Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 185

Search results for: acidity

185 Analysis of Total Acid in Arabica Coffee Beans after Fermentation with Ohmic Technology

Authors: Reta

Abstract:

Coffee is widely consumed not only because of its typical taste, but coffee has antioxidant properties because of its polyphenols, and it stimulates brain's performance. The main problem with the consumption of coffee is its content of caffeine. Caffeine, when consumed in excess, can increase muscle tension, stimulate the heart, and increase the secretion of gastric acid. In this research, we applied ohmic-based fermentation technology, which is specially designed to mimic the stomach. We used Arabica coffee, which although cheaper than Luwak coffee, has high acidity, which needs to be reduced. Hence, we applied the ohmic technology, varied the time and temperature of the process and measured the total acidity of the coffee to determine optimum fermentation conditions. Results revealed total acidity of the coffee varied with fermentation conditions; 0.32% at 400C and 12 hr, and 0.52% at 400C and 6 hr. The longer the fermentation, the lower was the acidity. The acidity of the mongoose-fermented (natural fermentation) beans was 2.34%, which is substantially higher than the acidity of the ohmic samples. Ohmic-based fermentation technology, therefore, offers improvements in coffee quality, and this is discussed to highlight the potential of ohmic technology in coffee processing.

Keywords: ohmic technology, fermentation, coffee quality, Arabica coffee

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
184 Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina, Fredijs Dimins

Abstract:

Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titratable acidity of dessert apple juices is in the range of 4.1g L-1 to 10.83g L-1 and in crab apple juices titratable acidity is from 7.87g L-1 to 19.6g L-1. Fructose was detected as the main sugar whereas glucose level varied depending on the variety. The highest titratable acidity and content of sugars was detected in ‘Cornelia’ apples juice.

Keywords: apple juice, hierarchical cluster analysis, sugars, titratable acidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
183 Calibration Model of %Titratable Acidity (Citric Acid) for Intact Tomato by Transmittance SW-NIR Spectroscopy

Authors: K. Petcharaporn, S. Kumchoo

Abstract:

The acidity (citric acid) is one of the chemical contents that can refer to the internal quality and the maturity index of tomato. The titratable acidity (%TA) can be predicted by a non-destructive method prediction by using the transmittance short wavelength (SW-NIR). Spectroscopy in the wavelength range between 665-955 nm. The set of 167 tomato samples divided into groups of 117 tomatoes sample for training set and 50 tomatoes sample for test set were used to establish the calibration model to predict and measure %TA by partial least squares regression (PLSR) technique. The spectra were pretreated with MSC pretreatment and it gave the optimal result for calibration model as (R = 0.92, RMSEC = 0.03%) and this model obtained high accuracy result to use for %TA prediction in test set as (R = 0.81, RMSEP = 0.05%). From the result of prediction in test set shown that the transmittance SW-NIR spectroscopy technique can be used for a non-destructive method for %TA prediction of tomatoes.

Keywords: tomato, quality, prediction, transmittance, titratable acidity, citric acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
182 Catalytic Study of Methanol-to-Propylene Conversion over Nano-Sized HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Methanol-to-propylene conversion was carried out in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor over nano-sized HZSM-5 zeolites. The HZSM-5 catalysts were synthesized with different Si/Al ratio and silicon sources, and treated with NaOH. The structural property, morphology, and acidity of catalysts were measured by XRD, N2 adsorption, FE-SEM, TEM, and NH3-TPD. The results indicate that the increment of Si/Al ratio decreased the acidity of catalysts and then improved propylene selectivity, while silicon sources had slight impact on the acidity but affected the product distribution. The desilication after alkali treatment could increase intracrystalline mesopores and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: alkali treatment, HZSM-5, methanol-to-propylene, synthesis condition

Procedia PDF Downloads 112
181 Identification and Quantification of Acid Sites of M(X)X Zeolites (M= Cu2+ and/or Zn2+,X = Level of Exchange): An In situ FTIR Study Using Pyridine Adsorption/Desorption

Authors: H. Hammoudi, S. Bendenia, I. Batonneau-Gener, J. Comparot, K. Marouf-Khelifa, A. Khelifa

Abstract:

X zeolites were prepared by ion-exchange with Cu2+ and/or Zn2+ cations, at different concentrations of the exchange solution, and characterised by thermal analysis and nitrogen adsorption. The acidity of the samples was investigated by pyridine adsorption–desorption followed by in situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Desorption was carried out at 150, 250 and 350 °C. The objective is to estimate the nature and concentration of acid sites. A comparison between the binary (Cu(x)X, Zn(x)X) and ternary (CuZn(x)X) exchanges was also established (x = level of exchange) through the Cu(43)X, Zn(48)X and CuZn(50)X samples. Lewis acidity decreases overall with desorption temperature and the level of exchange. As the latter increases, there is a conversion of some Lewis sites into those of Brønsted during thermal treatment. In return, the concentration of Brønsted sites increases with the degree of exchange. The Brønsted acidity of CuZn(50)X at 350 °C is more important than the sum of those of Cu(43)X and Zn(48)X. The found values were 73, 32 and 15 μmol g-1, respectively. Besides, the concentration of Brønsted sites for CuZn(50)X increases with desorption temperature. These features indicate the presence of a synergistic effect amplifying the strength of these sites when Cu2+ and Zn2+ cations compete for the occupancy of sites distributed inside zeolitic cavities.

