Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7179

Search results for: water purification

7179 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha

Abstract:

Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
7178 Ingini Seeds: A Qualitative Study on Its Use in Water Purification in the Dry Zone of Sri Lanka

Authors: Iranga Weerakkody, Palitha Sri Geegana Arachchige, Dasith Tilakaratna

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to study how folk wisdom can be applied to assist in the process of purification of water. This is qualitative research, and by random sampling, it is focused on to the dry zone of Sri Lanka. The research limitation has been set to the use of Ingini seeds (Strychnos potatorum) to purify water. Here the research is based on connecting traditional knowledge regarding water purification using Ingini seeds to modern times and the advantages and disadvantages of using Ingini seeds to purify water sources. Ingini seeds have been used among villagers of the dry zone to purify water for a long time by methods such as planting Ingini plants around water sources and depositing seeds covered with a cotton cloth inside wells. Crushed Ingini seeds have been put into clay water pots to reduce the hardness of water, as well as the number of impurities present in the water. This shows that Ingini seeds have a property that is successful in precipitating dissolved impurities in water. Ingini seeds are also used to precipitate solid impurities in herbal wine. The advantages of using Ingini seeds are that it can be obtained naturally from the ecology without an additional cost and that it is completely organic forest produce. Another specialty is that in practices, it is used to treat kidney stones and other water-related diseases affecting the kidneys.

Keywords: folklife, Ingini seeds, Strychnos potatorum, organic forest produce, water purification

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
7177 Study of Environmental Impact

Authors: Houmame Benbouali

Abstract:

The risks, in general, exist in any project; one can hardly carry out a project without taking risks. The hydraulic works are rather complex projects in their design, realization and exploitation, and are often subjected at the multiple risks being able to influence with their good performance, and can have an negative impact on their environment. The present study was carried out to quote the impacts caused by purification plant STEP Chlef on the environment, it aims has studies the environmental impacts during construction and when designing this STEP, it is divided into two parts: The first part results from a research task bibliographer which contain three chapters (-cleansing of water worn-general information on water worn-proceed of purification of waste water). The second part is an experimental part which is divided into four chapters (detailed state initial-description of the station of purification-evaluation of the impacts of the project analyzes measurements and recommendations).

Keywords: treatment plant, waste water, waste water treatment, environmental impact

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
7176 Factors Affecting Aluminum Dissolve from Acidified Water Purification Sludge

Authors: Wen Po Cheng, Chi Hua Fu, Ping Hung Chen, Ruey Fang Yu

Abstract:

Recovering resources from water purification sludge (WPS) have been gradually stipulated in environmental protection laws and regulations in many nations. Hence, reusing the WPS is becoming an important topic, and recovering alum from WPS is one of the many practical alternatives. Most previous research efforts have been conducted on studying the amphoteric characteristic of aluminum hydroxide for investigating the optimum pH range to dissolve the Al(III) species from WPS, but it has been lack of reaction kinetics or mechanisms related discussion. Therefore, in this investigation, water purification sludge (WPS) solution was broken by ultrasound to make particle size of reactants smaller, specific surface area larger. According to the reaction kinetics, these phenomena let the dissolved aluminum salt quantity increased and the reaction rate go faster.

Keywords: aluminum, acidification, sludge, recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 469
7175 Solar Photovoltaic Pumping and Water Treatment Tools: A Case Study in Ethiopian Village

Authors: Corinna Barraco, Ornella Salimbene

Abstract:

This research involves the Ethiopian locality of Jeldi (North Africa), an area particularly affected by water shortage and in which the pumping and treatment of drinking water are extremely sensitive issues. The study aims to develop and apply low-cost tools for the design of solar water pumping and water purification systems in a not developed country. Consequently, two technical tools have been implemented in Excel i) Solar photovoltaic Pumping (Spv-P) ii) Water treatment (Wt). The Spv-P tool was applied to the existing well (depth 110 [m], dynamic water level 90 [m], static water level 53 [m], well yield 0.1728 [m³h⁻¹]) in the Jeldi area, where estimated water demand is about 50 [m3d-1]. Through the application of the tool, it was designed the water extraction system of the well, obtaining the number of pumps and solar panels necessary for water pumping from the well of Jeldi. Instead, the second tool Wt has been applied in the subsequent phase of extracted water treatment. According to the chemical-physical parameters of the water, Wt returns as output the type of purification treatment(s) necessary to potable the extracted water. In the case of the well of Jeldi, the tool identified a high criticality regarding the turbidity parameter (12 [NTU] vs 5 [NTU]), and a medium criticality regarding the exceeding limits of sodium concentration (234 [mg/L Na⁺] vs 200 [mg/L Na⁺]) and ammonia (0.64 [mg/L NH³-N] vs 0.5 [mg/L NH³-N]). To complete these tools, two specific manuals are provided for the users. The joint use of the two tools would help reduce problems related to access to water resources compared to the current situation and represents a simplified solution for the design of pumping systems and analysis of purification treatments to be performed in undeveloped countries.

