Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 441

Search results for: ionic liquids

441 Elastomer Composites Containing Ionic Liquids

Authors: M. Maciejewska, F. Walkiewicz


The aim of this work was to study the activity of several novel benzalkonium and alkylammonium and alkylimidazolium ionic liquids with 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate for use as accelerators in the sulphur vulcanisation of butadiene-styrene elastomer (SBR). The application of novel ionic liquids allowed for the elimination of N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolesulfenamide from SBR compounds and for the considerable reduction of the amount of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole present in rubber products, which is favourable because, it is an allergenic agent. Synthesised salts could be used alternatively to standard accelerators in the vulcanisation of SBR, without any detrimental effects on the vulcanisation process, the physical properties or the thermal stability of the obtained vulcanisates. Ionic liquids increased the crosslink density of the vulcanisates and improved their thermal stability.

Keywords: ionic liquids, mechanical properties, styrene-butadiene rubber, vulcanisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
440 Ionic Liquids as Corrosion Inhibitors in CO2 Capture Systems

Authors: A. Acidi, A. Abbaci


We present the viability of using thermally stable, practically non-volatile ionic liquids as corrosion inhibitors in aqueous monoethanolamine system. Carbon steel 1020, which widely used as construction material in CO2 capture plants, has been taken as a test material. Corrosion inhibition capacities of typical room-temperature ionic liquids constituting imidazolium cation in concentration range ≤ 3% by weight in CO2 capture applications were investigated. Electrochemical corrosion experiments using the potentiodynamic polarization technique for measuring corrosion current were carried out. The results show that ionic liquids possess ability to suppressing severe operational problems of corrosion in typical CO2 capture plants.

Keywords: carbon dioxide, carbon steel, monoethanolamine, corrosion rate, ionic liquids, tafel fit

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
439 Modified DNA as a Base Material for Nonlinear Optics

Authors: Ewelina Nowak, Anna Wisla-Swider


Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a biomolecule which exhibits an electro-optic properties. These features are related with structure of double-stranded helix. Modification of DNA with ionic liquids allows intensify these properties. The aim of our study was synthesis of ionic liquids that are used the formation of DNA-surfactant complexes in order to obtain new materials with potential application for nonlinear optics. Complexes were achieved through the ion exchange reactions of carbazole-based and imidazole-based ionic liquids with H+ ions from salmon DNA. To examination the properties of obtained complexes DNA-ionic liquids there were investigated using circular dichroism (CD), UV-Vis spectra and infrared spectroscopy (IR). Additionally, the resulting DNA-surfactant complexes were characterized in terms of solubility in common organic solvents and water.

Keywords: deoxyribonucleic acid, biomolecule, carbazole, imidazole, ionic liquids, ion exchange reactions

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438 Effect of Aryl Imidazolium Ionic Liquids as Asphaltene Dispersants

Authors: Raghda Ahmed El-Nagar


Oil spills are one of the most serious environmental issues that have occurred during the production and transportation of petroleum crude oil. Chemical asphaltene dispersants are hazardous to the marine environment, so Ionic liquids (ILs) as asphaltene dispersants are a critical area of study. In this work, different aryl imidazolium ionic liquids were synthesized with high yield and elucidated via tools of analysis (Elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR). Thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the prepared ILs posses high thermal stability. The critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface tension, and emulsification index were investigated. Evaluation of synthesized ILs as asphaltene dispersants were assessed at various concentrations, and data reveals high dispersion efficiency.

Keywords: ionic liquids, oil spill, asphaltene dispersants, CMC, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
437 Enhancing Reused Lubricating Oil Performance Using Novel Ionic Liquids Based on Imidazolium Derivatives

Authors: Mohamed Deyab


The global lubricant additives market size was USD 14.35 billion in 2015. The industry is characterized by increasing additive usage in base oil blending for longer service life and performance. These additives improve the viscosity of oil, act as detergents, defoamers, antioxidants, and antiwear agents. Since additives play a significant role in base oil blending and subsequent formulations as they are critical materials in improving specification and performance of oils. Herein, we report on the synthesis and characterization of three imidazolium derivatives and their application as antioxidants, detergents and antiwear agents. The molecular structure and characterizations of these ionic liquids were confirmed by elemental analysis, FTIR, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 1HNMR spectroscopy. Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), is used to study the degradation and thermal stability of the studied base stock samples. It was found that all the prepared ionic liquids additives have excellent power of dispersion and detergency. The ionic liquids as additives to engine oil reduced the friction (38%) and wear volume (76%) of steel balls. The obtained results show that the ionic liquids have an oxidation inhibitor up to 95%.