Keywords: acidity, adsorption, pyridine, zeolites

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
180 Enzymatic Esterification of Sardine Oil Processed in Morocco

Authors: M. Kharroubi, Y. Rady, F. Bellali, S. Himmi

Abstract:

The global objective of this study is to upgrade the sardine oil processed in Morocco by using enzymatic solutions. The specific objective of this part of study is to optimize the various parameters involved in enzymatic deacidification of fish oil processed in Morocco: pressure, ratio of oil/novozymes 435, ratio of oil/glycerol, temperature. The best deacidification yields were obtained with: -A temperature of 70 °C; -A ratio -Oil/Glycerol: 2% (% P); -A ratio -Oil/Novozyme 435: 1% (% P); -A pressure: 15 to 25 mbar. On the other hand, the study of the effect of initial oil acidity showed that whatever the acidity of the oil studied (very acidic, or low acidic), the final yields are high. Acidity does not reduce the reaction efficiency. From an industrial point of view, this represents a competitive advantage to consider. This eco-friend enzymatic solution may allows Moroccan fish oil producers to achieve acid number values that meet the standard.

Keywords: sardine oil, enzymatic esterfication, desacidification, acid number

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
179 Quality Parameters of Offset Printing Wastewater

Authors: Kiurski S. Jelena, Kecić S. Vesna, Aksentijević M. Snežana

Abstract:

Samples of tap and wastewater were collected in three offset printing facilities in Novi Sad, Serbia. Ten physicochemical parameters were analyzed within all collected samples: pH, conductivity, m - alkalinity, p - alkalinity, acidity, carbonate concentration, hydrogen carbonate concentration, active oxygen content, chloride concentration and total alkali content. All measurements were conducted using the standard analytical and instrumental methods. Comparing the obtained results for tap water and wastewater, a clear quality difference was noticeable, since all physicochemical parameters were significantly higher within wastewater samples. The study also involves the application of simple linear regression analysis on the obtained dataset. By using software package ORIGIN 5 the pH value was mutually correlated with other physicochemical parameters. Based on the obtained values of Pearson coefficient of determination a strong positive correlation between chloride concentration and pH (r = -0.943), as well as between acidity and pH (r = -0.855) was determined. In addition, statistically significant difference was obtained only between acidity and chloride concentration with pH values, since the values of parameter F (247.634 and 182.536) were higher than Fcritical (5.59). In this way, results of statistical analysis highlighted the most influential parameter of water contamination in offset printing, in the form of acidity and chloride concentration. The results showed that variable dependence could be represented by the general regression model: y = a0 + a1x+ k, which further resulted with matching graphic regressions.

Keywords: pollution, printing industry, simple linear regression analysis, wastewater

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
178 Synthesis of Iso-Amyl, Benzyl and Cinnamyl Esters over Active, Selective, Reusable and Eco-Friendly Natural Silica Catalyst

Authors: Abd El-Aziz Said

Abstract:

In this study, natural silica was used as an active, selective, reusable and eco-friendly catalyst for the liquid phase synthesis of iso-amyl, benzyl and cinnamyl esters. The original and calcined natural silica were characterized by TG-DTA, XRF, XRD, FTIR, SEM, and N2-sorption analysis. The surface acidity of the catalysts was determined using isopropanol dehydration and the strength of available acid sites was measured using chemisorption of pyridine (PY) and dimethyl pyridine (DMPY). The results of acidity specified that the acidic sites are of Brönsted type, while PY-TPD demonstrated that almost of the acidic sites over the surface of natural silica are of weak and intermediate strength. The catalytic activity of natural silica towards esterification of acetic acid with alcohols was extensively studied. The results revealed that natural silica had high catalytic activity with 100% selectivity to all targeted esters. In addition, the yields obtained in batch methods were 83, 81, and 80%, respectively, whereas these yields after simple distillation were improved 97, 99.5, and 90%, respectively.

Keywords: liquid-phase esterification, natural silica, acidity esters, characterization

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
177 Studies on the Spontaneous Reductive Decomposition Behavior of Permanganate in the Water

Authors: Hyun Kyu Lee, Won Zin Oh, June Hyun Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Sang June Choi, Hak Soo Kim

Abstract:

The oxidative dissolution of chromium oxide by manganese oxides including permanganate have been widely studied not only for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plant, but also for the environmental control of the toxic chromate caused by naturally occurring manganese dioxide. However, little attention has been made for the spontaneous reductive decomposition of permanganate in the water, which is a competing reaction with the oxidation of the chromium oxide by permanganate. The objective of this study is to investigate the spontaneous reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water, depending on the variation of acidity, temperature and concentration. Results of the experiments showed that the permanganate reductive decomposition product is manganese dioxide, and this reaction accompanies with the same molar amount of hydrogen ion consumption. Therefore, at the neutral condition (ex. potassium permanganate solution without acidic chemicals), the permanganate do not reduce by itself at any condition of temperature, concentration within the experimental range. From the results, we confirmed that the oxidation reaction for the permanganate reduction is the water oxidation that is accompanying the oxygen evolution. The experimental results on the reductive decomposition behavior of permanganate in the water also showed that the degree and rate of permanganate reduction increases with the temperature, acidity and concentration. The spontaneous decomposition of the permanganates obtained in the studies would become a good reference to select the operational condition, such as temperature, acidity and concentration, for the chemical decontamination of nuclear power plants.

Keywords: permanganate reduction, spontaneous decomposition, water oxidation, acidity, temperature, permanganate concentration, chemical decontamination, nuclear power plant

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
176 Butene Catalytic Cracking to Propylene over Iron and Phosphorus Modified HZSM-5

Authors: Jianwen Li, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Qiwen Sun, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

HZSM-5 zeolites modified by iron and phosphorus were applied in catalytic cracking of butene. N2 adsorption and NH3-TPD were employed to measure the structure and acidity of catalysts. The results indicate that increasing phosphorus loading decreased surface area, pore volume and strong acidity of catalysts. The introduction of phosphorus significantly decreased butene conversion and promoted propylene selectivity. The catalytic performance of catalyst was strongly dependent on the reaction conditions. Appropriate reaction conditions could suppress side reactions and enhance propylene selectivity.