Keywords: drinking water, Ethiopia, treatments, water pumping

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
7174 Study of Treatment Plant of The City Chlef Study of Environmental Impact

Authors: Houmame Benbouali, Aboubakr Gribi

Abstract:

The risks, in general, exist in any project, one can hardly carry out a project without taking risks. The hydraulic works are rather complex projects in their design, realization and exploitation and are often subjected at the multiple risks being able to influence with their good performance and can have a negative impact on their environment. The present study was carried out to quote the impacts caused by purification plant STEP Chlef on the environment, it aims has studied the environmental impacts during construction and when designing this STEP, it is divided into two parts: The first part results from a research task bibliographer which contain three chapters (- cleansing of water-worn- general information on water worn-proceed of purification of waste water). The second part is an experimental part which is divided into four chapters (detailed state initial description of the station of purification-evaluation of the impacts of the project analyzes measurements and recommendations).

Keywords: treatment plant, waste water, waste water treatment, Chlef

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
7173 Silver Nanoparticles in Drinking Water Purification

Authors: S. Pooja Pragati, B. Sudarsan, S. Rajkumar

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are known for their excellent antimicrobial agents, and thus can be used as alternative disinfectant agents. However, released silver nanoparticles is a threat to naturally occurring microorganisms. This paper exhibits information on the environmental fate, toxicological effects, and application of AgNP and the current estimate on the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of AgNP in different aqueous solutions, as well as their application as alternative disinfectants in water-treatment systems. It also gives a better approximation and experimental data of AgNP’s antimicrobial properties at different water chemistry conditions. A saturation-type fitting curve was established, showing the survival of bacteria under different water chemistry conditions as a function of the size of the nanoparticles. The results obtained show that silver nanoparticles in surface water, ground water, and brackish water are stable. The paper demonstrates the comparative study of AgNP-impregnated point-of-use ceramic water filters and ceramic filters impregnated with silver nitrate. It is observed that AgNP-impregnated ceramic water filters are more appropriate for this application due to the lesser amount of silver desorbed. Experimental data of the comparison of a polymer-based quaternary amine functionalized silsesquioxanes compound and AgNP are also tabulated and conclusions are analysed with the goal of optimizing. The simplicity of synthesis and application of Silver nanoparticles enables us to consider its effective modified version for the purification of water.

Keywords: disinfectant agent, purification of water, nano particles, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
7172 A Machine Learning Approach for Anomaly Detection in Environmental IoT-Driven Wastewater Purification Systems

Authors: Giovanni Cicceri, Roberta Maisano, Nathalie Morey, Salvatore Distefano

Abstract:

The main goal of this paper is to present a solution for a water purification system based on an Environmental Internet of Things (EIoT) platform to monitor and control water quality and machine learning (ML) models to support decision making and speed up the processes of purification of water. A real case study has been implemented by deploying an EIoT platform and a network of devices, called Gramb meters and belonging to the Gramb project, on wastewater purification systems located in Calabria, south of Italy. The data thus collected are used to control the wastewater quality, detect anomalies and predict the behaviour of the purification system. To this extent, three different statistical and machine learning models have been adopted and thus compared: Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) autoencoder, and Facebook Prophet (FP). The results demonstrated that the ML solution (LSTM) out-perform classical statistical approaches (ARIMA, FP), in terms of both accuracy, efficiency and effectiveness in monitoring and controlling the wastewater purification processes.

Keywords: environmental internet of things, EIoT, machine learning, anomaly detection, environment monitoring

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
7171 Preparation of Biodiesel by Three Step Method Followed Purification by Various Silica Sources

Authors: Chanchal Mewar, Shikha Gangil, Yashwant Parihar, Virendra Dhakar, Bharat Modhera

Abstract:

Biodiesel was prepared from Karanja oil by three step methods: saponification, acidification and esterification. In first step, saponification was done in presence of methanol and KOH or NaOH with Karanja oil. During second step acidification, various acids such as H3PO4, HCl, H2SO4 were used as acid catalyst. In third step, esterification followed by purification was done with various silica sources as Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel. It was found that there was no significant change in density, kinematic viscosity, iodine number, acid value, saponification number, flash point, cloud point, pour point and cetane number after purification by these adsorbents. The objective of this research is the comparison among different adsorbents which were used for the purification of biodiesel. Ludox (colloidal silicate) and fumed silica gel were used as adsorbents for the removal of glycerin from biodiesel and evaluate the effectiveness of biodiesel purity. Furthermore, this study compared the results of distilled water washing also. It was observed that Ludox, fumed silica gel and distilled water produced yield about 93%, 91% and 83% respectively. Highest yield was obtained with Ludox at 100 oC temperature using H3PO4 as acid catalyst and NaOH as base catalyst with methanol, (3:1) alcohol to oil molar ratio in 90 min.

