Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 264

Search results for: cytotoxicity

264 In vitro Cytotoxicity Study on Silver Powders Synthesized via Different Routes

Authors: Otilia Ruxandra Vasile, Ecaterina Andronescu, Cristina Daniela Ghitulica, Bogdan Stefan Vasile, Roxana Trusca, Eugeniu Vasile, Alina Maria Holban, Carmen Mariana Chifiriuc, Florin Iordache, Horia Maniu

Abstract:

Engineered powders offer great promise in several applications, but little information is known about cytotoxicity effects. The aim of the current study was the synthesis and cytotoxicity examination of silver powders using pyrosol method at temperatures of 600°C, 650°C and 700°C, respectively sol-gel method and calcinations at 500°C, 600°C, 700°C and 800°C. We have chosen to synthesize and examine silver particles cytotoxicity due to its use in biological applications. The synthesized Ag powders were characterized from the structural, compositional and morphological point of view by using XRD, SEM, and TEM with SAED. In order to determine the influence of the synthesis route on Ag particles cytotoxicity, different sizes of micro and nanosilver synthesized powders were evaluated for their potential toxicity. For the study of their cytotoxicity, cell cycle and apoptosis have been done analysis through flow cytometry on human colon carcinoma cells and mesenchymal stem cells and through the MTT assay, while the viability and the morphological changes of the cells have been evaluated by using cloning studies. The results showed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles have displayed significant cytotoxicity effects on cell cultures. Our synthesized silver powders were found to present toxicity in a synthesis route and time-dependent manners for pyrosol synthesized nanoparticles; whereas a lower cytotoxicity has been measured after cells were treated with silver nanoparticles synthesized through sol-gel method.

Keywords: Ag, cytotoxicity, pyrosol method, sol-gel method

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263 The Antitumor Activity of Eu (III) and Er (III) Complexes of 3 - (1H-Benzimidazol-2-Yl) - 6 - Methyl - 2 (1H) - Quinolinone

Authors: Xing Lu, Yi-ming Wu, Yan-hong Zhu, Zhen-feng Chen, Hong Liang, Yan Peng

Abstract:

[Eu(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (1),and [Er(BMQ)2(NO3)3(CH3OH)(H2O)] (2),were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a certain extent cytotoxicity against Hep G2, Hela 229, MGC80-3 and BEL-7404 cell lines invitro, with IC50 values in the14.51±1.41μM to 52.49±4.01μM range. Compound 1 exhibited significantly enhanced cytotoxicity against MGC80-3 cell line, comparing with free 3-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-6-methyl-2(1H)- quinolinone. The binding abilities of 1 to DNA were stronger than that of 2. Intercalation is the most probable binding mode for both the complexes.

Keywords: quinolinone, Eu(II) complex, Er(III) complex, cytotoxicity.

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262 Fluorescence Gold Nanoparticles: Sensing Properties and Cytotoxicity Studies in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Cristina Núñez, Rufina Bastida, Elena Labisbal, Alejandro Macías, María T. Pereira, José M. Vila

Abstract:

A highly selective quinoline-based fluorescent sensor L was designed in order to functionalize gold nanoparticles ([email protected]). The cytotoxicity of compound L and [email protected] on the MCF-7 breast cancer cells was explored and it was observed that L and [email protected] compounds induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cancer cells. The cellular uptake of the hybrid system [email protected] was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM).

Keywords: cytotoxicity, fluorescent probes, nanoparticles, quinoline

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261 Biomolecular Interaction of Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes

Authors: S. N. Harun, H. Ahmad

Abstract:

A series of ruthenium(II) complexes, including two novel compounds [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+ where dppz = dipyrido-[3,2-a:2’,3’-c]phenazine, and L = 2-phenylimidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (PIP) or 2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline (p-HPIP) have been synthesized and characterized. The previously reported complexes [Ru(bpy)2L]2+ and [Ru(phen)2L]2+ were also prepared. All complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-NMR spectroscopy, ESI-Mass spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy. The photophysical properties were analyzed by UV-Visible spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ and [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ displayed ‘molecular light-switch’ effect as they have high emission in acetonitrile but no emission in water. The cytotoxicity of all complexes against cancer cell lines Hela and MCF-7 were investigated through standard MTT assay. [Ru(dppz)2(PIP)]2+ showed moderate toxicity on both MCF-7 and Hela with IC50 of 37.64 µM and 28.02 µM, respectively. Interestingly, [Ru(dppz)2(p-HPIP)]2+ exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity results with IC50 of 13.52 µM on Hela and 11.63 µM on MCF-7 cell lines which are comparable to the infamous anti-cancer drug, cisplatin. The cytotoxicity of this complex series increased as the ligands size extended in order of [Ru(bpy)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(phen)2(L)]2+ < [Ru(dppz)2(L)]2+.

Keywords: ruthenium, cytotoxicity, molecular light-switch, anticancer

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260 Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis Activity of Areca catechu Linn. Extract as Natural Anticancer Agent for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Liza Meutia Sari, Gus Permana Subita, Elza Ibrahim Auerkari

Abstract:

Background: Many herbs have been discovered to be potential sources of anticancer drugs. Biji Pinang or areca nut (Areca catechu Linn.) has a high content of phenolics and flavonoids, and which is related to antioxidant activity. However, data on its effects on oral squamous cell carcinoma is not available. Objectives: Identification of the cytotoxicity and apoptosis activity in HSC-2 and HSC-3. Methods: The areca nut was extracted by ethanol 96%, MTS assay and apoptosis activity with flow cytometry. Results: The extract of areca nut showed higher toxicity on HSC-3 cell compared to HSC-2. The IC₅₀ of HSC-3 was 164.06 μg/ml vs. 629.50 μg/ml in HSC-2. There was an increase in late apoptosis percentage after 24 and 48 hours in HSC-2. There was a significant increase in early apoptosis percentage after 24 hours and late in 48 hours in HSC-3. Conclusion: The antioxidant activity of the extract of areca nut might be associated with the selective cytotoxicity on HSC-2 and HSC-3. Apoptosis is the major cell death mechanism involved. The areca nut may play an important role in anticancer herb medicine.

