Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: dendrimer

17 Recent Advancement in Dendrimer Based Nanotechnology for the Treatment of Brain Tumor

Authors: Nitin Dwivedi, Jigna Shah


Brain tumor is metastatic neoplasm of central nervous system, in most of cases it is life threatening disease with low survival rate. Despite of enormous efforts in the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools, the treatment of brain tumors and gliomas remain a considerable challenge in the area of neuro-oncology. The most reason behind of this the presence of physiological barriers including blood brain barrier and blood brain tumor barrier, lead to insufficient reach ability of therapeutic agents at the site of tumor, result of inadequate destruction of gliomas. So there is an indeed need empowerment of brain tumor imaging for better characterization and delineation of tumors, visualization of malignant tissue during surgery, and tracking of response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Multifunctional different generations of dendrimer offer an improved effort for potentiate drug delivery at the site of brain tumor and gliomas. So this article emphasizes the innovative dendrimer approaches in tumor targeting, tumor imaging and delivery of therapeutic agent.

Keywords: blood brain barrier, dendrimer, gliomas, nanotechnology

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16 Synthesis of Modified Cellulose for the Capture of Uranyl Ions from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Claudia Vergara, Oscar Valdes, Jaime Tapia, Leonardo Santos


The poly(amidoamine) dendrimers (PAMAM) are a class of material introduced by D. Tomalia. Modifications of the PAMAM dendrimer with several functional groups have attracted the attention for new interesting properties and new applications in many fields such as chemistry, physics, biology, and medicine. However, in the last few years, the use of dendrimers in environmental applications has increased due to pollution concerns. In this contribution, we report the synthesis of three new PAMAM derivates modified with asparagine aminoacid supported in cellulose: PG0-Asn (PAMAM-asparagine), PG0-Asn-Trt (with trityl group) and PG0-Asn-Boc-Trt (with tert-butyl oxycarbonyl group). The functionalization of generation 0 PAMAM dendrimer was carried out by amidation reaction by using an EDC/HOBt protocol. In a second step, functionalized dendrimer was covalently supported to the cellulose surface and used to study the capture of uranyl ions from aqueous solution by fluorescence spectroscopy. The structure and purity of the desired products were confirmed by conventional techniques such as FT-IR, MALDI, elemental analysis, and ESI-MS. Batch experiments were carried out to determine the affinity of uranyl ions with the dendrimer in aqueous solution. Firstly, the optimal conditions for uranyl capture were obtained, where the optimum pH for the removal was 6, the contact time was 4 hours, the initial concentration of uranyl was 100 ppm, and the amount of the adsorbent to be used was 2.5 mg. PAMAM significantly increased the capture of uranyl ions with respect to cellulose as the starting substrate, reaching 94.8% of capture (PG0), followed by 91.2% corresponding to PG0-Asn-Trt, then 70.3% PG0-Asn and 24.2% PG0-Asn-Boc-Trt. These results show that the PAMAM dendrimer is a good option to remove uranyl ions from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: asparagine, cellulose, PAMAM dendrimer, uranyl ions

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15 Surface Modified Polyamidoamine Dendrimer with Gallic Acid Overcomes Drug Resistance in Colon Cancer Cells HCT-116

Authors: Khushbu Priyadarshi, Chandramani Pathak


Cancer cells can develop resistance to conventional therapies especially chemotherapeutic drugs. Resistance to chemotherapy is another challenge in cancer therapeutics. Therefore, it is important to address this issue. Gallic acid (GA) is a natural plant compound that exhibits various biological properties including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-bacterial. Despite of the wide spectrum biological properties GA has cytotoxic response and low bioavailability. To overcome this problem, GA was conjugated with the Polyamidoamine(PAMAM) dendrimer for improving the bioavailability and efficient delivery in drug-resistant HCT-116 Colon Cancer cells. Gallic acid was covalently linked to 4.0 G PAMAM dendrimer. PAMAM dendrimer is well established nanocarrier but has cytotoxicity due to presence of amphiphilic nature of amino group. In our study we have modified surface of PAMAM dendrimer with Gallic acid and examine their anti-proliferative effects in drug-resistant HCT-116 cells. Further, drug-resistant colon cancer cells were established and thereafter treated with different concentration of PAMAM-GA to examine their anti-proliferative potential. Our results show that PAMAM-GA conjugate induces apoptotic cell death in HCT-116 and drug-resistant cells observed by Annexin-PI staining. In addition, it also shows that multidrug-resistant drug transporter P-gp protein expression was downregulated with increasing the concentration of GA conjugate. After that we also observed the significant difference in Rh123 efflux and accumulation in drug sensitive and drug-resistant cancer cells. Thus, our study suggests that conjugation of anti-cancer agents with PAMAM could improve drug resistant property and cytotoxic response to treatment of cancer.

