Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5768

Search results for: surface coating

5768 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič


For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Keywords: machining, plasma sprayed coating, surface integrity, strengthening

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
5767 Optimization of Surface Coating on Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Xiao-Li Liu, Ling-Yun Zhao, Xing-Jie Liang, Hai-Ming Fan


Owing to their unique properties, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for biomedical applications. Highly monodispersed magnetic nanoparticles with controlled particle size and surface coating have been successfully synthesized as a model system to investigate the effect of surface coating on the T2 relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field, respectively. Amongst, by using mPEG-g-PEI to solubilize oleic-acid capped 6 nm magnetic nanoparticles, the T2 relaxivity could be significantly increased by up to 4-fold as compared to PEG coated nanoparticles. Moreover, it largely enhances the cell uptake with a T2 relaxivity of 92.6 mM-1s-1 for in vitro cell MRI. As for hyperthermia agent, SAR value increase with the decreased thickness of PEG surface coating. By elaborate optimization of surface coating and particle size, a significant increase of SAR (up to 74%) could be achieved with a minimal variation on the saturation magnetization (<5%). The 19 nm magnetic nanoparticles with 2000 Da PEG exhibited the highest SAR of 930 W•g-1 among the samples, which can be maintained in various simulated physiological conditions. This systematic work provides a general strategy for the optimization of surface coating of magnetic core for high performance MRI contrast agent and hyperthermia agent.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging, surface modification

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5766 Fabrication of Highly Roughened Zirconia Surface by a Room Temperature Spray Coating

Authors: Hyeong-Jin Kim, Jong Kook Lee


Zirconia has biological, mechanical and optical properties, so, it used as a dental implant material in human body. But, it is difficult to form directly bonding with living tissues after the procedure and induces the falling away from implanted parts of the body. To improve this phenomenon, it is essential to increase the surface roughness of zirconia implants and induce a forming-ability of strong bonds. In this study, we performed a room temperature spray coating on zirconia specimen to obtain a highly roughened zirconia surface. To get optimal surface roughness, we controlled the distance between the nozzle and the substrate, coating times and powder condition. Bonding microstructure, surface roughness, and chemical composition of the coating layer were observed by SEM, XRD and roughness tester.

Keywords: implant, aerosoldeposition, zirconia, dental

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5765 Surface Coatings of Boards Made from Alternative Materials

Authors: Stepan Hysek, Petra Gajdacova


In recent years, alternative materials, such as annual plants or recycled and waste materials are becoming more and more popular input material for the production of composite materials. They can be used for the production of insulation boards, construction boards or furniture boards. Surface finishing of those boards is essential for utilization in furniture. However, some difficulties could occur during coating of boards from alternative materials; physical and chemical differences from conventional particleboards need to be considered. From the physical aspects, surface soundness and surface roughness mainly determine the quality of the surface. Since surface layers of boards from alternative materials have often lower density, these characteristics could be deteriorated and thus the production process needs to be optimized. Also, chemical reactions of board’s material with coating could be undesirable. The objective of this study is to evaluate the parameters affecting the surface quality of boards made form alternative materials and to find possibilities of the coating of these boards. In this study, boards of particles from rapeseed stems were produced using a laboratory press. Surface soundness, as representatives of mechanical properties and surface roughness, as representative of physical properties, were measured on boards from rapeseed stems. Results clearly indicated that produced boards had lower surface quality than commercially produced particle boards from wood. Therefore, higher thickness of surface coating on rapeseed based boards is needed.

Keywords: coating, surface, annual plant, composites, particleboard

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
5764 Apparent Ageing Mechanism of Polyurethane Coating in Typical Atmospheric Environment

Authors: Jin Gao, Jin Zhang, Xiaogang Li


Outdoor exposure experiments were conducted in three extreme environments, namely the Chinese plateau mountain environment (Lhasa), the cold–temperate environment (Mohe), and the marine atmospheric environment (Wanning), to track a new long-life environment-friendly polyurethane coating. The relationship between apparent properties, namely gloss and microstructural changes, was analyzed, and the influence of typical climatic environment on the aging mechanism of polyurethane coatings was discussed. Results show that the UV radiation in the Lhasa area causes photoaging degradation, micropores are formed on the coating surface, and the powdering phenomenon is obvious. Photodegradation occurs in the Wanning area, and a hydrolysis reaction is observed. The hydrolysis reaction catalyzes the photoaging, the coating surface becomes yellow, and the powdering becomes serious. Photoaging is also present in the Mohe area, but it is mainly due to temperature changes that in turn change the internal stress of the coating. Microcracks and bumps form on the coating surface.

