analysis of the European Carbon Futures Market

Authors: Boulis M. Ibrahim, Iordanis A. Kalaitzoglou

Abstract:

A micro structural pricing model is proposed in which price components account for learning by incorporating changing expectations of the trading intensity and the risk level of incoming trades. An analysis of European carbon futures transactions finds expected trading intensity to increase the information component and decrease the liquidity component of price changes, but at different rates. Among the results, the expected persistence in trading intensity explains the majority of the auto correlations in the level and the conditional volatility of price changes, helps predict hourly patterns in the bid–ask spread and differentiates between the impact of buy versus sell and continuing versus reversing trades.

Keywords: CO2 emission allowances, market microstructure, duration, price discovery

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4836 VaR Estimation Using the Informational Content of Futures Traded Volume

Authors: Amel Oueslati, Olfa Benouda

Abstract:

New Value at Risk (VaR) estimation is proposed and investigated. The well-known two stages Garch-EVT approach uses conditional volatility to generate one step ahead forecasts of VaR. With daily data for twelve stocks that decompose the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) index, this paper incorporates the volume in the first stage volatility estimation. Afterwards, the forecasting ability of this conditional volatility concerning the VaR estimation is compared to that of a basic volatility model without considering any trading component. The results are significant and bring out the importance of the trading volume in the VaR measure.

Keywords: Garch-EVT, value at risk, volume, volatility

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
4835 A Data Science Pipeline for Algorithmic Trading: A Comparative Study in Applications to Finance and Cryptoeconomics

Authors: Luyao Zhang, Tianyu Wu, Jiayi Li, Carlos-Gustavo Salas-Flores, Saad Lahrichi

Abstract:

Recent advances in AI have made algorithmic trading a central role in finance. However, current research and applications are disconnected information islands. We propose a generally applicable pipeline for designing, programming, and evaluating algorithmic trading of stock and crypto tokens. Moreover, we provide comparative case studies for four conventional algorithms, including moving average crossover, volume-weighted average price, sentiment analysis, and statistical arbitrage. Our study offers a systematic way to program and compare different trading strategies. Moreover, we implement our algorithms by object-oriented programming in Python3, which serves as open-source software for future academic research and applications.

Keywords: algorithmic trading, AI for finance, fintech, machine learning, moving average crossover, volume weighted average price, sentiment analysis, statistical arbitrage, pair trading, object-oriented programming, python3

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4834 Trading Volume on the Tunisian Financial Market: An Approach Explaining the Hypothesis of Investors Overconfidence

Authors: Fatma Ismailia, Malek Saihi

Abstract:

This research provides an explanation of exchange incentives on the Tunis stock market from a behavioural point of view. The elucidation of the anomalies of excessive volume of transactions and that of excessive volatility cannot be done without the recourse to the psychological aspects of investors. The excessive confidence has been given the predominant role for the explanation of these phenomena. Indeed, when investors store increments, they become more confident about the precision of their private information and their exchange activities then become more aggressive on the subsequent periods. These overconfident investors carry out the intensive exchanges leading to an increase of securities volatility. The objective of this research is to identify whether the trading volume and the excessive volatility of securities observed on the Tunisian stock market come from the excessive exchange of overconfident investors. We use a sample of daily observations over the period January 1999 - October 2007 and we relied on various econometric tests including the VAR model. Our results provide evidence on the importance to consider the bias of overconfidence in the analysis of Tunis stock exchange specificities. The results reveal that the excess of confidence has a major impact on the trading volume while using daily temporal intervals.

Keywords: overconfidence, trading volume, efficiency, rationality, anomalies, behavioural finance, cognitive biases

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
4833 Options Trading and Crash Risk

Authors: Cameron Truong, Mikhail Bhatia, Yangyang Chen, Viet Nga Cao

Abstract:

Using a sample of U.S. firms between 1996 and 2011, this paper documents a positive association between options trading volume and future stock price crash risk. This relation is evidently more pronounced among firms with higher information asymmetry, business uncertainty, and short-sale constraints. In a dichotomous cross-sectional setting, we also document that firms with options trading have higher future crash risk than firms without options trading. We further show in a difference-in-difference analysis that firms experience an increase in crash risk immediately after the listing of options. The results suggest that options traders are able of identifying bad news hoarding by management and choose to trade in a liquid options market in anticipation of future crashes.