Keywords: areca nut, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, oral carcinoma

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
259 Comparison of Acetylcholinesterase Reactivators Cytotoxicity with Their Structure

Authors: Lubica Muckova, Petr Jost, Jaroslav Pejchal, Daniel Jun

Abstract:

The development of acetylcholinesterase reactivators, i.e. antidotes against organophosphorus poisoning, is an important goal of defence research. The aim of this study was to compare cytotoxicity and chemical structure of 5 currently available (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, obidoxime, methoxime, and asoxime) and 4 newly developed compounds (K027, K074, K075, and K203). In oximes, there could be at least four important structural factors affecting their toxicity, including the number of oxime groups in the molecule, the position of oxime group(s) on pyridinium ring, the length of carbon linker, and the substitution by oxygen or insertion of the double bond into the connection chain. The cytotoxicity of tested substances was measured using colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT assay) in SH-SY5Y cell line. Toxicity was expressed as toxicological index IC₅₀. The tested compounds showed different cytotoxicity ranging from 1.5 to 27 mM. K027 was the least, and methoxime was the most toxic reactivator. The lowest toxicity was found in a monopyridinium reactivator and bispyridinium reactivators with simple 3C carbon linker. Shortening of connection chain length to 1C, incorporation of oxygen moiety into 3C compounds, elongation of carbon linker to 4C and insertion of a double bond into 4C substances increase AChE reactivators' cytotoxicity. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a long-term organization development plan Medical Aspects of Weapons of Mass Destruction of the Faculty of Military Health Sciences, University of Defence.

Keywords: acetylcholinesterase, cytotoxicity, organophosphorus poisoning, reactivators of acetylcholinesterase

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258 Cytotoxicity of Nano β–Tricalcium Phosphate (β-TCP) on Human Osteoblast (hFOB1.19)

Authors: Jer Ping Ooi, Shah Rizal Bin Kasim, Nor Aini Saidin

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize nano-sized β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) powder and assess its cytotoxic effects on human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) by using four cytotoxicity assays, namely, lactose dehydrogenase (LDHe), tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT), neutral red (NR), and sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is a calcium phosphate compound commonly used as an implant material. To date, bulk-sized β-TCP is reported to be readily tolerated by the osteogenic cells and body based on in vitro, in vivo experiments and clinical studies. However, to what extent of nano-sized β-TCP will react in models as compared to bulk β-TCP is yet to be investigated. Thus, in this project, the cells were treated with nano β-TCP powder within a range of concentrations from 0 to 1000 μg/mL for 24, 48, and 72 h. The cytotoxicity tests showed that loss of cell viability ( > 50%) was high for hFOB1.19 cells in all assays. Cell cycle and apoptosis analysis of hFOB1.19 cells revealed that 50 μg/mL of the compound led to 30.5% of cells being apoptotic after 72 h of incubation, and the percentage was increased to 58.6% when the concentration was increased to 200 μg/mL. When the incubation time was increased from 24 to 72 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells increased from 17.3% to 58.6% when the hFOB1.19 were exposed with 200 μg/mL of nano β-TCP powder. Thus, both concentration and exposure duration affected the cytotoxicity effects of the nano β-TCP powder on hFOB1.19. We hypothesize that these cytotoxic effects on hFOB1.19 are related to the nano-scale size of the β-TCP.

Keywords: β-tricalcium phosphate, hFOB1.19, adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells, cytotoxicity

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257 Induction of Cytotoxicity and Apoptosis in Ovarian Cancer Cell Line (CAOV-3) by an Isoquinoline Alkaloid Isolated from Enicosanthellum pulchrum (King) Heusden

Authors: Noraziah Nordin, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Nazia Abdul Majid, Mashitoh Abdul Rahman, Hamed Karimian, Hapipah Mohd Ali

Abstract:

Enicosanthellum pulchrum belongs to family Annonaceae is also known as family of 'mempisang' in Malaysia. Liriodenine was isolated by prep-HPLC method. This method was first technique used for the isolation of this compound. The structure of the liriodenine was elucidated by 1D and 2D spectroscopy techniques. Liriodenine was tested on ovarian cancer cells line (CAOV-3) for MTT, AO/PI and cytotoxicity 3 assays. The MTT assay was performed to determine the cytotoxicity effect of lirodenine on CAOV-3 cells. The morphological changes on CAOV-3 cells were observed by AO/PI assay for the early and late stage of apoptosis, as well as necrosis. Meanwhile, the measurement of cell loss, nuclear morphology, DNA content, cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential changes and cytochrome c release from mitochondria were detected through cytotoxicity 3 assay. The IC50 results showed liriodenine inhibits the growth of CAOV-3 cells after 24 h of treatment at 10.25 ± 1.06 µg/mL. After 48 and 72 h of treatments, the IC50 values were decreased to 7.65 ± 0:07 and 6.35 ± 1.62 µg/mL, respectively. The morphology changes can be seen on CAOV-3 with a production of cell membrane blebbing, cromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies with increasing time of treatment from 24 to 72 h. Evaluation of cytotoxicity 3 on CAOV-3 cells after treated with liriodenine, resulting loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The results demonstrated the capability of liriodenine as a promising anticancer agent, particularly on human ovarian cancer.

