Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5910

Search results for: soil organic carbon

5910 Effect of Open Burning on Soil Carbon Stock in Sugarcane Plantation in Thailand

Authors: Wilaiwan Sornpoon, Sébastien Bonnet, Savitri Garivait

Abstract:

Open burning of sugarcane fields is recognized to have a negative impact on soil by degrading its properties, especially soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Better understating the effect of open burning on soil carbon dynamics is crucial for documenting the carbon sequestration capacity of agricultural soils. In this study, experiments to investigate soil carbon stocks under burned and unburned sugarcane plantation systems in Thailand were conducted. The results showed that cultivation fields without open burning during 5 consecutive years enabled to increase the SOC content at a rate of 1.37 Mg ha-1y-1. Also it was found that sugarcane fields burning led to about 15% reduction of the total carbon stock in the 0-30 cm soil layer. The overall increase in SOC under unburned practice is mainly due to the large input of organic material through the use of sugarcane residues.

Keywords: soil organic carbon, soil inorganic carbon, carbon sequestration, open burning, sugarcane

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
5909 Assessing Vertical Distribution of Soil Organic Carbon Stocks in Westleigh Soil under Shrub Encroached Rangeland, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: Abel L. Masotla, Phesheya E. Dlamini, Vusumuzi E. Mbanjwa

Abstract:

Accurate quantification of the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) in relation to land cover transformations, associated with shrub encroachment is crucial because deeper lying horizons have been shown to have greater capacity to sequester SOC. Despite this, in-depth soil carbon dynamics remain poorly understood, especially in arid and semi-arid rangelands. The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon stocks (SOCs) in shrub-encroached and open grassland sites. To achieve this, soil samples were collected vertically at 10 cm depth intervals under both sites. The results showed that SOC was on average 19% and 13% greater in the topsoil and subsoil respectively, under shrub-encroached grassland compared to open grassland. In both topsoil and subsoil, lower SOCs were found under shrub-encroached (4.53 kg m⁻² and 3.90 kgm⁻²) relative to open grassland (4.39 kgm⁻² and 3.67 kgm⁻²). These results demonstrate that deeper soil horizon play a critical role in the storage of SOC in savanna grassland.

Keywords: savanna grasslands, shrub-encroachment, soil organic carbon, vertical distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
5908 Dynamics of Soil Carbon and Nitrogen Contents and Stocks along a Salinity Gradient

Authors: Qingqing Zhao, Junhong Bai

Abstract:

To investigate the effects of salinity on dynamics of soil carbon and nitrogen contents and stocks, soil samples were collected at a depth of 30 cm at four sampling sites (Sites B, T, S and P) along a salinity gradient in a drained coastal wetland, the Yellow River Delta, China. The salinity of these four sites ranked in the order: B (8.68±4.25 ms/cm) > T (5.89±3.17 ms/cm) > S (3.19±1.01 ms/cm) > P (2.26±0.39 ms/cm). Soil total carbon (TC), soil organic carbon (SOC), soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC), soil total nitrogen (TC) and soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) were measured. Based on these data, soil organic carbon density (SOCD), soil microbial biomass carbon density (MBCD), soil nitrogen density (TCD) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen density (MBND) were calculated at four sites. The results showed that the mean concentrations of TC, SOC, MBC, TN and MBN showed a general deceasing tendency with increasing salinities in the top 30 cm of soils. The values of SOCD, MBCD, TND and MBND exhibited similar tendency along the salinity gradient. As for profile distribution pattern, The C/N ratios ranged from 8.28 to 56. 51. Higher C/N ratios were found in samples with high salinity. Correlation analysis showed that the concentrations of TC, SOC and MBC at four sampling sites were significantly negatively correlated with salinity (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), indicating that salinity could inhibit soil carbon accumulation. However, no significant relationship was observed between TN, MBN and salinity (P > 0.05).

Keywords: carbon content and stock, nitrogen content and stock, salinity, coastal wetland

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
5907 Soil Respiration Rate of Laurel-Leaved and Cryptomeria japonica Forests

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

We assessed the ecology of the organic and mineral soil layers of laurel-leaved (BB-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (BB-2 and Pw) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The soil respiration rate was higher in the deeper horizons (F and H) of organic layers than in those of mineral soil layers, suggesting organic layers may be where active microbial metabolism occurs. Respiration rates in the soil of BB-1, BB-2 and Pw forests were closely similar at 5 and 10°C. However, the soil respiration rate increased in proportion to temperatures of 15°C or above. We therefore consider the activity of soil microorganisms to markedly decrease at temperatures below 10°C. At a temperature of 15°C or above, the soil respiration rate in the BB-1 organic layers was higher than in those of the BB-2 and Pw organic layers, due to differences in forest vegetation that appeared to influence several salient soil properties, particularly pH and the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content of the F and H horizons.

Keywords: forest soil, mineralization rate, heterotroph, soil respiration rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
5906 Effect of Thinning Practice on Carbon Storage in Soil Forest Northern Tunisia

Authors: Zouhaier Nasr, Mohamed Nouri

Abstract:

The increase in greenhouse gases since the pre-industrial period is a real threat to disrupting the balance of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Along with the oceans, forest soils are considered to be the planet's second-largest carbon sink. North African forests have been subject to alarming degradation for several decades. The objective of this investigation is to determine and quantify the effect of thinning practiced in pine forests in northern Tunisia on the storage of organic carbon in the trees and in the soil. The plot planted in 1989 underwent thinning in 2005 on to plots; the density is therefore 1600 trees/ha in control and 400 trees/ha in thinning. Direct dendrometric measurements (diameter, height, branches, stem) were taken. In the soil part, six profiles of 1m / 1m / 1m were used for soil and root samples and biomass and organic matter measurements. The measurements obtained were statistically processed by appropriate software. The results clearly indicate that thinning improves tree growth, so the diameter increased from 24.3 cm to 30.1 cm. Carbon storage in the trunks was 35% more and 25% for the whole tree. At ground level, the thinned plot shows a slight increase in soil organic matter and quantity of carbon per tree, exceeding the control by 10 to 25%.