Keywords: butene catalytic cracking, HZSM-5, modification, reaction conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
175 Development and Characterization of Cobalt Metal Loaded ZSM-5 and H-ZSM-5 Catalyst for Fischer -Tropsch Synthesis

Authors: Shashank Bahri, Divyanshu Arya, Rajni Jain, Sreedevi Upadhyayula

Abstract:

Petroleum products can be obtained from syngas catalytic conversion using Fischer Tropsch Reaction. The liquid fuels obtained from FTS are sulphur and nitrogen free and thus may easily meet the increasing stringent environment regulations. In the present work we have synthesized Meso porous ZSM-5 supported catalyst. Meso structure were created in H-ZSM-5 crystallites by demetalation via subsequent base and acid treatment. Desilication through base treatment provides H-ZSM-5 with pore size and volumes similar to amorphous SiO2 (Conventional Carrier). Modifying the zeolite texture and surface chemistry by Desilication and acid washing alters its accessibility and interactions with metal phase and consequently the CO adsorption behavior and hydrocarbon product distribution. Increasing the mesoporosity via desilication provides the micro porous zeolite with essential surface area to support optimally sized metal crystallites. This improves the metal dispersion and hence improve the activity of the catalyst. Transition metal (Co) was loaded using wet impregnation method. Synthesized catalysts were characterized by Infrared Spectroscopy, Powdered X-Ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), BET Method analytical techniques. Acidity of the catalyst which plays an important role in FTS reaction was measured by DRIFT setup pyridine adsorption instead of NH3 Temperature Programmed Desorption. The major difference is that, Pyridine Adsorption can distinguish between Lewis acidity and Bronsted Acidity, thus giving their relative strengths in the catalyst sample, whereas TPD gives total acidity including Lewis and Bronsted ones.

Keywords: mesopourus, fischer tropsch reaction, pyridine adsorrption, drift study

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
174 Quality and Shelf life of UHT Milk Produced in Tripoli, Libya

Authors: Faozia A. S. Abuhtana, Yahia S. Abujnah, Said O. Gnann

Abstract:

Ultra High Temperature (UHT) processed milk is widely distributed and preferred in numerous countries all over the world due its relatively high quality and long shelf life. Because of the notable high consumption rate of UHT in Libya in addition to negligible studies related to such product on the local level, this study was designed to assess the shelf life of locally produced as well as imported reconstituted sterilized whole milk samples marketed in Tripoli, Libya . Four locally produced vs. three imported brands were used in this study. All samples were stored at room temperature (25± 2C ) for 8 month long period, and subjected to physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory tests. These tests included : measurement of pH, specific gravity, percent acidity, and determination of fat, protein and melamine content. Microbiological tests included total aerobic count, total psychotropic bacteria, total spore forming bacteria and total coliform counts. Results indicated no detection of microbial growth of any type during the study period, in addition to no detection of melamine in all samples. On the other hand, a gradual decline in pH accompanied with gradual increase in % acidity of both locally produced and imported samples was observed. Such changes in both pH and % acidity reached their lowest and highest values respectively during the 24th week of storage. For instance pH values were (6.40, 6.55, 6.55, 6.15) and (6.30, 6.50, 6.20) for local and imported brands respectively. On the other hand, % acidity reached (0.185, 0181, 0170, 0183) and (0180, 0.180, 0.171) at the 24th week for local and imported brands respectively. Similar pattern of decline was also observed in specific gravity, fat and protein content in some local and imported samples especially at later stages of the study. In both cases, some of the recorded pH values, % acidity, sp. gravity and fat content were in violation of the accepted limits set by Libyan standard no. 356 for sterilized milk. Such changes in pH, % acidity and other UHT sterilized milk constituents during storage were coincided with a gradual decrease in the degree of acceptance of the stored milk samples of both types as shown by sensory scores recorded by the panelists. In either case degree of acceptance was significantly low at late stages of storage and most milk samples became relatively unacceptable after the 18th and 20th week for both untrained and trained panelists respectively.

Keywords: UHT milk, shelf life, quality, gravity, bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
173 Limestone Briquette Production and Characterization

Authors: André C. Silva, Mariana R. Barros, Elenice M. S. Silva, Douglas. Y. Marinho, Diego F. Lopes, Débora N. Sousa, Raphael S. Tomáz

Abstract:

Modern agriculture requires productivity, efficiency and quality. Therefore, there is need for agricultural limestone implementation that provides adequate amounts of calcium and magnesium carbonates in order to correct soil acidity. During the limestone process, fine particles (with average size under 400#) are generated. These particles do not have economic value in agricultural and metallurgical sectors due their size. When limestone is used for agriculture purposes, these fine particles can be easily transported by wind generated air pollution. Therefore, briquetting, a mineral processing technique, was used to mitigate this problem resulting in an agglomerated product suitable for agriculture use. Briquetting uses compressive pressure to agglomerate fine particles. It can be aided by agglutination agents, allowing adjustments in shape, size and mechanical parameters of the mass. Briquettes can generate extra profits for mineral industry, presenting as a distinct product for agriculture, and can reduce the environmental liabilities of the fine particles storage or disposition. The produced limestone briquettes were subjected to shatter and water action resistance tests. The results show that after six minutes completely submerged in water, the briquettes where fully diluted, a highly favorable result considering its use for soil acidity correction.

Keywords: agglomeration, briquetting, limestone, soil acidity correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
172 Acidity and Aridity: Soil Carbon Storage and Myeloablation

Authors: Tom Spears, Zotique Laframboise

Abstract:

Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 arid soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the Nepean Desert, Canada, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. We investigated the possible implications for tectonic platelet activity but identified none.