Keywords: aging, atmospheric environment, outdoor exposure, polyurethane coating

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5763 Numerical Investigation of Slot Die Coating Based on VOF Method

Authors: Zhidi Lei, Xixi Cai, Jue Ding, Peifen Weng, Xiaowei Li


In the process of preparing thin films by chemical solution method, the uniformity of gel coating has a great influence on the subsequent film thickness. Based on a coating device, the research tracks the interface development of gas-liquid flow by volume of fluid method (VOF). The effects of fluid viscosity and wall wetting property for the shape and position of the coating window are discussed in the process of slot die coating. The result shows that downstream contact lines gets closer to the corner with the increase of fluid viscosity. When the viscosity increases from 0.2Pa∙s to 0.3Pa∙s, 18.2% of the vortex region area will be reduced. With the static contact angle of upper die head surface (θ_sd) increasing, X_u decreased gradually which cause the instability changes of upstream surface. Also, θ_sd increasing brings the reduction of vortex region.

Keywords: film growth, vortex, VOF, slot die coating

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5762 Cold Spray Fabrication of Coating for Highly Corrosive Environment

Authors: Harminder Singh


Cold spray is a novel and emerging technology for the fabrication of coating. In this study, coating is successfully developed by this process on superalloy surface. The selected coating composition is already proved as corrosion resistant. The microstructure of the newly developed coating is examined by various characterization techniques, for testing its suitability for high temperature corrosive conditions of waste incinerator. The energy producing waste incinerators are still running at low efficiency, mainly due to their chlorine based highly corrosive conditions. The characterization results show that the developed cold sprayed coating structure is suitable for its further testing in highly aggressive conditions.

Keywords: coating, cold spray, corrosion, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
5761 A Novel Photocrosslinkable and Cytocompatible Chitosan Coating for TI6AL4V Surfaces

Authors: D. Zujur, J. Moret, D. Rodriguez, L. Cruz, J. Lira, L. Gil, E. Dominguez, J. F. Alvarez-Barreto


In this work, chitosan (CH) has been used to produce a novel coating for Ti6Al4V, the most widely used alloy in orthopedic implants, so as to improve the biological tissue response at the metallic surface. The Ti6Al4V surface was sandblasted with alumina particles and observed by SEM. Chitosan was chemically modified, via crodiimide chemistry, with lactobionic and 4-azidebenzoic acid to make it soluble at physiological pH and photo-crosslinkable, respectively. The reaction was verified by FTIR, NMR, and UV/vis spectroscopy. Ti6Al4V surfaces were coated with solutions of the modified CH and exposed to UV light, causing the polymer crosslinking, and formation of a hydrogel on the surface. The crosslinking reaction was monitored by FTIR at different exposure times. Coating morphology was observed by SEM. The coating´s cytocompatibility was determined in vitro through the culture of rat bone marrow´s mesenchymal stem cells, using an MTT assay. The results show that the developed coating is cytocompatible, easy to apply and could be used for further studies in the encapsulation of bioactive molecules to improve osteogenic potential at the tissue-implant interface.

Keywords: chitosan, photo-crosslinking, Ti6Al4V, bioactive coating, hydrogel

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5760 Monocrystalline Silicon Surface Passivation by Porous Silicon

Authors: Mohamed Ben Rabha


In this paper, we report on the effect of porous silicon (PS) treatment on the surface passivation of monocrystalline silicon (c-Si). PS film with a thickness of 80 nm was deposited by stain etching. It was demonstrated that PS coating is a very interesting solution for surface passivation. The level of surface passivation is determined by techniques based on photoconductance and FTIR. As a results, the effective minority carrier lifetime increase from 2 µs to 7 µs at ∆n=1015 cm-3 and the reflectivity reduce from 28 % to about 7 % after PS coating.