Keywords: reused lubricating oil, waste, petroleum, ionic liquids

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
436 Gas Separation Membranes Using Stability Improved Ion Gels

Authors: Y. H. Hwang, J. Won, Y. S. Kang


Since ionic liquids have a special interaction with gas specially CO2 and/or olefin, supported ionic liquids membrane (SILM) are fabricated for practical gas separation. However, SILM has a problem in practical application due to the low mechanical stability under high pressure for gas separation. In order to improve the mechanical strength of the selective ionic liquid layer, we prepared supported ion gel membrane by the formation of gel on the surface of Nylon support. The ion gel was prepared by the addition of poly(styrene-block-ethyleneoxide-block-styrene) triblock copolymer in four tricyanomethanide ionic liquids have different cation; 1-ethyl-3-methlyimidazolium tricyanomethanide, 1-butyl-3-methlyimidazolium tricyanomethanide, 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium tricyanomethanide, 1-butyl-4-methylpyridinium tricyanomethanide using methylenechloride as a solvent. The characters of ion gel with different cation were studied. Four different gases (CO2, N2, O2, and CH4) permeance were measured at room temperature by bubble flow meter and cation effect of tricyanomethanide ionic liquids investigated.

Keywords: membrane, ionic liquid, ion gel, nanostructure

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435 Biocompatible Ionic Liquids in Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Lactic Acid: A Comparative Study

Authors: Konstantza Tonova, Ivan Svinyarov, Milen G. Bogdanov


Ionic liquids consisting of pairs of imidazolium or phosphonium cation and chloride or saccharinate anion were synthesized and compared with respect to their extraction efficiency towards the fermentative L-lactic acid. The acid partitioning in the equilibrated biphasic systems of ionic liquid and water was quantified through the extraction degree and the partition coefficient. The water transfer from the aqueous into the ionic liquid-rich phase was also always followed. The effect of pH, which determines the state of lactic acid in the aqueous source was studied. The effect of other salting-out substances that modify the ionic liquid/water equilibrium was also investigated in view to reveal the best liquid-liquid system with respect to low toxicity, high extraction and back extraction efficiencies and performance simplicity.

Keywords: ionic liquids, biphasic system, extraction, lactic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 385
434 Ionic Liquid Membranes for CO2 Separation

Authors: Zuzana Sedláková, Magda Kárászová, Jiří Vejražka, Lenka Morávková, Pavel Izák


Membrane separations are mentioned frequently as a possibility for CO2 capture. Selectivity of ionic liquid membranes is strongly determined by different solubility of separated gases in ionic liquids. The solubility of separated gases usually varies over an order of magnitude, differently from diffusivity of gases in ionic liquids, which is usually of the same order of magnitude for different gases. The present work evaluates the selection of an appropriate ionic liquid for the selective membrane preparation based on the gas solubility in an ionic liquid. The current state of the art of CO2 capture patents and technologies based on the membrane separations was considered. An overview is given of the discussed transport mechanisms. Ionic liquids seem to be promising candidates thanks to their tunable properties, wide liquid range, reasonable thermal stability, and negligible vapor pressure. However, the uses of supported liquid membranes are limited by their relatively short lifetime from the industrial point of view. On the other hand, ionic liquids could overcome these problems due to their negligible vapor pressure and their tunable properties by adequate selection of the cation and anion.

Keywords: biogas upgrading, carbon dioxide separation, ionic liquid membrane, transport properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
433 Regenerated Cotton/Feather Keratin Composite Materials Prepared Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Rasike De Silva, Xungai Wang, Nolene Byrne


We report on the blending of cotton and duck feather towards developing a new textile fibre. The cotton and duck feather were blended together by dissolving both components in an ionic liquid. Ionic liquids are designer solvents consisting entirely of ions with a melting point below 100˚C. Ionic liquids can be designed to have numerous and varied properties which include the ability to dissolve bio polymers. The dissolution of bio polymers such as cotton or wool generally requires very harsh acid or alkaline conditions and high temperatures. The ionic liquids which can dissolve bio polymers can be considered environmentally benign since they have negligible vapor pressure and can be recycled and reused. We have selected the cellulose dissolving and recyclable ionic liquid 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl) as the dissolving and blending solvent for the cotton and duck feather materials. We have casted films and wet spun fibres at varying cotton and duck feather compositions and characterized the material properties of these. We find that the addition of duck feather enhances the elasticity of regenerated cotton. The strain% at breakage of the regenerated film was increased from 4.2% to 11.63% with a 10% duck feather loading, while the corresponding stress at breakage reduced from 54.89 MPa to 47.16 MPa.