Keywords: soil, carbon storage, acidity, soil inorganic carbon (SIC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
171 Comparative Study between Two Methods for Extracting Pomegranate Juice and Their Effect on Product Quality

Authors: Amani Aljahani

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to identify the physical and chemical properties of pomegranate juices and to evaluate their sensory quality. The samples were collected from the local markets and included four types of pomegranate produced in the western and southern region of the kingdom. The juices were extracted by manual squeezing and by centrifugal force. The juices were analyzed periodically for their content of organic acids, total acidity, glucose and fructose, total sugars, and the anthosianine. A panel of 30 judges evaluated the juices for their color, smell, taste, consistency and general acceptance using a prepared scale for that purpose. Result showed that pomegranate juices were acidic in nature (PH between 3.56–4.27). The major organic acids were citric, tartaric, malic, and oxalic aids total organic acidity was between 596.32–763.49 ng/100 ml and increased over storage time, however; total acidity almost stable over time except for the southern produced. The major monosaccharide's in pomegranate juices were glucose and fructose. Their concentration in the juice varied by storage. On the average glucose concentration was between 6.68–7.71 g/100 ml while fructose concentration was between 6.72–7.98 g/100 ml. total sugars content was 16% on the average and dropped by storage. Anthosianine concertration increased after five hours of storage then dropped and stabilized over time regardless of method of treatment. In addition, sensory evaluation of the juices showed general acceptance of them as of color, flavor, and constercy but the preferred one was with that of the western kind extracted by squeezing.

Keywords: extracting, pomegranate, juice, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
170 Effect of Alcoholic and Acetous Fermentations on Phenolic Acids of Kei-Apple (Dovyalis Caffra L.) Fruit

Authors: Neil Jolly, Louisa Beukes, Santiago Benito-SaEz

Abstract:

Kei-apple is a tree found on the African continent. Limited information exists on the effect of alcoholic and acetous fermentation on the phytochemicals. The fruit has increased L-malic, ascorbic, and phenolic acids. Juice was co-inoculated with Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to induce alcoholic fermentation and acetous fermentation using acetic acid bacteria. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe wines and vinegars had highest pH. Total acidity, soluble solids and L-malic acid decreased during alcoholic and acetous fermentation with highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. Volatile acidity was highest in S. pombe vinegars but not different from S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae+S. pombe. Gallic acid was highest in S. pombe wines and vinegars. Syringic acid was highest in S. cerevisiae wines and vinegars. S. cerevisiae+S. pombe wines were highest in caffeic, p-coumaric and protocatechuic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe vinegars were highest in caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Ferulic and sinapic acids were highest in S. pombe and S. cerevisiae wines, respectively. Chlorogenic acid was most abundant in both wines and vinegars. Saccharomyces cerevisiae+S. pombe and S. cerevisiae had a positive effect on most phenolic acids. Saccharomyces cerevisiae +acetic acid bacteria had an increased effect on syringic and chlorogenic acids. Schizosaccharomyces pombe+acetic acid bacteria resulted in an increase in gallic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. Acetic acid bacteria had minimal performance with respect to volatile acidity production in comparison to commercial vinegars. Acetic acid bacteria selection should therefore be reconsidered and the decrease of certain phenolic acids during acetous fermentation needs to be investigated.

Keywords: acetic acid bacteria, liquid chromatography, phenolics, saccharomyces cerevisiae, schizosaccharomyces pombe

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
169 Production and Evaluation of Physicochemical, Nutritional, Sensorial and Microbiological Properties of Mixed Fruit Juice Blend Prepared from Apple, Orange and Mosambi

Authors: Himalaya Patir, Bitupon Baruah, Sanjay Gayary, Subhajit Ray

Abstract:

In recent age significant importance is given for the development of nutritious and health beneficial foods. Fruit juices collected from different fruits when blended that improves not only the physicochemical and nutritional properties but also enhance the sensorial or organoleptic properties. The study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical, nutritional, microbiological analysis and sensory evaluation of mixed fruit juice blend. Juice of orange (Citrus sinensis), apple (Malus domestica), mosambi (Citrus limetta) were blended in the ratio of sample-I (30% apple:30% orange:40% mosambi), sample-II ( 40% apple :30% orange :30% mosambi), sample-III (30% apple :40% orange :30% mosambi) , sample-IV (50% apple :30% orange :20% mosambi), sample-V (30% apple:20% orange:50% mosambi), sample-VI (20% apple :50% orange :30% mosambi) to evaluate all quality characteristics. Their colour characteristics in terms of hue angle, chroma and colour difference (∆E) were evaluated. The physico-chemical parameters analysis carried out were total soluble solids (TSS), total titratable acidity (TTA), pH, acidity (FA), volatile acidity (VA), pH, and vitamin C. There were significant differences (p˂0.05) in the TSS of the samples. However, sample-V (30% apple: 20% orange: 50% mosambi) provides the highest TSS of 9.02gm and significantly differed from other samples (p˂0.05). Sample-IV (50% apple: 30% orange: 20% mosambi) was shown the highest titratable acidity (.59%) in comparison to other samples. The highest value of pH was found as 5.01 for sample-IV (50% apple: 30% orange: 20% mosambi). Sample-VI (20% apple: 50% orange :30% mosambi) blend has the highest hue angle, chroma and colour changes of 72.14,25.29 and 54.48 and vitamin C, i.e. Ascorbic acid (.33g/l) content compared to other samples. The nutritional compositions study showed that, sample- VI (20% apple: 50% orange: 30% mosambi) has the significantly higher carbohydrate (51.67%), protein (.78%) and ash (1.24%) than other samples, while sample-V (30% apple: 20% orange: 50% mosambi) has higher dietary fibre (12.84%) and fat (2.82%) content. Microbiological analysis of all samples in terms of total plate count (TPC) ranges from 44-60 in 101 dilution and 4-5 in 107 dilutions and was found satisfactory. Moreover, other pathogenic bacterial count was found nil. The general acceptability of the mixed fruit juice blend samples were moderately liked by the panellists, and sensorial quality studies showed that sample-V (30% apple: 20% orange: 50% mosambi) contains highest overall acceptability of 8.37 over other samples and can be considered good for consumption.