Keywords: bad news hoarding, cross-sectional setting, options trading, stock price crash

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4832 Supply Chain Coordination under Carbon Trading Mechanism in Case of Conflict

Authors: Fuqiang Wang, Jun Liu, Liyan Cai

Abstract:

This paper investigates the coordination of the conflicting two-stage low carbon supply chain consisting of upstream and downstream manufacturers. The conflict means that the upstream manufacturer takes action for carbon emissions reduction under carbon trading mechanism while the downstream manufacturer’s production cost rises. It assumes for the Stackelberg game that the upstream manufacturer plays as a leader and the downstream manufacturer does as a follower. Four kinds of the situation of decentralized decision making, centralized decision-making, the production cost sharing contract and the carbon emissions reduction revenue sharing contract under decentralized decision making are considered. The backward induction approach is adopted to solve the game. The results show that the more intense the conflict is, the lower the efficiency of carbon emissions reduction and the higher the retail price is. The optimal investment of the decentralized supply chain under the two contracts is unchanged and still lower than that of the centralized supply chain. Both the production cost sharing contract and the carbon emissions reduction revenue sharing contract cannot coordinate the supply chain, because that the sharing cost or carbon emissions reduction sharing revenue will transfer through the wholesale price mechanism. As a result, it requires more complicated contract forms to coordinate such a supply chain.

Keywords: cap-and-trade mechanism, carbon emissions reduction, conflict, supply chain coordination

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4831 A Prediction Model Using the Price Cyclicality Function Optimized for Algorithmic Trading in Financial Market

Authors: Cristian Păuna

Abstract:

After the widespread release of electronic trading, automated trading systems have become a significant part of the business intelligence system of any modern financial investment company. An important part of the trades is made completely automatically today by computers using mathematical algorithms. The trading decisions are taken almost instantly by logical models and the orders are sent by low-latency automatic systems. This paper will present a real-time price prediction methodology designed especially for algorithmic trading. Based on the price cyclicality function, the methodology revealed will generate price cyclicality bands to predict the optimal levels for the entries and exits. In order to automate the trading decisions, the cyclicality bands will generate automated trading signals. We have found that the model can be used with good results to predict the changes in market behavior. Using these predictions, the model can automatically adapt the trading signals in real-time to maximize the trading results. The paper will reveal the methodology to optimize and implement this model in automated trading systems. After tests, it is proved that this methodology can be applied with good efficiency in different timeframes. Real trading results will be also displayed and analyzed in order to qualify the methodology and to compare it with other models. As a conclusion, it was found that the price prediction model using the price cyclicality function is a reliable trading methodology for algorithmic trading in the financial market.

Keywords: algorithmic trading, automated trading systems, financial markets, high-frequency trading, price prediction

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
4830 The Impact of Reshuffle in Indonesian Working Cabinet Volume II to Abnormal Return and Abnormal Trading Activity of Companies Listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index

Authors: Fatin Fadhilah Hasib, Dewi Nuraini, Nisful Laila, Muhammad Madyan

Abstract:

A big political event such as Cabinet reshuffle mostly can affect the stock price positively or negatively, depend on the perception of each investor and potential investor. This study aims to analyze the movement of the market and trading activities which respect to an event using event study method. This method is used to measure the movement of the stock exchange in which abnormal return can be obtained by investor related to the event. This study examines the differences of reaction on abnormal return and trading volume activity from the companies listed in the Jakarta Islamic Index (JII), before and after the announcement of the Cabinet Work Volume II on 27 July 2016. The study was conducted in observation of 21 days in total which consists of 10 days before the event and 10 days after the event. The method used in this study is event study with market adjusted model method that observes market reaction to the information of an announcement or publicity events. The Results from the study showed that there is no significant negative nor positive reaction at the abnormal return and abnormal trading before and after the announcement of the cabinet reshuffle. It is indicated by the results of statistical tests whose value not exceeds the level of significance. Stock exchange of the JII just reflects from the previous stock prices without reflecting the information regarding to the Cabinet reshuffle event. It can be concluded that the capital market is efficient with a weak form.