Keywords: textile materials, bio polymers, ionic liquids, duck feather

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
432 Spent Paint Solvent Recoveries by Ionic Liquids: Potential for Industrial Application

Authors: Mbongeni Mabaso, Kandasamy Moodley, Gan Redhi


The recovery of industrially valuable organic solvents from liquid waste, generated in chemical processes, is economically crucial to countries which need to import organic solvents. In view of this, the main objective of this study was to determine the ability of selected ionic liquids, namely, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ethylsulphate, [EMIM] [ESO4] and 1-ethyl-3-methylpyridinium ethylsulphate, [EMpy][ESO4] to recover aromatic components from spent paint solvents. Preliminary studies done on the liquid waste, received from a paint manufacturing company, showed that the aromatic components were present in the range 6 - 21 % by volume. The separation of the aromatic components was performed with the ionic liquids listed above. The phases, resulting from the separation of the mixtures, were analysed with a Gas Chromatograph (GC) coupled to a FID detector. Chromatograms illustrate that the chosen ZB-Wax-Plus column gave excellent separation of all components of interest from the mixtures, including the isomers of xylene. The concentrations of aromatics recovered from the spent solvents were found to be the % ranges 13-33 and 23-49 respectively for imidazolium and pyridinium ionic liquids. These results also show that there is a significant correlation between π-character of ionic liquids and the level of extraction. It is therefore concluded that ionic liquids have the potential for macro-scale recovery of re-useable solvents present in liquid waste emanating from paint manufacture.

Keywords: synthesis, ionic liquid, imidazolium, pyridinium, extraction, aromatic solvents, spent paint organic solvents

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431 Study of Bis(Trifluoromethylsulfonyl)Imide Based Ionic Liquids by Gas Chromatography

Authors: F. Mutelet, L. Cesari


Development of safer and environmentally friendly processes and products is needed to achieve sustainable production and consumption patterns. Ionic liquids, which are of great interest to the chemical and related industries because of their attractive properties as solvents, should be considered. Ionic liquids are comprised of an asymmetric, bulky organic cation and a weakly coordinating organic or inorganic anion. A large number of possible combinations allows for the ability to ‘fine tune’ the solvent properties for a specific purpose. Physical and chemical properties of ionic liquids are not only influenced by the nature of the cation and the nature of cation substituents but also by the polarity and the size of the anion. These features infer to ionic liquids numerous applications, in organic synthesis, separation processes, and electrochemistry. Separation processes required a good knowledge of the behavior of organic compounds with ionic liquids. Gas chromatography is a useful tool to estimate the interactions between organic compounds and ionic liquids. Indeed, retention data may be used to determine infinite dilution thermodynamic properties of volatile organic compounds in ionic liquids. Among others, the activity coefficient at infinite dilution is a direct measure of solute-ionic liquid interaction. In this work, infinite dilution thermodynamic properties of volatile organic compounds in specific bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ionic liquids measured by gas chromatography is presented. It was found that apolar compounds are not miscible in this family of ionic liquids. As expected, the solubility of organic compounds is related to their polarity and hydrogen-bond. Through activity coefficients data, the performance of these ionic liquids was evaluated for different separation processes (benzene/heptane, thiophene/heptane and pyridine/heptane). Results indicate that ionic liquids may be used for the extraction of polar compounds (aromatics, alcohols, pyridine, thiophene, tetrahydrofuran) from aliphatic media. For example, 1-benzylpyridinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide and 1-cyclohexylmethyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide are more efficient for the extraction of aromatics or pyridine from aliphatics than classical solvents. Ionic liquids with long alkyl chain length present important capacity values but their selectivity values are low. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that specific bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide based ILs containing polar chain grafted on the cation (for example benzyl or cyclohexyl) increases considerably their performance in separation processes.

Keywords: interaction organic solvent-ionic liquid, gas chromatography, solvation model, COSMO-RS

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430 Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Methoxy and Nitrile-Functionalized Ionic Liquids