Keywords: microbiological, nutritional, physico-chemical, sensory properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
168 Propane Dehydrogenation with Better Stability by a Modified Pt-Based Catalyst

Authors: Napat Hataivichian

Abstract:

The effect of transition metal doping on Pt/Al2O3 catalyst used in propane dehydrogenation reaction at 500˚C was studied. The preparation methods investigated were sequential impregnation (Pt followed by the 2nd metal or the 2nd metal followed by Pt) and co-impregnation. The metal contents of these catalysts were fixed as the weight ratio of Pt per the 2nd metal of around 0.075. These catalysts were characterized by N2-physisorption, TPR, CO-chemisorption and NH3-TPD. It was found that the impregnated 2nd metal had an effect upon reducibility of Pt due to its interaction with transition metal-containing structure. This was in agreement with the CO-chemisorption result that the presence of Pt metal, which is a result from Pt species reduction, was decreased. The total acidity of bimetallic catalysts is decreased but the strong acidity is slightly increased. It was found that the stability of bimetallic catalysts prepared by co-impregnation and sequential impregnation where the 2nd metal was impregnated before Pt were better than that of monometallic catalyst (undoped Pt one) due to the forming of Pt sites located on the transition metal-oxide modified surface. Among all preparation methods, the sequential impregnation method- having Pt impregnated before the 2nd metal gave the worst stability because this catalyst lacked the modified Pt sites and some fraction of Pt sites was covered by the 2nd metal.

Keywords: alumina, dehydrogenation, platinum, transition metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
167 Control of the Sustainability of Decorative Topping for Bakery in Order to Extend the Shelf-Life of the Product

Authors: Radovan Čobanović, Milica Rankov Šicar

Abstract:

In the modern bakery various supplements are used to attract more customers. Analyzed sample decorative toppings are consisted of flax seeds, corn grits, oatmeal, wheat flakes, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, soybean sprouts are used as decoration for the bread. Our goal was to extend the product shelf life based on the analysis. According to the plan of sustainability it was defined that sample which already had expired shelf life had to be stored for 5 months at 25°C and analyzed every month from the day of reception until spoilage occurs. Samples were subjected to sensory analysis (appearance, odor, taste, color, and consistency), microbiological analysis (Salmonella spp., Bacillus cereus, Enterobacteriaceae and moulds) and chemistry analysis (free fatty acids (as oleic), peroxide number, water content and degree of acidity). All analyses were tested according: sensory analysis ISO 6658, Salmonella spp ISO 6579, Bacillus cereus ISO 7932, Enterobacteriaceae ISO 21528-2 and moulds ISO 21527-1, free fatty acids (as oleic) ISO 660, peroxide number ISO 3960, water content and degree of acidity Serbian ordinance on the methods of chemical analysis. After five months of storage, there had been the first changes concerning of sensory properties of the product. In the sample were visible worms and creations which look like spider nets linking seeds and cereal. The sample had smell on rancid and pungent. The results of microbiological analysis showed that Salmonella spp was not detected, Enterobacteriaceae were < 10 cfu/g during all 5 months but in fifth month Bacillus cereus and moulds occurred 700 cfu/g and 1500 cfu/g respectively. Chemical analyzes showed that the water content did not exceed a maximum of 14%. The content of free fatty acids ranged from 3.06 to 3.26%, degree of acidity from 3.69 to 4.9. With increasing degree of acidity the degradation of the sample and the activity of microorganisms was increased which led to the formation of acid reaction which is accompanied by the appearance of unpleasant odor and taste. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that this product can have longer shelf life for four months than shelf life which is already defined because there are no changes that could have influence on decision of customers when purchase of this product is concerned.

Keywords: bakery products, extension of shelf life, sensory and chemical and microbiological analyses, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
166 Field Application of Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime

Authors: Brian H. Marsh, John H. Grove

Abstract:

Gypsum is being applied to ameliorate subsoil acidity and to overcome the problem of very slow lime movement from surface lime applications. Reduced Crude Conversion Spent Lime (RCCSL) containing anhydrite was evaluated for use as a liming material with specific consideration given to the movement of sulfate into the acid subsoil. Agricultural lime and RCCSL were applied at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 times the lime requirement of 6.72 Mg ha-1 to an acid Trappist silt loam (Typic Hapuldult). Corn [Zea mays (L.)]was grown following lime material application and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]was grown in the second year. Soil pH increased rapidly with the addition of the RCCSL material. Over time there was no difference in soil pH between the materials but there was with increasing rate. None of the observed changes in plant nutrient concentration had an impact on yield. Grain yield was higher for the RCCSL amended treatments in the first year but not in the second. There was a significant increase in soybean grain yield from the full lime requirement treatments over no lime.

Keywords: soil acidity, corn, soybean, liming materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
165 Assessing and Managing the Risk of Inland Acid Sulfate Soil Drainage via Column Leach Tests and 1D Modelling: A Case Study from South East Australia

Authors: Nicolaas Unland, John Webb

Abstract:

The acidification and mobilisation of metals during the oxidation of acid sulfate soils exposed during lake bed drying is an increasingly common phenomenon under climate scenarios with reduced rainfall. In order to assess the risk of generating high concentrations of acidity and dissolved metals, chromium suite analysis are fundamental, but sometimes limited in characterising the potential risks they pose. This study combines such fundamental test work, along with incubation tests and 1D modelling to investigate the risks associated with the drying of Third Reedy Lake in South East Australia. Core samples were collected from a variable depth of 0.5 m below the lake bed, at 19 locations across the lake’s footprint, using a boat platform. Samples were subjected to a chromium suite of analysis, including titratable actual acidity, chromium reducible sulfur and acid neutralising capacity. Concentrations of reduced sulfur up to 0.08 %S and net acidities up to 0.15 %S indicate that acid sulfate soils have formed on the lake bed during permanent inundation over the last century. A further sub-set of samples were prepared in 7 columns and subject to accelerated heating, drying and wetting over a period of 64 days in laboratory. Results from the incubation trial indicate that while pyrite oxidation proceeded, minimal change to soil pH or the acidity of leachate occurred, suggesting that the internal buffering capacity of lake bed sediments was sufficient to neutralise a large proportion of the acidity produced. A 1D mass balance model was developed to assess potential changes in lake water quality during drying based on the results of chromium suite and incubation tests. Results from the above test work and modelling suggest that acid sulfate soils pose a moderate to low risk to the Third Reedy Lake system. Further, the risks can be effectively managed during the initial stages of lake drying via flushing with available mildly alkaline water. The study finds that while test work such as chromium suite analysis are fundamental in characterizing acid sulfate soil environments, they can the overestimate risks associated with the soils. Subsequent incubation test work may more accurately characterise such soils and lead to better-informed management strategies.

