Search results for: nanotechnology
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 227

Search results for: nanotechnology

227 A Review on Applications of Nanotechnology in Automotive Industry

Authors: Akshata S. Malani, Anagha D. Chaudhari, Rajeshkumar U. Sambhe

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Nanotechnology in pristine sense refers to building of structures at atomic and molecular scale. Meticulously nanotechnology encompasses the nanomaterials with atleast one dimension size ranging from 1 to 100 nanometres.Unlike the literal meaning of its name, nanotechnology is a massive concept beyond imagination. This paper predominantly deals with relevance of nanotechnology in automotive industries. New generation of automotives looks at nanotechnology as an emerging trend of manufacturing revolution. Intricate shapes can be made out of fairly inexpensive raw materials instead of conventional fabrication process. Though the current era have enough technology to face competition, nanotechnology can give futuristic implications to pick up the modern pace. Nanotechnology intends to bridge the gap between automotives with superior technical performance and their cost fluctuation. Preliminarily, it is an area of great scientific interest and a major shaper of many new technologies. Nanotechnology can be an ideal building block for automotive industries, under constant evolution offering a very wide scope of activity. It possesses huge potential and is still in the embryonic form of research and development.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanomaterials, manufacturing, automotive industry

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226 A Compilation of Nanotechnology in Thin Film Solar Cell Devices

Authors: Nurul Amziah Md Yunus, Izhal Abdul Halin, Nasri Sulaiman, Noor Faezah Ismail, Nik Hasniza Nik Aman

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Nanotechnology has become the world attention in various applications including the solar cells devices due to the uniqueness and benefits of achieving low cost and better performances of devices. Recently, thin film solar cells such as cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper-indium-gallium-diSelenide (CIGS), copper-zinc-tin-sulphide (CZTS), and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) enhanced by nanotechnology have attracted much attention. Thus, a compilation of nanotechnology devices giving the progress in the solar cells has been presented. It is much related to nanoparticles or nanocrystallines, carbon nanotubes, and nanowires or nanorods structures.

Keywords: nanotechnology, nanocrystalline, nanowires, carbon nanotubes, nanorods, thin film solar cells

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225 An Overall Evaluation of Food Nanotechnology

Authors: Raana Babadi Fathipour

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Nourishment nanotechnology is an range of rising intrigued and opens up a entirety universe of modern conceivable outcomes for the nourishment industry. The essential categories of nanotechnology applications and functionalities right now within the improvement of nourishment bundling incorporate: the enhancement of plastic materials obstructions, the consolidation of dynamic components that can convey utilitarian properties past those of customary dynamic bundling, and the detecting and signaling of significant data. Nano nourishment bundling materials may amplify nourishment life, move forward nourishment security, alarm buyers that nourishment is sullied or ruined, repair tears in bundling, and indeed release preservatives to expand the life of the nourishment within the bundle. Nanotechnology applications within the nourishment industry can be utilized to identify microbes in bundling, or produce stronger flavors and color quality, and security by expanding the obstruction properties. Nanotechnology holds extraordinary guarantee to supply benefits not fair inside nourishment items but too around nourishment items. In reality, nanotechnology presents modern chances for advancement within the nourishment industry at monstrous speed, but instability and wellbeing concerns are moreover developing. EU/WE/global enactment for the direction of nanotechnology in nourishment are scanty. Besides, current enactment shows up unacceptable to nanotechnology specificity.

Keywords: nano technology, nano foods, food packaging, nano participle

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224 Nanotechnology: A New Revolution to Increase Agricultural Production

Authors: Reshu Chaudhary, R. S. Sengar

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To increase the agricultural production Indian farmer needs to aware of the latest technology i.e. precision farming to maximize the crop yield and minimize the input (fertilizer, pesticide etc.) through monitoring the environmental factors. Biotechnology and information technology have provided lots of opportunities for the development of agriculture. But, still we have to do much more for increasing our agricultural production in order to achieve the target growth of agriculture to secure food, to eliminate poverty and improve living style, to enhance agricultural exports and national income and to improve quality of agricultural products. Nanotechnology can be a great element to satisfy these requirements and to boost the multi-dimensional development of agriculture in order to fulfill the dream of Indian farmers. Nanotechnology is the most rapidly growing area of science and technology with its application in physical science, chemical science, life science, material science and earth science. Nanotechnology is a part of any nation’s future. Research in nanotechnology has extremely high potential to benefit society through application in agricultural sciences. Nanotechnology has greater potential to bring revolution in the agricultural sector.