Keywords: biodiesel, three step method, purification, silica sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
7170 Solar Aided Vacuum Desalination of Sea-Water

Authors: Miraz Hafiz Rossy

Abstract:

As part of planning to address shortfalls in fresh water supply for the world, Sea water can be a huge source of fresh water. But Desalinating sea water to get fresh water could require a lots of fossil fuels. To save the fossil fuel in terms of save the green world but meet the up growing need for fresh water, a very useful but energy efficient method needs to be introduced. Vacuum desalination of sea water using only the Renewable energy can be an effective solution to this issue. Taking advantage of sensitivity of water's boiling point to air pressure a vacuum desalination water treatment plant can be designed which would only use sea water as feed water and solar energy as fuel to produce fresh drinking water. The study indicates that reducing the air pressure to a certain value water can be boiled at very low temperature. Using solar energy to provide the condensation and the vacuum creation would be very useful and efficient. Compared to existing resources, desalination is considered to be expensive, but using only renewable energy the cost can be reduced significantly. Despite its very few drawbacks, it can be considered a possible solution to the world's fresh water shortages.

Keywords: desalination, scarcity of fresh water, water purification, water treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
7169 Mathematical Modelling, Simulation and Prototype Designing of Potable Water System on Basis of Forward Osmosis

Authors: Ridhish Kumar, Sudeep Nadukkandy, Anirban Roy

Abstract:

The development of reverse osmosis happened in 1960. Along the years this technique has been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from seawater desalination to municipal water treatment. Forward osmosis (FO) is one of the foremost technologies for low energy consuming solutions for water purification. In this study, we have carried out a detailed analysis on selection, design, and pricing for a prototype of potable water system for purifying water in emergency situations. The portable and light purification system is envisaged to be driven by FO. This pouch will help to serve as an emergency water filtration device. The current effort employs a model to understand the interplay of permeability and area on the rate of purification of water from any impure source/brackish water. The draw solution for the FO pouch is considered to be a combination of salt and sugar such that dilution of the same would result in an oral rehydration solution (ORS) which is a boon for dehydrated patients. However, the effort takes an extra step to actually estimate the cost and pricing of designing such a prototype. While the mathematical model yields the best membrane (compositions are taken from literature) combination in terms of permeability and area, the pricing takes into account the feasibility of such a solution to be made available as a retail item. The product is envisaged to be a market competitor for packaged drinking water and ORS combination (costing around $0.5 combined) and thus, to be feasible has to be priced around the same range with greater margins in order to have a better distribution. Thus a proper business plan and production of the same has been formulated in order to be a feasible solution for unprecedented calamities and emergency situations.

Keywords: forward osmosis, water treatment, oral rehydration solution, prototype

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
7168 Design of Low-Cost Water Purification System Using Activated Carbon

Authors: Nayan Kishore Giri, Ramakar Jha

Abstract:

Water is a major element for the life of all the mankind in the earth. India’s surface water flows through fourteen major streams. Indian rivers are the main source of potable water in India. In the eastern part of India many toxic hazardous metals discharged into the river from mining industries, which leads many deadly diseases to human being. So the potable water quality is very significant and vital concern at present as it is related with the present and future health perspective of the human race. Consciousness of health risks linked with unsafe water is still very low among the many rural and urban areas in India. Only about 7% of total Indian people using water purifier. This unhealthy situation of water is not only present in India but also present in many underdeveloped countries. The major reason behind this is the high cost of water purifier. This current study geared towards development of economical and efficient technology for the removal of maximum possible toxic metals and pathogen bacteria. The work involves the design of portable purification system and purifying material. In this design Coconut shell granular activated carbon(GAC) and polypropylene filter cloths were used in this system. The activated carbon is impregnated with Iron(Fe). Iron is used because it enhances the adsorption capacity of activated carbon. The thorough analysis of iron impregnated activated carbon(Fe-AC) is done by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) , BET surface area test were done. Then 10 ppm of each toxic metal were infiltrated through the designed purification system and they were analysed in Atomic absorption spectrum (AAS). The results are very promising and it is low cost. This work will help many people who are in need of potable water. They can be benefited for its affordability. It could be helpful in industries and other domestic usage.

Keywords: potable water, coconut shell GAC, polypropylene filter cloths, SEM, XRD, BET, AAS

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
7167 Water Quality Calculation and Management System

Authors: H. M. B. N Jayasinghe

Abstract:

The water is found almost everywhere on Earth. Water resources contain a lot of pollution. Some diseases can be spread through the water to the living beings. So to be clean water it should undergo a number of treatments necessary to make it drinkable. So it is must to have purification technology for the wastewater. So the waste water treatment plants act a major role in these issues. When considering the procedures taken after the water treatment process was always based on manual calculations and recordings. Water purification plants may interact with lots of manual processes. It means the process taking much time consuming. So the final evaluation and chemical, biological treatment process get delayed. So to prevent those types of drawbacks there are some computerized programmable calculation and analytical techniques going to be introduced to the laboratory staff. To solve this problem automated system will be a solution in which guarantees the rational selection. A decision support system is a way to model data and make quality decisions based upon it. It is widely used in the world for the various kind of process automation. Decision support systems that just collect data and organize it effectively are usually called passive models where they do not suggest a specific decision but only reveal information. This web base system is based on global positioning data adding facility with map location. Most worth feature is SMS and E-mail alert service to inform the appropriate person on a critical issue. The technological influence to the system is HTML, MySQL, PHP, and some other web developing technologies. Current issues in the computerized water chemistry analysis are not much deep in progress. For an example the swimming pool water quality calculator. The validity of the system has been verified by test running and comparison with an existing plant data. Automated system will make the life easier in productively and qualitatively.