Keywords: porous silicon, effective minority carrier lifetime, reflectivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
5759 The Effects of NaF Concentration on the Zinc Coating Electroplated in Supercritical CO2 Mixed Zinc Chloride Bath

Authors: Chun-Ying Lee, Mei-Wen Wu, Li-Yi Cheng, Chiang-Ho Cheng


This research studies the electroplating of zinc coating in the zinc chloride bath mixed with supercritical CO2. The sodium fluoride (NaF) was used as the bath additive to change the structure and property of the coating, and therefore the roughness and corrosion resistance of the zinc coating was investigated. The surface characterization was performed using optical microscope (OM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), and α-step profilometer. Moreover, the potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3% NaCl solution was employed in the corrosion resistance evaluation. Because of the emulsification of the electrolyte mixed in Sc-CO2, the electroplated zinc produced the coating with smoother surface, smaller grain, better throwing power and higher corrosion resistance. The main role played by the NaF was to reduce the coating’s roughness and grain size. In other words, the CO2 mixed with the electrolyte under the supercritical condition performed the similar function as brighter and leveler in zinc electroplating to enhance the throwing power and corrosion resistance of the coating.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, zinc-electroplating, sodium fluoride, electroplating

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5758 Evaluation of Erosive Wear Resistance of Commercial Hard Coatings with Plasma Nitride and Without Plasma Nitride in Aluminium Die Casting

Authors: A. Mohammed, R. Lewis, M. Marshall


Commonly used coatings to protect tools in die casting were used. A heat treatment and then surface coating can have a large effect on erosion damage. Samples have been tested to evaluate their resistances to erosive wear and to assess how this compares with behaviour seen for untreated material. Five commercial (PN + TiN), (PN + TiAlCN), (TiN X 2), (TiN), and (TiAlCN) coatings have been evaluated for their wear resistance. The objective was to permit an optimized selection of coatings to be used to give good resistance to erosive wear. A test-Rig has been developed to study the erosive wear in aluminium die casting and provide an environment similar to industrial operation that is more practical than using actual machines. These surfaces were analysed using a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Optical Microscopes each with a different level of resolution. Examination of coating materials revealed an important parameter associated with the failure of the coating materials.This was adhesion of the coating material to the substrate surface. A well-adhered coating withstands wear much better compared to the poorest-adhering coating.

Keywords: solid particle erosion, PVD-coatings, steel, erosion testing

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5757 Development of Transparent Nano-Structured Super-Hydrophobic Coating on Glass and Evaluation of Anti-Dust Properties

Authors: Abhilasha Mishra, Neha Bhatt


Super-hydrophobicity is an effect in which a surface roughness and chemical composition are combined to produce unusual water and dust repellent surface. The super-hydrophobic surface is widely used in many applications such as windshields of the automobile, aircraft, lens, solar cells, roofing, boat hull, paints, etc. Four coating solutions were prepared by varying compositions of 1,1,1,3,3,3 hexametyldisilazane (HDMS) and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) sol. These solutions were coated on glass slides by a spin coating method and etched at a high temperature ranging 250 -350 oC. All the coatings were studied for its different properties like water repellent, anti-dust, and transparency and contact angle measurements. Stability of coatings was also studied with respect to temperature, external environment, and pH. It was found that all coatings impart a significant super-hydrophobicity on a glass surface with contact angle ranging from 156o to 162o and have good stability in the external environment. The results of the different coatings were observed and compared with each other. On increasing layers of coatings the super-hydrophobicity and anti-dust properties increases but after 3 coatings the transparency of coating starts decreasing.

Keywords: super-hydrophobic, contact angle, coating, anti-dust

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5756 The Performance of Typical Kinds of Coating of Printed Circuit Board under Accelerated Degradation Test

Authors: Xiaohui Wang, Liwei Sun, Guilin Zhang


Printed circuit board (PCB) is the carrier of electronic components. Its coating is the first barrier for protecting itself. If the coating is damaged, the performance of printed circuit board will decrease rapidly until failure. Therefore, the coating plays an important role in the entire printed circuit board. There are common four kinds of coating of printed circuit board that the material of the coatings are paryleneC, acrylic, polyurethane, silicone. In this paper, we designed an accelerated degradation test of humid and heat for these four kinds of coating. And chose insulation resistance, moisture absorption and surface morphology as its test indexes. By comparing the change of insulation resistance of the coating before and after the test, we estimate failure time of these coatings based on the degradation of insulation resistance. Based on the above, we estimate the service life of the four kinds of PCB.