Keywords: acid sulfate soil, incubation, management, model, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
164 Dielectric Response Analysis Measurement for Diagnostic Oil-Paper Insulation System on Aged Inter Bus Transformer 3x10 MVA

Authors: Eki Farlen, Akas

Abstract:

Condition assessment of oil-paper-insulated power transformers, particularly of water content, is becoming increasingly important for aged transformers. As insulation ages, it can produce water, which reduces its dielectric strength, accelerates the cellulose ageing process, and causes gas bubbles to form at high temperatures. This paper mainly assesses the life condition of oil-paper insulation system of Inter Bus Transformer (IBT) 30 MVA, 150/30 kV in PT PLN-Substation Jelok that has been operating for 41 years, since 1974. Valuable information about the condition of high voltage insulation may be obtained by measuring its dielectric response. This paper describes in detail the interpretation of Dielectric Response Analysis (DIRANA) measurements and the test result compared to other insulation tests to get deep information for diagnostic, such as Tan delta test, oil characteristic test and Dissolve Gas Analysis (DGA) test. This paper mainly discusses the parameter relationship between moisture content, water content, acidity, oil conductivity and dissipation factor. The result and analysis show that IBT 30 MVA Jelok phase U and W had just been ageing due to high acidity level (>0.2 mgKOH/g) which cause high moisture in cellulose/paper (%) are in wet category about 4.7% and 5% and water content in oil (ppm) about 3.13 ppm and 3.33 ppm at temperature 20°C. High acidity level can make oxidation process and produce water in paper and particle which can decrease the value of Interfacial Tension (IFT) below 22 mN/m (poor category) for both phase U and W. Even if paper insulation of transformer are in wet condition, dissipation factor and capacitance at the same frequency (50 Hz) from both measurement DIRANA test and Tangent delta test give the same result (almost), the results are 0.69% and 0.71% (<1%), it may be acceptable and should not be investigated. The DGA results show that TDCG are in level one (1) condition and there are no found a Key Gases, it means that transformers had no failure during operation like arching, partial discharge and thermal in oil or cellulose.

Keywords: diagnostic, inter-bus transformer, oil-paper insulation, moisture, dissipation factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
163 Physico-Chemical and Sensory Properties of Orange Marmalade Supplemented with Aloe vera Powder

Authors: Farhat Rashid

Abstract:

A study was conducted at the Institute of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan, to evaluate the effect of different concentration of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis Mill.) powder on physicochemical and sensory properties of orange marmalade. All treatments (0, 2, 4 6, 8 and 10% Aloe vera powder) were analyzed for titratable acidity, TSS, pH, moisture, fat, fiber and protein contents. The data indicated gradual increase in titratable acidity (0.08 to 0.18%), moisture (0.23 to 0.48%), protein (0.09 to 0.40%) and fiber (0.12 to 1.03%) among all treatments with increasing concentration of Aloe vera powder. However, a decreasing trend in pH (3.81 to 2.74), TSS (68 to 56 °Brix) and fat content (1.1 to 0.08%) was noticed with gradual increase in concentration of Aloe vera powder in orange marmalade. Sensory attributes like color, taste, texture, flavor and overall acceptability were found acceptable among all treatments but T1 (2% Aloe vera powder) was liked most and T5 (10% Aloe vera powder) was least appealing to the judges. It is concluded from present study that the addition of different concentrations of Aloe vera powder in orange marmalade significantly affected the physicochemical and sensory properties of marmalade.

Keywords: orange marmalade, Aloe vera, Aloe barbadensis mill, physicochemical, characteristics, organoleptic properties, Pakistan, treatments, significance

Procedia PDF Downloads 270
162 Corrosion of Steel in Relation with Hydrogen Activity of Concentrated HClO4 Media: Realisation Sensor and Reference Electrode

Authors: B. Hammouti, H. Oudda, A. Benabdellah, A. Benayada, A. Aouniti

Abstract:

Corrosion behaviour of carbon steel was studied in various concentrated HClO4 solutions. To explain the acid attack in relation of H+ activity, new sensor was realised: two carbon paste electrodes (CPE) were constructed by incorporating ferrocene (Fc) and orthoquinone into the carbon paste matrix and crossed by weak current to stabilize potential difference. The potentiometric method at imposed weak current between these two electrodes permits the in situ determination of both concentration and acidity level of various concentrated HClO4 solutions. The different factors affecting the potential at imposed current as current intensity, temperature and H+ ion concentration are studied. The potentials measured between ferrocene and chloranil electrodes are directly linked to the acid concentration. The acidity Ri(H) function defined represents the determination of the H+ activity and constitutes the extend of pH is concentrated acid solutions. Ri(H) has been determined and compared to Strehlow Ro(H), Janata HGF and Hammett Ho functions. The collected data permit to give a scale of strength of mineral concentrated acids at a given concentration. Ri(H) is numerically equal to the thermodynamic Ro(H), but deviated from Hammett functions based on indicator determination. The CPE electrode with inserted ferrocene in presence of ferricinium (Fc+) ion in concentrated HClO4 at various concentrations is realized without junction potential and may plays the role of a practical reference electrode (FRE) in concentrated acids. Fc+ was easily prepared in biphasic medium HClO4-acid by the quantitative oxidation of ferrocene by the ortho-chloranil (oQ). Potential of FRE is stable with time. The variation of equilibrium potential of the interface Fc/ Fc+ at various concentrations of Fc+ (10-4 - 2 10-2 M) obeyed to the Nernst equation with a slope 0.059 Volt per decade. Corrosion rates obtained by weight loss and electrochemical techniques were then easily linked to acidity level.

