Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 120

Search results for: nanofibers

120 Mesoporous Material Nanofibers by Electrospinning

Authors: Sh. Sohrabnezhad, A. Jafarzadeh

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In this paper, MCM-41 mesoporous material nanofibers were synthesized by an electrospinning technique. The nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), and nitrogen adsorption–desorption measurement. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as a silica source and fiber forming source, respectively. TEM and SEM images showed synthesis of MCM-41 nanofibers with a diameter of 200 nm. The pore diameter and surface area of calcined MCM-41 nanofibers was 2.2 nm and 970 m2/g, respectively. The morphology of the MCM-41 nanofibers depended on spinning voltages.

Keywords: electrospinning, electron microscopy, fiber technology, porous materials, X-ray techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
119 Carbon-Doped TiO2 Nanofibers Prepared by Electrospinning

Authors: ChoLiang Chung, YuMin Chen

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C-doped TiO2 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning successfully. Different amounts of carbon were added into the nanofibers by using chitosan, aiming to shift the wave length that is required to excite the photocatalyst from ultraviolet light to visible light. Different amounts of carbon and different atmosphere fibers were calcined at 500oC, and the optical characteristic of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers had been changed. characterizes of nanofibers were identified by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), UV-vis, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD is used to identify the phase composition of nanofibers. The morphology of nanofibers were explored by FE-SEM and AFM. Optical characteristics of absorption were measured by UV-Vis. Three dimension surface images of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers revealed different effects of processing. The results of XRD showed that the phase of C-doped TiO2 nanofibers transformed to rutile phase and anatase phase successfully. The results of AFM showed that the surface morphology of nanofibers became smooth after high temperature treatment. Images from FE-SEM revealed the average size of nanofibers. UV-vis results showed that the band-gap of TiO2 were reduced. Finally, we found out C-doped TiO2 nanofibers can change countenance of nanofiber and make it smoother.

Keywords: carbon, TiO2, chitosan, electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
118 Parameter Study for TPU Nanofibers Fabricated via Centrifugal Spinning

Authors: Yasin Akgül, Yusuf Polat, Emine Canbay, Ali Kılıç

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Electrospinning is the most common method to produce nanofibers. However, low production rate is still a big challenge for industrial applications of this method. In this study, morphology of nanofibers obtained from namely centrifugal spinning was investigated. Dominant process parameters acting on the fiber diameter and fiber orientation were discussed.

Keywords: centrifugal spinning, electrospinning, nanofiber, TPU nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
117 Fabrication and Characterization of Glass Nanofibers through Electrospinning of Silica Sol-Gel along with in situ Synthesis of Ag Nanoparticles

Authors: Mahsa Kangazian Kangazi, Ali Akbar Ghareh Aghaji, Majid Montazer

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Nowadays, silica nanofibers are highly regarded among the inorganic nanofibers due to the high reactivity and availability of silicon compounds in nature. Sol-gel process is required for electrospinning of silica nanofibers in which a metal alkoxide is hydrolyzed, and the viscosity is increased. In this study, silica nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were synthesized and electrospun from a mixture of silica sol with an easy spinnable polymer (PVA) as an additive. The silica sol contains tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), silver nitrate, distilled water, nitric acid, and ethanol. Nanofibers were formed through electrospinning setup. The nanofibers were calcinated to remove the solvent and additive polymer. Consequently, pure silica nanofibers were produced. FTIR analysis indicated entire removal of polyvinyl alcohol from the structure and formation of silan groups. The presence of silver, silica and oxygen was confirmed by EDX. Also, XRD patterns revealed the presence of silver nanoparticles with a mean crystal size of 18 nm. FESEM images showed that adding silver nitrate into the sol-gel, resulted in lower nanofibers diameter from 286 to 136 nm. Furthermore, the electrospun nanofibers were more resistance in acidic media than alkaline media.

Keywords: in situ synthesis of silver nanoparticles, silica nanofibers, sol-gel, tetraethyl orthosilicate

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
116 Preparation of Silicon-Based Oxide Hollow Nanofibers Using Single-Nozzle Electrospinning

Authors: Juiwen Liang, Choliang Chung

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In this study, the silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure were prepared using single-nozzle electrospinning and heat treatment. Firstly, precursor solution was prepared: the Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) dissolved in ethanol and to make sure the concentration of solution in appropriate using single-nozzle electrospinning to produce the nanofibers. Secondly, control morphology of the electrostatic spinning nanofibers was conducted, and design the temperature profile to created hollow nanofibers, exploring the morphology and properties of nanofibers. The characterized of nanofibers, following instruments were used: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Photoluminescence (PL), X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers, and 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of fibers. FE-SEM and TEM were used to explore the morphology and diameter of nanofibers and hollow nanofiber. The excitation and emission spectra explored by PL. Finally, XRD was used for identified crystallization of ceramic nanofibers. Using electrospinning technique followed by subsequent heat treatment, we have successfully prepared silicon-base oxide nanofibers with hollow structure. Thus, the microstructure and morphology of electrostatic spinning silicon-base oxide hollow nanofibers were explored. Major characteristics of the nanofiber in terms of crystalline, optical properties and crystal structure were identified.