Keywords: printed circuit board, life assessment, insulation resistance, coating material

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5755 Effect of Post Treatment Temperature on Ni-20Cr Wire Arc Spray Coating to Thermal Resistance

Authors: Ken Ninez Nurpramesti Prinindya, Yuli Setiyorini


Crown enclosure high temperature flares damaged and reduced dimensions crown. Generally crown on EHTF could have a life time up to twenty years. Therefore, this study aims to increase the value of thermal resistance with the effect post treatment on NiCr coated arc spray method. The variation of post treatment temperature, was at 650°C, 750°C, and 850°C. Morphology on the surface and the adhesion strength was analyzed by SEM-EDX, Surface Roughness and Pull - off test. XRD testing was conducted to determine the contained in NiCr coated. Thermal stability of NiCr coated was tested by DSC-TGA. The most optimal results was owned by NiCr coating with post treated at 850°C. It has good thermal stability until 1000°C because of Cr2O3 formation in coated specimen. The higher temperature of post treatment coating was showed better result on porosity and roughness surface value.

Keywords: Arc spray process, NiCr wire, post-treatment coating, high temperature-corrosion resistance

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5754 The Study of Wetting Properties of Silica-Poly (Acrylic Acid) Thin Film Coatings

Authors: Sevil Kaynar Turkoglu, Jinde Zhang, Jo Ann Ratto, Hanna Dodiuk, Samuel Kenig, Joey Mead


Superhydrophilic, crack-free thin film coatings based on silica nanoparticles were fabricated by dip-coating method. Both thermodynamic and dynamic effects on the wetting properties of the thin films were investigated by modifying the coating formulation via changing the particle-to-binder ratio and weight % of silica in solution. The formulated coatings were characterized by a number of analyses. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements were conducted for all coatings to characterize the surface wetting properties. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were taken to examine the morphology of the coating surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis was done to study surface topography. The presence of hydrophilic functional groups and nano-scale roughness were found to be responsible for the superhydrophilic behavior of the films. In addition, surface chemistry, compared to surface roughness, was found to be a primary factor affecting the wetting properties of the thin film coatings.

Keywords: poly (acrylic acid), silica nanoparticles, superhydrophilic coatings, surface wetting

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
5753 Optimization of Machining Parameters in AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material by TiN Coating Insert

Authors: Nurul Na'imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Jaharah Ab. Ghani, Rusli Othman


This paper presents the surface roughness of the aluminium silicon alloy (AlSi) matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminium nitride (AlN). Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to a standard orthogonal array L27 of Taguchi method using TiN coating tool of insert. The signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance are applied to study the characteristic performance of cutting speeds, feed rates and depths of cut in measuring the surface roughness during the milling operation. The surface roughness was observed using Mitutoyo Formtracer CS-500 and analyzed using the Taguchi method. From the Taguchi analysis, it was found that cutting speed of 230 m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, depth of cut of 0.3 mm were the optimum machining parameters using TiN coating insert.

Keywords: AlSi/AlN metal matrix composite (MMC), surface roughness, Taguchi method, machining parameters

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5752 Nano-Coating for Corrosion Prevention

Authors: M. J. Suriani, F. Mansor, W. Siti Maizurah, I. Nurizwani


Silicon Carbide (SiC) is one of the Silicon-based materials, which get interested by the researcher. SiC is an emerging semiconductor material, which has received a great deal of attention due to their application in high frequency and high power systems. Although its superior characteristic for a semiconductor material, its outstanding mechanical properties, chemical inertness and thermal stability has gained important aspect for a surface coating for deployment in extreme environments. Very high frequency (VHF)-PECVD technique utilized to deposit nano ns-SiC film in which variation in chamber pressure, substrate temperature, RF power and precursor gases flow rate will be investigated in order to get a good quality of thin film coating. Characterization of the coating performed in order to study the surface morphology, structural information. This performance of coating evaluated through corrosion test to determine the effectiveness of the coating for corrosion prevention. Ns-SiC film expected to possess better corrosion resistance and optical properties, as well as preserving the metal from the marine environment. Through this research project, corrosion protection performance by applying coating will be explored to obtain a great corrosion prevention method to the shipping and oil and gas industry in Malaysia. Besides, the cost of repair and maintenance spending by the government of Malaysia can be reduced through practicing this method.