Keywords: automated system, wastewater, purification technology, map location

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
7166 Location Selection Using Artificial Intelligence for Rainwater Harvesting Powered by Photovoltaics

Authors: Stephen A. Agha, Ranjan Vepa, Vandre Barbosa Briao, M. Hasan Shaheed

Abstract:

Water is essential for life, hence providing secure access to clean water supply is the priority of many governments and the subject of multiple studies. Rainwater provides an opportunity to meet the water demands of communities. However, the quality of water harvested from rain is not always suitable for direct human consumption due to the presence of particulates, high ion concentrations, or presence of harmful chemicals. Choosing a location to cite water purification systems inevitably involves consideration of energy availability to drive water purification systems. For remote or off-grid communities the availability of renewable energy resources becomes important. This study is focused on the selection of feasible locations for citing water purification systems given the dual considerations of available rainwater and solar energy to drive the plant. In this study, hourly precipitation and solar irradiance data were collected from 44 locations in Brazil and used to determine locations suitable for rainwater purification plants using Artificial Intelligence (AI). To understand both the daily and seasonal distribution of these resources, data for an entire year is employed. However, given the enormity of the data set, artificial intelligence is utilized to process the data and hence provide decision support. It has been identified that the temporal distribution of the data (frequency) used in this process is vital to the outcome. This is because the two parameters are generally not simultaneously maximal - solar irradiance is lower when it rains for instance. The data, therefore, needs to be resampled appropriately. The outcome of this AI-based decision support system is validated by examining weighted linear combinations of these parameters. The method is applicable anywhere in the world for the selection of appropriate locations to harvest rainwater powered by photovoltaics.

Keywords: rainwater harvesting, location selection, photovoltaics, artificial intelligence

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
7165 Purification of Bilge Water by Adsorption

Authors: Fatiha Atmani, Lamia Djellab, Nacera Yeddou Mezenner, Zohra Bensaadi

Abstract:

Generally, bilge waters can be briefly defined as saline and greasy wastewaters. The oil and grease are mixed with the sea water, which affects many marine species. Bilge water is a complex mixture of various compounds such as solvents, surfactants, fuel, lubricating oils, and hydraulic oils. It is resulted mainly by the leakage from the machinery and fresh water washdowns,which are allowed to drain to the lowest inner part of the ship's hull. There are several physicochemical methods used for bilge water treatment such as biodegradation electrochemical and electro-coagulation/flotation.The research herein presented discusses adsorption as a method to treat bilge water and eggshells were studied as an adsorbent. The influence of operating parameters as contact time, temperature and adsorbent dose (0,2 - 2g/l) on the removal efficiency of Chemical oxygen demand, COD, and turbidity was analyzed. The bilge wastewater used for this study was supplied by Harbour Bouharoune. Chemical oxygen demand removal increased from 26.7% to 68.7% as the adsorbent dose increased from 0.2 to 2 g. The kinetics of adsorption by eggshells were fast, reaching 55 % of the total adsorption capacity in ten minutes (T= 20°C, pH =7.66, m=2g/L). It was found that the turbidity removal efficiency decreased and 95% were achieved at the end of 90 min reaction. The adsorption process was found to be effective for the purification of bilge water and pseudo-second-order kinetic model was fitted for COD removal.

Keywords: adsorption, bilge water, eggshells and kinetics, equilibrium and kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
7164 Elimination of Phosphorus by Activated Carbon Prepared from Algerian Dates Stones

Authors: A. Kamarchoua, A. A. Bebaa, A. Douadi

Abstract:

The current work has a goal of the preparation of activated carbon from the stones of dates from southern Algeria (El-Oued province) using a simple pyrolysis proceeded by chemical impregnation in sulphuric acid. For the preparation of the carbon, we choose the diameter of the pellets (0.5-1)mm, activation by acid and water (1:1), carbonization at 450˚C. The prepared carbon has the following characteristics: specific surface 125.86 m2/g, methylene blue number 40, CCE = 0.3meq.g/l, IR and micrographics SEM. The activated carbon thus obtained is used at the water purification in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) at Kouinine, El- Oued province, to totally eliminate phosphorus. We analyzed the water at the WWTP before the purification procedure. In this study, we have looked at the effect of the following parameters on the adsorption of carbon: the pH, the contact time (Tc) and the agitation speed (Va). The best conditions for phosphorus adsorption are: pH=4 or pH >5, Tc = 60 min and Va = 900 rotations per minute.