Keywords: drug resistance, gallic acid, PAMAM dendrimer, P-glycoprotein

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14 A Study on the Computation of Gourava Indices for Poly-L Lysine Dendrimer and Its Biomedical Applications

Authors: M. Helen


Chemical graph serves as a convenient model for any real or abstract chemical system. Dendrimers are novel three dimensional hyper branched globular nanopolymeric architectures. Drug delivery scientists are especially enthusiastic about possible utility of dendrimers as drug delivery tool. Dendrimers like poly L lysine (PLL), poly-propylene imine (PPI) and poly-amidoamine (PAMAM), etc., are used as gene carrier in drug delivery system because of their chemical characteristics. These characteristics of chemical compounds are analysed using topological indices (invariants under graph isomorphism) such as Wiener index, Zagreb index, etc., Prof. V. R. Kulli motivated by the application of Zagreb indices in finding the total π energy and derived Gourava indices which is an improved version over Zagreb indices. In this paper, we study the structure of PLL-Dendrimer that has the following applications: reduction in toxicity, colon delivery, and topical delivery. Also, we determine first and second Gourava indices, first and second hyper Gourava indices, product and sum connectivity Gourava indices for PLL-Dendrimer. Gourava Indices have found applications in Quantitative Structure-Property Relationship (QSPR)/ Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies.

Keywords: connectivity Gourava indices, dendrimer, Gourava indices, hyper GouravaG indices

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13 Preparation and Characterization of Dendrimer-Encapsulated Ytterbium Nanoparticles to Produce a New Nano-Radio Pharmaceutical

Authors: Aghaei Amirkhizi Navideh, Sadjadi Soodeh Sadat, Moghaddam Banaem Leila, Athari Allaf Mitra, Johari Daha Fariba


Dendrimers are good candidates for preparing metal nanoparticles because they can structurally and chemically well-defined templates and robust stabilizers. Poly amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer-based multifunctional cancer therapeutic conjugates have been designed and synthesized in pharmaceutical industry. In addition, encapsulated nanoparticle surfaces are accessible to substrates so that catalytic reactions can be carried out. For preparation of dendimer-metal nanocomposite, a dendrimer solution containing an average of 55 Yb+3 ions per dendrimer was prepared. Prior to reduction, the pH of this solution was adjusted to 7.5 using NaOH. NaBH4 was used to reduce the dendrimer-encapsulated Yb+3 to the zerovalent metal. The pH of the resulting solution was then adjusted to 3, using HClO4, to decompose excess BH4-. The UV-Vis absorption spectra of the mixture were recorded to ensure the formation of Yb-G5-NH2 complex. High-resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and size distribution results provide additional information about dendimer-metal nanocomposite shape, size, and size distribution of the particles. The resulting mixture was irradiated in Tehran Research Reactor 2h and neutron fluxes were 3×1011 n/cm2.Sec and the specific activity was 7MBq. Radiochemical and chemical and radionuclide quality control testes were carried. Gamma Spectroscopy and High-performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC, Thin-Layer Chromatography TLC were recorded. The injection of resulting solution to solid tumor in mice shows that it could be resized the tumor. The studies about solid tumors and nano composites show that ytterbium encapsulated-dendrimer radiopharmaceutical could be introduced as a new therapeutic for the treatment of solid tumors.