Keywords: electrospinning, single-nozzle, hollow, nanofibers

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
115 Effect of Lemongrass Oil Containing Polycaprolactone Nanofibers on Biofilm Formation of Proteus mirabilis

Authors: Gulcan Sahal, Behzad Nasseri, Ali Akbar Ebrahimi, Isil Seyis Bilkay

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Proteus mirabilis strains which are natural colonizers of healthy individuals’ gastrointestinal tract are also known as common causes of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Nowadays, as a result of an increased resistance to various antimicrobial drugs, there has been a growing interest in natural products. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate biofilm formation of P. mirabilis strains on lemongrass oil containing polycaprolactone nanofibers. Polycaprolactone nanofibers with different lemongrass oil concentrations were successfully prepared by electrospinning and biofilm formation of P. mirabilis on these nanofibers were determined by ‘Crystal Violet Staining Assay’. According to our results, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some lemongrass oil concentrations, decreased biofilm formation of P. mirabilis and this effect increased in parallel with the increase in lemongrass oil concentration. Our results indicate that, polycaprolactone nanofibers with some concentrations of lemongrass oil may provide a treatment against catheter-associated urinary tract infections by means of causing an inhibition on biofilm formation of P. mirabilis.

Keywords: anti-biofilm, biofilm formation, essential oils, nanofibers, proteus mirabilis

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114 Advantages of a New Manufacturing Facility for the Production of Nanofiber

Authors: R. Knizek, D. Karhankova

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The production of nanofibers and the machinery for their production is a current issue. The pioneer, in the industrial production of nanofibers, is the machinery with the sales descriptions NanospiderTM from the company Elmarco, which came into being in 2008. Most of the production facilities, like NanospiderTM, use electrospinning. There are also other methods of industrial production of nanofibers, such as the centrifugal spinning process, which is used by FibeRio Technology Corporation. However, each method and machine has its advantages, but also disadvantages and that is the reason why a new machine called as Nanomachine, which eliminates the disadvantages of other production facilities producing nanofibers, has been developed.

Keywords: nanomachine, nanospider, spinning slat, electrospinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
113 Fabrication of Titania and Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Composite Nanofibers by Electrospinning Process

Authors: R. F. Louh, Cathy Chou, Victor Wang, Howard Yan

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The aim of this study is to manufacture titania and reduced graphene oxide (TiO2/rGO) composite nanofibers via electrospinning (ESP) of precursor fluid consisted of titania sol containing polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) and GO solution. The GO nanoparticles were derived from Hummers’ method. A metal grid ring was used to provide the bias voltage to reach higher ESP yield and nonwoven fabric with dense network of TiO2/GO composite nanofibers. The ESP product was heat treated at 500°C for 2 h in nitrogen atmosphere to acquire TiO2/rGO nanofibers by thermal reduction of GO and phase transformation into anatase TiO2. The TiO2/rGO nanofibers made from various volume fractions of GO solution by ESP were analyzed by FE-SEM, TEM, XRD, EDS, BET and FTIR. Such TiO2/rGO fibers having photocatalytic property, high specific surface area and electrical conductivity can be used for photovoltaics and chemical sensing applications.

Keywords: electrospinning process, titanium oxide, thermally reduced graphene oxide, composite nanofibers

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112 Preparation and Characterisation of Electrospun Extracted β-Chitosan/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Blend Nanofibers for Tissue Engineering

Authors: E. Roshan Ara Begum, K. Bhavani, K. Subachitra, C. Kirthika, R. Shenbagarathai