Keywords: activated carbon, date stones, pyrolysis, phosphate pollutants

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
7163 Application of Three Phase Partitioning (TPP) for the Purification of Serratiopeptidase

Authors: Swapnil V. Pakhale, Sunil S. Bhagwat

Abstract:

Three phase partitioning (TPP) an efficient bioseparation technique integrates the concentration and partial purification step of downstream processing of a biomolecule. Three Phase Partitioning is reported here for the first time for purification of Serratiopeptidase from fermentation broths of Serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112. The influence of various salts and solvents, Concentration of ammonium sulphate (20-60% w/v), Crude extract to t-butanol ratio (1:0.5-1:2.5) and system pH on Serratiopeptidase partitioning were investigated and optimum conditions for TPP were obtained in order to enhance the degree of purification and activity recovery of Serratiopeptidase. Under the optimal conditions of TPP, serratiopeptidase has been efficiently separated and concentrated with maximum recovery and degree of purification of 95.70% and 4.95 fold respectively. The present study shows TPP as an attractive downstream process for the purification of serratiopeptidase.

Keywords: three phase partitioning, serratiopeptidase, serratia marcescens NRRL B-23112, t-butanol, bioseparation

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
7162 Parametric Studies of Ethylene Dichloride Purification Process

Authors: Sh. Arzani, H. Kazemi Esfeh, Y. Galeh Zadeh, V. Akbari

Abstract:

Ethylene dichloride is a colorless liquid with a smell like chloroform. EDC is classified in the simple hydrocarbon group which is obtained from chlorinating ethylene gas. Its chemical formula is C2H2Cl2 which is used as the main mediator in VCM production. Therefore, the purification process of EDC is important in the petrochemical process. In this study, the purification unit of EDC was simulated, and then validation was performed. Finally, the impact of process parameter was studied for the degree of EDC purity. The results showed that by increasing the feed flow, the reflux impure combinations increase and result in an EDC purity decrease.

Keywords: ethylene dichloride, purification, edc, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
7161 Additional Method for the Purification of Lanthanide-Labeled Peptide Compounds Pre-Purified by Weak Cation Exchange Cartridge

Authors: K. Eryilmaz, G. Mercanoglu

Abstract:

Aim: Purification of the final product, which is the last step in the synthesis of lanthanide-labeled peptide compounds, can be accomplished by different methods. Among these methods, the two most commonly used methods are C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) and weak cation exchanger cartridge elution. SPE C18 solid phase extraction method yields high purity final product, while elution from the weak cation exchanger cartridge is pH dependent and ineffective in removing colloidal impurities. The aim of this work is to develop an additional purification method for the lanthanide-labeled peptide compound in cases where the desired radionuclidic and radiochemical purity of the final product can not be achieved because of pH problem or colloidal impurity. Material and Methods: For colloidal impurity formation, 3 mL of water for injection (WFI) was added to 30 mCi of 177LuCl3 solution and allowed to stand for 1 day. 177Lu-DOTATATE was synthesized using EZAG ML-EAZY module (10 mCi/mL). After synthesis, the final product was mixed with the colloidal impurity solution (total volume:13 mL, total activity: 40 mCi). The resulting mixture was trapped in SPE-C18 cartridge. The cartridge was washed with 10 ml saline to remove impurities to the waste vial. The product trapped in the cartridge was eluted with 2 ml of 50% ethanol and collected to the final product vial via passing through a 0.22μm filter. The final product was diluted with 10 mL of saline. Radiochemical purity before and after purification was analysed by HPLC method. (column: ACE C18-100A. 3µm. 150 x 3.0mm, mobile phase: Water-Acetonitrile-Trifluoro acetic acid (75:25:1), flow rate: 0.6 mL/min). Results: UV and radioactivity detector results in HPLC analysis showed that colloidal impurities were completely removed from the 177Lu-DOTATATE/ colloidal impurity mixture by purification method. Conclusion: The improved purification method can be used as an additional method to remove impurities that may result from the lanthanide-peptide synthesis in which the weak cation exchange purification technique is used as the last step. The purification of the final product and the GMP compliance (the final aseptic filtration and the sterile disposable system components) are two major advantages.

Keywords: lanthanide, peptide, labeling, purification, radionuclide, radiopharmaceutical, synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
7160 Cellulose Containing Metal Organic Frameworks in Environmental Applications

Authors: Hossam El-Sayed Emam

Abstract:

As an essential issue for life, water while it’s important for all living organisms. However, the world is dangerously facing the serious problem for the deficiency of the sources of drinking water. Within the aquatic systems, there are various gases, microbes, and other toxic ingredients (chemical compounds and heavy metals) occurred owing to the draining of agricultural and industrial wastewater, resulting in water pollution. On the other hand, fuel (gaseous, liquid, or in solid phase) is one of the extensively consumable energy sources, and owing to its origin from fossil, it contains some sulfur-, nitrogen- and oxygen-based compounds that cause serious problems (toxicity, catalyst poisoning, corrosion, and gum formation andcarcinogenic effects), to be ascribed as undesirable pollutants.MOFs as porous coordinating polymers are superiorly exploited in the adsorption and separationof contaminants for wastewater treatment and fuel purification. The inclusion of highly adsorbent materials like MOFs to be immobilized within cellulosic materialscould be investigated as a new challenge for the separation of contaminants with high efficiency and opportunity for recyclability. Therefore, the current approach ascribes the exploitation of different MOFsimmobilized within cellulose (powder, films, and fabrics)for applications in environmental. Herein, using cellulose containing MOFs in dye removal (degradation and adsorption), pharmaceutical intermediates removal, and fuel purification were summarized.