Keywords: nano-radio pharmaceutical, ytterbium, PAMAM, dendrimers

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12 Development of Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Dendrimer-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Detection of Alpha-Fetoprotein

Authors: Priyal Chikhaliwala, Sudeshna Chandra


Liver cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors with poor prognosis. This is because liver cancer does not exhibit any symptoms in early stage of disease. Increased serum level of AFP is clinically considered as a diagnostic marker for liver malignancy. The present diagnostic modalities include various types of immunoassays, radiological studies, and biopsy. However, these tests undergo slow response times, require significant sample volumes, achieve limited sensitivity and ultimately become expensive and burdensome to patients. Considering all these aspects, electrochemical biosensors based on dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was designed. Dendrimers are novel nano-sized, three-dimensional molecules with monodispersed structures. Poly-amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with eight –NH₂ groups using ethylenediamine as a core molecule were synthesized using Michael addition reaction. Dendrimers provide added the advantage of not only stabilizing Fe₃O₄ NPs but also displays capability of performing multiple electron redox events and binding multiple biological ligands to its dendritic end-surface. Fe₃O₄ NPs due to its superparamagnetic behavior can be exploited for magneto-separation process. Fe₃O₄ NPs were stabilized with PAMAM dendrimer by in situ co-precipitation method. The surface coating was examined by FT-IR, XRD, VSM, and TGA analysis. Electrochemical behavior and kinetic studies were evaluated using CV which revealed that the dendrimer-Fe₃O₄ NPs can be looked upon as electrochemically active materials. Electrochemical immunosensor was designed by immobilizing anti-AFP onto dendrimer-MNPs by gluteraldehyde conjugation reaction. The bioconjugates were then incubated with AFP antigen. The immunosensor was characterized electrochemically indicating successful immuno-binding events. The binding events were also further studied using magnetic particle imaging (MPI) which is a novel imaging modality in which Fe₃O₄ NPs are used as tracer molecules with positive contrast. Multicolor MPI was able to clearly localize AFP antigen and antibody and its binding successfully. Results demonstrate immense potential in terms of biosensing and enabling MPI of AFP in clinical diagnosis.

Keywords: alpha-fetoprotein, dendrimers, electrochemical biosensors, magnetic nanoparticles

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11 Speciation of Iron(III) Oxide Nanoparticles and other Paramagnetic Intermediates during High-Temperature Oxidative Pyrolysis of 1-Methylnaphthalene

Authors: M. Paul Herring, Lavrent Khachatryan, Barry Dellinger


Low Temperature Matrix Isolation - Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (LTMI-EPR) Spectroscopy was utilized to identify the species of iron oxide nanoparticles generated during the oxidative pyrolysis of 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN). The otherwise gas-phase reactions of 1-MN were impacted by a polypropylenimine tetra-hexacontaamine dendrimer complexed with iron(III) nitrate nonahydrate diluted in air under atmospheric conditions. The EPR fine structure of Fe (III)2O3 nanoparticles clusters, characterized by g-factors of 2.00, 2.28, 3.76 and 4.37 were detected on a cold finger maintained at 77K after accumulation over a multitude of experiments. Additionally, a high valence Fe(IV) paramagnetic intermediate and superoxide anion-radicals, O2•- adsorbed on nanoparticle surfaces in the form of Fe(IV)---O2•- were detected from the quenching area of Zone 1 in the gas-phase.

Keywords: cryogenic trapping, EPFRs, dendrimer, Fe2O3 doped silica, soot

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10 A Comparison of Generation Dependent Brain Targeting Potential of(Poly Propylene Mine) Dendrimers

Authors: Nitin Dwivedi, Jigna Shah


Aim and objective of study: This article indicates a comparison among various generations of dendrimers, a dendrimer is a bioactive material has repetitively branched molecule and used for delivery of various therapeutic active agents. This debut report compares the effect various generations of PPI dendrimers for brain targeting and management of neurodegenerative disorders potential on single platform. This report involves the study of the various mechanism of synthesis ligand anchored various generations PPI dendrimers deliver the drug directly to the CNS, prove their effectiveness in the management of the various neurodegenerative disease. Material and Methods: The Memantine an anti-Alzheimer drug loaded in different generations (3.0G, 4.0G, and 5.0G) of PPI dendrimers which were synthesized were synthesized. The various studies investigate the effect of PPI dendrimers generation on different characteristic parameters i.e. synthesis procedure, drug loading, release behavior, hemolysis profile at different concentration, MRI study for determine the route drug from olfactory transfer, animal model study in vitro, as well as in vivo performance. The outcomes of the investigation indicate drug delivery benefit as well as superior biocompatibility of 4.0G PPI dendrimer over 3.0G and 5.0G dendrimer, respectively. Results and Conclusion: The above study indicate the superiority of in drug delivery system with maximum drug utilization and minimize the drug dose for neurodegenerative disorder over 5.0G PPI dendrimers. So, 4.0G PPI dendrimers are the safe formulations for the symptomatic treatment of the neurodegenerative disorder. The fifth-generation poly(propyleneimine) (PPI) dendrimers, inherent toxicity due to the presence of many peripheral cationic groups is the major issue that limits their applicability.