Keywords: abnormal return, abnormal trading volume activity, event study, political event

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
4829 Parabolic Impact Law of High Frequency Exchanges on Price Formation in Commodities Market

Authors: L. Maiza, A. Cantagrel, M. Forestier, G. Laucoin, T. Regali

Abstract:

Evaluation of High Frequency Trading (HFT) impact on financial markets is very important for traders who use market analysis to detect winning transaction opportunity. Analysis of HFT data on tobacco commodity market is discussed here and interesting linear relationship has been shown between trading frequency and difference between averaged trading prices above and below considered trading frequency. This may open new perspectives on markets data understanding and could provide possible interpretation of Adam Smith invisible hand.

Keywords: financial market, high frequency trading, analysis, impacts, Adam Smith invisible hand

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4828 Application of the Discrete-Event Simulation When Optimizing of Business Processes in Trading Companies

Authors: Maxat Bokambayev, Bella Tussupova, Aisha Mamyrova, Erlan Izbasarov

Abstract:

Optimization of business processes in trading companies is reviewed in the report. There is the presentation of the “Wholesale Customer Order Handling Process” business process model applicable for small and medium businesses. It is proposed to apply the algorithm for automation of the customer order processing which will significantly reduce labor costs and time expenditures and increase the profitability of companies. An optimized business process is an element of the information system of accounting of spare parts trading network activity. The considered algorithm may find application in the trading industry as well.

Keywords: business processes, discrete-event simulation, management, trading industry

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
4827 A Multi-Dimensional Neural Network Using the Fisher Transform to Predict the Price Evolution for Algorithmic Trading in Financial Markets

Authors: Cristian Pauna

Abstract:

Trading the financial markets is a widespread activity today. A large number of investors, companies, public of private funds are buying and selling every day in order to make profit. Algorithmic trading is the prevalent method to make the trade decisions after the electronic trading release. The orders are sent almost instantly by computers using mathematical models. This paper will present a price prediction methodology based on a multi-dimensional neural network. Using the Fisher transform, the neural network will be instructed for a low-latency auto-adaptive process in order to predict the price evolution for the next period of time. The model is designed especially for algorithmic trading and uses the real-time price series. It was found that the characteristics of the Fisher function applied at the nodes scale level can generate reliable trading signals using the neural network methodology. After real time tests it was found that this method can be applied in any timeframe to trade the financial markets. The paper will also include the steps to implement the presented methodology into an automated trading system. Real trading results will be displayed and analyzed in order to qualify the model. As conclusion, the compared results will reveal that the neural network methodology applied together with the Fisher transform at the nodes level can generate a good price prediction and can build reliable trading signals for algorithmic trading.

Keywords: algorithmic trading, automated trading systems, financial markets, high-frequency trading, neural network

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4826 The Application of Cellulose-Based Halloysite-Carbon Adsorbent to Remove Chloroxylenol from Water

Authors: Laura Frydel

Abstract:

Chloroxylenol is a common ingredient in disinfectants. Due to the use of this compound in large amounts, it is more and more often detected in rivers, sewage, and also in human body fluids. In recent years, there have been concerns about the potentially harmful effects of chloroxylenol on human health and the environment. This paper presents the synthesis, a brief characterization and the use of a halloysite-carbon adsorbent for the removal of chloroxylenol from water. The template in the halloysite-carbon adsorbent was acid treated bleached halloysite, and the carbon precursor was cellulose dissolved in zinc (II) chloride, which was dissolved in 37% hydrochloric acid. The FTIR spectra before and after the adsorption process allowed to determine the presence of functional groups, bonds in the halloysite-carbon composite, and the binding mechanism of the adsorbent and adsorbate. The morphology of the bleached halloysite sample and the sample of the halloysite-carbon adsorbent were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with surface analysis by X-ray dispersion spectrometry (EDS). The specific surface area, total pore volume and mesopore and micropore volume were determined using the ASAP 2020 volumetric adsorption analyzer. Total carbon and total organic carbon were determined for the halloysite-carbon adsorbent. The halloysite-carbon adsorbent was used to remove chloroxylenol from water. The degree of removal of chloroxylenol from water using the halloysite-carbon adsorbent was about 90%. Adsorption studies show that the halloysite-carbon composite can be used as an effective adsorbent for removing chloroxylenol from water.