Authors: D. A. Bruzon, G. Tapang, I. S. Martinez


Global warming and climate change are significant environmental concerns, which require immediate global action in carbon emission mitigation. The capture, sequestration, and conversion of carbon dioxide to other products such as methane or ethanol are ways to control excessive emissions. Ionic liquids have shown great potential among the materials studied as carbon capture solvents and catalysts in the reduction of CO2. In this study, ionic liquids comprising of a methoxy (-OCH3) and cyano (-CN) functionalized imidazolium cation, [MOBMIM] and [CNBMIM] respectively, paired with tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [FAP] anion were evaluated as effective capture solvents, and organocatalysts in the reduction of CO2. An in-situ electrochemical set-up, which can measure controlled amounts of CO2 both in the gas and in the ionic liquid phase, was used. Initially, reduction potentials of CO2 in the CO2-saturated ionic liquids containing the internal standard cobaltocene were determined using cyclic voltammetry. Chronoamperometric transients were obtained at potentials slightly less negative than the reduction potentials of CO2 in each ionic liquid. The time-dependent current response was measured under a controlled atmosphere. Reduction potentials of CO2 in methoxy and cyano-functionalized [FAP] ionic liquids were observed to occur at ca. -1.0 V (vs. Cc+/Cc), which was significantly lower compared to the non-functionalized analog [PMIM][FAP], with an observed reduction potential of CO2 at -1.6 V (vs. Cc+/Cc). This decrease in the potential required for CO2 reduction in the functionalized ionic liquids shows that the functional groups methoxy and cyano effectively decreased the free energy of formation of the radical anion CO2●⁻, suggesting that these electrolytes may be used as organocatalysts in the reduction of the greenhouse gas. However, upon analyzing the solubility of the gas in each ionic liquid, [PMIM][FAP] showed the highest absorption capacity, at 4.81 mM under saturated conditions, compared to [MOBMIM][FAP] at 1.86 mM, and [CNBMIM][FAP] at 0.76 mM. Also, calculated Henry’s constant determined from the concentration-pressure graph of each functionalized ionic liquid shows that the groups -OCH3 and -CN attached terminal to a C4 alkyl chain do not significantly improve CO2 solubility.

Keywords: carbon capture, CO2 reduction, electrochemistry, ionic liquids

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429 Prediction of Vapor Liquid Equilibrium for Dilute Solutions of Components in Ionic Liquid by Neural Networks

Authors: S. Mousavian, A. Abedianpour, A. Khanmohammadi, S. Hematian, Gh. Eidi Veisi


Ionic liquids are finding a wide range of applications from reaction media to separations and materials processing. In these applications, Vapor–Liquid equilibrium (VLE) is the most important one. VLE for six systems at 353 K and activity coefficients at infinite dilution 〖(γ〗_i^∞) for various solutes (alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, aromatics, alcohols, ketones, esters, ethers, and water) in the ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EMIM][BTI], 1-hexyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [HMIM][BTI], 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [OMIM][BTI], and 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide [BMPYR][BTI]) have been used to train neural networks in the temperature range from (303 to 333) K. Densities of the ionic liquids, Hildebrant constant of substances, and temperature were selected as input of neural networks. The networks with different hidden layers were examined. Networks with seven neurons in one hidden layer have minimum error and good agreement with experimental data.

Keywords: ionic liquid, neural networks, VLE, dilute solution

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428 Separation of Copper(II) and Iron(III) by Solvent Extraction and Membrane Processes with Ionic Liquids as Carriers

Authors: Beata Pospiech


Separation of metal ions from aqueous solutions is important as well as difficult process in hydrometallurgical technology. This process is necessary for obtaining of clean metals. Solvent extraction and membrane processes are well known as separation methods. Recently, ionic liquids (ILs) are very often applied and studied as extractants and carriers of metal ions from aqueous solutions due to their good extractability properties for various metals. This work discusses a method to separate copper(II) and iron(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions by solvent extraction and transport across polymer inclusion membranes (PIM) with the selected ionic liquids as extractants/ion carriers. Cyphos IL 101 (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium chloride), Cyphos IL 104 (trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium bis(2,4,4 trimethylpentyl)phosphi-nate), trioctylmethylammonium thiosalicylate [A336][TS] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium thiosalicylate [PR4][TS] were used for the investigations. Effect of different parameters such as hydrochloric acid concentration in aqueous phase on iron(III) and copper(II) extraction has been investigated. Cellulose triacetate membranes with the selected ionic liquids as carriers have been prepared and applied for transport of iron(IIII) and copper(II) from hydrochloric acid solutions.

Keywords: copper, iron, ionic liquids, solvent extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
427 Spectroscopic Determination of Functionalized Active Principles from Coleus aromaticus Benth Leaf Extract Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Zharama M. Llarena


Green chemistry for plant extraction of active principles is the main interest of many researchers concerned with climate change. While classical organic solvents are detrimental to our environment, greener alternatives to ionic liquids are very promising for sustainable organic chemistry. This study focused on the determination of functional groups observed in the main constituents from the ionic liquid extracts of Coleus aromaticus Benth leaves using FT-IR Spectroscopy. Moreover, this research aimed to determine the best ionic liquid that can separate functionalized plant constituents from the leaves Coleus aromaticus Benth using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Coleus aromaticus Benth leaf extract in different ionic liquids, elucidated pharmacologically important functional groups present in major constituents of the plant, namely, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. In connection to distinctive appearance of functional groups in the spectrum and highest % transmittance, potassium chloride-glycerol is the best ionic liquid for green extraction.