Keywords: Enicosanthellum pulchrum, ovarian cancer, apoptosis, cytotoxicity

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256 Solvent Effects on Anticancer Activities of Medicinal Plants

Authors: Jawad Alzeer

Abstract:

Natural products are well recognized as sources of drugs in several human ailments. To investigate the impact of variable extraction techniques on the cytotoxic effects of medicinal plant extracts, 5 well-known medicinal plants from Palestine were extracted with 90% ethanol, 80% methanol, acetone, coconut water, apple vinegar, grape vinegar or 5% acetic acid. The resulting extracts were screened for cytotoxic activities against three different cancer cell lines (B16F10, MCF-7, and HeLa) using a standard resazurin-based cytotoxicity assay and Nile Blue A as the positive control. Highly variable toxicities and tissue sensitivity were observed, depending upon the solvent used for extraction. Acetone consistently gave lower extraction yields but higher cytotoxicity, whereas other solvent systems gave much higher extraction yields with lower cytotoxicity. Interestingly, coconut water was found to offer a potential alternative to classical organic solvents; it gave consistently highest extraction yields, and in the case of S. officinalis L., highly toxic extracts towards MCF-7 cells derived from human breast cancer. These results demonstrate how the cytotoxicity of plant extracts can be inversely proportional to the yield, and that solvent selection plays an important role in both factors.

Keywords: plant extract, natural products, anti cancer drug, cytotoxicity

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255 Liposomal Encapsulation of Silver Nanoparticle for Improved Delivery and Enhanced Anticancer Properties

Authors: Azeez Yusuf, Alan Casey

Abstract:

Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are one of the most widely investigated metallic nanoparticles due to their promising antibacterial activities. In recent years, AgNP research has shifted beyond antimicrobial use to potential applications in the medical arena. This shift coupled with the extensive commercial applications of AgNP will further increase human exposure, and the subsequent risk of adverse effects that may result from repeated exposures and inefficient delivery meaning research into improved AgNP delivery is of paramount importance. In this study, AgNP were encapsulated in a natural bio-surfactant, dipalmitoylphosphatyidyl choline (DPPC), in an attempt to enhance the intracellular delivery and simultaneously mediate the associated cytotoxicity of the AgNP. It was noted that as a result of the encapsulation, liposomal-AgNP (Lipo-AgNP) at 0.625 μg/ml induced significant cell death in THP1 cell lines a notably lower dose than that of the uncoated AgNP induced cytotoxicity. The induced cytotoxicity was shown to result in an increased level of DNA fragmentation resulting in a cell cycle interruption at the S phase of the cell cycle. It was shown that the predominate form of cell death upon exposure to both uncoated and Lipo-AgNP was apoptosis, however, a ROS-independent activation of the executioner caspases 3/7 occurred when exposed to the Lipo-AgNP. These findings showed that encapsulation of AgNP enhances AgNP cytotoxicity and mediates an ROS-independent induction of apoptosis.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, AgNP, cytotoxicity, encapsulation, liposome

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254 Astaxanthin Induces Cytotoxicity through Down-Regulating Rad51 Expression in Human Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Jyh-Cheng Chen, Tai-Jing Wang, Yun-Wei Lin

Abstract:

Astaxanthin has been demonstrated to exhibit a wide range of beneficial effects including anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. However, the molecular mechanism of astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells has not been identified. Rad51 plays a central role in homologous recombination and high levels of Rad51 expression are observed in chemo- or radioresistant carcinomas. In this study, astaxanthin treatment inhibited cell viability and proliferation of two NSCLC cells, A549 and H1703. Treatment with astaxanthin decreased Rad51 expression and phospho-AKT protein level in a time and dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, expression of constitutively active AKT (AKT-CA) vector significantly rescued the decreased Rad51 protein and mRNA levels in astaxanthin-treated NSCLC cells. Combined treatment with PI3K inhibitors (LY294002 or wortmannin) and astaxanthin further decreased the Rad51 expression in NSCLC cells. Knockdown of Rad51 enhanced astaxanthin-induced cytotoxicity and growth inhibition in NSCLC cells. These findings may have implications for the rational design of future drug regimens incorporating astaxanthin for the treatment of NSCLC.

Keywords: astaxanthin, cytotoxicity, AKT, non-small cell lung cancer, PI3K

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253 Involvement of Multi-Drug Resistance Protein (Mrp) 3 in Resveratrol Protection against Methotrexate-Induced Testicular Damage

Authors: Mohamed A. Morsy, Azza A. K. El-Sheikh, Abdulla Y. Al-Taher

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of resveratrol (RES) on methotrexate (MTX)-induced testicular damage. RES (10 mg/kg/day) was given for 8 days orally and MTX (20 mg/kg i.p.) was given at day 4 of experiment, with or without RES in rats. MTX decreased serum testosterone, induced histopathological testicular damage, increased testicular tumor necrosis factor-α level and expression of nuclear factor-κB and cyclooxygenase-2. In MTX/RES group, significant reversal of these parameters was noticed, compared to MTX group. Testicular expression of multidrug resistance protein (Mrp) 3 was three- and five-folds higher in RES- and MTX/RES-treated groups, respectively. In vitro, using prostate cancer cells, each of MTX and RES alone induced cytotoxicity with IC50 0.18 ± 0.08 and 20.5 ± 3.6 µM, respectively. RES also significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of MTX. In conclusion, RES appears to have dual beneficial effect, as it promotes MTX tumor cytotoxicity, while protecting the testes, probably via up-regulation of testicular Mrp3 as a novel mechanism.