Keywords: cellulose, MOFs, dye removal, pharmaceutical intermediates, fuel purification

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7159 Treatment of Grey Water from Different Restaurants in FUTA Using Fungi

Authors: F. A. Ogundolie, F. Okogue, D. V. Adegunloye

Abstract:

Greywater samples were obtained from three restaurants in the Federal University of Technology; Akure coded SSR, MGR and GGR. Fungi isolates obtained include Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Mucor mucedo, Aspergillus flavus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Of these fungi isolates obtained, R. stolonifer, A. niger and A. flavus showed significant degradation ability on grey water and was used for this research. A simple bioreactor was constructed using biodegradation process in purification of waste water samples. Waste water undergoes primary treatment; secondary treatment involves the introduction of the isolated organisms into the waste water sample and the tertiary treatment which involved the use of filter candle and the sand bed filtration process to achieve the end product without the use of chemicals. A. niger brought about significant reduction in both the bacterial load and the fungi load of the greywater samples of the three respective restaurants with a reduction of (1.29 × 108 to 1.57 × 102 cfu/ml; 1.04 × 108 to 1.12 × 102 cfu/ml and 1.72 × 108 to 1.60 × 102 cfu/ml) for bacterial load in SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Reduction of 2.01 × 104 to 1.2 × 101; 1.72 × 104 to 1.1 × 101, and 2.50 × 104 to 1.5 × 101 in fungi load from SSR, MGR and GGR respectively. Result of degradation of these selected waste water by the fungi showed that A. niger was probably more potent in the degradation of organic matter and hence, A. niger could be used in the treatment of wastewater.

Keywords: Aspergillus niger, greywater, bacterial, fungi, microbial load, bioreactor, biodegradation, purification, organic matter and filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
7158 Purification and Characterization of Phycoerythrin from a Mesophilic Cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17

Authors: Sandeep Kaur

Abstract:

Phycoerythrin (PE) from the mesophilic filamentous cyanobacterium Nostoc piscinale PUPCCC 405.17, a good producer of phycobiliproteins, has been characterized in terms of their unit assembly and stability. The phycoerythrin was extracted by freeze-thawing the cells in water, concentrated by ammonium sulphate fractionation and purified by anion exchange chromatography. The purification process resulted in 2.90 fold increase in phycoerythrin purity reaching to 1.54. Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate- Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of purified PE demonstrated three protein bands of 14.3, 27.54 and 39.81 kDa. The native PE also showed one band of 125.87 kDa, assumed to be a dimer (αβ)2γ based on results of non-denaturing PAGE. Lyophilized powder PE was more stable compared to phycoerythrin in the solution. The half-life of dry PE is 80 days when stored at 4 °C under dark. The phycoerythrin from this organism has potential applications in food as natural colour and as a fluorescent marker.

Keywords: characterization, Nostoc piscinale, phycoerythrin, purification

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7157 Potential of Water Purification of Turbid Surface Water Sources in Remote Arid and Semi-Arid Rural Areas of Rajasthan by Moringa Oleifera (Drumstick) Tree Seeds

Authors: Pomila Sharma

Abstract:

Rajasthan is among regions with greatest climate sensitivity and lowest adaptive capabilities. In many parts of the Rajasthan surface water which can be highly turbid and contaminated with fecal coliform bacteria is used for drinking purposes. The majority rely almost exclusively upon traditional sources of highly turbid and untreated pathogenic surface water for their domestic water needs. In many parts of rural areas of Rajasthan, it is still difficult to obtain clean water, especially remote habitations with no groundwater due to quality issues or depletion and limited feasibility to connect with surface water schemes due to low density of population in these areas to justify large infrastructure investment. The most viable sources are rain water harvesting, community managed open wells, private wells, ponds and small-scale irrigation reservoirs have often been the main traditional sources of rural drinking water. Turbidity is conventionally removed by treating the water with expensive chemicals. This study has to investigate the use of crushed seeds from the tree Moringa oleifera (drumstick) as a natural alternative to conventional coagulant chemicals. The use of Moringa oleifera seed powder can produce potable water of higher quality than the original source. Moringa oleifera a native species of northern India, the tree is now grown extensively throughout the tropics and found in many countries of Africa, Asia & South America. The seeds of tree contains significant quantities of low molecular weight, water soluble proteins which carries the positive charge when the crushed seeds are added to water. This protein binds in raw water with negatively charged turbid water with bacteria, clay, algae, etc. Under proper mixing, these particles make flocks, which may be left to settle by gravity or be removed by filtration. Using Moringa oleifera as a replacement coagulation in such surface sources of arid and semi-arid areas can meet the need for water purification in remote places of Rajasthan state of India. The present study accesses to find out laboratory based investigation of the effect of seeds of Moringa tree on its coagulation effectiveness (purification) using turbid water samples of surface source of the Rajasthan state. In this study, moringa seed powder showed that filtering with seed powder may diminish water pollution and bacterial counts. Results showed Moringa oleifera seeds coagulate 90-95% of turbidity and color efficiently leading to an aesthetically clear supernatant & reduced about 85-90% of bacterial load reduction in samples.