Keywords: chlorogenic acid, coleus aromaticus, ionic liquid, rosmarinic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
426 Screening of Ionic Liquids for Hydrogen Sulfide Removal Using COSMO-RS

Authors: Zulaika Mohd Khasiran


The capability of ionic liquids in various applications makes them attracted by many researchers. They have potential to be developed as “green” solvents for gas separation, especially H2S gas. In this work, it is attempted to predict the solubility of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in ILs by COSMO-RS method. Since H2S is a toxic pollutant, it is difficult to work on it in the laboratory, therefore an appropriate model will be necessary in prior work. The COSMO-RS method is implemented to predict the Henry’s law constants and activity coefficient of H2S in 140 ILs with various combinations of cations and anions. It is found by the screening that more H2S can be absorbed in ILs with [Cl] and [Ac] anion. The solubility of H2S in ILs with different alkyl chain at the cations not much affected and with different type of cations are slightly influence H2S capture capacities. Even though the cations do not affect much in solubility of H2S, we still need to consider the effectiveness of cation in different way. The prediction results only show their physical absorption ability, but the absorption of H2S need to be consider chemically to get high capacity of absorption of H2S.

Keywords: H2S, hydrogen sulfide, ionic liquids, COSMO-RS

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425 Liquid-Liquid Extraction of Rare Earths Elements by Use of Ionic Liquids

Authors: C. Lopez, S. Dourdain, G. Arrachart, S. Pellet-Rostaing


Ionic liquids (ILs) are considered a good alternative for organic solvents in extractive processes; however, the higher or lower extraction efficiency in ILs remains difficult to predict because a lack of understanding of the extraction mechanisms in this class of diluents, making their application difficult to generalize. We have studied the extraction behavior of La(III) and Eu(III) from aqueous solution into n-dodecane and two ionic liquids (ILs), 1-ethyl-1-butylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EBPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻] and 1-ethyl-1-octylpiperidinium bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [EOPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻], at room temperature using N,N’- dimethyl- N,N’-dioctylhexylethoxymalonamide (DMDOHEMA) as extractant. Fe(III) was introduced to the aqueous phase in order to study the selectivity toward La(III) and Eu(III) and the effect of variation of PH was investigated by using of several HNO₃ concentrations. We found that the ionic liquid with shorter alkyl chain [EBPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻] showed a higher extraction ability than [EOPip⁺] [NTf₂⁻] and that the use of ILs as organic solvent instead n-dodecane, greatly enhanced the extraction percentage of the target metals with a good selectivity. Cation ([EBPip⁺] or [EOPip⁺]) and anion ([NTf₂⁻]) concentration in the aqueous phase, has been determined in order to elucidate the extraction mechanism.

Keywords: extraction mechanism, ionic liquids, rare earths elements, solvent extraction

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424 Capture of Co₂ From Natural Gas Using Modified Imidazolium Ionic Liquids

Authors: Alaa A. Ghanem, S. E. M. Desouky


Natural gas (NG) is considered one of the most essential global energy sources. NG fields are often far away from the market, and a long-distance transporting pipeline usually is required. Production of NG with high content of CO₂ leads to severe problems such as equipment corrosion along with the production line until addition to a high level of toxicity and decreasing in calorific value of the NG. So it is recommended to remove or decrease the CO₂ percent to meet transport specifications. This can be reached using different removal techniques such as physical and chemical absorption, pressure swing adsorption, membrane separation, or low-temperature separation. Many solvents and chemicals are being used to capture carbon dioxide on a large scale; among them, Ionic liquids have great potential due to their tunable properties; low vapour pressure, low melting point, and sensible thermal stability. In this research, three modifiedimidazolium ionic liquids will be synthesized and characterized using different tools of analysis such as FT-IR, 1H NMR. Thermal stability and surface activity will be studied. The synthesized compounds will be evaluated as selective solvents for CO₂ removal from natural gas using PVT cell.

Keywords: natural gas, CO₂ capture, imidazolium ionic liquid, PVT cell

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423 Phase Changing Dicationic Polymeric Ionic Liquid with CO2 Capture Abilities