Keywords: forest, soil, carbon, climate change, Tunisia

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
5905 Stabilization of Soil Organic Carbon within Silt+Clay Fraction in Shrub-Encroached Rangeland Shallow Soil at the University of Limpopo Syferkuil Experimental Farm

Authors: Millicent N. Khumalo, Phesheya E. Dlamini

Abstract:

Shrub-encroachment leads to a gain or loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) in previously open rangelands. The stabilization mechanisms controlling the storage of soil organic carbon (SOC) within aggregates of shrub-encroached grassland soils are poorly understood, especially in shallow plinthic soils. In this study, physical fractionation of surface soils (0- 10 cm) collected from open and shrub-encroached grasslands was conducted to determine the distribution of SOC within macro-and- microaggregates. Soil aggregates were classified into four fractions by a wet-sieving procedure, namely >2000 (large macro-aggregates), 212-2000 (small macro-aggregates), 50-212 (microaggregates) and < 50µm (silt+clay). In both shrub-encroached and open grassland soils, SOC was greater in the silt+clay fraction. In this fraction, SOC was on average 133% greater in shrub-encroached compared to open grassland. The greater SOC within the silt+clay fraction is due to the greater surface area and thus more exchange sites for carbon absorption. This implies that the SOC physically protected within the silt+clay is stored long-term.

Keywords: aggregate fractions, shrub-encroachment, soil organic carbon, stabilization

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
5904 Soil Organic Carbon Pool Assessment and Chemical Evaluation of Soils in Akure North and South Local Government Area of Ondo State

Authors: B. F. Dada, B. S. Ewulo, M. A. Awodun, S. O. Ajayi

Abstract:

Aggregate soil carbon distribution and stock in the soil in the form of a carbon pool is important for soil fertility and sequestration. The amount of carbon pool and other nutrients statues of the soil are to benefit plants, animal and the environment in the long run. This study was carried out at Akure North and South Local Government; the study area is one of the 18 Local Government Areas of Ondo State in the Southwest geo-political zone of Nigeria. The sites were divided into Map Grids and geo-referenced with Global Positioning System (GPS). Horizons were designated and morphological description carried out on the field. Pedons were characterized and classified according to USDA soil taxonomy. The local government area shares boundaries with; Ikere Local Government (LG) in the North, Ise Orun LG in the northwest, Ifedore LG in the northeast Akure South LG in the East, Ose LG in the South East, and Owo LG in the South. SOC-pool at Federal College of Agriculture topsoil horizon A2 is significantly higher than all horizons, 67.83 th⁻¹. The chemical properties of the pedons have shown that the soil is very strongly acidic to neutral reaction (4.68 – 6.73). The nutrients status of the soil topsoil A1 and A2 generally indicates that the soils have a low potential for retaining plant nutrients, and therefore call for adequate soil management.

Keywords: soil organic carbon (SOC), horizon, pedon, Akure

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
5903 Acidity and Aridity: Soil Carbon Storage and Myeloablation

Authors: Tom Spears, Zotique Laframboise

Abstract:

Soil inorganic carbon is the most common form of carbon in arid and semiarid regions, and has a very long turnover time. However, little is known about dissolved inorganic carbon storage and its turnover time in these soils. With 81 arid soil samples taken from 6 profiles in the Nepean Desert, Canada, we investigated the soil inorganic carbon (SIC) and the soil dissolved inorganic carbon (SDIC) in whole profiles of saline and alkaline soils by analyzing their contents and ages with radiocarbon dating. The results showed that there is considerable SDIC content in SIC, and the variations of SDIC and SIC contents in the saline soil profile were much larger than that in the alkaline profile. We investigated the possible implications for tectonic platelet activity but identified none.

Keywords: soil, carbon storage, acidity, soil inorganic carbon (SIC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
5902 Impact of Organic Farming on Soil Fertility and Microbial Activity

Authors: Menuka Maharjan

Abstract:

In the name of food security, agriculture intensification through conventional farming is being implemented in Nepal. Government focus on increasing agriculture production completely ignores soil as well human health. This leads to create serious soil degradation, i.e., reduction of soil fertility and microbial activity and health hazard in the country. On this note, organic farming is sustainable agriculture approach which can address challenge of sustaining food security while protecting the environment. This creates a win-win situation both for people and the environment. However, people have limited knowledge on significance of organic farming for environment conservation and food security especially developing countries like Nepal. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the impacts of organic farming on soil fertility and microbial activity compared to conventional farming and forest in Chitwan, Nepal. Total soil organic carbon (C) was highest in organic farming (24 mg C g⁻¹ soil) followed by conventional farming (15 mg C g⁻¹ soil) and forest (9 mg C g⁻¹ soil) in the topsoil layer (0-10 cm depth). A similar trend was found for total nitrogen (N) content in all three land uses with organic farming soil possessing the highest total N content in both 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth. Microbial biomass C and N were also highest under organic farming, especially in the topsoil layer (350 and 46 mg g⁻¹ soil, respectively). Similarly, microbial biomass phosphorus (P) was higher (3.6 and 1.0 mg P kg⁻¹ at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively) in organic farming compared to conventional farming and forest at both depths. However, conventional farming and forest soils had similar microbial biomass (C, N, and P) content. After conversion of forest, the P stock significantly increased by 373% and 170% in soil under organic farming at 0-10 and 10-20 cm depth, respectively. In conventional farming, the P stock increased by 64% and 36% at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depth, respectively, compared to forest. Overall, organic farming practices, i.e., crop rotation, residue input and farmyard manure application, significantly alters soil fertility and microbial activity. Organic farming system is emerging as a sustainable land use system which can address the issues of food security and environment conservation by increasing sustainable agriculture production and carbon sequestration, respectively, supporting to achieve goals of sustainable development.