Keywords: agriculture, biotechnology, crop yield, nanotechnology

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223 Use of Integrated Knowledge Networks to Increase Innovation in Nanotechnology Research and Development

Authors: R. Byler

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Innovation, particularly in technology development, is a crucial aspect of nanotechnology R&D and, although several approaches to effective innovation management exist, organizational structures that promote knowledge exchange have been found to be most effect in supporting new and emerging technologies. This paper discusses Integrated Knowledge Networks (IKNs) and evaluates its use within nanotechnology R&D to increase technology innovation. Specifically, this paper reviews the role of IKNs in bolstering national and international nanotechnology development and in enhancing nanotechnology innovation. Both physical and virtual IKNs, particularly IT-based network platforms for community-based innovation, offer strategies for enhanced technology innovation, interdisciplinary cooperation, and enterprise development. Effectively creating and managing technology R&D networks can facilitate successful knowledge exchange, enhanced innovation, commercialization, and technology transfer. As such, IKNs are crucial to technology development processes and, thus, in increasing the quality and access to new, innovative nanoscience and technologies worldwide.

Keywords: community-based innovation, integrated knowledge networks, nanotechnology, technology innovation

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222 Nanotechnology as a Futuristic Approach to Architecture with Special Reference to Chandigarh

Authors: Chaudhary Archana, Dhingra Poshika

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The architecture of the world is at a crossroads with the advent of new technology. The issues of energy efficiency and global warming are getting important with the coming times. New technologies are making their mark. For the architecture profession, nanotechnology will greatly impact construction materials and their properties. Nanotechnology, the understanding and control of matter at a scale of one to one hundred billions of a meter, is bringing incredible changes to the materials and processes of buildings. Materials will behave in many different ways as we are able to more precisely control their properties at the nanoscale. It is precisely called the next industrial revolution. We live in an age where scientific progress continues to transform human lifestyle. This is evermore true when it comes to the progress being made in the field of nanotechnology. This science stands to change and advance the practice of design in a multitude of ways – where architectural progress is being made at the molecular level. The nanotechnology has already been adopted in various buildings across the world. What an impact it shall have on the futuristic architecture in Chandigarh, India shall be discussed in the paper. But before we hurtle off toward a nano-utopia, we need to step back and ask ourselves whether this is a direction in which we really want to go.

Keywords: building materials, energy efficiency, nanotechnology, sustainability

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221 Nanotechnology Innovations for the Sustainable Buildings of the Future

Authors: Ayşin Sev, Meltem Ezel

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Sustainability, being the urgent issue of our time, is closely related with the innovations in technology. Nanotechnology (NT), although not a new science, can be regarded relatively a new science for buildings with brand new materials and applications. This paper tends to give a research review of current and near future applications of nanotechnology (NT) for achieving high-performance and healthy buildings for a sustainable future. In the introduction, the driving forces for the sustainability of construction industry are explained. Then, the term NT is defined, and significance of innovations in NT for a sustainable construction industry is revealed. After presenting the application areas of NT and nanomaterials for buildings with a number of cases, challenges in the adoption of this technology are put forward, and finally the impacts of nanoparticles and nanomaterials on human health and environment are discussed.

Keywords: nanomaterial, self-healing concrete, self cleaning sensor, nanosensor, steel, wood, aerogel, flexible solar panel

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220 A Study Regarding Nanotechnologies as a Vector of New European Business Model

Authors: Adriana Radan Ungureanu

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The industrial landscape is changing due to the financial crises, poor availability of raw materials, new discoveries and interdisciplinary collaborations. New ideas shape the change through technologies and bring responses for a better life. The process of change is leaded by big players like states and companies, but they cannot keep their places on the market without the help of the small ones. The main tool of change is technology and the entire developed world dedicated efforts for decades in this direction. Even the expectations are not yet met, the research for finding adequate solutions is far from to be stopped. A relevant example is nanotechnology where most of discoveries still remain into laboratory and could not succeed to find the right way to the market. In front of this situation the right question could be: ”Is it worth investing in nanotechnology in the name of an uncertain future but with very little impact on present?” This paper tries to find a positive answer from a three-dimensional approach using a descriptive analyse based on available database supplied by the European case studies, reports, and literature.

Keywords: Europe, KET’s, nanotechnology, technology

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219 High Performance Nanomaterials for Sustainable and Modern Façade Application

Authors: Farrin Ghorbanalavi, Nihal Arıoğlu

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The concept of enhancing mechanical /thermal/physical properties of architectural materials is being practiced for over five decades. In comparison with other approaches, the current nanotechnology era equally attracted the structural scientists, engineers, and industries. It simply promises that using building blocks with dimensions in the nano size range makes it possible to design and develop new multi-functional materials. This research focuses on understanding the effects of nanotechnology on the building facade and new facade concepts based on the new possibilities of nanotechnology. Mentioned factors are very prosperous for the comfort as well as sustainability of the building itself. Furthermore, the study suggests that the potential for energy conservation and reduced waste, toxicity, non-renewable resource consumption, and carbon emissions through the architectural applications of nanotechnologies significant. More clearly, it provides us the information about what does the future hold for surface structures.