Keywords: adsorption, cellulose, chloroxylenol, halloysite

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
4825 The Impact of Insider Trading on Open Market Share Repurchase: A Study in Indian Context

Authors: Sarthak Kumar Jena, Chandra Sekhar Mishra, Prabina Rajib

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper aims to derive undervaluation signal from the insiders trading of Indian companies where the ownership is complex and concentrated, investors protection is weak, and the insider rules and regulations are not stringent like developed country. This study examines the relationship between insider trading with short term and long term abnormal return. The study also examines the relationship between insider trading and the actual share repurchase by the firm. Methodology: A sample of 78 companies over the period 2008-2013 are analyzed in the study due to not availability of insider data in Indian context. For preliminary analysis T-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test is used to find the difference between the insider trading before and after the share repurchase announcement. Tobit model is used to find out whether insider trading influence shares repurchase decisions or not. Return on the basis of market model and buy hold are calculated in the previous year and the following year of share repurchase announcement. Findings: The paper finds that insider trading around share repurchase is more than control firms and there is positive and significant difference in insider buying between the previous year of share buyback announcement and the following year of buyback announcement. Insider buying before share repurchase announcement has a positive influence on share repurchase decisions. We find insider buying has a positive and significant relationship with announcement return, whereas insider selling has a negative significant relationship with announcement return. Actual share repurchase and program completion also depend on insider trading before share repurchase. Research limitation: The study is constrained by the small sample size, so the results should be viewed by keeping this limitation in mind. Originality: The paper is to our best knowledge the first study based on Indian context to extend the insider trading literature to share repurchase event and examine insider trading to find out undervaluation signal associated with insider buying.

Keywords: insider trading, buyback, open market share repurchase, signalling

Procedia PDF Downloads 124
4824 A Hybrid Expert System for Generating Stock Trading Signals

Authors: Hosein Hamisheh Bahar, Mohammad Hossein Fazel Zarandi, Akbar Esfahanipour

Abstract:

In this paper, a hybrid expert system is developed by using fuzzy genetic network programming with reinforcement learning (GNP-RL). In this system, the frame-based structure of the system uses the trading rules extracted by GNP. These rules are extracted by using technical indices of the stock prices in the training time period. For developing this system, we applied fuzzy node transition and decision making in both processing and judgment nodes of GNP-RL. Consequently, using these method not only did increase the accuracy of node transition and decision making in GNP's nodes, but also extended the GNP's binary signals to ternary trading signals. In the other words, in our proposed Fuzzy GNP-RL model, a No Trade signal is added to conventional Buy or Sell signals. Finally, the obtained rules are used in a frame-based system implemented in Kappa-PC software. This developed trading system has been used to generate trading signals for ten companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE). The simulation results in the testing time period shows that the developed system has more favorable performance in comparison with the Buy and Hold strategy.

Keywords: fuzzy genetic network programming, hybrid expert system, technical trading signal, Tehran stock exchange

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
4823 Carbon Pool Assessment in Two Community Forest in Nepal

Authors: Khemnath Kharel

Abstract:

Forest itself is a factory as well as product. It supplies tangible and intangible goods and services. It supplies timber, fuel wood, fodder, grass leaf litter as well as non timber edible goods and medicinal and aromatic products additionally provides environmental services. These environmental services are of local, national, or even global importance. In Nepal more than 19 thousands community forests are providing environmental service in less economic benefit than actual efficiency. There is a risk of cost of management of those forest exceeds benefits and forests get converted to open access resources in future. Most of the environmental goods and services don’t have markets which mean no prices at which they are available to the consumers therefore the valuation of these services goods and services establishment of paying mechanism for such services and insure the benefit to community is more relevant in local as well as global scale. There are few examples of carbon trading in domestic level to meet the country wide emission goal. In this contest the study aims to explore the public attitude towards carbon offsetting and their responsibility over service providers. This study helps in promotion of environment service awareness among general people and service provider; community forest. The research helps to unveil the carbon pool scenario in community forest and willingness to pay for carbon offsetting of people who are consuming more energy than general people and emitting relatively more carbon in atmosphere. The study has assessed the carbon pool status in two community forest. In the study in two community forests carbon pools were assessed following the guideline “Forest Carbon Inventory Guideline 2010” prescribed by Ministry of Forest and soil Conservation, Nepal. Final out comes of analysis in intensively managed area of Hokse CF recorded as 103.58 tons C /ha with 6173.30 tons carbon stock. Similarly in Hariyali CF carbon density was recorded 251.72 mg C /ha. The total carbon stock of intensively managed blocks in Hariyali CF is 35839.62 tons carbon.

Keywords: carbon, offsetting, sequestration, valuation

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4822 Fragmentation of The Multilateral Trading System: The Impact of Regionalism on WTO Law

Authors: Musa Njabulo Shongwe

Abstract:

The multilateral trading system is facing a great danger of fragmentation. Its modus operandi, multilateralism, is increasingly becoming clogged by trade barriers created by the proliferation of preferential regional trading blocs. The paper explores the fragmentation of the multilateral trade regulation system (WTO law) by analysing whether and to what extent Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) have conflicted with the Multilateral Trading System. The paper examines the effects of RTA dominance in view of the WTO's quest for trade liberalization. This is an important inquiry because the proliferation of RTAs implies the erosion of the WTO law’s core principle of non-discrimination. The paper further explores how the proliferation of RTAs has endangered the coherence of the multilateral trading system. The study is carried out with the initial assumption that RTAs could be complementary and coherent with WTO law, and thus facilitate international trade and enhance development prospects. There is evidence that is tested by this study which suggests that RTAs can be divergent and hence undermine the WTO multilateral rules of regulating international trade. The paper finally recommends legal tools of regulating and managing the WTO-RTA interface, as well as other legal means of ensuring a harmonious existence between the WTO and regional trade arrangements.

Keywords: fragmentation of international trade law, regionalism, regional trade agreements, WTO law

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
4821 Hidden Markov Model for Financial Limit Order Book and Its Application to Algorithmic Trading Strategy

Authors: Sriram Kashyap Prasad, Ionut Florescu

Abstract:

This study models the intraday asset prices as driven by Markov process. This work identifies the latent states of the Hidden Markov model, using limit order book data (trades and quotes) to continuously estimate the states throughout the day. This work builds a trading strategy using estimated states to generate signals. The strategy utilizes current state to recalibrate buy/ sell levels and the transition between states to trigger stop-loss when adverse price movements occur. The proposed trading strategy is tested on the Stevens High Frequency Trading (SHIFT) platform. SHIFT is a highly realistic market simulator with functionalities for creating an artificial market simulation by deploying agents, trading strategies, distributing initial wealth, etc. In the implementation several assets on the NASDAQ exchange are used for testing. In comparison to a strategy with static buy/ sell levels, this study shows that the number of limit orders that get matched and executed can be increased. Executing limit orders earns rebates on NASDAQ. The system can capture jumps in the limit order book prices, provide dynamic buy/sell levels and trigger stop loss signals to improve the PnL (Profit and Loss) performance of the strategy.