Keywords: organic farming, soil fertility, micobial biomas, food security

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
5901 Efficiency of Modified Granular Activated Carbon Coupled with Membrane Bioreactor for Trace Organic Contaminants Removal

Authors: Mousaab Alrhmoun, Magali Casellas, Michel Baudu, Christophe Dagot

Abstract:

The aim of the study is to improve removal of trace organic contaminants dissolved in activated sludge by the process of filtration with membrane bioreactor combined with modified activated carbon, for a maximum removal of organic compounds characterized by low molecular weight. Special treatment was conducted in laboratory on activated carbon. Tow reaction parameters: The pH of aqueous middle and the type of granular activated carbon were very important to improve the removal and to motivate the electrostatic Interactions of organic compounds with modified activated carbon in addition to physical adsorption, ligand exchange or complexation on the surface activated carbon. The results indicate that modified activated carbon has a strong impact in removal 21 of organic contaminants and in percentage of 100% of the process.

Keywords: activated carbon, organic micropolluants, membrane bioreactor, carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
5900 Effect of Organic Fertilizers on the Improvement of Soil Microbiological Functioning under Saline Conditions of Arid Regions: Impact on Carbon and Nitrogen Mineralization

Authors: Oustani Mabrouka, Halilat Md Tahar, Hannachi Slimane

Abstract:

This study was conducted on representative and contrasting soils of arid regions. It focuses on the compared influence of two organic fertilizers: poultry manure (PM) and bovine manure (BM) on improving the microbial functioning of non-saline (SS) and saline (SSS) soils, in particularly, the process of mineralization of nitrogen and carbon. The microbiological activity was estimated by respirometric test (CO2–C emissions) and the extraction of two forms of mineral nitrogen (NH4+-N and NO3--N). Thus, after 56 days of incubation under controlled conditions (28 degrees and 80 per cent of the field capacity), the two types of manures showed that the mineralization activity varies according to type of soil and the organic substrate itself. However, the highest cumulative quantities of CO2–C, NH4+–N and NO3-–N obtained at the end of incubation were recorded in non-saline (SS) soil treated with poultry manure with 1173.4, 4.26 and 8.40 mg/100 g of dry soil, respectively. The reductions in rates of release of CO2–C and of nitrification under saline conditions were 21 and 36, 78 %, respectively. The influence of organic substratum on the microbial density shows a stimulating effect on all microbial groups studied. The whole results show the usefulness of two types of manures for the improvement of the microbiological functioning of arid soils.

Keywords: Salinity, Organic matter, Microorganisms, Mineralization, Nitrogen, Carbon, Arid regions

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
5899 Effect of Land Use on Soil Organic Carbon Stock and Aggregate Dynamics of Degraded Ultisol in Nsukka, Southeastern Nigeria

Authors: Chukwuebuka Vincent Azuka, Chidimma Peace Odoh

Abstract:

Changes in agricultural practices and land use influence the storage and release of soil organic carbon and soil structural dynamics. To investigate this in Nsukka, southeastern Nigeria, soil samples were collected at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm from three locations; Ovoko (OV), Obukpa (OB) and University of Nigeria, Nsukka (UNN) and three land use types; cultivated land (CL), forest land (FL) and grassland (GL)). Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS. Also, correlations between organic carbon stock, structural stability indices and other soil properties were established. The result showed that Ksat was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by location with mean values of 68 cmhr⁻¹,121.63 cmhr⁻¹, 8.42 cmhr⁻¹ in OV, OB and UNN respectively. The MWD and aggregate stability (AS) were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by land use and depth. The mean values of MWD are 0.85 (CL), 1.35 (FL) and 1.45 (GL), and 1.66 at 0-10 cm, 1.08 at 10-20 cm and 0.88 mm at 20-30 cm. The mean values of AS are; 27.66% (CL), 46.39% (FL) and 49.81% (GL), and 53.96% at 0-10cm, 40.22% at 10-20cm and 29.57% at 20-30cm. Clay flocculation (CFI) and dispersion indices (CDI) differed significantly (p < 0.05) among the land use. Soil pH differed significantly (p < 0.05) across the land use and locations with mean values ranging from 3.90-6.14. Soil organic carbon (SOC) significantly (p < 0.05) differed across locations and depths. SOC decreases as depth increases depth with mean values of 15.6 gkg⁻¹, 10.1 gkg⁻¹, and 8.6 gkg⁻¹ at 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm, and 20-30 cm respectively. SOC in the three land use was 8.8 g kg-1, 15.2 gkg⁻¹ and 10.4 gkg⁻¹ at CL, FL, and GL respectively. The highest aggregate-associated carbon was recorded in 0.5 mm across the land use and depth except in cultivated land and at 20-30 cm which recorded their highest SOC at 1mm. SOC stock, total nitrogen (TN) and CEC were significantly (p < 0.05) different across the locations with highest values of 23.43 t/ha, 0.07g/kg and 14.27 Cmol/kg respectively recorded in UNN. SOC stock was significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by depth as follows; 0-10>10-20>20-30 cm. TN was low with mean values ranging from 0.03-0.07 across the locations, land use and depths. The mean values of CEC ranged from 9.96-14.27 Cmol kg⁻¹ across the locations and land use. SOC stock showed correlation with silt, coarse sand, N and CEC (r = 0.40*, -0.39*, -0.65** and 0.64** respectively. AS showed correlation with BD, Ksat, pH in water and KCl, and SOC (r = -0.42*, 0.54**, -0.44*, -0.45* and 0.49** respectively. Thus, land use and location play a significant role in sustainable management of soil resources.

Keywords: agricultural practices, structural dynamics, sequestration, soil resources, management

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
5898 Effects of Organic Amendments on Primary Nutrients (N, P and K) in a Sandy Soil

Authors: Nejib Turki, Karima Kouki Khalfallah

Abstract:

The effect of six treatments of organic amendments were evaluated on a sandy soil in the region of Soukra in Tunisia. T1: cattle manure 55 t.ha-1, T2: commercial compost from Germany to 1 t.ha-1, T3: a mixture of 27.5 t.ha-1 of T1 with 0.5 t. ha-1 of T2, T4: commercial compost from France 2 t.ha-1, T5: a Tunisian commercial compost to 10 t.ha-1 and T0: control without treatment. The nitrogen in the soil increase to 0.029 g.kg-1 of soil treatment for the T1 and 0.021 g. kg-1 of soil treatment for the T3. The highest content of P2O5 has been registered by the T3 treatment that 0.44 g kg-1 soil with respect to the control (T0), which shows a content of 0.36 g.kg-1 soil. The soil was initially characterized by a potassium content of 0.8 g kg-1 soil, K2O exchangeable rate varied between 0.63 g.Kg-1 and 0.71 g.kg-1 soil respectively T2 and T1.