Keywords: composite materials, marine corrosion, nano-composite, nano structure–coating

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5751 Studies on Corrosion Resistant Composite Coating for Metallic Surfaces

Authors: Navneetinder Singh, Harprabhjot Singh, Harpreet Singh, Supreet Singh


Many materials are known to mankind that is widely used for synthesis of corrosion resistant hydrophobic coatings. In the current work, novel hydrophobic composite was synthesized by mixing polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and 20 weight% ceria particles followed by sintering. This composite had same hydrophobic behavior as PTFE. Moreover, composite showed better scratch resistance than virgin PTFE. Pits of plasma sprayed Ni₃Al coating were exploited to hold PTFE composite on the substrate as Superni-75 alloy surface through sintering process. Plasma sprayed surface showed good adhesion with the composite coating during scratch test. Potentiodynamic corrosion test showed 100 fold decreases in corrosion rate of coated sample this may be attributed to inert and hydrophobic nature of PTFE and ceria.

Keywords: polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, ceria, coating, corrosion

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5750 Titanium-Aluminium Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie


In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminium oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviours of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behaviour of the coating material.

Keywords: titanium-aluminum oxide, plasma electrolytic oxidation, corrosion, wear, thermal property

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
5749 Study on Properties of Carbon-based Layer for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Application

Authors: Pei-Jung Wu, Ching-Ying Huang, Chih-Chia Lin, Chun-Han Li, Chien-Yuan Wang


The fuel cell market has considerable development potential, but the cost is still less competitive. Replacing the traditional graphite plate with a stainless steel plate as a bipolar plate can greatly reduce the weight and volume of the stack, and has more cost advantages. However, the passivation layer on the surface of stainless steel makes the contact resistance reach the ohmic level and reduces the performance of the fuel cell. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the interfacial contact resistance through the surface treatment. In this research, the thickness, uniformity, interfacial contact resistance (ICR), and adhesion of the carbon-based layer was analyzed. On the other hand, the effect of coating properties on the performance of the fuel cell was verified through I-V tests. The results show that after coating the contact resistance is greatly reduced by three stages to the microohm level, and as the film thickness is reduced, the contact resistance is reduced from 229~118 mΩ-cm² to 135~73 mΩ-cm² at a general assembly pressure of 1 to 2 MPa., and the current density at 0.6 V increased from 485.7 mA/cm² to 575.7 mA/cm². This study verifies the importance of the uniformity and ICR of the coating on proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), and the surface coating technology is the key to affecting the characteristics of the coating.

Keywords: contact resistance, proton exchange membrane fuel cell, PEMFC, SS bipolar plate, spray coating process

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5748 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Titanium Alloy Dental Implants Coated by Bio-ceramic Apatite Wollastonite (Aw) and Hydroxyapatite (Ha) by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Betsy S. Thomas, Manjeet Marpara, K. M. Bhat


Introduction: After the initial enthusiasm and interest in hydroxyapatite products subsided due to dissolution of the coating and failure at the coating interface, this was a unique attempt to create a next generation of dental implant. Materials and Methods: The adhesion property of AW and HA coatings at various temperature by pulsed laser deposition was assessed on titanium plates. Moreover, AW/HA coated implants implanted in the femur of the rabbits was evaluated at various intervals. Results: Decohesion load was more for AW in scratch test and more bone formation around AW coated implants on histological evaluation. Discussion: AW coating by pulsed laser deposition was more adherent to the titanium surface and led to faster bone formation than HA. Conclusion: This experiment opined that AW coated by pulsed laser deposition seems to be a promising method in achieving bioactive coatings on titanium implants.

Keywords: surface coating, dental implants, osseo integration, biotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
5747 Formation of Protective Silicide-Aluminide Coating on Gamma-TiAl Advanced Material

Authors: S. Nouri


In this study, the Si-aluminide coating was prepared on gamma-TiAl [Ti-45Al-2Nb-2Mn-1B (at. %)] via liquid-phase slurry procedure. The high temperature oxidation resistance of this diffusion coating was evaluated at 1100 °C for 400 hours. The results of the isothermal oxidation showed that the formation of Si-aluminide coating can remarkably improve the high temperature oxidation of bare gamma-TiAl alloy. The identification of oxide scale microstructure showed that the formation of protective Al2O3+SiO2 mixed oxide scale along with a continuous, compact and uniform layer of Ti5Si3 beneath the surface oxide scale can act as an oxygen diffusion barrier during the high temperature oxidation. The other possible mechanisms related to the formation of Si-aluminide coating and oxide scales were also discussed.