Keywords: sustainable, nano materials, façade, energy efficiency

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218 The Socio-Technical Relationship between Architects and Nano-Enhanced Materials: An Ethnographic Study in Cairo, Egypt

Authors: Ramy Bakir

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Advancements in the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology have had a sweeping effect on the manufacturing industry in the last two decades, and have specifically allowed for the enhancement of a multitude of applications in the field of building technology. Research carried out in the architectural field in the past decade highlights how those enhancements have improved the structural and environmental performance of buildings, and/or how they developed the aesthetic value of façade or interior treatments. In developing countries, such as Egypt, the actual use of those nano-enhanced applications and their benefits rarely manifest. Hence this paper investigates the socio-technical relationship between the architectural design process and nanotechnology in Cairo using participant observation within an ethnographic study. The study focused on the socio-cultural context of an environmental design process in a specific design firm, and the role of nano-enhanced applications in it, and provided a thick description of the design decisions made within the preliminary stages of the design process of a residential building in Cairo, Egypt. Using Grounded Theory, and through the analysis and coding of the qualitative data collected, this paper was able to identify specific socio-cultural issues influencing individual architect cognition, clarifying how the context of the design process of the studied project affected the design team members’ responses to nano-enhanced materials. This paper presents those findings within a framework of the three identified statuses of response to nanotechnology and classifies the socio-cultural reasons influencing them. In doing so, the paper aims to shed more light on the relation between nanotechnology and architects in their natural environment, and hence allow both to benefit more from a clearer understanding of how the socio-cultural context, along with the benefits of using nanotechnology, influences the design decisions made.

Keywords: nanotechnology, design process, socio-cultural context, nano-enhanced applications

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217 Utilizing Quantum Chemistry for Nanotechnology: Electron and Spin Movement in Molecular Devices

Authors: Mahsa Fathollahzadeh

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The quick advancement of nanotechnology necessitates the creation of innovative theoretical approaches to elucidate complex experimental findings and forecast novel capabilities of nanodevices. Therefore, over the past ten years, a difficult task in quantum chemistry has been comprehending electron and spin transport in molecular devices. This thorough evaluation presents a comprehensive overview of current research and its status in the field of molecular electronics, emphasizing the theoretical applications to various device types and including a brief introduction to theoretical methods and their practical implementation plan. The subject matter includes a variety of molecular mechanisms like molecular cables, diodes, transistors, electrical and visual switches, nano detectors, magnetic valve gadgets, inverse electrical resistance gadgets, and electron tunneling exploration. The text discusses both the constraints of the method presented and the potential strategies to address them, with a total of 183 references.

Keywords: chemistry, nanotechnology, quantum, molecule, spin

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216 The Effectiveness of ICT-Assisted PBL on College-Level Nano Knowledge and Learning Skills

Authors: Ya-Ting Carolyn Yang, Ping-Han Cheng, Shi-Hui Gilbert Chang, Terry Yuan-Fang Chen, Chih-Chieh Li

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Nanotechnology is widely applied in various areas so professionals in the related fields have to know more than nano knowledge. In the study, we focus on adopting ICT-assisted PBL in college general education to foster professionals who possess multiple abilities. The research adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design. The control group received traditional instruction, and the experimental group received ICT-assisted PBL instruction. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the means, standard deviations, and adjusted means for the tests between the two groups. Next, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) will be used to compare the final results of the two research groups after 6 weeks of instruction. Statistics gathered in the end of the research can be used to make contrasts. Therefore, we will see how different teaching strategies can improve students’ understanding about nanotechnology and learning skills.

Keywords: nanotechnology, science education, project-based learning, information and communication technology

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215 Electro Spinning in Nanotechnology

Authors: Mahoud Alfama, Meloud Yones, Abdelbaset Zroga, Abdelati Elalem

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Electrospinning has been recognized as an efficient technique for the fabrication of polymer nanofibers. Various polymers have been successfully electrospun into ultrafine fibers in recent years mostly in solvent solution and some in melt form. Potential applications based on such fibers specifically their use as reinforcement in nanocomposite development have been realized. In this paper we examine -electrospinning by providing a brief description of the theory behind the process examining the effect of changing the process parameters on fiber morphology, and discussing the potential applications and impacts of electrospinning on the field of tissue engineering.