Keywords: compost, organic amendement, Ntot, P2O5, K2O

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
5897 Poultry Manure and Its Derived Biochar as a Soil Amendment for Newly Reclaimed Sandy Soils under Arid and Semi-Arid Conditions

Authors: W. S. Mohamed, A. A. Hammam

Abstract:

Sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are characterized by poor physical and biochemical properties such as low water retention, rapid organic matter decomposition, low nutrients use efficiency, and limited crop productivity. Addition of organic amendments is crucial to develop soil properties and consequently enhance nutrients use efficiency and lessen organic carbon decomposition. Two years field experiments were developed to investigate the feasibility of using poultry manure and its derived biochar integrated with different levels of N fertilizer as a soil amendment for newly reclaimed sandy soils in Western Desert of El-Minia Governorate, Egypt. Results of this research revealed that poultry manure and its derived biochar addition induced pronounced effects on soil moisture content at saturation point, field capacity (FC) and consequently available water. Data showed that application of poultry manure (PM) or PM-derived biochar (PMB) in combination with inorganic N levels had caused significant changes on a range of the investigated sandy soil biochemical properties including pH, EC, mineral N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic N (DON) and quotient DOC/DON. Overall, the impact of PMB on soil physical properties was detected to be superior than the impact of PM, regardless the inorganic N levels. In addition, the obtained results showed that PM and PM application had the capacity to stimulate vigorous growth, nutritional status, production levels of wheat and sorghum, and to increase soil organic matter content and N uptake and recovery compared to control. By contrast, comparing between PM and PMB at different levels of inorganic N, the obtained results showed higher relative increases in both grain and straw yields of wheat in plots treated with PM than in those treated with PMB. The interesting feature of this research is that the biochar derived from PM increased treated sandy soil organic carbon (SOC) 1.75 times more than soil treated with PM itself at the end of cropping seasons albeit double-applied amount of PM. This was attributed to the higher carbon stability of biochar treated sandy soils increasing soil persistence for carbon decomposition in comparison with PM labile carbon. It could be concluded that organic manures applied to sandy soils under arid and semi-arid conditions are subjected to high decomposition and mineralization rates through crop seasons. Biochar derived from organic wastes considers as a source of stable carbon and could be very hopeful choice for substituting easily decomposable organic manures under arid conditions. Therefore, sustainable agriculture and productivity in newly reclaimed sandy soils desire one high rate addition of biochar derived from organic manures instead of frequent addition of such organic amendments.

Keywords: biochar, dissolved organic carbon, N-uptake, poultry, sandy soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
5896 Effect of Inorganic Fertilization on Soil N Dynamics in Agricultural Plots in Central Mexico

Authors: Karla Sanchez-Ortiz, Yunuen Tapia-Torres, John Larsen, Felipe Garcia-Oliva

Abstract:

Due to food demand production, the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer has increased in agricultural soils to replace the N losses. Nevertheless, the intensive use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizer in conventional agriculture negatively affects the soil and therefore the environment, so alternatives such as organic agriculture have been proposed for being more environmentally friendly. However, further research in soil is needed to see how agricultural management affects the dynamics of C and N. The objective of this research was to evaluate the C and N dynamics in the soil with three different agricultural management: an agricultural plot with intensive inorganic fertilization, a plot with semi-organic management and an agricultural plot with recent abandonment (2 years). For each plot, the soil C and N dynamics and the enzymatic activity of NAG and β-Glucosidase were characterized. Total C and N concentration of the plant biomass of each site was measured as well. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was higher in abandoned plot, as well as this plot had higher total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN), besides microbial N and microbial C. While the enzymatic activity of NAG and β-Glucosidase was greater in the agricultural plot with inorganic fertilization, as well as nitrate (NO₃) was higher in fertilized plot, in comparison with the other two plots. The aboveground biomass (AB) of maize in the plot with inorganic fertilization presented higher TC and TN concentrations than the maize AB growing in the semiorganic plot, but the C:N ratio was highest in the grass AB in the abandoned plot. The C:N ration in the maize grain was greater in the semi-organic agricultural plot. These results show that the plot under intensive agricultural management favors the loss of soil organic matter and N, degrading the dynamics of soil organic compounds, promoting its fertility depletion.

Keywords: mineralization, nitrogen cycle, soil degradation, soil nutrients

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
5895 Influence of Digestate Fertilization on Soil Microbial Activity, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Yield

Authors: M. Doyeni, S. Suproniene, V. Tilvikiene

Abstract:

Agricultural wastes contribute significantly to global climate change through greenhouse gas emissions if not adequately recycled and sustainably managed. A recurring agricultural waste is livestock wastes that have consistently served as feedstock for biogas systems. The objective of this study was to access the influence of digestate fertilization on soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas emissions in agricultural fields. Wheat (Triticum spp. L.) was fertilized with different types of animal wastes digestates (organic fertilizers) and mineral nitrogen (inorganic fertilizer) for three years. The 170 kg N ha⁻¹ presented in digestates were split fertilized at an application rate of 90 and 80 kg N ha⁻¹. The soil microorganism activity could be predicted significantly using the dehydrogenase activity and soil microbial biomass carbon. By combining the two different monitoring approaches, the different methods applied in this study were sensitive to enzymatic activities and organic carbon in the living component of the soil organic matter. The emissions of greenhouse gasses (carbon dioxide (CO₂), methane (CH₄), and nitrous oxide (N₂O) were monitored directly by a static chamber system. The soil and environmental variables were measured to determine their influence on greenhouse gas emissions. Emission peaks was observed in N₂O and CO₂ after the first application of fertilizers with the emissions flattening out over the cultivating season while CH₄ emission was negligible with no apparent patterns observed. Microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase activity were affected by the fertilized organic digestates. A significant difference was recorded between the control and the digestate treated soils for the microbial biomass carbon and dehydrogenase. Results also showed individual and cumulative emissions of CO₂, CH₄ and N₂O from the digestates were relatively low suggesting the digestate fertilization can be an efficient method for improving soil quality and reducing greenhouse gases from agricultural sources in temperate climate conditions.