Keywords: Alzheimer disease, generation, memantine, PPI

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9 Dendrimer-Encapsulated N, Pt Co-Doped TiO₂ for the Photodegration of Contaminated Wastewater

Authors: S. K. M. Nzaba, H. H. Nyoni, B. Ntsendwana, B. B. Mamba, A. T. Kuvarega


Azo dye effluents, released into water bodies are not only toxic to the ecosystem but also pose a serious impact on human health due to the carcinogenic and mutagenic effects of the compounds present in the dye discharge. Conventional water treatment methods such as adsorption, flocculation/coagulation and biological processes are not effective in completely removing most of the dyes and their natural degradation by-products. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have proven to be effective technologies for complete mineralization of these recalcitrant pollutants. Therefore, there is a need for new technology that can solve the problem. Thus, this study examined the photocatalytic degradation of an azo dye brilliant black (BB) using non-metal/metal codoped TiO₂. N, Pt co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer generation 0 (PAMAM G0), amine-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer generation 1 ( PAMAM G1) and hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (HPEI) as templates and source of nitrogen. Structural, morphological, and textural properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier- transform infrared (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), photoluminescence (PL) and ultra-violet /visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis). The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited lower band gap energies as compared to the Degussa P-25 revealing a red shift in band gap towards the visible light absorption region. Photocatalytic activity of N, Pt co-doped TiO₂ was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black (BB) dye. The N, metal codoped TiO₂ containing 0.5 wt. % of the metal consisted mainly of the anatase phase as confirmed by XRD results of all three samples, with a particle size range of 13–30 nm. The particles were largely spherical and shifted the absorption edge well into the visible region. Band gap reduction was more pronounced for the N, Pt HPEI (Pt 0.5 wt. %) codoped TiO₂ compared to PAMAM G0 and PAMAM G1. Consequently, codoping led to an enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of the materials for the degradation of brilliant black (BB).

Keywords: codoped TiO₂, dendrimer, photodegradation, wastewater

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8 2D and 3D Breast Cancer Cells Behave Differently to the Applied Free Palbociclib or the Palbociclib-Loaded Nanoparticles

Authors: Maryam Parsian, Pelin Mutlu, Ufuk Gunduz


Two-dimensional cell culture affords simplicity and low cost, but it has serious limitations; lacking cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions that are present in tissues. Cancer cells grown in 3D culture systems have distinct phenotypes of adhesion, growth, migration, invasion as well as profiles of gene and protein expression. These interactions cause the 3D-cultured cells to acquire morphological and cellular characteristics relevant to in vivo tumors. Palbociclib is a chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of ER-positive and HER-negative metastatic breast cancer. Poly-amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer is a well-defined, special three-dimensional structure and has a multivalent surface and internal cavities that can play an essential role in drug delivery systems. In this study, palbociclib is loaded onto the magnetic PAMAM dendrimer. Hanging droplet method was used in order to form 3D spheroids. The possible toxic effects of both free drug and drug loaded nanoparticles were evaluated in 2D and 3D MCF-7, MD-MB-231 and SKBR-3 breast cancer cell culture models by performing MTT cell viability and Alamar Blue assays. MTT analysis was performed with six different doses from 1000 µg/ml to 25 µg/ml. Drug unloaded PAMAM dendrimer did not demonstrate significant toxicity on all breast cancer cell lines. The results showed that 3D spheroids are clearly less sensitive than 2D cell cultures to free palbociclib. Also, palbociclib loaded PAMAM dendrimers showed more toxic effect than free palbociclib in all cell lines at 2D and 3D cultures. The results suggest that the traditional cell culture method (2D) is insufficient for mimicking the actual tumor tissue. The response of the cancer cells to anticancer drugs is different in the 2D and 3D culture conditions. This study showed that breast cancer cells are more resistant to free palbociclib in 3D cultures than in 2D cultures. However, nanoparticle loaded drugs can be more cytotoxic when compared to free drug.