Keywords: resveratrol, methotrexate, multidrug resistance protein 3, tumor necrosis factor-α, nuclear factor-κB, cyclooxygenase-2

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252 Studies on Induction of Cytotoxicity Through Apoptosis In Ovarian Cancer Cell Line (CAOV-3) by Chloroform Extract of Artocarpus Kemando Miq

Authors: Noor Shafifiyaz Mohd Yazid, Najihah Mohd Hashim, Hapipah Mohd Ali, Syam Mohan, Rosea Go

Abstract:

Artocarpus kemando is a plant species from Moraceae family. This plant is used as household utensil by the local and the fruits are edible. The plants’ bark was used for the extraction process and yielded the chloroform crude extract which was used to screen for anticancer potential. The cytotoxic effect of the extract on CAOV-3 and WRL 68 cell lines were determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide or MTT assays. Qualitative AO/PI assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis and necrosis process. Meanwhile, the measurement of cell loss, nuclear morphology, DNA content, cell membrane permeability, mitochondrial membrane potential changes and cytochrome c release from mitochondria were detected through cytotoxicity 3 assay. In MTT assay, A. kemando inhibited 50% growth of CAOV-3 cells at 27.9 ± 0:03, 20.1± 0:03, 18.21± 0:04 µg/mL after 24, 48 and 72 hour, respectively. The morphology changes can be seen on CAOV-3 with a production of cell membrane blebbing, cromatin condensation and apoptotic bodies. Evaluation of cytotoxicity 3 on CAOV-3 cells after treated with extract resulting loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. The results demonstrated A. kemando has potentially anticancer agent, particularly on human ovarian cancer.

Keywords: anticancer, Artocarpus kemando, ovarian cancer, cytotoxicity

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251 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxicity Properties of Some Selected Wild Edible Fruits Used Traditionally as a Source of Food

Authors: Thilivhali Emmanuel Tshikalange, Darky Cheron Modishane, Frederick Tawi Tabit

Abstract:

The fruit pulp extracts of twelve selected ethnobotanical wild edible fruits from Mutale local municipality in Venda (Limpopo Province, South Africa) were investigated for their antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxicity activities. Methanol extracts were prepared and tested against six micro-organisms (Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using the micro-dilution method, while for antioxidant activity the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl method was used. Of the 12 extracts tested, Adonsonia digitata, Berchemia discolor, Manilkara mochisia, Xanthocercis zambesiaca, Landolphia kirkii and Garcinia livingstonei showed antimicrobial activity, with MIC values ranging from 12.5 to 0.4 mg/ml. Gram negative bacteria were more resistant to the extracts in comparison to Gram positive bacteria. Antioxidant activity was only detected in Adonsonia digitata extract and the IC50 (substrate concentration to produce 50% reduction) was found to be 16.18µg/ml. The cytotoxicity of the extracts that showed antimicrobial and antioxidant activities was also determined. All plant extracts tested were non-toxic against human kidney cells (HEK293), with IC50 values of >400 µg/ml. The results presented in this study provide support to some traditional uses of wild edible fruits.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant, cytotoxicity, ethnobotanical, fruits

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250 Cytotoxic and Biocompatible Evaluation of Silica Coated Silver Nanoparticle Against Nih-3t3 Cells

Authors: Chen-En Lin, Lih-Rou Rau, Jiunn-Woei Liaw, Shiao-Wen Tsai

Abstract:

The unique optical properties of plasmon resonance metallic particles have attracted considerable applications in the fields of physics, chemistry and biology. Metal-Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) effect is one of the useful applications. MEF effect stated that fluorescence intensity can be quenched or be enhanced depending on the distance between fluorophores and the metal nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles have used widely in antibacterial studies. However, the major limitation for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in biomedical application is well-known cytotoxicity on cells. There were numerous literatures have been devoted to overcome the disadvantage. The aim of the study is to evaluate the cytotoxicity and biocompatibility of silica coated AgNPs against NIH-3T3 cells. The results were shown that NIH-3T3 cells started to detach, shrink, become rounded and finally be irregular in shape after 24 h of exposure at 10 µg/ml AgNPs. Besides, compared with untreated cells, the cell viability significantly decreased to 60% and 40% which were exposed to 10 µg/ml and 20 µg/ml AgNPs respectively. The result was consistent with previously reported findings that AgNPs induced cytotoxicity was concentration dependent. However, the morphology and cell viability of cells appeared similar to the control group when exposed to 20 µg/ml of silica coated AgNPs. We further utilized the dark-field hyperspectral imaging system to analysis the optical properties of the intracellular nanoparticles. The image displayed that the red shift of the surface plasmonic resonances band of the enclosed AgNPs further confirms the agglomerate of the AgNPs rather than their distribution in cytoplasm. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the silica coated of AgNPs showed well biocompatibility and significant lower cytotoxicity compared with bare AgNPs.