Keywords: greenhouse gas emission, manure digestate, soil microbial activity, yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 53
5894 Impact of Climatic Parameters on Soil's Nutritional and Enzymatic Properties

Authors: Kanchan Vishwakarma, Shivesh Sharma, Nitin Kumar

Abstract:

Soil is incoherent matter on Earth’s surface having organic and mineral content. The spatial variation of 4 soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass were assessed for two seasons’ viz. monsoon and winter along the latitudinal gradient in North-central India as the area of this study is fettered with respect to national status. The study was facilitated to encompass the effect of climate change, enzyme activity and biomass on nutrient cycling. Top soils were sampled from 4 sites in North-India. There were significant correlations found between organic C, N & P wrt to latitude gradient in two seasons. This distribution of enzyme activities and microbial biomass was consequence of alterations in temperature and moisture of soil because of which soil properties change along the latitude transect.

Keywords: latitude gradient, microbial biomass, moisture, soil, organic carbon, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
5893 Storage of Organic Carbon in Chemical Fractions in Acid Soil as Influenced by Different Liming

Authors: Ieva Jokubauskaite, Alvyra Slepetiene, Danute Karcauskiene, Inga Liaudanskiene, Kristina Amaleviciute

Abstract:

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the key soil quality and ecological stability indicator, therefore, carbon accumulation in stable forms not only supports and increases the organic matter content in the soil, but also has a positive effect on the quality of soil and the whole ecosystem. Soil liming is one of the most common ways to improve the carbon sequestration in the soil. Determination of the optimum intensity and combinations of liming in order to ensure the optimal carbon quantitative and qualitative parameters is one of the most important tasks of this work. The field experiments were carried out at the Vezaiciai Branch of Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry (LRCAF) during the 2011–2013 period. The effect of liming with different intensity (at a rate 0.5 every 7 years and 2.0 every 3-4 years) was investigated in the topsoil of acid moraine loam Bathygleyic Dystric Glossic Retisol. Chemical analyses were carried out at the Chemical Research Laboratory of Institute of Agriculture, LRCAF. Soil samples for chemical analyses were taken from the topsoil after harvesting. SOC was determined by the Tyurin method modified by Nikitin, measuring with spectrometer Cary 50 (VARIAN) at 590 nm wavelength using glucose standards. SOC fractional composition was determined by Ponomareva and Plotnikova version of classical Tyurin method. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was analyzed using an ion chromatograph SKALAR in water extract at soil-water ratio 1:5. Spectral properties (E4/E6 ratio) of humic acids were determined by measuring the absorbance of humic and fulvic acids solutions at 465 and 665 nm. Our study showed a negative statistically significant effect of periodical liming (at 0.5 and 2.0 liming rates) on SOC content in the soil. The content of SOC was 1.45% in the unlimed treatment, while in periodically limed at 2.0 liming rate every 3–4 years it was approximately by 0.18 percentage points lower. It was revealed that liming significantly decreased the DOC concentration in the soil. The lowest concentration of DOC (0.156 g kg-1) was established in the most intensively limed (2.0 liming rate every 3–4 years) treatment. Soil liming exerted an increase of all humic acids and fulvic acid bounded with calcium fractions content in the topsoil. Soil liming resulted in the accumulation of valuable humic acids. Due to the applied liming, the HR/FR ratio, indicating the quality of humus increased to 1.08 compared with that in unlimed soil (0.81). Intensive soil liming promoted the formation of humic acids in which groups of carboxylic and phenolic compounds predominated. These humic acids are characterized by a higher degree of condensation of aromatic compounds and in this way determine the intensive organic matter humification processes in the soil. The results of this research provide us with the clear information on the characteristics of SOC change, which could be very useful to guide the climate policy and sustainable soil management.

Keywords: acid soil, carbon sequestration, long–term liming, soil organic carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
5892 Labile and Humified Carbon Storage in Natural and Anthropogenically Affected Luvisols

Authors: Kristina Amaleviciute, Ieva Jokubauskaite, Alvyra Slepetiene, Jonas Volungevicius, Inga Liaudanskiene

Abstract:

The main task of this research was to investigate the chemical composition of the differently used soil in profiles. To identify the differences in the soil were investigated organic carbon (SOC) and its fractional composition: dissolved organic carbon (DOC), mobile humic acids (MHA) and C to N ratio of natural and anthropogenically affected Luvisols. Research object: natural and anthropogenically affected Luvisol, Akademija, Kedainiai, distr. Lithuania. Chemical analyses were carried out at the Chemical Research Laboratory of Institute of Agriculture, LAMMC. Soil samples for chemical analyses were taken from the genetics soil horizons. SOC was determined by the Tyurin method modified by Nikitin, measuring with spectrometer Cary 50 (VARIAN) in 590 nm wavelength using glucose standards. For mobile humic acids (MHA) determination the extraction procedure was carried out using 0.1 M NaOH solution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was analyzed using an ion chromatograph SKALAR. pH was measured in 1M H2O. N total was determined by Kjeldahl method. Results: Based on the obtained results, it can be stated that transformation of chemical composition is going through the genetic soil horizons. Morphology of the upper layers of soil profile which is formed under natural conditions was changed by anthropomorphic (agrogenic, urbogenic, technogenic and others) structure. Anthropogenic activities, mechanical and biochemical disturbances destroy the natural characteristics of soil formation and complicates the interpretation of soil development. Due to the intensive cultivation, the pH values of the curve equals (disappears acidification characteristic for E horizon) with natural Luvisol. Luvisols affected by agricultural activities was characterized by a decrease in the absolute amount of humic substances in separate horizons. But there was observed more sustainable, higher carbon sequestration and thicker storage of humic horizon compared with forest Luvisol. However, the average content of humic substances in the soil profile was lower. Soil organic carbon content in anthropogenic Luvisols was lower compared with the natural forest soil, but there was more evenly spread over in the wider thickness of accumulative horizon. These data suggest that the organization of geo-ecological declines and agroecological increases in Luvisols. Acknowledgement: This work was supported by the National Science Program ‘The effect of long-term, different-intensity management of resources on the soils of different genesis and on other components of the agro-ecosystems’ [grant number SIT-9/2015] funded by the Research Council of Lithuania.