Keywords: algorithmic trading, Hidden Markov model, high frequency trading, limit order book learning

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4820 Carbon Credits in Voluntary Carbon Markets: A Proposal for Iran

Authors: Saeed Mohammadirad

Abstract:

During the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries were forced to restrict carbon emissions. Although Iran was one of the countries of Kyoto protocol, due to some special conditions, it was not required to restrict its carbon emissions. Flexible mechanisms were developed to assist countries responsible for reducing their carbon emissions, and regulated carbon markets were introduced. Carbon credits which are provided by organizations in countries with no responsibility to restrict their carbon emissions are traded in voluntary markets. This study focuses on how to measure and report the carbon allowances and carbon credits from accounting view point under both regulated and voluntary markets.

Keywords: carbon credits, carbon markets, accounting, flexible mechanisms

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
4819 Carbon Pool Assessment in Community Forests, Nepal

Authors: Medani Prasad Rijal

Abstract:

Forest itself is a factory as well as product. It supplies tangible and intangible goods and services. It supplies timber, fuel wood, fodder, grass leaf litter as well as non timber edible goods and medicinal and aromatic products additionally provides environmental services. These environmental services are of local, national or even global importance. In Nepal, more than 19 thousands community forests are providing environmental service in less economic benefit than actual efficiency. There is a risk of cost of management of those forest exceeds benefits and forests get converted to open access resources in future. Most of the environmental goods and services do not have markets which mean no prices at which they are available to the consumers, therefore the valuation of these services goods and services establishment of paying mechanism for such services and insure the benefit to community is more relevant in local as well as global scale. There are few examples of carbon trading in domestic level to meet the country wide emission goal. In this contest, the study aims to explore the public attitude towards carbon offsetting and their responsibility over service providers. This study helps in promotion of environment service awareness among general people, service provider and community forest. The research helps to unveil the carbon pool scenario in community forest and willingness to pay for carbon offsetting of people who are consuming more energy than general people and emitting relatively more carbon in atmosphere. The study has assessed the carbon pool status in two community forest and valuated carbon service from community forest through willingness to pay in Dharan municipality situated in eastern. In the study, in two community forests carbon pools were assessed following the guideline “Forest Carbon Inventory Guideline 2010” prescribed by Ministry of Forest and soil Conservation, Nepal. Final outcomes of analysis in intensively managed area of Hokse CF recorded as 103.58 tons C /ha with 6173.30 tons carbon stock. Similarly in Hariyali CF carbon density was recorded 251.72 mg C /ha. The total carbon stock of intensively managed blocks in Hariyali CF is 35839.62 tons carbon.

Keywords: carbon, offsetting, sequestration, valuation, willingness to pay

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
4818 Carbon Nanotubes and Novel Applications for Textile

Authors: Ezgi Ismar

Abstract:

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are different from other allotropes of carbon, such as graphite, diamond and fullerene. Replacement of metals in flexible textiles has an advantage. Particularly in the last decade, both their electrical and mechanical properties have become an area of interest for Li-ion battery applications where the conductivity has a major importance. While carbon nanotubes are conductive, they are also less in weight compared to convectional conductive materials. Carbon nanotubes can be used inside the fiber so they can offer to create 3-D structures. In this review, you can find some examples of how carbon nanotubes adapted to textile products.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, conductive textiles, nanotechnology, nanotextiles

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4817 Blockchain for the Monitoring and Reporting of Carbon Emission Trading: A Case Study on Its Possible Implementation in the Danish Energy Industry

Authors: Nkechi V. Osuji

Abstract:

The use of blockchain to address the issue of climate change is increasingly a discourse among countries, industries, and stakeholders. For a long time, the European Union (EU) has been combating the issue of climate action in industries through sustainability programs. One of such programs is the EU monitoring reporting and verification (MRV) program of the EU ETS. However, the system has some key challenges and areas for improvement, which makes it inefficient. The main objective of the research is to look at how blockchain can be used to improve the inefficiency of the EU ETS program for the Danish energy industry with a focus on its monitoring and reporting framework. Applying empirical data from 13 semi-structured expert interviews, three case studies, and literature reviews, three outcomes are presented in the study. The first is on the current conditions and challenges of monitoring and reporting CO₂ emission trading. The second is putting into consideration if blockchain is the right fit to solve these challenges and how. The third stage looks at the factors that might affect the implementation of such a system and provides recommendations to mitigate these challenges. The first stage of the findings reveals that the monitoring and reporting of CO₂ emissions is a mandatory requirement by law for all energy operators under the EU ETS program. However, most energy operators are non-compliant with the program in reality, which creates a gap and causes challenges in the monitoring and reporting of CO₂ emission trading. Other challenges the study found out are the lack of transparency, lack of standardization in CO₂ accounting, and the issue of double-counting in the current system. The second stage of the research was guided by three case studies and requirement engineering (RE) to explore these identified challenges and if blockchain is the right fit to address them. This stage of the research addressed the main research question: how can blockchain be used for monitoring and reporting CO₂ emission trading in the energy industry. Through analysis of the study data, the researcher developed a conceptual private permissioned Hyperledger blockchain and elucidated on how it can address the identified challenges. Particularly, the smart contract of blockchain was highlighted as a key feature. This is because of its ability to automate, be immutable, and digitally enforce negotiations without a middleman. These characteristics are unique in solving the issue of compliance, transparency, standardization, and double counting identified. The third stage of the research presents technological constraints and a high level of stakeholder collaboration as major factors that might affect the implementation of the proposed system. The proposed conceptual model requires high-level integration with other technologies such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and machine learning. Therefore, the study encourages future research in these areas. This is because blockchain is continually evolving its technology capabilities. As such, it remains a topic of interest in research and development for addressing climate change. Such a study is a good contribution to creating sustainable practices to solve the global climate issue.

Keywords: blockchain, carbon emission trading, European Union emission trading system, monitoring and reporting

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4816 Masked Candlestick Model: A Pre-Trained Model for Trading Prediction

Authors: Ling Qi, Matloob Khushi, Josiah Poon

Abstract:

This paper introduces a pre-trained Masked Candlestick Model (MCM) for trading time-series data. The pre-trained model is based on three core designs. First, we convert trading price data at each data point as a set of normalized elements and produce embeddings of each element. Second, we generate a masked sequence of such embedded elements as inputs for self-supervised learning. Third, we use the encoder mechanism from the transformer to train the inputs. The masked model learns the contextual relations among the sequence of embedded elements, which can aid downstream classification tasks. To evaluate the performance of the pre-trained model, we fine-tune MCM for three different downstream classification tasks to predict future price trends. The fine-tuned models achieved better accuracy rates for all three tasks than the baseline models. To better analyze the effectiveness of MCM, we test the same architecture for three currency pairs, namely EUR/GBP, AUD/USD, and EUR/JPY. The experimentation results demonstrate MCM’s effectiveness on all three currency pairs and indicate the MCM’s capability for signal extraction from trading data.

Keywords: masked language model, transformer, time series prediction, trading prediction, embedding, transfer learning, self-supervised learning

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4815 ‘It Is a Class Thing’: Socio-Economic Factors Sustaining Illicit Trading in New Naira Notes in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Frank C. Amaechi, Adeyinka A. Aderinto, Usman A. Ojedokun, Oludayo Tade

Abstract:

Illicit trading in new naira notes has become a common practice in most communities in Nigeria despite the Central Bank Act’s in 2007 proscription of all forms of naira abuse. This study investigated the socio-economic factors sustaining illicit trading in new naira notes in Ibadan metropolis. The study was exploratory and cross-sectional in design. Neutralization theory was adopted as theoretical framework. Data were generated through the combination of in-depth interview and key informant interview methods. The purposive sampling technique was utilised to select five illicit traders of new naira notes, 32 patrons of the trade and six bank officials. Findings revealed that illicit trading in Nigeria’s national currency is flourishing because of the frequent demand for new naira notes that are not readily available in Nigerian banks. Also, the norm of cash spraying at social events is sustaining the illicit markets for new naira notes in Ibadan metropolis. In addition, a chain of network, comprising three principal actors, is behind the illegal business. A strict enforcement of the law banning cash spraying is advocated as a means of arresting this phenomenon.