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In recent years, there has been a growing concern for the production of chitosan blend nanofibrous scaffold for its favorable physicochemical properties which mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) both morphologically and chemically. Therefore, this study focused on production of β-chitosan(β-Cts) and Poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) blend nanofibrous scaffold by electrospinning. β-Cts was extracted from the squid pen waste of locally available squid variety Loligo duvauceli (Indian Squid). To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on nanofibers preparation from the extracted β-Cts. Both the β-Cts and PVA polymers were mixed in two different proportions (30:70 and 40:60 respectively. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, swelling property, in vitro enzymatic degradation, and hemo, biocompatibility properties. β-Cts/PVA nanofibers scaffolds had an average fiber diameter of 120 to 550nm.Among the two different β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers the β-Cts/PVA (40:60) blend fibers demonstrated favourable tissue engineering properties. The β-Cts/PVA (40:60) blend nanofibers exhibited a swelling ratio of 36 ± 2.5% with mass loss percentage of 20 ± 2.71% after 4 weeks of degradation. It has exhibited good hemocompatible properties. HEK-293(Human Embryonic Kidney) cells lines were able to adhere and proliferate well in the β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers. All these results indicated that electrospun β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers are a suitable scaffold to be used for tissue engineering purposes.

Keywords: β-chitosan, electrospinning, nanofibers, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
111 Preparation of Bead-On-String Alginate/Soy Protein Isolated Nanofibers via Water-Based Electrospinning and Its Application for Drug Loading

Authors: Patcharakamon Nooeaid, Piyachat Chuysrinuan

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Electrospun natural polymers-based nanofibers are one of the most interesting materials used in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. Bead-on-string nanofibers have gained considerable interest for sustained drug release. Vancomycin was used as the model drug and sodium alginate (SA)/soy protein isolated (SPI) as the polymer blend to fabricate the bead-on-string nanofibers by aqueous-based electrospinning. The bead-on-string SA/SPI nanofibers were successfully fabricated by the addition of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a co-blending polymer. SA-PEO with mass ratio of 70/30 showed the best spinnability with continuous nanofibers without the occurrence of beads. Bead structure formed with the addition of SPI and bead number increased with increasing SPI content. The electrospinning of 80/20 SA-PEO/SPI was obtained as a great promising bead-on-string nanofibers for drug loading, while the solution of 50/50 was not able to obtain continuous fibers. In vitro release tests showed that a more sustainable release profile up to 14 days with less initial burst release on day 1 could be obtained from the bead-on-string fibers than from smooth fibers with uniform diameter. In addition, vancomycin-loaded beaded fibers inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. Therefore, the SA-PEO/SPI nanofibers showed the potential to be used as biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery.

Keywords: bead-on-string fibers, electrospinning, drug delivery, tissue engineering

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110 Fabrication and Characterization of Gelatin Nanofibers Dissolved in Concentrated Acetic Acid

Authors: Kooshina Koosha, Sima Habibi, Azam Talebian

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Electrospinning is a simple, versatile and widely accepted technique to produce ultra-fine fibers ranging from nanometer to micron. Recently there has been great interest in developing this technique to produce nanofibers with novel properties and functionalities. The electrospinning field is extremely broad, and consequently there have been many useful reviews discussing various aspects from detailed fiber formation mechanism to the formation of nanofibers and to discussion on a wide range of applications. On the other hand, the focus of this study is quite narrow, highlighting electrospinning parameters. This work will briefly cover the solution and processing parameters (for instance; concentration, solvent type, voltage, flow rate, distance between the collector and the tip of the needle) impacting the morphological characteristics of nanofibers, such as diameter. In this paper, a comprehensive work would be presented on the research of producing nanofibers from natural polymer entitled Gelatin.

Keywords: electrospinning, solution parameters, process parameters, natural fiber

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109 Highly Stretchable, Intelligent and Conductive PEDOT/PU Nanofibers Based on Electrospinning and in situ Polymerization

Authors: Kun Qi, Yuman Zhou, Jianxin He

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A facile fabrication strategy via electrospinning and followed by in situ polymerization to fabricate a highly stretchable and conductive Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/Polyurethane (PEDOT/PU) nanofibrous membrane is reported. PU nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning and then PEDOT was coated on the plasma modified PU nanofiber surface via in-situ polymerization to form flexible PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers with conductivity. The results show PEDOT is successfully synthesized on the surface of PU nanofiber and PEDOT/PU composite nanofibers possess skin-core structure. Furthermore, the experiments indicate the optimal technological parameters of the polymerization process are as follow: The concentration of EDOT monomers is 50 mmol/L, the polymerization time is 24 h and the temperature is 25℃. The PEDOT/PU nanofibers exhibit excellent electrical conductivity ( 27.4 S/cm). In addition, flexible sensor made from conductive PEDOT/PU nanofibers shows highly sensitive response towards tensile strain and also can be used to detect finger motion. The results demonstrate promising application of the as-obtained nanofibrous membrane in flexible wearable electronic fields.