Keywords: agrogenization, dissolved organic carbon, luvisol, mobile humic acids, soil organic carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
5891 Seasonal and Monthly Field Soil Respiration Rate and Litter Fall Amounts of Kasuga-Yama Hill Primeval Forest

Authors: Ayuko Itsuki, Sachiyo Aburatani

Abstract:

The seasonal (January, April, July and October) and monthly soil respiration rate and the monthly litter fall amounts were examined in the laurel-leaved (B_B-1) and Cryptomeria japonica (B_B-2 and PW) forests in the Kasugayama Hill Primeval Forest (Nara, Japan). The change of the seasonal soil respiration rate corresponded to that of the soil temperature. The soil respiration rate was higher in October when fresh organic matter was supplied in the forest floor than in April in spite of the same temperature. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-1 was higher than that of B_B-2, which corresponded to more numbers of bacteria and fungi counted by the dilution plate method and by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-1 than that of B_B-2. The seasonal soil respiration rate of B_B-2 was higher than that of PW, which corresponded to more microbial biomass by the direct count method by microscopy in B_B-2 than that of PW. The correlation coefficient with the seasonal soil respiration and the soil temperature was higher than that of the monthly soil respiration. The soil respiration carbon was more than the litter fall carbon. It was suggested that the soil respiration included in the carbon dioxide which was emitted by the plant root and soil animal, or that the litter fall supplied to the forest floor included in animal and plant litter.

Keywords: field soil respiration rate, forest soil, litter fall, mineralization rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
5890 Response of Six Organic Soil Media on the Germination, Seedling Vigor Performance of Jack Fruit Seeds in Chitwan Nepal

Authors: Birendra Kumar Bhattachan

Abstract:

Organic soil media plays an important role for seed germination, growing, and producing organic jack fruits as the source of food such as vitamin A, C, and others for human health. An experiment was conducted to find out the appropriate organic soil medias to induce germination and seedling vigor of jack fruit seeds at the farm of Agriculture and Forestry University (AFU) Chitwan Nepal during June 2022 to October 2022. The organic soil medias used as treatments were as 1. soil collected under the Molingia tree; 2. soil, FYM and RH (2:1;1); 3. soil, FYM (1:1); 4. sand, FYM and RH (2:1:1), 5, sand, soil, FYM and RH (1:1:1:1) and 6. sand, soil and RH (1:2:1) under Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications. Significantly highest germination of 88% was induced by soil media, followed by media of soil and FYM (!:1) i.e. 63% and the media of soil, FYM and RH (2:1;1) and the least media was sand, soil, FYM and RH (1:1:1:) to induce germination of 28%. Significantly highest seedling length of 73 cm was produced by soil media followed by the media soil, sand, and RH (1:2:1), i.e. 72 cm and the media soil, sand, FYM, and RH (1:1:1:1) and the least media was soil, FYM and RH (2:1:1) to produce 62 cm seedling length, Similarly, significantly highest seedling vigor of 6257 was produced by soil media followed by the media soil and FYM (1:1) i.e. 4253 and the least was the media sand, soil, FYM and RH (1:1:1:1) to produce seedling vigor of1916. Based on this experiment, it was concluded that soil media collected under the Moringia tree could induce the highest germinating capacity of jack fruit seeds and then seedling vigor.

Keywords: jack fruit seed, soil media, farm yard manure, sand media, rice husk

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
5889 Carbon Sequestration under Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) Agroforestry and Adjacent Land Uses in the Vicinity of Black Sea, Trabzon, Turkey

Authors: Mohammed Abaoli Abafogi, Sinem Satiroglu, M. Misir

Abstract:

The current study has addressed the effect of Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry on carbon sequestration. Eight sample plots were collected from Hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry using random sampling method. The diameter of all trees in each plot with ≥ 2cm at 1.3m DBH was measured by using a calliper. Average diameter, aboveground biomass, and carbon stock were calculated for each plot. Comparative data for natural forestland was used for C was taken from KTU, and the soil C was converted from the biomass conversion equation. Biomass carbon was significantly higher in the Natural forest (68.02Mgha⁻¹) than in the Hazelnut agroforestry (16.89Mgha⁻¹). SOC in Hazelnut agroforestry, Natural forest, and arable agricultural land were 7.70, 385.85, and 0.00 Mgha⁻¹ respectively. Biomass C, on average accounts for only 0.00% of the total C in arable agriculture, and 11.02% for the Hazelnut agroforestry while 88.05% for Natural forest. The result shows that the conversion of arable crop field to Hazelnut agroforestry can sequester a large amount of C in the soil as well as in the biomass than Arable agricultural lands.

Keywords: arable agriculture, biomass carbon, carbon sequestration, hazelnut (Corylus avellana) agroforestry, soil organic carbon

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
5888 Physico-Chemical Analysis of the Reclaimed Land Area of Kasur

Authors: Shiza Zafar

Abstract:

The tannery effluents contaminated about 400 acres land area in Kasur, Pakistan, has been reclaimed by removing polluted water after the long term effluent logging from the nearby tanneries. In an effort to describe the status of reclaimed soil for agricultural practices, the results of physicochemical analysis of the soil are reported in this article. The concentrations of the parameters such as pH, Electrical Conductivity (EC), Organic Matter (OM), Organic Carbon (OC), Available Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K), and Sodium (Na) were determined by standard methods of analysis and results were computed and compared with various international standards for agriculture recommended by international organizations, groups of experts and or individual researchers. The results revealed that pH, EC, OM, OC, K, and Na are in accordance with the prescribed limits but P in soil exceeds the satisfactory range of P in agricultural soil. Thus, the reclaimed soil in Kasur can be inferred fit for the purpose of agricultural activities.