Keywords: 2D and 3D cell culture, breast cancer, palbociclibe, PAMAM magnetic nanoparticles

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7 Oligoalkylamine Modified Poly(Amidoamine) Generation 4.5 Dendrimer for the Delivery of Small Interfering RNA

Authors: Endris Yibru Hanurry, Wei-Hsin Hsu, Hsieh-Chih Tsai


In recent years, the discovery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) has got great attention for the treatment of cancer and other diseases. However, the therapeutic efficacy of siRNAs has been faced with many drawbacks because of short half-life in blood circulation, poor membrane penetration, weak endosomal escape and inadequate release into the cytosol. To overcome these drawbacks, we designed a non-viral vector by conjugating polyamidoamine generation 4.5 dendrimer (PDG4.5) with diethylenetriamine (DETA)- and tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) followed by binding with siRNA to form polyplexes through electrostatic interaction. The result of 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear single–quantum correlation spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the successful conjugation of DETA and TEPA with PDG4.5. Then, the size, surface charge, morphology, binding ability, stability, release assay, toxicity and cellular internalization were analyzed to explore the physicochemical and biological properties of PDG4.5-DETA and PDG4.5-TEPA polyplexes at specific N/P ratios. The polyplexes (N/P = 8) exhibited spherical nanosized (125 and 85 nm) particles with optimum surface charge (13 and 26 mV), showed strong siRNA binding ability, protected the siRNA against enzyme digestion and accepted biocompatibility to the HeLa cells. Qualitatively, the fluorescence microscopy image revealed the delocalization (Manders’ coefficient 0.63 and 0.53 for PDG4.5-DETA and PDG4.5-TEPA, respectively) of polyplexes and the translocation of the siRNA throughout the cytosol to show a decent cellular internalization and intracellular biodistribution of polyplexes in HeLa cells. Quantitatively, the flow cytometry result indicated that a significant (P < 0.05) amount of siRNA was internalized by cells treated with PDG4.5-DETA (68.5%) and PDG4.5-TEPA (73%) polyplexes. Generally, PDG4.5-DETA and PDG4.5-TEPA were ideal nanocarriers of siRNA in vitro and might be used as promising candidates for in vivo study and future pharmaceutical applications.

Keywords: non-viral carrier, oligoalkylamine, poly(amidoamine) dendrimer, polyplexes, siRNA

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6 Water Purification By Novel Nanocomposite Membrane

Authors: E. S. Johal, M. S. Saini, M. K. Jha


Currently, 1.1 billion people are at risk due to lack of clean water and about 35 % of people in the developed world die from water related problem. To alleviate these problems water purification technology requires new approaches for effective management and conservation of water resources. Electrospun nanofibres membrane has a potential for water purification due to its high large surface area and good mechanical strength. In the present study PAMAM dendrimers composite nynlon-6 nanofibres membrane was prepared by crosslinking method using Glutaraldehyde. Further, the efficacy of the modified membrane can be renewed by mere exposure of the saturated membrane with the solution having acidic pH. The modified membrane can be used as an effective tool for water purification.

Keywords: dendrimer, nanofibers, nanocomposite membrane, water purification

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5 Electroactive Ferrocenyl Dendrimers as Transducers for Fabrication of Label-Free Electrochemical Immunosensor