Keywords: ferrocene, strehlow, concentrated acid, corrosion, Generalised pH, sensor carbon paste electrode

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
161 Study of the Adsorptives Properties of Zeolites X Exchanged by the Cations Cu2 + and/or Zn2+

Authors: H. Hammoudi, S. Bendenia, I. Batonneau-Gener, A. Khelifa

Abstract:

Applying growing zeolites is due to their intrinsic physicochemical properties: a porous structure, regular, generating a large free volume, a high specific surface area, acidic properties of interest to the origin of their activity, selectivity energy and dimensional, leading to a screening phenomenon, hence the name of molecular sieves is generally attributed to them. Most of the special properties of zeolites have been valued as direct applications such as ion exchange, adsorption, separation and catalysis. Due to their crystalline structure stable, their large pore volume and their high content of cation X zeolites are widely used in the process of adsorption and separation. The acidic properties of zeolites X and interesting selectivity conferred on them their porous structure is also have potential catalysts. The study presented in this manuscript is devoted to the chemical modification of an X zeolite by cation exchange. Ion exchange of zeolite NaX by Zn 2 + cations and / or Cu 2 + is gradually conducted by following the evolution of some of its characteristics: crystallinity by XRD, micropore volume by nitrogen adsorption. Once characterized, the different samples will be used for the adsorption of propane and propylene. Particular attention is paid thereafter, on the modeling of adsorption isotherms. In this vein, various equations of adsorption isotherms and localized mobile, some taking into account the adsorbate-adsorbate interactions, are used to describe the experimental isotherms. We also used the Toth equation, a mathematical model with three parameters whose adjustment requires nonlinear regression. The last part is dedicated to the study of acid properties of Cu (x) X, Zn (x) X and CuZn (x) X, with the adsorption-desorption of pyridine followed by IR. The effect of substitution at different rates of Na + by Cu2 + cations and / or Zn 2 +, on the crystallinity and on the textural properties was treated. Some results on the morphology of the crystallites and the thermal effects during a temperature rise, obtained by scanning electron microscopy and DTA-TGA thermal analyzer, respectively, are also reported. The acidity of our different samples was also studied. Thus, the nature and strength of each type of acidity are estimated. The evaluation of these various features will provide a comparison between Cu (x) X, Zn (x) X and CuZn (x) X. One study on adsorption of C3H8 and C3H6 in NaX, Cu (x) X , Zn (x) x and CuZn (x) x has been undertaken.

Keywords: adsorption, acidity, ion exchange, zeolite

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
160 Postharvest Studies Beyond Fresh Market Eating Quality: Phytochemical Changes in Peach Fruit During Ripening and Advanced Senescence

Authors: Mukesh Singh Mer, Brij Lal Attri, Raj Narayan, Anil Kumar

Abstract:

Postharvest studies were conducted under the concept that fruit do not qualify for the fresh market may be used as a source of bioactive compounds. One peach (Prunus persica cvs Red June) were evaluated for their photochemical content and antioxidant capacity during the ripening and over ripening periods (advanced senescence) for 12 and 15 d, respectively. Firmness decreased rapidly during this period from an initial pre –ripe stage of 5.85 lb/in2 for peach until the fruit reached the fully ripe stage of lb/in2. In this study we evaluate the varietal performance in respect of the quality beyond fresh market eating and nutrition levels. The varieties are (T-1 F-16-23), (T-2 Florda king), (T-3 Nectarine), (T-4 Red June). The result pertaining are there the highest fruit length (68.50 mm), fruit breadth (71.38 mm), fruit weight (186.11 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (8.74 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (1.66 %), ascorbic acid (440 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (19.77 %) and total sugar (51.73 %) found in T4- Red June, T-2 Florda King, T-3 Nectarine at harvesting time but decrease in fruit length ( 60.81 mm), fruit breadth (51.84 mm), fruit weight (143.03 g) found in T4 Red June and fruit firmness (6.29 lb/in 2) found in T3-Nectarine. The acidity (0.80 %), ascorbic acid (329.50 mg/100 g), reducing sugar (34.03 %) and total sugar (26.97 %) found in T1- F-16-23, T-2 Florda King, T-1 F-16-23 and T-3 Nectarine after 15 days in freeze conditions when will have been since reached beyond market. The study reveals that the size and yield good in Red June and the nutritional value higher in Florda King and Nectarine peach. Fruit firmness remained unchanged afterwards. In addition, total soluble solids in peach were basically similar during the ripening and over ripening periods. Further research on secondary metabolism regulation during ripening and advanced senescence is needed to obtain fruit as enriched dietary sources of bioactive compounds or for its use in alternative high value health markets including dietary supplements, functional foods cosmetics and pharmaceuticals.