Keywords: soil toxicity, agriculture, reclaimed land, physico-chemical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5887 Development of Soil Test Kits to Determine Organic Matter Available Phosphorus and Exchangeable Potassium in Thailand

Authors: Charirat Kusonwiriyawong, Supha Photichan, Wannarut Chutibutr

Abstract:

Soil test kits for rapid analysis of the organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were developed to drive a low-cost field testing kit to farmers. The objective was to provide a decision tool for improving soil fertility. One aspect of soil test kit development was ease of use which is a time requirement for completing organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium test in one soil sample. This testing kit required only two extractions and utilized no filtration consuming approximately 15 minutes per sample. Organic matter was principally created by oxidizing carbon KMnO₄ using the standard color chart. In addition, modified single extractant (Mehlich I) was applied to extract available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. Molybdenum blue method and turbidimetric method using standard color chart were adapted to analyze available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively. Modified single extractant using in soil test kits were highly significant matching with analytical laboratory results (r=0.959** and 0.945** for available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively). Linear regressions were statistically calculated between modified single extractant and standard laboratory analysis (y=0.9581x-12.973 for available phosphorus and y=0.5372x+15.283 for exchangeable potassium, respectively). These equations were calibrated to formulate a fertilizer rate recommendation for specific corps. To validate quality, soil test kits were distributed to farmers and extension workers. We found that the accuracy of soil test kits were 71.0%, 63.9% and 65.5% for organic matter, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium, respectively. The quantitative survey was also conducted in order to assess their satisfaction with soil test kits. The survey showed that more than 85% of respondents said these testing kits were more convenient, economical and reliable than the other commercial soil test kits. Based upon the finding of this study, soil test kits can be another alternative for providing soil analysis and fertility recommendations when a soil testing laboratory is not available.

Keywords: available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, modified single extractant, organic matter, soil test kits

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
5886 Influence of Biochar Application on Growth, Dry Matter Yield and Nutrition of Corn (Zea mays L.) Grown on Sandy Loam Soils of Gujarat, India

Authors: Pravinchandra Patel

Abstract:

Sustainable agriculture in sandy loam soil generally faces large constraints due to low water holding and nutrient retention capacity, and accelerated mineralization of soil organic matter. There is need to increase soil organic carbon in the soil for higher crop productivity and soil sustainability. Recently biochar is considered as sixth element and work as a catalyst for increasing crop yield, soil fertility, soil sustainability and mitigation of climate change. Biochar was generated at the Sansoli Farm of Anand Agricultural University, Gujarat, India by pyrolysis at temperatures (250-400°C) in absence of oxygen using slow chemical process (using two kilns) from corn stover (Zea mays, L), cluster bean stover (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) and Prosopis julifera wood. There were 16 treatments; 4 organic sources (3 biochar; corn stover biochar (MS), cluster bean stover (CB) & Prosopis julifera wood (PJ) and one farmyard manure-FYM) with two rate of application (5 & 10 metric tons/ha), so there were eight treatments of organic sources. Eight organic sources was applied with the recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) (80-40-0 kg/ha N-P-K) while remaining eight organic sources were kept without RDF. Application of corn stover biochar @ 10 metric tons/ha along with RDF (RDF+MS) increased dry matter (DM) yield, crude protein (CP) yield, chlorophyll content and plant height (at 30 and 60 days after sowing) than CB and PJ biochar and FYM. Nutrient uptake of P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Cu were significantly increased with the application of RDF + corn stover @ 10 metric tons/ha while uptake of N and Mn were significantly increased in RDF + corn stover @ 5 metric tons/ha. It was found that soil application of corn stover biochar @ 10 metric tons/ha along with the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers (RDF+MS ) exhibited the highest impact in obtaining significantly higher dry matter and crude protein yields and larger removal of nutrients from the soil and it also beneficial for built up nutrients in soil. It also showed significantly higher organic carbon content and cation exchange capacity in sandy loam soil. The lower dose of corn stover biochar @ 5 metric tons/ha (RDF+ MS) was also remained the second highest for increasing dry matter and crude protein yields of forage corn crop which ultimately resulted in larger removals of nutrients from the soil. This study highlights the importance of mixing of biochar along with recommended dose of fertilizers on its synergistic effect on sandy loam soil nutrient retention, organic carbon content and water holding capacity hence, the amendment value of biochar in sandy loam soil.

Keywords: biochar, corn yield, plant nutrient, fertility status

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
5885 Dissipation of Tebuconazole in Cropland Soils as Affected by Soil Factors

Authors: Bipul Behari Saha, Sunil Kumar Singh, P. Padmaja, Kamlesh Vishwakarma

Abstract:

Dissipation study of tebuconazole in alluvial, black and deep-black clayey soils collected from paddy, mango and peanut cropland of tropical agro-climatic zone of India at three concentration levels were carried out for monitoring the water contamination through persisted residual toxicity. The soil-slurry samples were analyzed by capillary GC-NPD methods followed by ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) technique and cleanup process. An excellent linear relationship between peak area and concentration obtained in the range 1 to 50 μgkg-1. The detection (S/N, 3 ± 0.5) and quantification (S/N, 7.5 ± 2.5) limits were 3 and 10 μgkg-1 respectively. Well spiked recoveries were achieved from 96.28 to 99.33 % at levels 5 and 20 μgkg-1 and method precision (% RSD) was ≤ 5%. The soils dissipation of tebuconazole was fitted in first order kinetic-model with half-life between 34.48 to 48.13 days. The soil organic-carbon (SOC) content correlated well with the dissipation rate constants (DRC) of the fungicide Tebuconazole. An increase in the SOC content resulted in faster dissipation. The results indicate that the soil organic carbon and tebuconazole concentrations plays dominant role in dissipation processes. The initial concentration illustrated that the degradation rate of tebuconazole in soils was concentration dependent.