Keywords: nanotechnology, electro spinning, reinforced materials

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214 Nanotechnology in Construction as a Building Security

Authors: Hanan Fayez Hussein

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‘Due to increasing environmental challenges and security problems in the world such as global warming, storms, and terrorism’, humans have discovered new technologies and new materials in order to program daily life. As providing physical and psychological security is one of the primary functions of architecture, so in order to provide security, building must prevents unauthorized entry and harm to occupant and reduce the threat of attack by making building less attractive targets by new technologies such as; Nanotechnology, which has emerged as a major science and technology focus of the 21st century and will be the next industrial revolution. Nanotechnology is control of the properties of matter, and it deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller in at least one dimension and has wide application in various fields. The construction and architecture sectors were among the first to be identified as a promising application area for nanotechnology. The advantages of using nanomaterials in construction are enormous, and promises heighten building security by utilizing the strength of building materials to make our buildings more secure and get smart home. Access barriers such as wall and windows could incorporate stronger materials benefiting from nano-reinforcement utilizing nanotubes and nano composites to act as protective cover. Carbon nanotubes, as one of nanotechnology application, can be designed up to 250 times stronger than steel. Nano-enabled devices and materials offer both enhanced and, in some cases, completely new defence systems. In the addition, the small amount of carbon nanoparticles to the construction materials such as; cement, concrete, wood, glass, gypson, and steel can make these materials act as defence elements. This paper highlights the fact that nanotechnology can impact the future global security and how building’s envelop can act as a defensive cover for the building and can be resistance to any threats can attack it. Then focus on its effect on construction materials such as; Concrete can obtain by nanoadditives excellent mechanical, chemical, and physical properties with less material, which can acts as a precautionary shield to the building.

Keywords: nanomaterial, global warming, building security, smart homes

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213 Analyzing Industry-University Collaboration Using Complex Networks and Game Theory

Authors: Elnaz Kanani-Kuchesfehani, Andrea Schiffauerova

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Due to the novelty of the nanotechnology science, its highly knowledge intensive content, and its invaluable application in almost all technological fields, the close interaction between university and industry is essential. A possible gap between academic strengths to generate good nanotechnology ideas and industrial capacity to receive them can thus have far-reaching consequences. In order to be able to enhance the collaboration between the two parties, a better understanding of knowledge transfer within the university-industry relationship is needed. The objective of this research is to investigate the research collaboration between academia and industry in Canadian nanotechnology and to propose the best cooperative strategy to maximize the quality of the produced knowledge. First, a network of all Canadian academic and industrial nanotechnology inventors is constructed using the patent data from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), and it is analyzed with social network analysis software. The actual level of university-industry collaboration in Canadian nanotechnology is determined and the significance of each group of actors in the network (academic vs. industrial inventors) is assessed. Second, a novel methodology is proposed, in which the network of nanotechnology inventors is assessed from a game theoretic perspective. It involves studying a cooperative game with n players each having at most n-1 decisions to choose from. The equilibrium leads to a strategy for all the players to choose their co-worker in the next period in order to maximize the correlated payoff of the game. The payoffs of the game represent the quality of the produced knowledge based on the citations of the patents. The best suggestion for the next collaborative relationship is provided for each actor from a game theoretic point of view in order to maximize the quality of the produced knowledge. One of the major contributions of this work is the novel approach which combines game theory and social network analysis for the case of large networks. This approach can serve as a powerful tool in the analysis of the strategic interactions of the network actors within the innovation systems and other large scale networks.

Keywords: cooperative strategy, game theory, industry-university collaboration, knowledge production, social network analysis

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212 The Effect of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Education on Preservice Science Teachers' Awareness of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Authors: Tuba Senel Zor, Oktay Aslan

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With current trends in nanoscience and nanotechnology (NST), scientists have paid much attention to education and nanoliteracy in parallel with the developments on these fields. To understand the advances in NST research requires a population with a high degree of science literacy. All citizens should soon need nanoliteracy in order to navigate some of the important science-based issues faced to their everyday lives. While the fields of NST are advancing rapidly and raising their societal significance, general public’s awareness of these fields has remained at a low level. Moreover, students enrolled different education levels and teachers don’t have awareness at expected level. This problem may be stemmed from inadequate education and training. To remove the inadequacy, teachers have greatest duties and responsibilities. Especially science teachers at all levels need to be made aware of these developments and adequately prepared so that they are able to teach about these advances in a developmentally appropriate manner. If the teachers develop understanding and awareness of NST, they can also discuss the topic with their students. Therefore, the awareness and conceptual understandings of both the teachers who will teach science to students and the students who will be introduced about NST should be increased, and the necessary training should be provided. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of NST education on preservice science teachers’ awareness of NST. The study was designed in one group pre-test post-test quasi-experimental pattern. The study was conducted with 32 preservice science teachers attending the Elementary Science Education Program at a large Turkish university in central Anatolia. NST education was given during five weeks as two hours per week. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Awareness Questionnaire was used as data collected tool and was implemented for pre-test and post-test. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical package for the Social Science (SPSS). The results of data analysis showed that there was a significant difference (z=6.25, p< .05) on NST awareness of preservice science teachers after implemented NST education. The results of the study indicate that NST education has an important effect for improving awareness of preservice science teachers on NST.