Keywords: silver nanoparticles, silica, cell viability, morphology

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249 Cytotoxicity of Flavonoid Compounds from Smilax corbularia Kunth Against Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Line

Authors: Pakakrong Thongdeeying, Srisopa Ruangnoo, Arunporn Itharat

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The rhizomes of Smilax corbularia Kunth have long been used as common ingredients in anticancer preparations. Thus, the objective of this study is to investigate cytotoxicity of S. corbularia and its ingredients against cholangiocarcinoma cell line (KKU-M156) by SRB assay. Ethanolic and water extracts of S. corbularia rhizomes were obtained using the procedures followed by Thai traditional doctors. Bioassay guided isolation was used to isolate cytotoxic compounds. The results revealed that the ethanolic extract of S. corbularia exhibited activity against KKU-M156 cell line with an IC50 value of 84.53±1.62 µg/ml, but the water extract showed no cytotoxic activity. Three flavonoid compounds [astilbin (1), engeletin (2), and quercetin (3)] were isolated from the ethanolic extract. Compound 3 exhibited the strongest activity against KKU-M156 cell line (IC50 = 8.14 ± 1.15 µg/ml), but 1 and 2 showed no cytotoxic activity (IC50 > 100 µg/ml). In conclusion, quercetin showed the highest efficacy against cholangiocarcinoma. These results support the traditional use of this plant by Thai traditional doctors for cancer treatment.

Keywords: cholangiocarcinoma, cytotoxicity, flavonoid, Smilax corbularia

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248 Prophylactic Effects of Dairy Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS through Overexpression of BAX, CASP 3, CASP 8 and CASP 9 on Human Colon Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Amir Saber Gharamaleki, Beitollah Alipour, Zeinab Faghfoori, Ahmad YariKhosroushahi

Abstract:

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and intestinal microbial community plays an important role in colorectal tumorigenesis. Probiotics have recently been assessed as effective anti-proliferative agents and thus this study was performed to examine whether CRC undergo apoptosis by treating with isolated Iranian native dairy yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS, secretion metabolites. The cytotoxicity assessments on cells (HT-29, Caco-2) were accomplished through 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as well as qualitative DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining) and quantitative (flow cytometry assessments) evaluations of apoptosis. To evaluate the main mechanism of apoptosis, Real time PCR method was applied. Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS secretions (IC50) showed significant cytotoxicity against HT-29 and Caco-2 cancer cell lines (66.57 % and 66.34 % apoptosis) similar to 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) while apoptosis only was developed in 27.57 % of KDR normal cells. The prophylactic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus (PTCC 5195), as a reference yeast, was not similar to Kluyveromyces marxianus YAS indicating strain dependency of bioactivities on CRC disease prevention. Based on real time PCR results, the main cytotoxicity is related to apoptosis phenomenon and the core related mechanism is depended on the overexpression of BAX, CASP 9, CASP 8 and CASP 3 inducing apoptosis genes. However, several investigations should be conducted to precisely determine the effective compounds to be used as anticancer therapeutics in the future.

Keywords: anticancer, anti-proliferative, apoptosis, cytotoxicity, yeast

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247 Isolation of Cytotoxic Compound from Tectona grandis Stem to Be Used as Thai Medicinal Preparation for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Onmanee Prajuabjinda, Pakakrong Thondeeying, Jipisute Chunthorng-Orn, Bhanuz Dechayont, Arunporn Itharat

Abstract:

A Thai medicinal preparation has been used for cancer treatment more than ten years ago in Khampramong Temple. Tectona grandis stem is one ingredient of this Thai medicinal remedy. The ethanolic extract of Tectona grandis stem showed the highest cytotoxic activities against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), but was less cytotoxic against large cell lung carcinoma (COR-L23) (IC50 = 3.92 and 7.78 µg/ml, respectively). It was isolated by bioassay-guided isolation method. Tectoquinone, a anthraquinone compound was isolated from this plant. This compound showed high specific cytotoxicity against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), but was less cytotoxic against large cell lung carcinoma (COR-L23)(IC50 =16.15 and 47.56 µg/ml or 72.67 and 214.00 µM, respectively). However, it showed less cytotoxic activity than the crude extract. In conclusion, tectoquinone as a main compound, is not the best cytotoxic compound from Tectona grandis, so there are more active cytotoxic compounds in this extract which should be isolated in the future. Moreover, tectoquinone displayed specific cytotoxicity against only human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) which is a good criterion for cancer treatment.

Keywords: Tectona grandis, SRB assay, cytotoxicity, tectoquinone

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246 Characterization, Antibacterial and Cytotoxicity Evaluation of Silver Nanoparticles Synthesised Using Grewia lasiocarpa E. Mey. Ex Harv. Plant Extracts

Authors: Nneka Augustina Akwu, Yougasphree Naidoo

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Molecular advancement in technology has created a means whereby the atoms and molecules (solid forms) of certain materials such as plants, can now be reduced to a range of 1-100 nanometres. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out at room temperature (RT) 25 ± 2°C and 80°C, using the metabolites in the aqueous extracts of the leaves and stem bark of Grewia lasiocarpa as reductants and stabilizing agents. The biosynthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, attenuated total reflectance - Fourier transforms infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), Energy Dispersive X-ray fluorescence scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRF) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The AgNPs were biologically evaluated for antioxidant, antibacterial and cytotoxicity activities. The phytochemical and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of metabolites that act as reducing and capping agents, while the UV-Vis spectroscopy of the biosynthesized NPs showed absorption between 380-460 nm, confirming AgNP synthesis. The Zeta potential values were between -9.1 and -20.6 mV with a hydrodynamics diameter ranging from 38.3 to 46.7 nm. SEM and HRTEM analyses revealed that AgNPs were predominately spherical with an average particle size of 2- 31 nm for the leaves and 5-27 nm for the stem bark. The cytotoxicity IC50 values of the AgNPs against HeLa, Caco-2 and MCF-7 were >1 mg/mL. The AgNPs were sensitive to all strains of bacteria used, with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) being more sensitive to the AgNPs. Our findings propose that antibacterial and anticancer agents could be derived from these AgNPs of G. lasiocarpa, and warrant their further investigation.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, Grewia lasiocarpa, silver nanoparticles, Zeta potentials