Authors: Swati Sundararajan, Asit B. Samui, Prashant S. Kulkarni


Polymeric ionic liquids combine the properties of ionic liquids and polymers into a single material which has gained massive interest in the recent years. These ionic liquids offer several advantages such as high phase change enthalpy, wide temperature range, chemical and thermal stability, non-volatility and the ability to make them task-specific. Separation of CO2 is an area of critical importance due to the concerns over greenhouse gasses leading to global warming. Thermal energy storage materials, also known as phase change materials absorb latent heat during fusion process and release the absorbed energy to the surrounding environment during crystallization. These materials retain this property over a number of cycles and therefore, are useful for bridging the gap between energy requirement and use. In an effort to develop materials, which will help in minimizing the growing energy demand and environmental concerns, a series of dicationic poly(ethylene glycol) based polymeric ionic liquids were synthesized. One part of an acrylate of poly(ethylene glycol) was reacted with imidazolium quarternizing agent and the second part was reacted with triazolium quarternizing agent. These two different monomers were then copolymerized to prepare dicationic polymeric ionic liquid. These materials were characterized for solid-liquid phase transition and the enthalpy by using differential scanning calorimetry. The CO2 capture studies were performed on a fabricated setup with varying pressure range from 1-20 atm. The findings regarding the prepared materials, having potential dual applications in the fields of thermal energy storage and CO2 capture, will be discussed in the presentation.

Keywords: CO2 capture, phase change materials, polyethylene glycol, polymeric ionic liquids, thermal energy storage

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422 Synthesis, Characterization, and Application of Novel Trihexyltetradecyl Phosphonium Chloride for Extractive Desulfurization of Liquid Fuel

Authors: Swapnil A. Dharaskar, Kailas L. Wasewar, Mahesh N. Varma, Diwakar Z. Shende


Owing to the stringent environmental regulations in many countries for production of ultra low sulfur petroleum fractions intending to reduce sulfur emissions results in enormous interest in this area among the scientific community. The requirement of zero sulfur emissions enhances the prominence for more advanced techniques in desulfurization. Desulfurization by extraction is a promising approach having several advantages over conventional hydrodesulphurization. Present work is dealt with various new approaches for desulfurization of ultra clean gasoline, diesel and other liquid fuels by extraction with ionic liquids. In present paper experimental data on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel using trihexyl tetradecyl phosphonium chloride has been presented. The FTIR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized ionic liquid. Further, conductivity, solubility, and viscosity analysis of ionic liquids were carried out. The effects of reaction time, reaction temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of ionic liquid without regeneration on removal of dibenzothiphene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization process, the removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 84.5% for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30OC under the mild reaction conditions. Phosphonium ionic liquids could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in present paper explore the significant insights of phosphonium based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels.

Keywords: ionic liquid, PPIL, desulfurization, liquid fuel, extraction

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421 Magnetic Properties of Bis-Lanthanoates: Probing Dimer Formation in Crystalline, Liquid and Glassy Compounds Using SQUID Magnetometry

Authors: Kane Esien, Eadaoin McCourt, Peter Nockemann, Soveig Felton


Magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) are a class of ionic liquid incorporating one or more magnetic atoms into the anion or cation of the ionic liquid, endowing the ionic liquid with magnetic properties alongside the existing properties of ionic liquids. MILs have applications in e.g. fluid-fluid separations, electrochemistry, and polymer chemistry. In this study three different types of Bis-Lanthanoates, that exist in different phases, have been synthesised and characterised (Ln = lanthanide): 1) imidazolium lanthanide acetate – [C4Mim]2[Ln2(OAc)8] – forms a crystalline solid at room temperature, 2) phosphonium lanthanide acetate – [P666 14]2[Ln2(OAc)8] – is in a solid glassy state, and 3) phosphonium lanthanide octanoate – [P666 14]2[Ln2(Oct)8] – is an ionic liquid. X-ray diffraction of the crystalline solid imidazolium lanthanide acetate – [C4Mim]2[Ln2(OAc)8] confirm that the Ln(III) ions form dimers, bridged by carboxyl groups, but cannot yield information about samples phosphonium lanthanide acetate – [P666 14]2[Ln2(OAc)8] (glass) and phosphonium lanthanide octanoate – [P666 14]2[Ln2(Oct)8] (ionic liquid) since these lack long-range order. SQUID magnetometry studies show that all three samples have effective magnetic moments consistent with non-interacting Ln(III) ions at room temperature but deviate from this behavior in the same way below 50 K. Through modeling the magnetic response, we are able to show that we have formed magnetic dimers, in all compounds, that are weakly antiferromagnetically interacting

Keywords: dimeric ionic liquids, interactions, SQUID, structure

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420 Solvent Extraction in Ionic Liquids: Structuration and Aggregation Effects on Extraction Mechanisms

Authors: Sandrine Dourdain, Cesar Lopez, Tamir Sukhbaatar, Guilhem Arrachart, Stephane Pellet-Rostaing


A promising challenge in solvent extraction is to replace the conventional organic solvents, with ionic liquids (IL). Depending on the extraction systems, these new solvents show better efficiency than the conventional ones. Although some assumptions based on ions exchanges have been proposed in the literature, these properties are not predictable because the involved mechanisms are still poorly understood. It is well established that the mechanisms underlying solvent extraction processes are based not only on the molecular chelation of the extractant molecules but also on their ability to form supra-molecular aggregates due to their amphiphilic nature. It is therefore essential to evaluate how IL affects the aggregation properties of the extractant molecules. Our aim is to evaluate the influence of IL structure and polarity on solvent extraction mechanisms, by looking at the aggregation of the extractant molecules in IL. We compare extractant systems that are well characterized in common solvents and show thanks to SAXS and SANS measurements, that in the absence of IL ion exchange mechanisms, extraction properties are related to aggregation.