Keywords: Gamma-TiAl alloy, high temperature oxidation, Si-aluminide coating, slurry procedure

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5746 Plasma Spray Deposition of Bio-Active Coating on Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) Substrate

Authors: Renu Kumari, Jyotsna Dutta Majumdar


In the present study, composite coating consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) + 50 wt% TiO2 has been developed on Ti-6Al-4V substrate by plasma spray deposition technique. Followed by plasma spray deposition, detailed surface roughness and microstructural characterization were carried out by using optical profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The composition and phase analysis were carried out by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, respectively. The bio-activity behavior of the uncoated and coated samples was also compared by dipping test in Hank’s solution. The average surface roughness of the coating was 10 µm (as compared to 0.5 µm of as-received Ti-6Al-4V substrate) with the presence of porosities. The microstructure of the coating was found to be continuous with the presence of solidified splats. A detailed XRD analysis shows phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile, decomposition of hydroxyapatite, and formation of CaTiO3 phase. Standard dipping test confirmed a faster kinetics of deposition of calcium phosphate in the coated HA+50% wt.% TiO2 surface as compared to the as-received substrate.

Keywords: titanium, plasma spraying, microstructure, bio-activity, TiO2, hydroxyapatite

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
5745 Influence of the Paint Coating Thickness in Digital Image Correlation Experiments

Authors: Jesús A. Pérez, Sam Coppieters, Dimitri Debruyne


In the past decade, the use of digital image correlation (DIC) techniques has increased significantly in the area of experimental mechanics, especially for materials behavior characterization. This non-contact tool enables full field displacement and strain measurements over a complete region of interest. The DIC algorithm requires a random contrast pattern on the surface of the specimen in order to perform properly. To create this pattern, the specimen is usually first coated using a white matt paint. Next, a black random speckle pattern is applied using any suitable method. If the applied paint coating is too thick, its top surface may not be able to exactly follow the deformation of the specimen, and consequently, the strain measurement might be underestimated. In the present article, a study of the influence of the paint thickness on the strain underestimation is performed for different strain levels. The results are then compared to typical paint coating thicknesses applied by experienced DIC users. A slight strain underestimation was observed for paint coatings thicker than about 30μm. On the other hand, this value was found to be uncommonly high compared to coating thicknesses applied by DIC users.

Keywords: digital image correlation, paint coating thickness, strain

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5744 Comprehensive Microstructural and Thermal Analysis of Nano Intumescent Fire Retardant Coating for Structural Applications

Authors: Hammad Aziz


Intumescent fire retardant coating (IFRC) is applied on the surface of material requiring fire protection. In this research work, IFRC’s were developed using ammonium polyphosphate, expandable graphite, melamine, boric acid, zinc borate, mica, magnesium oxide, and bisphenol A BE-188 with polyamide polyamine H-4014 as curing agent. Formulations were prepared using nano size MgO and compared with control formulation i.e. without nano size MgO. Small scale hydrocarbon fire test was conducted to scrutinize the thermal performance of the coating. Char and coating were further characterized by using FESEM, FTIR, EDS, TGA and DTGA. Thus, Intumescent coatings reinforced with 2 wt. % of nano-MgO (rod shaped particles) provide superior thermal performance and uniform microstructure of char due to well dispersion of nano particles.

Keywords: intumescent coating, char, SEM, TGA

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5743 Metallic Coating for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composite Substrate

Authors: Amine Rezzoug, Said Abdi, Nadjet Bouhelal, Ismail Daoud


This paper investigates the application of metallic coatings on high fiber volume fraction carbon/epoxy polymer matrix composites. For the grip of the metallic layer, a method of modifying the surface of the composite by introducing a mixture of copper and steel powder (filler powders) which can reduce the impact of thermal spray particles. The powder was introduced to the surface at the time of the forming. Arc spray was used to project the zinc coating layer. The substrate was grit blasted to avoid poor adherence. The porosity, microstructure, and morphology of layers are characterized by optical microscopy, SEM and image analysis. The samples were studied also in terms of hardness and erosion resistance. This investigation did not reveal any visible evidence damage to the substrates. The hardness of zinc layer was about 25.94 MPa and the porosity was around (∼6.70%). The erosion test showed that the zinc coating improves the resistance to erosion. Based on the results obtained, we can conclude that thermal spraying allows the production of protective coating on PMC. Zinc coating has been identified as a compatible material with the substrate. The filler powders layer protects the substrate from the impact of hot particles and allows avoiding the rupture of brittle carbon fibers.