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245 Preparation and Evaluation of siRNA Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles

Authors: Riddhi Trivedi, Shrenik Shah

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For Si RNA to be delivered various biodegradable polymers are trialed by many researchers. One of them is Chitosan (CS) nanoparticles which have been extensively studied for siRNA delivery but the stability and efficacy of such particles are highly dependent on the types of cross-linker used. Hence the attempts are made in this study with PGA To address this issue, three common cross-linkers; Ethylene glycol diacrylate (ED) and poly-D-glutamic acid (PGA) were used to prepare siRNA loaded CS-ED/PGA nanoparticles by ionic gelation method. The nanoparticles which were obtained were compared for its characterization in terms of its physicochemical properties i.e. particle size of the resultant particles, zeta potential, its encapsulation capacity in the polymer. Among all the formulations prepared with different crosslinker PGA siRNA had the smallest particle size (ranged from 120 ± 1.7 to 500 ± 10.9 nm) with zeta potential ranged from 22.1 ± 1.5 to +32.4 ± 0.5 mV, and high entrapment ( > 91%) and binding efficiencies. Similarly, CS-ED nanoparticles showed better siRNA protection during storage at 4˚C and as determined by serum protection assay. TEM micrographs revealed the assorted morphology of CS-PGA-siRNA nanoparticles in contrast to irregular morphology displayed by CS-ED-siRNA. All siRNA loaded nanoparticles were found to give initial burst release which after some time followed by a sustained release of siRNA which were loaded inside. All the formulations showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity with when cytotoxicity performed by HeLa and normal vero cell lines.

Keywords: chitosan, siRNA, cytotoxicity, cell line study

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244 Inhibition of Sea Urchin and Starfish Embryonic Development by Hexane Extracts from Five Philippine Marine Sponges

Authors: Chona Gelani, Mylene Uy, Keisuke Yasuda, Emi Ohta, Shinji Ohta

Abstract:

The marine environment is undoubtedly a rich source of diverse organisms that possess bioactive secondary metabolites with important pharmacological activities. Marine sponges have since been contributing a wide array of compounds of biomedical and pharmaceutical importance. This study is an attempt to contribute to the growing and advancing marine natural products research. It aims to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the hexane extract (H) from the Philippine marine sponges, Rhabdastrella globostellata (Rg), Callyspongia sp. (Calsp), Callyspongia aerizusa (Ca), Carteriospongia sp. (Carsp), and Cinachyrella sp. (Cisp) using the eggs of starfish, Asterina pectinifera, and sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus. Specifically, the cytotoxicity of the marine sponge hexane extract was determined through its inhibition of starfish and sea urchin embryonic development. After 24 hours, CarspH and RgH inhibited early gastrulation of sea urchin at a minimum concentration of 15.63 and 31.25 μg/mL, respectively. CalspH inhibited the early gastrulation of both sea urchin and starfish at 125 μg/mL, whereas CaH halted the morula of sea urchin and early gastrulation of starfish at 250 μg/mL. CispH exhibited relatively weak inhibitory activity on starfish embryogenesis but inhibited the early gastrulation of sea urchin at 250 μg/mL. The results obtained from this study were used as basis for the separation, isolation and purification of the component(s) of the hexane extracts from the five Philippine marine sponges.

Keywords: embryonic development, marine sponge cytotoxicity, Philippine marine sponges, sea urchin and starfish embryogenesis

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243 Natural Honey and Effect on the Activity of the Cells

Authors: Abujnah Dukali

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Natural honey was assessed in cell culture system for its anticancer activity. Human leukemic cell line HL 60 was treated with honey and cultured for 5 days and cytotoxicity was calculated by MTT assay. Honey showed cytotoxicity with CC50 value of 174.20 µg/ml. Radical modulation activities was assessed by lipid peroxidation assay using egg lecithin. Honey showed antioxidant activity with EC50 value of 159.73 µg/ml. In addition, treatment with HL60 cells also resulted in nuclear DNA fragmentation, as seen in agarose gel electrophoresis. This is a hallmark of cells undergoing apoptosis. Confirmation of apoptosis was performed by staining the cells with Annexin V and FACS analysis. Apoptosis is an active, genetically regulated disassembly of the cell form within. Disassembly creates changes in the phospholipid content of the cytoplasmic membrane outer leaflet. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is translocated from the inner to the outer surface of the cell for phagocytic cell recognition. The human anticoagulant, annexin V, is a Ca2+-dependent phospholipid protein with a high affinity for PS. Annexin V labeled with fluorescein can identify apoptotic cells in the population It is a confirmatory test for apoptosis. Annexin V-positive cells were defined as apoptotic cells. Since honey shows both antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity at almost the same concentration, it can prevent the free radical induced cancer as prophylactic agent and kill the cancer cells by apoptotic process as a chemotherapeutic agent. Everyday intake of honey can prevent the cancer induction.