Keywords: solvent extraction in Ionic liquid, aggregation, Ionic liquids structure, SAXS, SANS

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419 Green Extraction of Patchoulol from Patchouli Leaves Using Ultrasound-Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: G. C. Jadeja, M. A. Desai, D. R. Bhatt, J. K. Parikh


Green extraction techniques are fast paving ways into various industrial sectors due to the stringent governmental regulations leading to the banning of toxic chemicals’ usage and also due to the increasing health/environmental awareness. The present work describes the ionic liquids based sonication method for selectively extracting patchoulol from the leaves of patchouli. 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate ([Bmim]BF4) and N,N,N,N’,N’,N’-Hexaethyl-butane-1,4-diammonium dibromide (dicationic ionic liquid - DIL) were selected for extraction. Ultrasound assisted ionic liquid extraction was employed considering concentration of ionic liquid (4–8 %, w/w), ultrasound power (50–150 W for [Bmim]BF4 and 20–80 W for DIL), temperature (30–50 oC) and extraction time (30–50 min) as major parameters influencing the yield of patchoulol. Using the Taguchi method, the parameters were optimized and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find the most influential factor in the selected extraction method. In case of [Bmim]BF4, the optimum conditions were found to be: 4 % (w/w) ionic liquid concentration, 50 W power, 30 oC temperature and extraction time of 30 min. The yield obtained under the optimum conditions was 3.99 mg/g. In case of DIL, the optimum conditions were obtained as 6 % (w/w) ionic liquid concentration, 80 W power, 30 oC temperature and extraction time of 40 min, for which the yield obtained was 4.03 mg/g. Temperature was found to be the most significant factor in both the cases. Extraction time was the insignificant parameter while extracting the product using [Bmim]BF4 and in case of DIL, power was found to be the least significant factor affecting the process. Thus, a green method of recovering patchoulol is proposed.

Keywords: green extraction, ultrasound, patchoulol, ionic liquids

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418 Effect of Asymmetric Amphiphilic Dicationic Ionic Liquids as Oil Spill Dispersants in Red Sea

Authors: Raghda El-Nagara, Maher I. Nessim, Carmen E. Elshafee, Renee I. Abdallah, Yasser M. Moustafa


Three asymmetric dicationic ionic liquids (ADILs), 1-(2-(1-dodecyl-2-methyl-1H-imidazolium-3-yl)ethyl)-3-methyl pyridinium bromide (IL₁), 1-(6-(1-dodecyl-2-methyl-1H-imidazolium-3-yl)hexyl)-3-methyl pyridinium bromide (IL₂) and 1-(10-(1-dodecyl-2-methyl-1H-imidazolium-3-yl)decyl)-3-methyl pyridinium bromide (IL₃) were synthesized with yield of 83.54, 84.12 & 83.05% respectively. They were elucidated via conventional tools of analysis (elemental analysis, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR). The thermogravimetric analysis confirmed that the three ADILs possessed high thermal stability (up to 500ᵒC). Their critical micelle concentration (CMC) was investigated and exhibited values of 5.5-1*10⁻³ Mol./L. They were evaluated as oil spill dispersants were at different temperatures (10, 30 & 50ᵒC) with different concentrations (750, 1500, 2000, 3000 ppm). Data reveals that the efficiency is ranked as follows: IL₂ > IL₁ > IL₃, which showed high dispersion efficiency reached to 63% with the concentration of 1500 ppm.

Keywords: ionic liquids, amphiphilic, oil spill dispersants, dicationic, efficiency test

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417 Magnetorheological Silicone Composites Filled with Micro- and Nano-Sized Magnetites with the Addition of Ionic Liquids

Authors: M. Masłowski, M. Zaborski


Magnetorheological elastomer composites based on micro- and nano-sized Fe3O4 magnetoactive fillers in silicone rubber are reported and studied. To improve the dispersion of applied fillers in polymer matrix, ionic liquids such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate,1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate, trihexyltetradecylphosphonium chloride were added during the process of composites preparation. The method of preparation process influenced the specific properties of MREs (isotropy/anisotropy), similarly to ferromagnetic particles content and theirs quantity. Micro and non-sized magnetites were active fillers improving the mechanical properties of elastomers. They also changed magnetic properties and reinforced the magnetorheological effect of composites. Application of ionic liquids as dispersing agents influenced the dispersion of magnetic fillers in the elastomer matrix. Scanning electron microscopy images used to observe magnetorheological elastomer microstructures proved that the dispersion improvement had a significant effect on the composites properties. Moreover, the particles orientation and their arrangement in the elastomer investigated by vibration sample magnetometer showed the correlation between MRE microstructure and their magnetic properties.