Keywords: electrospinning, polyurethane, PEDOT, conductive nanofiber, flexible senor

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
108 Characterization of Electrospun Carbon Nanofiber Doped Polymer Composites

Authors: Atilla Evcin, Bahri Ersoy, Süleyman Akpınar, I. Sinan Atlı

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Ceramic, polymer and composite nanofibers are nowadays begun to be utilized in many fields of nanotechnology. By the means of dimensions, these fibers are as small as nano scale but because of having large surface area and microstructural characteristics, they provide unique mechanic, optical, magnetic, electronic and chemical properties. In terms of nanofiber production, electrospinning has been the most widely used technique in recent years. In this study, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. Images of carbon nanofibers have been taken with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The images have been analyzed to study the fiber morphology and to determine the distribution of the fiber diameter using FibraQuant 1.3 software. Then polymer composites have been produced from mixture of carbon nanofibers and silicone polymer. The final polymer composites have been characterized by X-ray diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements. These results have been reported and discussed. At result, homogeneous carbon nanofibers with 100-167 nm of diameter were obtained with optimized electrospinning conditions.

Keywords: electrospinning, characterization, composites, nanofiber

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107 The Effect of Parameters on Production of NİO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 Composite Nanofibers by Using Sol-Gel Processing and Electrospinning Technique

Authors: F. Sevim, E. Sevimli, F. Demir, T. Çalban

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For the first time, nanofibers of PVA /nickel nitrate/silica/alumina izopropoxide/boric acid composite were prepared by using sol-gel processing and electrospinning technique. By high temperature calcinations of the above precursor fibers, nanofibers of NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite with diameters of 500 nm could be successfully obtained. The fibers were characterized by TG/DTA, FT-IR, XRD and SEM analyses.

Keywords: nano fibers, NiO/Al2O3/B2O3/SiO2 composite, sol-gel processing, electro spinning

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
106 Optimization of Parameters for Electrospinning of Pan Nanofibers by Taguchi Method

Authors: Gamze Karanfil Celep, Kevser Dincer

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The effects of polymer concentration and electrospinning process parameters on the average diameters of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers were experimentally investigated. Besides, mechanical and thermal properties of PAN nanofibers were examined by tensile test and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. For this purpose, the polymer concentration, solution feed rate, supply voltage and tip-to-collector distance were determined as the control factors. To succeed these aims, Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal design (4 parameters, 4 level) was employed for the experimental design. Optimal electrospinning conditions were defined using the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio that was calculated from diameters of the electrospun PAN nanofibers according to "the-smaller-the-better" approachment. In addition, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was evaluated to conclude the statistical significance of the process parameters. The smallest diameter of PAN nanofibers was observed. According to the S/N ratio response results, the most effective parameter on finding out of nanofiber diameter was determined. Finally, the Taguchi design of experiments method has been found to be an effective method to statistically optimize the critical electrospinning parameters used in nanofiber production. After determining the optimum process parameters of nanofiber production, electrical conductivity and fuel cell performance of electrospun PAN nanofibers on the carbon papers will be evaluated.

Keywords: nanofiber, electrospinning, polyacrylonitrile, Taguchi method

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
105 Culture of Primary Cortical Neurons on Hydrophobic Nanofibers Induces the Formation of Organoid-Like Structures

Authors: Nick Weir, Robert Stevens, Alan Hargreaves, Martin McGinnity, Chris Tinsley

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Hydrophobic materials have previously demonstrated the ability to elevate cell-cell interactions and promote the formation of neural networks whilst aligned nanofibers demonstrate the ability to induce extensive neurite outgrowth in an aligned manner. Hydrophobic materials typically elicit an immune response upon implantation and thus materials used for implantation are typically hydrophilic. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a hydrophobic, non-immunogenic, FDA approved material that can be electrospun to form aligned nanofibers. Primary rat cortical neurons cultured for 10 days on aligned PLLA nanofibers formed 3D cell clusters, approximately 800 microns in diameter. Neurites that extended from these clusters were highly aligned due to the alignment of the nanofibers they were cultured upon and fasciculation was also evident. Plasma treatment of the PLLA nanofibers prior to seeding of cells significantly reduced the hydrophobicity and abolished the cluster formation and neurite fasciculation, whilst reducing the extent and directionality of neurite outgrowth; it is proposed that hydrophobicity induces the changes to cellular behaviors. Aligned PLLA nanofibers induced the formation of a structure that mimics the grey-white matter compartmentalization that is observed in vivo and thus represents a step forward in generating organoids or biomaterial-based implants. Upon implantation into the brain, the biomaterial architectures described here may provide a useful platform for both brain repair and brain remodeling initiatives.