Keywords: awareness level, nanoliteracy, nanoscience and nanotechnology education, preservice science teachers

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211 Nanomaterials-Assisted Drilling Fluids for Application in Oil Fields - Challenges and Prospects

Authors: Husam Mohammed Saleh Alziyadi

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The drilling fluid has a significant impact on drilling efficiency. Drilling fluids have several functions which make them most important within the drilling process, such as lubricating and cooling the drill bit, removing cuttings from down of hole, preventing formation damage, suspending drill bit cuttings, , and also removing permeable formation as a result, the flow of fluid into the formation process is delayed. In the oil and gas sector, unconventional shale reserves have been a central player in meeting world energy demands. Oil-based drilling fluids (OBM) are generally favored for drilling shale plays due to negligible chemical interactions. Nevertheless, the industry has been inspired by strict environmental regulations to design water-based drilling fluids (WBM) capable of regulating shale-water interactions to boost their efficiency. However, traditional additives are too large to plug the micro-fractures and nanopores of the shale. Recently, nanotechnology in the oil and gas industries has shown a lot of promise, especially with drilling fluids based on nanoparticles. Nanotechnology has already made a huge contribution to technical developments in the energy sector. In the drilling industry, nanotechnology can make revolutionary changes. Nanotechnology creates nanomaterials with many attractive properties that can play an important role in improving the consistency of mud cake, reducing friction, preventing differential pipe sticking, preserving the stability of the borehole, protecting reservoirs, and improving the recovery of oil and gas. The selection of suitable nanomaterials should be based on the shale formation characteristics intended for drilling. The size, concentration, and stability of the NPs are three more important considerations. The effects of the environment are highly sensitive to these materials, such as changes in ionic strength, temperature, or pH, all of which occur under downhole conditions. This review paper focused on the previous research and recent development of environmentally friendly drilling fluids according to the regulatory environment and cost challenges.

Keywords: nanotechnology, WBM, Drilling Fluid, nanofluids

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210 Optimization of Radiation Therapy with a Nanotechnology Based Enzymatic Therapy

Authors: R. D. Esposito, V. M. Barberá, P. García Morales, P. Dorado Rodríguez, J. Sanz, M. Fuentes, D. Planes Meseguer, M. Saceda, L. Fernández Fornos, M. P. Ventero

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Results obtained by our group on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) primary cultures , show a dramatic potentiation of radiation effects when 2 units/ml of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) enzyme are added, free or immobilized in magnetic nanoparticles, to irradiated samples just after the irradiation. Cell cultures were exposed to radiation doses of 7Gy and 15Gy of 6 MV photons from a clinical linear accelerator. At both doses, we observed a clear enhancing effect of radiation-induced damages due to the addition of DAO.

Keywords: D-amino Acid Oxidase (DAO) enzyme, magnetic particles, nanotechnology, radiation therapy enhancement

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209 Chitosan Modified Halloysite Nanomaterials for Efficient and Effective Vaccine Delivery in Farmed Fish

Authors: Saji George, Eng Khuan Seng, Christof Luda

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Nanotechnology has been recognized as an important tool for modern agriculture and has the potential to overcome some of the pressing challenges faced by aquaculture industry. A strategy for optimizing nanotechnology-based therapeutic delivery platform for immunizing farmed fish was developed. Accordingly, a compositional library of nanomaterials of natural chemistry (Halloysite (clay), Chitosan, Hydroxyapatite, Mesoporous Silica and a composite material of clay-chitosan) was screened for their toxicity and efficiency in delivering models antigens in cellular and zebrafish embryo models using high throughput screening platforms. Through multi-parametric optimization, chitosan modified halloysite (clay) nanomaterial was identified as an optimal vaccine delivery platform. Further, studies conducted in juvenile seabass showed the potential of clay-chitosan in delivering outer membrane protein of Tenacibaculum maritimum- TIMA (pathogenic bacteria) to and its efficiency in eliciting immune responses in fish. In short, as exemplified by this work, the strategy of using compositional nanomaterial libraries and their biological profiling using high-throughput screening platform could fasten the discovery process of nanomaterials with potential applications in food and agriculture.

Keywords: nanotechnology, fish-vaccine, drug-delivery, halloysite-chitosan

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208 Acute Hepatotoxicity of Nano and Micro-Sized Iron Particles in Adult Albino Rats

Authors: Ghada Hasabo, Mahmoud Saber Elbasiouny, Mervat Abdelsalam, Sherin Ghaleb, Niveen Eldessouky

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In the near future, nanotechnology is envisaged for large scale use. Hence health and safety issues of nanoparticles should be promptly addressed. In the present study the acute hepatoxicity assessment due to high single oral dose of nano iron and micro iron particles were studied. The normal daily activities, biochemical alterations, blood coagulation, histopathological changes in Wister rats were the aspect of the toxicological assessment.This work found that significant alterations in biochemical enzymes (serum iron level, liver enzymes, albumin, and bilirubin levels), blood coagulation (PT, PC, INR), and histopathological changes occurred more prominently in the nano iron particle treated group.