Authors: Sudeshna Chandra, Christian Gäbler, Christian Schliebe, Heinrich Lang


Highly branched dendrimers provide structural homogeneity, controlled composition, comparable size to biomolecules, internal porosity and multiple functional groups for conjugating reactions. Electro-active dendrimers containing multiple redox units have generated great interest in their use as electrode modifiers for development of biosensors. The electron transfer between the redox-active dendrimers and the biomolecules play a key role in developing a biosensor. Ferrocenes have multiple and electrochemically equivalent redox units that can act as electron “pool” in a system. The ferrocenyl-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer is capable of transferring multiple numbers of electrons under the same applied potential. Therefore, they can be used for dual purposes: one in building a film over the electrode for immunosensors and the other for immobilizing biomolecules for sensing. Electrochemical immunosensor, thus developed, exhibit fast and sensitive analysis, inexpensive and involve no prior sample pre-treatment. Electrochemical amperometric immunosensors are even more promising because they can achieve a very low detection limit with high sensitivity. Detection of the cancer biomarkers at an early stage can provide crucial information for foundational research of life science, clinical diagnosis and prevention of disease. Elevated concentration of biomarkers in body fluid is an early indication of some type of cancerous disease and among all the biomarkers, IgG is the most common and extensively used clinical cancer biomarkers. We present an IgG (=immunoglobulin) electrochemical immunosensor using a newly synthesized redox-active ferrocenyl dendrimer of generation 2 (G2Fc) as glassy carbon electrode material for immobilizing the antibody. The electrochemical performance of the modified electrodes was assessed in both aqueous and non-aqueous media using varying scan rates to elucidate the reaction mechanism. The potential shift was found to be higher in an aqueous electrolyte due to presence of more H-bond which reduced the electrostatic attraction within the amido groups of the dendrimers. The cyclic voltammetric studies of the G2Fc-modified GCE in 0.1 M PBS solution of pH 7.2 showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks. The peak current decreased significantly with the immobilization of the anti-goat IgG. After the immunosensor is blocked with BSA, a further decrease in the peak current was observed due to the attachment of the protein BSA to the immunosensor. A significant decrease in the current signal of the BSA/anti-IgG/G2Fc/GCE was observed upon immobilizing IgG which may be due to the formation of immune-conjugates that blocks the tunneling of mass and electron transfer. The current signal was found to be directly related to the amount of IgG captured on the electrode surface. With increase in the concentration of IgG, there is a formation of an increasing amount of immune-conjugates that decreased the peak current. The incubation time and concentration of the antibody was optimized for better analytical performance of the immunosensor. The developed amperometric immunosensor is sensitive to IgG concentration as low as 2 ng/mL. Tailoring of redox-active dendrimers provides enhanced electroactivity to the system and enlarges the sensor surface for binding the antibodies. It may be assumed that both electron transfer and diffusion contribute to the signal transformation between the dendrimers and the antibody.

Keywords: ferrocenyl dendrimers, electrochemical immunosensors, immunoglobulin, amperometry

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4 First Experimental Evidence on Feasibility of Molecular Magnetic Particle Imaging of Tumor Marker Alpha-1-Fetoprotein Using Antibody Conjugated Nanoparticles

Authors: Kolja Them, Priyal Chikhaliwala, Sudeshna Chandra


Purpose: The purpose of this work is to examine possibilities for noninvasive imaging and identification of tumor markers for cancer diagnosis. The proposed method uses antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles and multicolor Magnetic Particle Imaging (mMPI). The method has the potential for radiation exposure free real-time estimation of local tumor marker concentrations in vivo. In this study, the method is applied to human Alpha-1-Fetoprotein. Materials and Methods: As tracer material AFP antibody-conjugated Dendrimer-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used. The nanoparticle bioconjugates were then incubated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to block any possible nonspecific binding sites. Parts of the resulting solution were then incubated with AFP antigen. MPI measurements were done using the preclinical MPI scanner (Bruker Biospin MRI GmbH) and the multicolor method was used for image reconstruction. Results: In multicolor MPI images the nanoparticles incubated only with BSA were clearly distinguished from nanoparticles incubated with BSA and AFP antigens. Conclusion: Tomographic imaging of human tumor marker Alpha-1-Fetoprotein is possible using AFP antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles in presence of BSA. This opens interesting perspectives for cancer diagnosis.

Keywords: noninvasive imaging, tumor antigens, antibody conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles, multicolor magnetic particle imaging, cancer diagnosis

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3 Nitrogen/Platinum Co-Doped TiO₂ for Enhanced Visible Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Brilliant Black

Authors: Sarre Nzaba, Bulelwa Ntsendwana, Bekkie Mamba, Alex Kuvarega


Elimination of toxic organic compounds from wastewater is currently one of the most important subjects in water pollution control. The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N,Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalyts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. SEM/ EDX, TEM, XRD, XPS, TGA, FTIR, RS, PL and UV-Vis were used to characterize the prepared nanomaterials. The synthesized photocatalysts exhibited lower band gap energies as compared to the commercial TiO₂ revealing a shift in band gap towards the visible light absorption region. Photocatalytic activity of N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ was measured by the reaction of photocatalytic degradation of BB dye. Enhanced photodegradation efficiency of BB was achieved after 180 min reaction time with initial concentration of 50 ppm BB solution. This was attributed to the rod-like shape of the materials, larger surface area, and enhanced absorption of visible light induced by N,Pt co-doping. The co-doped N,Pt also exhibited pseudo-first order kinetic behaviour with half-life and rate constant of 0.37 min 0.1984 min⁻¹ and respectively. N doped TiO₂ and N,Pt co-doped TiO₂ exhibited enhanced photocatalytic performances for the removal of BB from water.