Keywords: hydrophobicity, nanofibers, neurite fasciculation, neurite outgrowth, PLLA

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
104 Antibacterial Wound Dressing Based on Metal Nanoparticles Containing Cellulose Nanofibers

Authors: Mohamed Gouda

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Antibacterial wound dressings based on cellulose nanofibers containing different metal nanoparticles (CMC-MNPs) were synthesized using an electrospinning technique. First, the composite of carboxymethyl cellulose containing different metal nanoparticles (CMC/MNPs), such as copper nanoparticles (CuNPs), iron nanoparticles (FeNPs), zinc nanoparticles (ZnNPs), cadmium nanoparticles (CdNPs) and cobalt nanoparticles (CoNPs) were synthesized, and finally, these composites were transferred to the electrospinning process. Synthesized CMC-MNPs were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) coupled with high-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and UV-visible spectroscopy used to confirm nanoparticle formation. The SEM images clearly showed regular flat shapes with semi-porous surfaces. All MNPs were well distributed inside the backbone of the cellulose without aggregation. The average particle diameters were 29-39 nm for ZnNPs, 29-33 nm for CdNPs, 25-33 nm for CoNPs, 23-27 nm for CuNPs and 22-26 nm for FeNPs. Surface morphology, water uptake and release of MNPs from the nanofibers in water and antimicrobial efficacy were studied. SEM images revealed that electrospun CMC-MNPs nanofibers are smooth and uniformly distributed without bead formation with average fiber diameters in the range of 300 to 450 nm. Fiber diameters were not affected by the presence of MNPs. TEM images showed that MNPs are present in/on the electrospun CMC-MNPs nanofibers. The diameter of the electrospun nanofibers containing MNPs was in the range of 300–450 nm. The MNPs were observed to be spherical in shape. The CMC-MNPs nanofibers showed good hydrophilic properties and had excellent antibacterial activity against the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus.

Keywords: electrospinning technique, metal nanoparticles, cellulosic nanofibers, wound dressing

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103 Magnetic Nano-Composite of Self-Doped Polyaniline Nanofibers for Magnetic Dispersive Micro Solid Phase Extraction Applications

Authors: Hatem I. Mokhtar, Randa A. Abd-El-Salam, Ghada M. Hadad

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An improved nano-composite of self-doped polyaniline nanofibers and silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles were prepared and evaluated for suitability to magnetic dispersive micro solid-phase extraction. The work focused on optimization of the composite capacity to extract four fluoroquinolones (FQs) antibiotics, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, and difloxacin from water and improvement of composite stability towards acid and atmospheric degradation. Self-doped polyaniline nanofibers were prepared by oxidative co-polymerization of aniline with anthranilic acid. Magnetite nanopariticles were prepared by alkaline co-precipitation and coated with silica by silicate hydrolysis on magnetite nanoparticles surface at pH 6.5. The composite was formed by self-assembly by mixing self-doped polyaniline nanofibers with silica-coated magnetite nanoparticles dispersions in ethanol. The composite structure was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Self-doped polyaniline nanofibers and magnetite chemical structures were confirmed by FT-IR while silica coating of the magnetite was confirmed by Energy Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Improved stability of the composite magnetic component was evidenced by resistance to degrade in 2N HCl solution. The adsorption capacity of self-doped polyaniline nanofibers based composite was higher than previously reported corresponding composite prepared from polyaniline nanofibers instead of self-doped polyaniline nanofibers. Adsorption-pH profile for the studied FQs on the prepared composite revealed that the best pH for adsorption was in range of 6.5 to 7. Best extraction recovery values were obtained at pH 7 using phosphate buffer. The best solvent for FQs desorption was found to be 0.1N HCl in methanol:water (8:2; v/v) mixture. 20 mL of Spiked water sample with studied FQs were preconcentrated using 4.8 mg of composite and resulting extracts were analysed by HPLC-UV method. The prepared composite represented a suitable adsorbent phase for magnetic dispersive micro-solid phase application.

Keywords: fluoroquinolones, magnetic dispersive micro extraction, nano-composite, self-doped polyaniline nanofibers

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102 Morphological and Electrical Characterization of Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers Synthesized Using Electrospinning Method for Electrical Application