Keywords: nanobiotechnology, nanosystems, nanomaterials, nanotechnology

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207 Energy Harvesting with Zinc Oxide Based Nanogenerator: Design and Simulation Using Comsol-4.3 Software

Authors: Akanksha Rohit, Ujjwala Godavarthi, Anshua Mukherjee

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Nanotechnology is one of the promising sustainable solutions in the era of miniaturization due to its multidisciplinary nature. The most interesting aspect about nanotechnology is its wide ranging applications from electronics to military and biomedical. It tries to connect individuals more closely to the environment. In this paper, concept of parasitic energy harvesting is used in designing nanogenerators using COMSOL 4.3 software. The output of the nanogenerator is optimized using following constraints: ease of availability of the material, fabrication process and cost of the material. The nanogenerator is optimized using ZnO based nanowires, PMMA as insulator and aluminum and silicon as metal electrodes. The energy harvested from the model can be used to power nanobots, several other biomedical sensors and eventually to replace batteries. Thus, advancements in this field can be very challenging but it is the future of the nano era.

Keywords: zinc oxide, piezoelectric, PMMA, parasitic energy harvesting, renewable energy engineering

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206 Improving Lutein Bioavailability by Nanotechnology Applications

Authors: Hulya Ilyasoglu Buyukkestelli, Sedef Nehir El

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Lutein is a member of xanthophyll group of carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables. Lutein accumulates in the macula region of the retina and known as macular pigment which absorbs damaging light in the blue wavelengths. The presence of lutein in retina has been related to decreased risk of two common eye diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract. Being a strong antioxidant, it may also have effects on prevention some types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction. Humans are not capable of synthesizing lutein de novo; therefore it must be provided naturally by the diet, fortified foods, and beverages or nutritional supplement. However, poor bioavailability and physicochemical stability limit its usage in the food industry. Poor solubility in digestive fluids and sensitivity to heat, light, and oxygen are both affect the stability and bioavailability of lutein. In this context, new technologies, delivery systems and formulations have been applied to improve stability and solubility of lutein. Nanotechnology, including nanoemulsion, nanocrystal, nanoencapsulation technology and microencapsulation by complex coacervation, spray drying are promising ways of increasing solubilization of lutein and stability of it in different conditions. Bioavailability of lutein is also dependent on formulations used, starch formulations and milk proteins, especially sodium caseinate are found effective in improving the bioavailability of lutein. Designing foods with highly bioavailable and stabile lutein needs knowledge about current technologies, formulations, and further needs. This review provides an overview of the new technologies and formulations used to improve bioavailability of lutein and also gives a future outlook to food researches.

Keywords: bioavailability, formulation, lutein, nanotechnology

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205 Recent Advancement in Dendrimer Based Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Brain Tumor

Authors: Nitin Dwivedi, Jigna Shah

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Brain tumor is metastatic neoplasm of central nervous system, in most of cases it is life threatening disease with low survival rate. Despite of enormous efforts in the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools, the treatment of brain tumors and gliomas remain a considerable challenge in the area of neuro-oncology. The most reason behind of this the presence of physiological barriers including blood brain barrier and blood brain tumor barrier, lead to insufficient reach ability of therapeutic agents at the site of tumor, result of inadequate destruction of gliomas. So there is an indeed need empowerment of brain tumor imaging for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional different generations of dendrimer offer an improved effort for potentiate drug delivery at the site of brain tumor and gliomas. So this article emphasizes the innovative dendrimer approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging and delivery of therapeutic agent.

Keywords: blood brain barrier, dendrimer, gliomas, nanotechnology

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204 Mathematical Model for Interaction Energy of Toroidal Molecules and Other Nanostructures

Authors: Pakhapoom Sarapat, James M. Hill, Duangkamon Baowan

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Carbon nanotori provide several properties such as high tensile strength and heat resistance. They are promised to be ideal structures for encapsulation, and their encapsulation ability can be determined by the interaction energy between the carbon nanotori and the encapsulated nanostructures. Such interaction energy is evaluated using Lennard-Jones potential and continuum approximation. Here, four problems relating to toroidal molecules are determined in order to find the most stable configuration. Firstly, the interaction energy between a carbon nanotorus and an atom is examined. The second problem relates to the energy of a fullerene encapsulated inside a carbon nanotorus. Next, the interaction energy between two symmetrically situated and parallel nanotori is considered. Finally, the classical mechanics is applied to model the interaction energy between the toroidal structure of cyclodextrin and the spherical DNA molecules. These mathematical models might be exploited to study a number of promising devices for future developments in bio and nanotechnology.