Keywords: bacterial load, coagulant, turbidity, water purification

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7156 Effective Water Purification by Impregnated Carbon Nanotubes

Authors: Raviteja Chintala

Abstract:

Water shortage in many areas of the world have predominantly increased the demand for efficient methods involved in the production of drinking water, So purification of water invoking cost effective and efficient methods is a challenging field of research. In this regard, Reverse osmosis membrane desalination of both seawater and inland brackish water is currently being deployed in various locations around the world. In the present work an attempt is made to integrate these existing technologies with novel method, Wherein carbon nanotubes at the lab scale are prepared which further replace activated carbon tubes being used traditionally. This has proven to enhance the efficiency of the water filter, Effectively neutralising most of the organic impurities. Furthermore, This ensures the reduction in TDS. Carbon nanotubes have wide range in scope of applications such as composite reinforcements, Field emitters, Sensors, Energy storage and energy conversion devices and catalysts support phases, Because of their unusual mechanical, Electrical, Thermal and structural properties. In particular, The large specific surface area, as well as the high chemical and thermal stability, Makes carbon nanotube an attractive adsorbent in waste water treatment. Carbon nanotubes are effective in eliminating these harmful media from water as an adsorbent. In this work, Candle soot method has been incorporated for the preparation of carbon nanotubes and mixed with activated charcoal in different compositions. The effect of composition change is monitored by using TDS measuring meter. As the composition of Nano carbon increases, The TDS of the water gradually decreases. In order to enhance the life time for carbon filter, Nano tubes are provided with larger surface area.

Keywords: TDS (Total Dissolved Solids), carbon nanotubes, water, candle soot

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7155 Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Based Water Filter for Virus Pathogen Removal

Authors: K. Domagala, D. Kata, T. Graule

Abstract:

Diseases caused by contaminated drinking water are the worldwide problem, which leads to the death and severe illnesses for hundreds of millions million people each year. There is an urgent need for efficient water treatment techniques for virus pathogens removal. The aim of the research was to develop safe and economic solution, which help with the water treatment. In this study, the synthesis of copper-based multi-walled carbon nanotube composites is described. Proposed solution utilize combination of a low-cost material with a high active surface area and copper antiviral properties. Removal of viruses from water was possible by adsorption based on electrostatic interactions of negatively charged virus with a positively charged filter material.

Keywords: multi walled carbon nanotubes, water purification, virus removal, water treatment

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7154 Synthesis of Iron Oxide Doped Zeolite: An Antimicrobial Nanomaterial for Drinking Water Purification Applications

Authors: Muhammad Zeeshan, Rabia Nazir, Lubna Tahir

Abstract:

Low cost filter based on iron doped zeolite (Fe-Z) and pottery clay was developed for an effective and efficient treatment of the drinking water contaminated with microbes. Fe-Z was characterized using powder XRD, SEM and EDX and shown to have average particle size of 49 nm with spongy appearance. The simulated samples of water self-contaminated with six microbes (S. typhi, B. subtilus, E. coli, S. aures, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa) after treatment with Fe-Z indicated effective removal of all the microbes in less than 30 min. Equally good results were obtained when actual drinking water samples, totally unfit for human consumption, were treated with Fe-Z.

Keywords: iron doped zeolite, biological and chemical treatment, drinking water

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7153 Valorization of Natural Vegetable Substances from Tunisia: Purification of Two Food Additives, Anthocyanins and Locust Bean Gum

Authors: N. Bouzouita, A. Snoussi , H. Ben Haj Koubaier, I. Essaidi, M. M. Chaabouni, S. Zgoulli, P. Thonart

Abstract:

Color is one of the most important quality attributes for the food industry. Grape marc, a complex lignocellulosic material is one of the most abundant and worth less byproduct, generated after the pressing process. The development of the process of purification by micro filtration, ultra filtration, nano filtration and drying by atomization of the anthocyanins of Tunisian origin is the aim of this work. Locust bean gum is the ground endosperm of the seeds of carob fruit; owing to its remarkable water-binding properties, it is widely used to improve the texture of food and largely employed in food industry. The purification of LGB causes drastically reduced ash and proteins contents but important increase for galactomannan.