Authors: Divyanka Sontakke, Arpit Thakre, D. K Shinde, Sujata Parmeshwaran

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Electrospinning is the most widely utilized method to create nanofibers because of the direct setup, the capacity to mass-deliver consistent nanofibers from different polymers, and the ability to produce ultrathin fibers with controllable diameters. Smooth and much arranged ultrafine Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibers with diameters going from submicron to nanometer were delivered utilizing Electrospinning technique. PAN powder was used as a precursor to prepare the solution utilized as a part of this process. At the point when the electrostatic repulsion contradicted surface tension, a charged stream of polymer solution was shot out from the head of the spinneret and along these lines ultrathin nonwoven fibers were created. The effect of electrospinning parameter such as applied voltage, feed rate, concentration of polymer solution and tip to collector distance on the morphology of electrospun PAN nanofibers were investigated. The nanofibers were heat treated for carbonization to examine the changes in properties and composition to make for electrical application. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was performed before and after carbonization to study electrical conductivity and morphological characterization. The SEM images have shown the uniform fiber diameter and no beads formation. The average diameter of the PAN fiber observed 365nm and 280nm for flat plat and rotating drum collector respectively. The four probe strategy was utilized to inspect the electrical conductivity of the nanofibers and the electrical conductivity is significantly improved with increase in oxidation temperature exposed.

Keywords: electrospinning, polyacrylonitrile carbon nanofibres, heat treatment, electrical conductivity

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101 Preparation Non-Woven Nanofiber Structures for Uniform and Rapid Drug Releasing Applications Using an Electrospinning Process

Authors: Cho-Liang Chung

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Uniform and rapid drug release are important for trauma dressing application. Low glass transition polymer system and non-woven nanofiber structures as the designs conduct rapid-release characteristics. In this study, polyvinylpyrrolidone, polysulfone, and polystyrene were dissolved in dimethylformamide to form precursor solution. These solutions were blended with vitamin C to form the electrospinning solutions. The non-woven nanofibers structures were successfully prepared using an electrospinning process. The following instruments were used to analyze the characteristics of non-woven nanofibers structures: Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The AFM was used to scan the nanofibers. 3D Graphics were applied to explore the surface morphology of nanofibers. FE-SEM was used to explore the morphology of non-woven structures. XRD was used to identify crystal structures in the non-woven structures. The evolution of morphology of non-woven structures was changed dramatically in different durations, because of the moisture absorption and decreasing glass transition temperature; the non-woven nanofiber structures can be applied to uniform and rapid drug release for trauma dressing application.

Keywords: nanofibers, non-woven, electrospinning process, rapid drug releasing

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100 Improved Mechanical Properties and Osteogenesis in Electrospun Poly L-Lactic Ultrafine Nanofiber Scaffolds Incorporated with Graphene Oxide

Authors: Weili Shao, Qian Wang, Jianxin He

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Recently, the applications of graphene oxide in fabricating scaffolds for bone tissue engineering have been received extensive concern. In this work, poly l-lactic/graphene oxide composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology structure, porosity and mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized using different techniques. And mouse mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the composite nanofiber scaffolds to assess their suitability for bone tissue engineering. The results indicated that the composite nanofiber scaffolds had finer fiber diameter and higher porosity as compared with pure poly l-lactic nanofibers. Furthermore, incorporation of graphene oxide into the poly l-lactic nanofibers increased protein adsorptivity, boosted the Young’s modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenesis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: poly l-lactic, graphene oxide, osteogenesis, bone tissue engineering

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99 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan

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PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of the concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to a decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
98 Methane Plasma Modified Polyvinyl Alcohol Scaffolds for Melanocytes Cultivation

Authors: B. Kodedova, E. Filova, M. Kralovic, E. Amler

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Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin characterized by loss of melanocyte in the epidermis that leads to white lesions. One of the possible treatments is autologous transplantation of melanocytes. Biodegradable electrospun polymeric nanofibers provide good mechanical properties and could serve as suitable scaffold for epithelial cells cultivation and follow up transplantation. Moreover the microarchitecture of nanofibers mimics the structure of extracellular matrix and its porosity allows nutrients and waste exchange. The aim of this work was to develop biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric scaffolds suitable for autologous melanocytes transplantation. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were modified by cold methane plasma to lower their hydrofility and to achieve better adhesion, proliferation and viability of the murine melanocyte (Melan-a). Cells were seeded on the modified scaffolds and their adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and melanin synthesis was evaluated and compared to non-modified scaffolds. Results clearly indicate that cold methane plasma modified PVA nanofibers are suitable for melanocyte cultivation and may be future candidate for vitiligo treatment. Furthermore, the nanofibers can be functionalized with various bioactive substances, for enhancement of the melanocyte proliferation, melanogenesis or healing and regenerative processes. The project was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports NPU I: LO1309 and by Grant Agency of Charles University (grant No. 1228214).