Keywords: anticancer, cells, DNA, honey

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242 Development and Characterization of Site Specific Peptide Conjugated Polymeric Nanoparticles for Efficient Delivery of Paclitaxel

Authors: Madhu Gupta, Vikas Sharma, Suresh P. Vyas

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CD13 receptors are abundantly overexpressed in tumor cells as well as in neovasculature. The CD13 receptors were selected as a targeted site and polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) as a targeted delivery system. By combining these, a cyclic NGR (cNGR) peptide ligand was coupled on the terminal end of polyethylene glycol-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-b-PLGA) and prepared the dual targeted-NPs (cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs) to enhance the intracellular delivery of anticancer drug to tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells via ligand-receptor interaction. In-vitro cytotoxicity studies confirmed that the presence of cNGR enhanced the cytotoxic efficiency by 2.8 folds in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cells, while cytotoxicity was improved by 2.6 folds in human fibrosarcoma (HT-1080) cells as compared to non-specific stealth NPs. Compared with other tested NPs, cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs revealed more cytotoxicity by inducing more apoptosis and higher intracellular uptake. The tumor volume inhibition rate was 59.7% in case of cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs that was comparatively more with other formulations, indicating that cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs could more effectively inhibit tumor growth. As a consequence, the cNGR-PEG-PTX-NPs play a key role in enhancing tumor therapeutic efficiency for treatment of CD13 receptor specific solid tumor.

Keywords: cyclic NGR, CD13 receptor, targeted polymeric NPs, solid tumor, intracellular delivery

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241 Systematic Formulation Development and Evaluation of Self-Nanoemulsifying Systems of Rosuvastatin Employing QbD Approach and Chemometric Techniques

Authors: Sarwar Beg, Gajanand Sharma, O. P. Katare, Bhupinder Singh

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The current studies entail development of self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of rosuvastatin, employing rational QbD-based approach for enhancing its oral bioavailability. SNEDDS were prepared using the blend of lipidic and emulsifying excipients, i.e., Peceol, Tween 80, and Transcutol HP. The prepared formulations evaluated for in vitro drug release, ex vivo permeation, in situ perfusion studies and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies in rats, which demonstrated 3-4 fold improvement in biopharmaceutical performance of the developed formulations. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay and histopathological studies in intestinal cells revealed the lack of cytotoxicity and thereby safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.

Keywords: SNEDDS, bioavailability, solubility, Quality by Design (QbD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
240 Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Cleoma viscosa Linn. Crude Extracts

Authors: Suttijit Sriwatcharakul

Abstract:

The bioactivity studies from the weed ethanolic crude extracts from leaf, stem, pod and root of wild spider flower; Cleoma viscosa Linn. were analyzed for the growth inhibition of 6 bacterial species; Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 5562, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Streptococcus epidermidis ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli DMST 4212 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 with initial concentration crude extract of 50 mg/ml. The agar well diffusion results found that the extracts inhibit only gram positive bacteria species; S. aureus, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis. The minimum inhibition concentration study with gram positive strains revealed that leaf crude extract give the best result of the lowest concentration compared with other plant parts to inhibit the growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis at 0.78, 0.39 and lower than 0.39 mg/ml, respectively. The determination of total phenolic compounds in the crude extracts exhibited the highest phenolic content was 10.41 mg GAE/g dry weight in leaf crude extract. Analyzed the efficacy of free radical scavenging by using DPPH radical scavenging assay with all crude extracts showed value of IC50 of leaf, stem, pod and root crude extracts were 8.32, 12.26, 21.62 and 35.99 mg/ml, respectively. Studied cytotoxicity of crude extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line by MTT assay found that pod extract had the most cytotoxicity CC50 value, 32.41 µg/ml. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts exhibited that the more increase of extract concentration, the more activities indicated. According to the bioactivities results, the leaf crude extract of Cleoma viscosa Linn. is the most interesting plant part for further work to search the beneficial of this weed.

Keywords: antimicrobial, antioxidant activity, Cleoma viscosa Linn., cytotoxicity test, total phenolic compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
239 Apoptotic Induction Ability of Harmalol and Its Binding: Biochemical and Biophysical Perspectives

Authors: Kakali Bhadra

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Harmalol administration caused remarkable reduction in proliferation of HepG2 cells with GI50 of 14.2 mM, without showing much cytotoxicity in embryonic liver cell line, WRL-68. Data from circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimetric analysis of harmalol-CT DNA complex shows conformational changes with prominent CD perturbation and stabilization of CT DNA by 8 oC. Binding constant and stoichiometry was also calculated using the above biophysical techniques. Further, dose dependent apoptotic induction ability of harmalol was studied in HepG2 cells using different biochemical assays. Generation of ROS, DNA damage, changes in cellular external and ultramorphology, alteration of membrane, formation of comet tail, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and a significant increase in Sub Go/G1 population made the cancer cell, HepG2, prone to apoptosis. Up regulation of p53 and caspase 3 further indicated the apoptotic role of harmalol.

Keywords: apoptosis, beta carboline alkaloid, comet assay, cytotoxicity, ROS

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
238 Metal-Based Anticancer Agents: In vitro DNA Binding, Cleavage and Cytotoxicity

Authors: Mala Nath, Nagamani Kompelli, Partha Roy, Snehasish Das

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Two new metal-based anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, [(Ph2Sn)2(HGuO)2(phen)Cl2] 1 and [(Ph3Sn)(HGuO)(phen)]- Cl.CH3OH.H2O 2, were designed, prepared and characterized by analytical and spectral (IR, ESI-Mass, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR) techniques. The proposed geometry of Sn(IV) in 1 and 2 is distorted octahedral and distorted trigonal-bipyramidal, respectively. Both 1 and 2 exhibit potential cytotoxicity in vitro against MCF-7, HepG-2 and DU-145 cell lines. The intrinsic binding constant (Kb) values of 1 (2.33 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.46 × 105 M-1) evaluated from UV-Visible absorption studies suggest non-classical electrostatic mode of interaction via phosphate backbone of DNA double helix. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (Ksv) of 1 (9.74 × 105 M-1) and 2 (2.9 × 106 M-1) determined by fluorescence studies suggests the groove binding and intercalation mode for 1 and 2, respectively. Effective cleavage of pBR322 DNA is induced by 1. Their interaction with DNA of cancer cells may account for potency.