Keywords: metabolism, acidity, ascorbic acid, pharmaceuticals

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
159 Ultrasonic Assisted Growth of ZnO Nanorods at Low Temperature

Authors: Khairul Anuar, Wai Yee Lee, Daniel C. S. Bien, Hing Wah Lee, Ishak Azid

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of ultrasonic treatment on ZnO nutrient solution prior to the growth of ZnO nanorods, where the seed layer is annealed at 50 and 100°C. The results show that the ZnO nanorods are successfully grown on the sample annealed at 50°C in the sonicated ZnO nutrient solution with a length and a diameter of approximately 8.025 µm and 92 nm, respectively. However, no ZnO nanorods structures are observed for the sample annealed at 50°C and grown in unsonicated ZnO nutrient solution. Meanwhile, the ZnO nanorods for the sample annealed at 100°C are successfully grown in both sonicated and unsonicated ZnO nutrient solutions. The length and diameter of the nanorods for the sample grown in the sonicated solution are 8.681 µm and 1.033 nm, whereas those for the sample grown in the unsonicated solution are 7.613 µm and 1.040 nm. This result shows that with ultrasonic treatment, the length of the ZnO nanorods increases by 14%, whereas their diameter is reduced by 0.7%, resulting in an increase of aspect ratio from 7:1 to 8:1. Electroconductivity and pH sensors are used to measure the conductivity and acidity level of the sonicated and unsonicated solutions, respectively. The result shows that the conductivity increases from 87 mS/cm to 10.4 mS/cm, whereas the solution pH decreases from 6.52 to 6.13 for the sonicated and unsonicated solutions, respectively. The increase in solution conductivity and acidity level elucidates the higher amount of zinc nutrient in the sonicated solution than in the unsonicated solution.

Keywords: ultrasonic treatment, low annealing temperature, ZnO nanostructure, nanorods

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
158 Storage Study of Bael (Aegle marmelos Correa.) Fruit and Pulp of Cv. Pant Sujata

Authors: B. R. Jana, Madhumita Singh

Abstract:

Storage study of bael fruit and pulp were conducted at ICAR-RCER, Research Centre Ranchi to find out suitable storage life to extent the availability of the fruit and produce the value added product in form of fruit. The cultivar under storage is Pant Sujata. CFB box packing resulted in minimum 21 % PLW during 2010-11 during its 28-35 days storage under ambient temperature. CFB box and Gunny bag retains maximum total sugar (17.3-17.4 °B) after 28 days storage. Bael pulp of cultivar Pant Sujata can be stored up to 2 months at 4 °C with good quality condition. Treatments were highly significant in the characters such as T.S.S., acidity, reducing sugar and total sugar. Storage conditions and treatments interaction were insignificant in all characters except acidity. The maximum T.S.S. of 21.87 °B has been found in sample treated with 800 ppm benzoic acid when kept for two months at 4 °C temperature. This treatment also resulted in retaining the maximum reducing sugar (8.09 %) and total sugar content (9.52 %) at same storage condition than other treatments. From the present experiments, it is concluded that CFB box packing and pulp storage with 800 ppm benzoic acid at 4 °C are important to extent the availability of bael for two months.

Keywords: bael, storage, fruits, pulp, benzoic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
157 Results of the Field-and-Scientific Study in the Water Area of the Estuaries of the Major Rivers of the Black Sea and Sea Ports on the Territory of Georgia

Authors: Ana Gavardashvili

Abstract:

The field-and-scientific studies to evaluate the modern ecological state in the water area of the estuaries of the major water-abundant rivers in the coastal line of the Black Sea (Chorokhi, Kintrishi, Natanebi, Supsa, Khobistskali, Rioni and Enguri) and sea ports (Batumi, Poti) and sea terminals of the oil pipeline (Baku-Tbilisi-Supsa, Kulevi) were accomplished in the months of June and July of 2015. GPS coordinates and GIS programs were used to fix the areas of the estuaries of the above-listed rivers on a digital map, with their values varying within the limits of 0,861 and 20,390 km2. Water samples from the Black Sea were taken from the river estuaries and sea ports during the field works, with their statistical series of 125 points. The temperatures of air (t2) and water in the Black Sea (t1) were measured locally, and their relative value is (t1 /t2 ) = 0,69 – 0,92. 125 water samples taken from the study object in the Black Sea coastal line were subject to laboratory analysis, and it was established that the Black Sea acidity (pH) changes within the limits of 7,71 – 8,22 in the river estuaries and within 8,42 - 8,65 in the port water areas and at oil terminals. As for the Sea water salinity index (TDS), it changes within the limits of 6,15 – 12,67 in the river estuaries, and (TDS) = 11,80 – 13,67 in the port water areas and at oil terminals. By taking the gained data and climatic changes into account, by using the theories of reliability and risk at the following stage, the nature of the changes of the function of the Black Sea ecological parameters will be established.

Keywords: acidity, estuary, salinity, sea

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
156 Storage Influence on Physico-Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Jamun Drink Prepared From Two Types of Pulp

Authors: Muhammad Atif Randhawa, Mahreen Akhtar, Sidrah

Abstract:

In this paper, Jamun (Syzygium cumini; Myrtaceae) drink enriched with jamun pulp and seed was assessed for different physicochemical parameters (titratable acidity, pH, TSS, ascorbic acid, and total sugars and reducing sugars) and phytochemical aspects at every 15 days interval till 60 days storage period. Jamun pulp both with seed and without seed were used at levels of 7, 10 and 13 percent to prepare jamun drink in six combinations; T1 (7% pulp without seed), T2 (10% pulp without seed), T3 (13% pulp without seed), T4 (7% pulp with seed), T5 (10% pulp with seed), T6 (13% pulp with seed). Storage period resulted decrease in pH (4.18 to 4.08) and ascorbic acid (21.92%) significantly along with phenolic contents (6.13 to 4.85g of GAE/kg) and antioxidant activity (70.68 to 48.62 percent) within treatments. All treatments showed significant increases in total sugars (11.59 to 11.80%), reducing sugars (2.30 to 2.50%), TSS (12.2 to 13.32 °B) and acidity (0.23% to 0.31%) during storage. Treatments T3, T5 and T6 showed best results in terms of all physicochemical parameters during storage. Statistically significant differences were obtained among sensory parameters as a function of pulp type and concentration, while treatment T5 (10% pulp with seed) obtained highest score (7.16) in terms of all sensory parameters. It can be concluded that nutrient rich jamun drink can be prepared as an attempt to add value to the underutilized jamun fruit of Pakistan.

Keywords: antioxidant activity, Jamun beverage, physicochemical, storage

Procedia PDF Downloads 212