Keywords: illicit trading, naira notes, national currency, Nigeria

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4814 Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on Thermophysical Properties of Photothermal Fluid and Enhancement of Photothermal Deflection Signal

Authors: Muhammad Shafiq Ahmed, Sabastine Ezugwu

Abstract:

Thermophysical properties of Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl₄), a photothermal fluid used frequently in Photothermal Deflection Spectroscopy (PDS), containing different volume fractions of single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNTs) and their effect on the amplitude of PDS signal are investigated. It is found that the presence of highly thermally conducting SWCNTs in CCl₄ enhances the heat transfer from heated sample to the adjoining photothermal fluid, resulting in an increase in the intensity of amplitude of PDS signal. With the increasing volume fraction of SWCNTs in CCl₄, the amplitude of PDS signal is nearly doubled for volume fraction fopt =3.7X10⁻³ %., after that the signal drops with a further increase in the fraction of SWCNTs. It is shown that the use of highly thermally conducting carbon nanotubes enhances the heat exchange coefficient between the heated sample surface and adjoining fluid, resulting to an enhancement of PDS signal and consequently the improvement in the sensitivity of PDS technique.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, heat transfer, nanofluid, photothermal deflection spectroscopy, thermophysical properties

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4813 Regional Trade Agreements versus the WTO: A Human Rights Perspective

Authors: Mohsen Qasemi

Abstract:

In the international economic order multilateral trading system which established by General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade 1947 (GATT) was dominant until about two decades ago. Regional Trade Agreements (RTAs) have changed this order and become an important phenomenon. One of the main objectives of the World Trade Organization (WTO) as a central institution of multilateral trading system is raising standards of living. There are many scholars who suggest that WTO should take steps to protect human rights in its activities. Although it has always been opposing views who declare that since WTO has no explicit rule for human rights, it has no human rights related obligations. At the time that the WTO was established, member states began to join RTAs and since then, the escalating growth of these agreements and their effects on multilateral trading system has been controversial. There are some aspects of RTAs that have received too little attention from scholars. It is important to take a different view and evaluate the RTAs based on non-commercial aspects. The present paper seeks to answer this question: which system could be more useful in protecting human rights, RTAs or WTO?

Keywords: WTO, RTAs, human rights, multilateral trading system, non discrimination

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4812 Investigation on Flexural Behavior of Non-Crimp 3D Orthogonal Weave Carbon Composite Reinforcement

Authors: Sh. Minapoor, S. Ajeli

Abstract:

Non-crimp three-dimensional (3D) orthogonal carbon fabrics are one of the useful textiles reinforcements in composites. In this paper, flexural and bending properties of a carbon non-crimp 3D orthogonal woven reinforcement are experimentally investigated. The present study is focused on the understanding and measurement of the main bending parameters including flexural stress, strain, and modulus. For this purpose, the three-point bending test method is used and the load-displacement curves are analyzed. The influence of some weave's parameters such as yarn type, geometry of structure, and fiber volume fraction on bending behavior of non-crimp 3D orthogonal carbon fabric is investigated. The obtained results also represent a dataset for the simulation of flexural behavior of non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave carbon composite reinforcement.

Keywords: non-crimp 3D orthogonal weave, carbon composite reinforcement, flexural behavior, three-point bending

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4811 Methyl Red Adsorption and Photodegradation on TiO₂ Modified Mesoporous Carbon Photocatalyst

Authors: Seyyed Ershad Moradi, Javad Khodaveisi, Atefeh Nasrollahpour

Abstract:

In this study, the highly ordered mesoporous carbon molecular sieve with high surface area and pore volume have been synthesized and modified by TiO₂ doping. The titanium oxide modified mesoporous carbon (Ti-OMC) was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), BET surface area, DRS also XRD analysis (low and wide angle). Degradation experiments were conducted in batch mode with the variables such as amount of contact time, initial solution concentration, and solution pH. The optimal conditions for the degradation of methyl red (MR) were 100 mg/L dye concentration, pH of 7, and 0.12 mg/L of TiO₂ modified mesoporous carbon photocatalyst dosage.

Keywords: mesoporous carbon, photodegradation, surface modification, titanium oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 127