Keywords: carbon nanotori, continuum approximation, interaction energy, Lennard-Jones potential, nanotechnology

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203 Design and Optimization Fire Alarm System to Protect Gas Condensate Reservoirs With the Use of Nano-Technology

Authors: Hefzollah Mohammadian, Ensieh Hajeb, Mohamad Baqer Heidari

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In this paper, for the protection and safety of tanks gases (flammable materials) and also due to the considerable economic value of the reservoir, the new system for the protection, the conservation and fire fighting has been cloned. The system consists of several parts: the Sensors to detect heat and fire with Nanotechnology (nano sensor), Barrier for isolation and protection from a range of two electronic zones, analyzer for detection and locating point of fire accurately, Main electronic board to announce fire, Fault diagnosis in different locations, such as relevant alarms and activate different devices for fire distinguish and announcement. An important feature of this system, high speed and capability of fire detection system in a way that is able to detect the value of the ambient temperature that can be adjusted. Another advantage of this system is autonomous and does not require human operator in place. Using nanotechnology, in addition to speeding up the work, reduces the cost of construction of the sensor and also the notification system and fire extinguish.

Keywords: analyser, barrier, heat resistance, general fault, general alarm, nano sensor

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202 Emerging Therapeutic Approach with Dandelion Phytochemicals in Breast Cancer Treatment

Authors: Angel Champion, Sadia Kanwal, Rafat Siddiqui

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Harnessing phytochemicals from plant sources presents a novel opportunity to prevent or treat malignant diseases, including breast cancer. Chemotherapy lacks precision in targeting cancerous cells while sparing normal cells, but a phytopharmaceutical approach may offer a solution. Dandelion, a common weed plant, is rich in phytochemicals and provides a safer, more cost-effective alternative with lower toxicity than traditional pharmaceuticals for conditions such as breast cancer. In this study, an in-vitro experiment will be conducted using the ethanol extract of Dandelion on triple-negative MDA-231 breast cancer cell lines. The polyphenolic analysis revealed that the Dandelion extract, particularly from the root and leaf (both cut and sifted), had the most potent antioxidant properties and exhibited the most potent antioxidation activity from the powdered leaf extract. The extract exhibits prospective promising effects for inducing cell proliferation and apoptosis in breast cancer cells, highlighting its potential for targeted therapeutic interventions. Standardizing methods for Dandelion use is crucial for future clinical applications in cancer treatment. Combining plant-derived compounds with cancer nanotechnology holds the potential for effective strategies in battling malignant diseases. Utilizing liposomes as carriers for phytoconstituent anti-cancer agents offers improved solubility, bioavailability, immunoregulatory effects, advancing anticancer immune function, and reducing toxicity. This integrated approach of natural products and nanotechnology has significant potential to revolutionize healthcare globally, especially in underserved communities where herbal medicine is prevalent.

Keywords: apoptosis, antioxidant activity, cancer nanotechnology, phytopharmaceutical

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201 A Brazilian Study Applied to the Regulatory Environmental Issues of Nanomaterials

Authors: Luciana S. Almeida

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Nanotechnology has revolutionized the world of science and technology bringing great expectations due to its great potential of application in the most varied industrial sectors. The same characteristics that make nanoparticles interesting from the point of view of the technological application, these may be undesirable when released into the environment. The small size of nanoparticles facilitates their diffusion and transport in the atmosphere, water, and soil and facilitates the entry and accumulation of nanoparticles in living cells. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the environmental regulatory process of nanomaterials in the Brazilian scenario. Three specific objectives were outlined. The first is to carry out a global scientometric study, in a research platform, with the purpose of identifying the main lines of study of nanomaterials in the environmental area. The second is to verify how environmental agencies in other countries have been working on this issue by means of a bibliographic review. And the third is to carry out an assessment of the Brazilian Nanotechnology Draft Law 6741/2013 with the state environmental agencies. This last one has the aim of identifying the knowledge of the subject by the environmental agencies and necessary resources available in the country for the implementation of the Policy. A questionnaire will be used as a tool for this evaluation to identify the operational elements and build indicators through the Environment of Evaluation Application, a computational application developed for the development of questionnaires. At the end will be verified the need to propose changes in the Draft Law of the National Nanotechnology Policy. Initial studies, in relation to the first specific objective, have already identified that Brazil stands out in the production of scientific publications in the area of nanotechnology, although the minority is in studies focused on environmental impact studies. Regarding the general panorama of other countries, some findings have also been raised. The United States has included the nanoform of the substances in an existing program in the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), the TSCA (Toxic Substances Control Act). The European Union issued a draft of a document amending Regulation 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and Council to cover the nanoform of substances. Both programs are based on the study and identification of environmental risks associated with nanomaterials taking into consideration the product life cycle. In relation to Brazil, regarding the third specific objective, it is notable that the country does not have any regulations applicable to nanostructures, although there is a Draft Law in progress. In this document, it is possible to identify some requirements related to the environment, such as environmental inspection and licensing; industrial waste management; notification of accidents and application of sanctions. However, it is not known if these requirements are sufficient for the prevention of environmental impacts and if national environmental agencies will know how to apply them correctly. This study intends to serve as a basis for future actions regarding environmental management applied to the use of nanotechnology in Brazil.