Keywords: anticancer agents, DNA binding studies, NMR spectroscopy, organotin

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
237 Cytotoxicity of 13 South African Macrofungal Species and Mechanism/s of Action against Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Gerhardt Boukes, Maryna Van De Venter, Sharlene Govender

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Macrofungi have been used for the past two thousand years in Asian countries, and more recently in Western countries, for their medicinal properties. Biological activities include antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anticancer and immunomodulatory to name a few. Several biologically active compounds have been identified and isolated. Macrofungal research in Africa is poorly documented and to the best of our knowledge non-existent. South Africa has a rich macrofungal biodiversity, which includes endemic and exotic macrofungal species. Ethanolic extracts of 13 macrofungal species, including mushrooms, bracket fungi and puffballs, were prepared and screened for cytotoxicity against a panel of seven cell lines, including A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HeLa (human cervical adenocarcinoma), HT-29 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), MCF7 (human breast adenocarcinoma), MIA PaCa-2 (human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma), PC-3 (human prostate adenocarcinoma) and Vero (African green monkey kidney epithelial) cells using MTT. Cell lines were chosen according to the most prevalent cancer types affecting males and females in South Africa and globally, and the mutations they contain. Preliminary results have shown that three of the macrofungal genera, i.e. Fomitopsis, Gymnopilus and Pycnoporus, have shown cytotoxic activity, ranging between IC50 ~20 and 200 µg/mL. The molecular mechanism of action contributing to cell death investigated and being investigated include apoptosis (i.e. DNA cell cycle arrest, caspase-3 activation and mitochondrial membrane potential), autophagy (i.e. acridine orange and LC3B staining) and ER stress (i.e. thioflavin T staining and caspase-12) in the presence of melphalan, chloroquine and thapsigargin/tuncamycin as positive controls, respectively. The genus, Pycnoporus, has shown the best cytotoxicity of the three macrofungal genera. Future work will focus on the identification and isolation of novel active compounds and elucidating the mechanism/s of action.

Keywords: cancer, cytotoxicity, macrofungi, mechanism/s of action

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236 Regulation of Apoptosis in Human Lung Cancer NCI-H226 Cells through Caspase – Dependent Mechanism by Benjakul Extract

Authors: Pintusorn Hansakul, Ruchilak Rattarom, Arunporn Itharat

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Background: Benjakul, a Thai traditional herbal formulation, comprises of five plants: Piper chaba, Piper sarmentosum, Piper interruptum, Plumbago indica, and Zingiber officinale. It has been widely used to treat cancer patients in the context of folk medicine in Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the cytotoxic effect of the ethanol extract of Benjakul against three non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines (NCI-H226, A549, COR-L23), small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line NCI-H1688 and normal lung fibroblast cell line MRC-5. The study further examined the molecular mechanisms underlying its cytotoxicity via induction of apoptosis in NCI-H226 cells. Methods: The cytotoxic effect of Benjakul was determined by SRB assay. The effect of Benjakul on cell cycle distribution was assessed by flow cytometric analysis. The apoptotic effects of Benjakul were determined by sub-G1 quantitation and Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analyses as well as by changes in caspase-3 activity. Results: Benjakul exerted potent cytotoxicity on NCI-H226 and A549 cells but lower cytotoxicity on COR-L23 and NCI-H1688 cells without any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. Molecular studies showed that Benjakul extract induced G2/M phase arrest in human NCI-H226 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The highest concentration of Benjakul (150 μg/ml) led to the highest increase in the G2/M population at 12 h, followed by the highest increase in the sub-G1 population (apoptotic cells) at 60 h. Benjakul extract also induced early apoptosis (AnnexinV +/PI−) in NCI-H226 cells in a dose- and time- dependent manner. Moreover, treatment with 150 μg/ml Benjakul extract for 36 h markedly increased caspase-3 activity by 3.5-fold, and pretreatment with the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk completely abolished such activity. Conclusions: This study reveals for the first time the regulation of apoptosis in human lung cancer NCI-H226 cells through caspase-dependent mechanism by Benjakul extract.

Keywords: apoptosis, Benjakul, caspase activation, cytotoxicity

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235 Cell Response on the Ti-15Mo Alloy Surface after Nanotubes Growth

Authors: Ana Paula Rosifini Alves Claro, André Luiz Reis Rangel, Nathan Trujillo, Ketul C. Popat

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In the present work, in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated after nanotubes growth on Ti15Mo alloy surface. TiO2 nanotubes were obtained by anodizing technique at room temperature in an electrolyte with 0.25 %NH4F and glycerol at a constant anodic potential of 20 V for 24 hours. The morphology of nanotubes was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM; XL 30 FEG, Philips). Crystal structure was analyzed by wide-angle X-ray diffraction. A cell culture model using human fibroblast-like cells was used to study the effect of TiO2 nanotubes growth on the cytotoxicity of the Ti15Mo alloy for 1, 4 and 7 days culture period. The MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability and cell adhesion was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Results show that Ti15Mo alloy with TiO2 nanotubes on surface is nontoxic and exhibit good interaction with surface.

Keywords: titanium alloys, TiO2 nanotubes, cell growth, Ti-15Mo alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 369