Keywords: cropland soil, dissipation, laboratory incubation, tebuconazole

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
5884 Activated Carbon Content Influence in Mineral Barrier Performance

Authors: Raul Guerrero, Sandro Machado, Miriam Carvalho

Abstract:

Soil and aquifer pollution, caused by hydrocarbon liquid spilling, is induced by misguided operational practices and inefficient safety guidelines. According to the Environmental Brazilian Institute (IBAMA), during 2013 alone, over 472.13 m3 of diesel oil leaked into the environment nationwide for those reported cases only. Regarding the aforementioned information, there’s an indisputable need to adopt appropriate environmental safeguards specially in those areas intended for the production, treatment, transportation and storage of hydrocarbon fluids. According to Brazilian norm, ABNT-NBR 7505-1:2000, compacted soil or mineral barriers used in structural contingency levees, such as storage tanks, are required to present a maximum water permeability coefficient, k, of 1x10-6 cm/s. However, as discussed by several authors, water can not be adopted as the reference fluid to determine the site’s containment performance against organic fluids. Mainly, due to the great discrepancy observed in polarity values (dielectric constant) between water and most organic fluids. Previous studies, within this same research group, proposed an optimal range of values for the soil’s index properties for mineral barrier composition focused on organic fluid containment. Unfortunately, in some circumstances, it is not possible to encounter a type of soil with the required geotechnical characteristics near the containment site, increasing prevention and construction costs, as well as environmental risks. For these specific cases, the use of an organic product or material as an additive to enhance mineral-barrier containment performance may be an attractive geotechnical solution. This paper evaluates the effect of activated carbon (AC) content additions into a clayey soil towards hydrocarbon fluid permeability. Variables such as compaction energy, carbon texture and addition content (0%, 10% and 20%) were analyzed through laboratory falling-head permeability tests using distilled water and commercial diesel as percolating fluids. The obtained results showed that the AC with smaller particle-size reduced k values significantly against diesel, indicating a direct relationship between particle-size reduction (surface area increase) of the organic product and organic fluid containment.

Keywords: activated carbon, clayey soils, permeability, surface area

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
5883 Soil Degradation Processes in Marginal Uplands of Samar Island, Philippines

Authors: Dernie Taganna Olguera

Abstract:

Marginal uplands are fragile ecosystems in the tropics that need to be evaluated for sustainable utilization and land degradation mitigation. Thus, this study evaluated the dominant soil degradation processes in selected marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines; evaluated the important factors influencing soil degradation in the selected sites and identified the indicators of soil degradation in marginal uplands of the tropical landscape of Samar Island, Philippines. Two (2) sites were selected (Sta. Rita, Samar and Salcedo, Eastern, Samar) representing the western and eastern sides of Samar Island respectively. These marginal uplands represent different agro-climatic zones suitable for the study. Soil erosion is the major soil degradation process in the marginal uplands studied. It resulted in not only considerable soil losses but nutrient losses as well. Soil erosion varied with vegetation cover and site. It was much higher in the sweetpotato, cassava, and gabi crops than under natural vegetation. In addition, soil erosion was higher in Salcedo than in Sta. Rita, which is related to climatic and soil characteristics. Bulk density, porosity, aggregate stability, soil pH, organic matter, and carbon dioxide evolution are good indicators of soil degradation. The dominance of Saccharum spontaneum Linn., Imperata cylindrica Linn, Melastoma malabathricum Linn. and Psidium guajava Linn indicated degraded soil condition. Farmer’s practices particularly clean culture and organic fertilizer application influenced the degree of soil degradation in the marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines.

Keywords: soil degradation, soil erosion, marginal uplands, Samar island, Philippines

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
5882 Degradation of Endosulfan in Different Soils by Indigenous and Adapted Microorganisms

Authors: A. Özyer, N. G. Turan, Y. Ardalı

Abstract:

The environmental fate of organic contaminants in soils is influenced significantly by the pH, texture of soil, water content and also presence of organic matter. In this study, biodegradation of endosulfan isomers was studied in two different soils (Soil A and Soil B) that have contrasting properties in terms of their texture, pH, organic content, etc. Two Nocardia sp., which were isolated from soil, were used for degradation of endosulfan. Soils were contaminated with commercial endosulfan. Six sets were maintained from two different soils, contaminated with different endosulfan concentrations for degradation experiments. Inoculated and uninoculated mineral media with Nocardia isolates were added to the soils and mixed. Soils were incubated at a certain temperature (30 °C) during ten weeks. Residue endosulfan and its metabolites’ concentrations were determined weekly during the incubation period. The changes of the soil microorganisms were investigated weekly.

Keywords: endosulfan, biodegradation, Nocardia sp. soil, organochlorine pesticide

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
5881 Secondary Compression Behavior of Organic Soils in One-Dimensional Consolidation Tests

Authors: Rinku Varghese, S. Chandrakaran, K. Rangaswamy

Abstract:

The standard one-dimensional consolidation test is used to find the consolidation behaviour of artificially consolidated organic soils. Incremental loading tests were conducted on the clay without and with organic matter. The study was conducted with soil having different organic content keeping all other parameters constant. The tests were conducted on clay and artificially prepared organic soil sample at different vertical pressure. The load increment ratio considered for the test is equal to one. Artificial organic soils are used for the test by adding starch to the clay. The percentage of organic content in starch is determined by adding 5% by weight starch into the clay (inorganic soil) sample and corresponding change in organic content of soil was determined. This was expressed as percentage by weight of starch, and it was found that about 95% organic content in the soil sample. Accordingly percentage of organic content fixed and added to the sample for testing to understand the consolidation behaviour clayey soils with organic content. A detailed study of the results obtained from IL test was investigated. The main items investigated were (i) coefficient of consolidation (cv), (ii) coefficient of volume compression (mv), (iii) coefficient of permeability (k). The consolidation parameter obtained from IL test was used for determining the creep strain and creep parameter and also predicting their variation with vertical stress and organic content.

Keywords: consolidation, secondary compression, creep, starch

Procedia PDF Downloads 192