Keywords: environment; management; nanotecnology; politics

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200 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Properties, and Environmental Application

Authors: Shalini Rajput, Dinesh Mohan

Abstract:

Water is the most important and essential resources for existing of life on the earth. Water quality is gradually decreasing due to increasing urbanization and industrialization and various other developmental activities. It can pose a threat to the environment and public health therefore it is necessary to remove hazardous contaminants from wastewater prior to its discharge to the environment. Recently, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles have been arise as significant materials due to its distinct properties. This article focuses on the synthesis method with a possible mechanism, structure and application of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The various characterization techniques including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer are useful to describe the physico-chemical properties of nanoparticles. Nanosized iron oxide particles utilized for remediation of contaminants from aqueous medium through adsorption process. Due to magnetic properties, nanoparticles can be easily separate from aqueous media. Considering the importance and emerging trend of nanotechnology, iron oxide nanoparticles as nano-adsorbent can be of great importance in the field of wastewater treatment.

Keywords: nanoparticles, adsorption, iron oxide, nanotechnology

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199 Impacts of Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles on Functional Bacterial Community in Activated Sludge

Authors: I. Kamika, S. Azizi, M. Tekere

Abstract:

Nanotechnology promises significant improvements of advanced materials and manufacturing techniques with a vast range of applications, which are critical for the future competitiveness of national industries. The manipulations and productions of materials, whilst, controlling the optical properties and surface area to a nanosize scale enabled a birth of a new field known as nanotechnology. However, their rapidly developing industry raises concerns about the environmental impacts of nanoparticles, as their effects on functional bacterial community in wastewater treatment remain unclear. The present research assessed the impact of cerium Oxide nanoparticles (nCeO) on the bacterial microbiome of an activated sludge system, which influenced its performance of this system on nutrient removal. Out of 15875 reads sequenced, a total of 13133 reads were non-chimeric. The wastewater samples were more dominant to the unclassified bacteria (51.07% of bacteria community) followed with the classified bacteria (48.93). Proteobacteria was the most dominant phylum in both classified and unclassified bacteria, whereas 18% of bacteria could even not be assigned a phylum and remained unclassified suggesting hitherto vast untapped microbial diversity. The bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) ranged from 1014 to 2629 over the experimental period. The denitrification related species including Diaphorobacter species, Thauera species and those in the Sphaerotilus and Leptothrix group were found to be inhibited in a high concentration of CeO-NP. The diversity indices suggested that the bacterial community inhabiting the wastewater samples were less diverse as the concentration of CeO increases. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) results highlighted that the bacterial community variance had the strongest relationship with water temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen (DO) content as well as nCeO. The results provided the relationships between the microbial community and environmental variables in the wastewater samples.

Keywords: bacterial community, next generation, cerium oxide, wastewater, activated sludge, nanoparticles, nanotechnology

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198 Effect of Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles on a Heavy Oilfield: Interfacial Tension, Wettability and Oil Displacement Studies

Authors: Jimena Lizeth Gomez Delgado, Jhon Jairo Rodriguez, Nicolas Santos, Enrique Mejia Ospino

Abstract:

Nanotechnology has played an important role in the hydrocarbon industry, recently , due to the unique properties of graphene oxide nanoparticles, they have been incorporated in different studies enhanced oil recovery. Nonetheless, very few studies have used graphene oxide nanoparticles in coreflooding experiments. Herein, the use of Graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticle was explored, exploited and evaluated. The performance of Graphene oxide nanoparticles on the interfacial properties in the presence of different electrolyte concentrations representative of field brine and pH conditions was investigated. Moreover, wettability behavior of the nanofluid at the oil/sand interface was studied used contact angle and Amott Harvey evaluation. Experimental result shows that the adsorption of GO on the sandstone surface changes the wettability of the sandstone from being strongly crude oil-wet to intermediate crude oil-wettability. At 900 ppm formation brine with 8 pH solution and 0.09 wt% nanoparticles concentration, Graphene oxide nanofluid exhibited better performance under the different electrolyte concentration studied. Finally, heavy oil displacement test in sandstone cores showed that oil recovery of Graphene oxide nanofluid had 7% incremental oil recovery over conventional waterflooding.

Keywords: nanoparticle, graphene oxide, nanotechnology, wettability, enhanced oil recovery, coreflooding

Procedia PDF Downloads 92