Keywords: melanocyte, nanofibers, polyvinyl alcohol, plasma modification

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97 Luminescent Dye-Doped Polymer Nanofibers Produced by Electrospinning Technique

Authors: Monica Enculescu, A. Evanghelidis, I. Enculescu

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Among the numerous methods for obtaining polymer nanofibers, the electrospinning technique distinguishes itself due to the more growing interest induced by its proved utility leading to developing and improving of the method and the appearance of novel materials. In particular, production of polymeric nanofibers in which different dopants are introduced was intensively studied in the last years because of the increased interest for the obtaining of functional electrospun nanofibers. Electrospinning is a facile method of obtaining polymer nanofibers with diameters from tens of nanometers to micrometrical sizes that are cheap, flexible, scalable, functional and biocompatible. Besides the multiple applications in medicine, polymeric nanofibers obtained by electrospinning permit manipulation of light at nanometric dimensions when doped with organic dyes or different nanoparticles. It is a simple technique that uses an electrical field to draw fine polymer nanofibers from solutions and does not require complicated devices or high temperatures. Different morphologies of the electrospun nanofibers can be obtained for the same polymeric host when different parameters of the electrospinning process are used. Consequently, we can obtain tuneable optical properties of the electrospun nanofibers (e.g. changing the wavelength of the emission peak) by varying the parameters of the fabrication method. We focus on obtaining doped polymer nanofibers with enhanced optical properties using the electrospinning technique. The aim of the paper is to produce dye-doped polymer nanofibers’ mats incorporating uniformly dispersed dyes. Transmission and fluorescence of the fibers will be evaluated by spectroscopy methods. The morphological properties of the electrospun dye-doped polymer fibers will be evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We will tailor the luminescent properties of the material by doping the polymer (polyvinylpyrrolidone or polymethylmetacrilate) with different dyes (coumarins, rhodamines and sulforhodamines). The tailoring will be made taking into consideration the possibility of changing the luminescent properties of electrospun polymeric nanofibers that are doped with different dyes by using different parameters for the electrospinning technique (electric voltage, distance between electrodes, flow rate of the solution, etc.). Furthermore, we can evaluated the influence of the concentration of the dyes on the emissive properties of dye-doped polymer nanofibers using different concentrations. The advantages offered by the electrospinning technique when producing polymeric fibers are given by the simplicity of the method, the tunability of the morphology allowed by the possibility of controlling all the process parameters (temperature, viscosity of polymeric solution, applied voltage, distance between electrodes, etc.), and by the absence of necessity of using harsh and supplementary chemicals such as the ones used in the traditional nanofabrication techniques. Acknowledgments: The authors acknowledge the financial support received through IFA CEA Project No. C5-08/2016.

Keywords: electrospinning, luminescence, polymer nanofibers, scanning electron microscopy

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96 Process Optimization of Electrospun Fish Sarcoplasmic Protein Based Nanofibers

Authors: Sena Su, Burak Ozbek, Yesim M. Sahin, Sevil Yucel, Dilek Kazan, Faik N. Oktar, Nazmi Ekren, Oguzhan Gunduz

Abstract:

In recent years, protein, lipid or polysaccharide-based polymers have been used in order to develop biodegradable materials and their chemical nature determines the physical properties of the resulting films. Among these polymers, proteins from different sources have been extensively employed because of their relative abundance, film forming ability, and nutritional qualities. In this study, the biodegradable composite nanofiber films based on fish sarcoplasmic protein (FSP) were prepared via electrospinning technique. Biodegradable polycaprolactone (PCL) was blended with the FSP to obtain hybrid FSP/PCL nanofiber mats with desirable physical properties. Mixture solutions of FSP and PCL were produced at different concentrations and their density, viscosity, electrical conductivity and surface tension were measured. Mechanical properties of electrospun nanofibers were evaluated. Morphology of composite nanofibers was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) studies were used for analysis chemical composition of composite nanofibers. This study revealed that the FSP based nanofibers have the potential to be used for different applications such as biodegradable packaging, drug delivery, and wound dressing, etc.

Keywords: edible film, electrospinning, fish sarcoplasmic protein, nanofiber

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95 A Ratiometric Inorganic Phosphate Sensor Based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Rhodamine 6G-Doped Nanofibers

Authors: Hong Dinh Duong, Jong Il Rhee

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In this study, a ratiometric inorganic phosphate sensor was fabricated by a double layer of the rhodamine 6G-doped nanofibers and the CdSe/ZnS QDs-captured polymer. In which, CdSe/ZnS QDs with emission wavelengths of 595nm were synthesized and ligands on their surface were exchanged with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The synthesized MPA-QDs were combined with the mixture of sol-gel of 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyurethane (PU) to build a layer for sensing inorganic phosphate. Another sensing layer was of nanofibers doped R6G which were produced from poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) by electrospining. The ratio of fluorescence intensities between rhodamin 6G (R6G) and CdSe/ZnS QDs exposed at different phosphate concentrations was used for calculating a linear phosphate concentration range of 0-10mM.