Keywords: N, Pt co-doped TiO₂, dendrimer, photodegradation, visible-light

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2 Synthesis of a Hybrid of PEG-b-PCL and G1-PEA Dendrimer Based Six-Armed Star Polymer for Nano Delivery of Vancomycin

Authors: Calvin A. Omolo, Rahul S. Kalhapure, Mahantesh Jadhav, Sanjeev Rambharose, Chunderika Mocktar, Thirumala Govender


Treatment of infections is compromised by limitations of conventional dosage forms and drug resistance. Nanocarrier system is a strategy to overcome these challenges and improve therapy. Thus, the development of novel materials for drug delivery via nanocarriers is essential. The aim of the study was to synthesize a multi-arm polymer (6-mPEPEA) for enhanced activity of vancomycin (VM) against susceptible and resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The synthesis steps of the star polymer followed reported procedures. The synthesized 6-mPEPEA was characterized by FTIR, ¹H and ¹³CNMR and MTT assays. VM loaded micelles were prepared from 6-mPEPEA and characterized for size, polydispersity index (PI) and surface charge (ZP) (Dynamic Light Scattering), morphology by TEM, drug loading (UV Spectrophotometry), drug release (dialysis bag), in vitro and in vivo efficacy against sensitive and resistant S. aureus. 6-mPEPEA was synthesized, and its structure was confirmed. MTT assays confirmed its nontoxic nature with a high cell viability (77%-85%). Unimolecular spherical micelles were prepared. Size, PI, and ZP was 52.48 ± 2.6 nm, 0.103 ± 0.047, -7.3 ± 1.3 mV, respectively and drug loading was 62.24 ± 3.8%. There was a 91% drug release from VCM-6-mPEPEA after 72 hours. In vitro antibacterial test revealed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 8 and 16-fold greater activity against S. aureus and MRSA when compared to bare VM. Further investigations using flow cytometry showed that VM-6-mPEPEA had 99.5% killing rate of MRSA at the MIC concentration. In vivo antibacterial activity revealed that treatment with VM-6-mPEPEA had a 190 and a 15-fold reduction in the MRSA load in untreated and VM treated respectively. These findings confirmed the potential of 6-mPEPEA as a promising bio-degradable nanocarrier for antibiotic delivery to improve treatment of bacterial infections.

Keywords: biosafe, MRSA, nanocarrier, resistance, unimolecular-micelles

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1 Remediation of Dye Contaminated Wastewater Using N, Pd Co-Doped TiO₂ Photocatalyst Derived from Polyamidoamine Dendrimer G1 as Template

Authors: Sarre Nzaba, Bulelwa Ntsendwana, Bekkie Mamba, Alex Kuvarega


The discharge of azo dyes such as Brilliant black (BB) into the water bodies has carcinogenic and mutagenic effects on humankind and the ecosystem. Conventional water treatment techniques fail to degrade these dyes completely thereby posing more problems. Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are promising technologies in solving the problem. Anatase type nitrogen-platinum (N, Pt) co-doped TiO₂ photocatalysts were prepared by a modified sol-gel method using amine terminated polyamidoamine generation 1 (PG1) as a template and source of nitrogen. The resultant photocatalysts were characterized by X‐ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV‐Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy (RS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the calcination atmosphere played an important role in the morphology, crystal structure, spectral absorption, oxygen vacancy concentration, and visible light photocatalytic performance of the catalysts. Anatase phase particles ranging between 9- 20 nm were also confirmed by TEM, SEM, and analysis. The origin of the visible light photocatalytic activity was attributed to both the elemental N and Pd dopants and the existence of oxygen vacancies. Co-doping imparted a shift in the visible region of the solar spectrum. The visible light photocatalytic activity of the samples was investigated by monitoring the photocatalytic degradation of brilliant black dye. Co-doped TiO₂ showed greater photocatalytic brilliant black degradation efficiency compared to singly doped N-TiO₂ or Pd-TiO₂ under visible light irradiation. The highest reaction rate constant of 3.132 x 10-2 min⁻¹ was observed for N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd). The results demonstrated that the N, Pd co-doped TiO₂ (2% Pd) sample could completely degrade the dye in 3 h, while the commercial TiO₂ showed the lowest dye degradation efficiency (52.66%).

Keywords: brilliant black, Co-doped TiO₂, polyamidoamine generation 1 (PAMAM G1), photodegradation

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