Keywords: Carob, food additives, grape pomace, locust bean gum, natural colorant, nano filtration, thickener, ultra filtration

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7152 Role of Organic Wastewater Constituents in Iron Redox Cycling for Ferric Sludge Reuse in the Fenton-Based Treatment

Authors: J. Bolobajev, M. Trapido, A. Goi

Abstract:

The practical application of the Fenton-based treatment method for organic compounds-contaminated water purification is limited mainly because of the large amount of ferric sludge formed during the treatment, where ferrous iron (Fe(II)) is used as the activator of the hydrogen peroxide oxidation processes. Reuse of ferric sludge collected from clarifiers to substitute Fe(II) salts allows reducing the total cost of Fenton-type treatment technologies and minimizing the accumulation of hazardous ferric waste. Dissolution of ferric iron (Fe(III)) from the sludge to liquid phase at acidic pH and autocatalytic transformation of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by phenolic compounds (tannic acid, lignin, phenol, catechol, pyrogallol and hydroquinone) added or present as water/wastewater constituents were found to be essentially involved in the Fenton-based oxidation mechanism. Observed enhanced formation of highly reactive species, hydroxyl radicals, resulted in a substantial organic contaminant degradation increase. Sludge reuse at acidic pH and in the presence of ferric iron reductants is a novel strategy in the Fenton-based treatment application for organic compounds-contaminated water purification.

Keywords: ferric sludge recycling, ferric iron reductant, water treatment, organic pollutant

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
7151 Geometric, Energetic and Topological Analysis of (Ethanol)₉-Water Heterodecamers

Authors: Jennifer Cuellar, Angie L. Parada, Kevin N. S. Chacon, Sol M. Mejia

Abstract:

The purification of bio-ethanol through distillation methods is an unresolved issue at the biofuel industry because of the ethanol-water azeotrope formation, which increases the steps of the purification process and subsequently increases the production costs. Therefore, understanding the mixture nature at the molecular level could provide new insights for improving the current methods and/or designing new and more efficient purification methods. For that reason, the present study focuses on the evaluation and analysis of (ethanol)₉-water heterodecamers, as the systems with the minimum molecular proportion that represents the azeotropic concentration (96 %m/m in ethanol). The computational modelling was carried out with B3LYP-D3/6-311++G(d,p) in Gaussian 09. Initial explorations of the potential energy surface were done through two methods: annealing simulated runs and molecular dynamics trajectories besides intuitive structures obtained from smaller (ethanol)n-water heteroclusters, n = 7, 8 and 9. The energetic order of the seven stable heterodecamers determines the most stable heterodecamer (Hdec-1) as a structure forming a bicyclic geometry with the O-H---O hydrogen bonds (HBs) where the water is a double proton donor molecule. Hdec-1 combines 1 water molecule and the same quantity of every ethanol conformer; this is, 3 trans, 3 gauche 1 and 3 gauche 2; its abundance is 89%, its decamerization energy is -80.4 kcal/mol, i.e. 13 kcal/mol most stable than the less stable heterodecamer. Besides, a way to understand why methanol does not form an azeotropic mixture with water, analogous systems ((ethanol)10, (methanol)10, and (methanol)9-water)) were optimized. Topologic analysis of the electron density reveals that Hec-1 forms 33 weak interactions in total: 11 O-H---O, 8 C-H---O, 2 C-H---C hydrogen bonds and 12 H---H interactions. The strength and abundance of the most unconventional interactions (H---H, C-H---O and C-H---O) seem to explain the preference of the ethanol for forming heteroclusters instead of clusters. Besides, O-H---O HBs present a significant covalent character according to topologic parameters as the Laplacian of electron density and the relationship between potential and kinetic energy densities evaluated at the bond critical points; obtaining negatives values and values between 1 and 2, for those two topological parameters, respectively.

Keywords: ADMP, DFT, ethanol-water azeotrope, Grimme dispersion correction, simulated annealing, weak interactions

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7150 Sorption of Charged Organic Dyes from Anionic Hydrogels

Authors: Georgios Linardatos, Miltiadis Zamparas, Vlasoula Bekiari, Georgios Bokias, Georgios Hotos

Abstract:

Hydrogels are three-dimensional, hydrophilic, polymeric networks composed of homopolymers or copolymers and are insoluble in water due to the presence of chemical or physical cross-links. When hydrogels come in contact with aqueous solutions, they can effectively sorb and retain the dissolved substances, depending on the nature of the monomeric units comprising the hydrogel. For this reason, hydrogels have been proposed in several studies as water purification agents. At the present work anionic hydrogels bearing negatively charged –COO- groups were prepared and investigated. These gels are based on sodium acrylate (ANa), either homopolymerized (poly(sodiumacrylate), PANa) or copolymerized (P(DMAM-co-ANa)) with N,N Dimethylacrylamide (DMAM). The hydrogels were used to extract some model organic dyes from water. It is found that cationic dyes are strongly sorbed and retained by the hydrogels, while sorption of anionic dyes was negligible. In all cases it was found that both maximum sorption capacity and equilibrium binding constant varied from one dye to the other depending on the chemical structure of the dye, the presence of functional chemical groups and the hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance. Finally, the nonionic hydrogel of the homopolymer poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide), PDMAM, was also used for reasons of comparison.

Keywords: anionic organic hydrogels, sorption, organic dyes, water purification agents

Procedia PDF Downloads 169