Keywords: arc spray, coating, composite, erosion

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5742 Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coating onto Polypropylene Film Using Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment as Food Packaging

Authors: Z. Honarvar, M. Farhoodi, M. R. Khani, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi


Recently, edible films and coating have attracted much attention in food industry due to their environmentally friendly nature and safety in direct contact with food. However edible films have relatively weak mechanical properties and high water vapor permeability. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop bilayer carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated polypropylene (PP) films to increase mechanical properties and water vapor resistance of each pure CMC or PP films. To modify the surface properties of PE for better attachment of CMC coating layer to PP the atmospheric cold plasma treatment was used. Then the PP surface changes were evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and ATR-FTIR. Furthermore, the physical, mechanical, optical and microstructure characteristics of plasma-treated and untreated films were analyzed. ATR-FTIR results showed that plasma treatment created oxygen-containing groups on PP surface leading to an increase in hydrophilic properties of PP surface. Moreover, a decrease in water contact angle (from 88.92° to 52.15°) and an increase of roughness were observed on PP film surface indicating good adhesion between hydrophilic CMC and hydrophobic PP. Furthermore, plasma pre-treatment improved the tensile strength of CMC coated-PP films from 58.19 to 61.82. Water vapor permeability of plasma treated bilayer film was lower in comparison with untreated film. Therefore, cold plasma treatment has potential to improve attachment of CMC coating to PP layer, leading to enhanced water barrier and mechanical properties of CMC coated polypropylene as food packaging in which also CMC is in contact with food.

Keywords: carboxymethyl cellulose film, cold plasma, Polypropylene, surface properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
5741 Fabrication of Titanium Diboride-Based High Emissive Paint Coating Using Economical Dip Coating Method for High Temperature Applications

Authors: Atasi Dan, Kamanio Chattopadhyay, Bikramjit Basu


A cost-effective titanium diboride (TiB2) paint coating has been developed on stainless steel substrate using commercially available polyvinylpyrrolidone as a binder by convenient dip-coating technique. The emittance of the coating has been explored by tailoring various process parameters to obtain highest thermal radiation. The optimized coating has achieved a high thermal emittance of 0.85. In addition, the coating exhibited an excellent thermal stability while heat-treated at 500 °C in air. Along with the emittance, the structural and physical properties of the As-deposited and heat-treated coatings have been investigated systematically. The high temperature annealing has not affected the emittance, chemical composition and morphology of the coating significantly. Hence, the fabricated paint coating is expected to open up new possibilities for using it as a low-cost, thermally stable emitter in high temperature applications.

Keywords: titanium diboride, emittance, paint coating, thermal stability

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5740 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen


Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50 oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic co-precipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during co-precipitation (1, 10, and 100 microgram/ml). From X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: biomimetic, Calcium Phosphate Coating, protein, titanium

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5739 Microstructure and Oxidation Behaviors of Al, Y Modified Silicide Coatings Prepared on an Nb-Si Based Ultrahigh Temperature Alloy

Authors: Xiping Guo, Jing Li


The microstructure of an Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating prepared on an Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy by pack cementation process at 1250°C for eight hours was studied. The results showed that the coating was composed of a (Nb,X)Si₂ (X represents Ti, Cr and Hf elements) outer layer, a (Ti,Nb)₅Si₄ middle layer and an Al, Cr-rich inner layer. For comparison, the oxidation behaviors of the coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C were investigated respectively. Linear oxidation kinetics was found with the parabolic rate constants of 5.29×10⁻², 9×10⁻²and 5.81 mg² cm⁻⁴ h⁻¹, respectively. Catastrophic pesting oxidation has not been found at 800°C even for 100 h. The surface of the scale was covered by compact glassy SiO₂ film. The coating was able to effectively protect the Nb-Si based alloy from oxidation at 1350°C for at least 100 h. The formation process of the scale was testified following an epitaxial growth mechanism. The mechanism responsible for the oxidation behavior of the Si-Al-Y co-deposition coating at 800, 1050 and 1350°C was proposed.

Keywords: Nb-Si based ultra high temperature alloy, oxidation resistance, pack cementation, silicide coating, Al and Y modified

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