Keywords: nanofiber, QDs, ratiometric phosphate sensor, rhodamine 6G, sol-gel

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94 Two and Three Layer Lamination of Nanofiber

Authors: Roman Knizek, Denisa Karhankova, Ludmila Fridrichova

Abstract:

For their exceptional properties nanofibers, respectively, nanofiber layers are achieving an increasingly wider range of uses. Nowadays nanofibers are used mainly in the field of air filtration where they are removing submicron particles, bacteria, and viruses. Their efficiency is not changed in time, and the power consumption is much lower than that of electrically charged filters. Nanofibers are primarily used for converting and storage of energy in both air and liquid filtration, in food and packaging, protecting the environment, but also in health care which is made possible by their newly discovered properties. However, a major problem of the nanofiber layer is practically zero abrasion resistance; it is, therefore, necessary to laminate the nanofiber layer with another suitable material. Unfortunately, lamination of nanofiber layers is a major problem since the nanofiber layer contains small pores through which it is very difficult for adhesion to pass through. Therefore, there is still only a small percentage of products with these unique fibers 5.

Keywords: nanofiber layer, nanomembrane, lamination, electrospinning

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93 Nanofibrous Ion Exchangers

Authors: Jaromír Marek, Jakub Wiener, Yan Wang

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The main goal of this study was to find simple and industrially applicable production of ion exchangers based on nanofibrous polystyrene matrix and characterization of prepared material. Starting polystyrene nanofibers were sulfonated and crosslinked under appropriate conditions at the same time by sulfuric acid. Strongly acidic cation exchanger was obtained in such a way. The polymer matrix was made from polystyrene nanofibers prepared by Nanospider technology. Various types postpolymerization reactions and other methods of crosslinking were studied. Greatly different behavior between nano and microsize materials was observed. The final nanofibrous material was characterized and compared to common granular ion exchangers and available microfibrous ion exchangers. The sorption properties of nanofibrous ion exchangers were compared with the granular ion exchangers. For nanofibrous ion exchangers of comparable ion exchange capacity was observed considerably faster adsorption kinetics.

Keywords: electrospinning, ion exchangers, nanofibers, polystyrene

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92 Effect of Ti+ Irradiation on the Photoluminescence of TiO2 Nanofibers

Authors: L. Chetibi, D. Hamana, T. O. Busko, M. P. Kulish, S. Achour

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TiO2 nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their optical, dielectric and photocatalytic properties as well as applications including optical coating, photocatalysis and photoelectrochemical solar cells. This work aims to prepare TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) on titanium substrate (Ti) by in situ oxidation of Ti foils in a mixture solution of concentrated H2O2 and NaOH followed by proton exchange and calcinations. Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) revealed an obvious network of TiO2 nanofibers. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these nanostructures revealed a broad intense band in the visible light range with a reduced near edge band emission. The PL bands in the visible region, mainly, results from surface oxygen vacancies and others defects. After irradiation with Ti+ ions (the irradiation energy was E = 140 keV with doses of 1013 ions/cm2), the intensity of the PL spectrum decreased as a consequence of the radiation treatment. The irradiation with Ti+ leads to a reduction of defects and generation of non irradiative defects near to the level of the conduction band as evidenced by the PL results. On the other hand, reducing the surface defects on TiO2 nanostructures may improve photocatalytic and optoelectronic properties of this nanostructure.

Keywords: TiO2, nanofibers, photoluminescence, irradiation

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91 UV Resistibility of a Carbon Nanofiber Reinforced Polymer Composite

Authors: A. Evcin, N. Çiçek Bezir, R. Duman, N. Duman

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Nowadays, a great concern is placed on the harmfulness of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) which attacks human bodies. Nanocarbon materials, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), carbon nanofibers (CNFs) and graphene, have been considered promising alternatives to shielding materials because of their excellent electrical conductivities, very high surface areas and low densities. In the present work, carbon nanofibers have been synthesized from solutions of Polyacrylonitrile (PAN)/ N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) by electrospinning method. The carbon nanofibers have been stabilized by oxidation at 250 °C for 2 h in air and carbonized at 750 °C for 1 h in H2/N2. We present the fabrication and characterization of transparent and ultraviolet (UV) shielding CNF/polymer composites. The content of CNF filler has been varied from 0.2% to 0.6 % by weight. UV Spectroscopy has been performed to study the effect of composition on the transmittance of polymer composites.

Keywords: electrospinning, carbon nanofiber, characterization, composites, nanofiber, ultraviolet radiation

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