Keywords: magnetorheological elastomers, iron oxides, ionic liquids, dispersion

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416 Metal Extraction into Ionic Liquids and Hydrophobic Deep Eutectic Mixtures

Authors: E. E. Tereshatov, M. Yu. Boltoeva, V. Mazan, M. F. Volia, C. M. Folden III


Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are a class of liquid organic salts with melting points below 20 °C that are considered to be environmentally friendly ‘designers’ solvents. Pure hydrophobic ILs are known to extract metallic species from aqueous solutions. The closest analogues of ionic liquids are deep eutectic solvents (DESs), which are a eutectic mixture of at least two compounds with a melting point lower than that of each individual component. DESs are acknowledged to be attractive for organic synthesis and metal processing. Thus, these non-volatile and less toxic compounds are of interest for critical metal extraction. The US Department of Energy and the European Commission consider indium as a key metal. Its chemical homologue, thallium, is also an important material for some applications and environmental safety. The aim of this work is to systematically investigate In and Tl extraction from aqueous solutions into pure fluorinated ILs and hydrophobic DESs. The dependence of the Tl extraction efficiency on the structure and composition of the ionic liquid ions, metal oxidation state, and initial metal and aqueous acid concentrations have been studied. The extraction efficiency of the TlXz3–z anionic species (where X = Cl– and/or Br–) is greater for ionic liquids with more hydrophobic cations. Unexpectedly high distribution ratios (> 103) of Tl(III) were determined even by applying a pure ionic liquid as receiving phase. An improved mathematical model based on ion exchange and ion pair formation mechanisms has been developed to describe the co-extraction of two different anionic species, and the relative contributions of each mechanism have been determined. The first evidence of indium extraction into new quaternary ammonium- and menthol-based hydrophobic DESs from hydrochloric and oxalic acid solutions with distribution ratios up to 103 will be provided. Data obtained allow us to interpret the mechanism of thallium and indium extraction into ILs and DESs media. The understanding of Tl and In chemical behavior in these new media is imperative for the further improvement of separation and purification of these elements.

Keywords: deep eutectic solvents, indium, ionic liquids, thallium

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415 Investigation of Several New Ionic Liquids’ Behaviour during ²¹⁰PB/²¹⁰BI Cherenkov Counting in Waters

Authors: Nataša Todorović, Jovana Nikolov, Ivana Stojković, Milan Vraneš, Jovana Panić, Slobodan Gadžurić


The detection of ²¹⁰Pb levels in aquatic environments evokes interest in various scientific studies. Its precise determination is important not only for the radiological assessment of drinking waters but also ²¹⁰Pb, and ²¹⁰Po distribution in the marine environment are significant for the assessment of the removal rates of particles from the ocean and particle fluxes during transport along the coast, as well as particulate organic carbon export in the upper ocean. Measurement techniques for ²¹⁰Pb determination, gamma spectrometry, alpha spectrometry, or liquid scintillation counting (LSC) are either time-consuming or demand expensive equipment or complicated chemical pre-treatments. However, one other possibility is to measure ²¹⁰Pb on an LS counter if it is in equilibrium with its progeny ²¹⁰Bi - through the Cherenkov counting method. It is unaffected by the chemical quenching and assumes easy sample preparation but has the drawback of lower counting efficiencies than standard LSC methods, typically from 10% up to 20%. The aim of the presented research in this paper is to investigate the possible increment of detection efficiency of Cherenkov counting during ²¹⁰Pb/²¹⁰Bi detection on an LS counter Quantulus 1220. Considering naturally low levels of ²¹⁰Pb in aqueous samples, the addition of ionic liquids to the counting vials with the analysed samples has the benefit of detection limit’s decrement during ²¹⁰Pb quantification. Our results demonstrated that ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate, is more efficient in Cherenkov counting efficiency increment than the previously explored 2-hydroxypropan-1-amminium salicylate. Consequently, the impact of a few other ionic liquids that were synthesized with the same cation group (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium benzoate, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 3-hydroxybenzoate, and 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium 4-hydroxybenzoate) was explored in order to test their potential influence on Cherenkov counting efficiency. It was confirmed that, among the explored ones, only ionic liquids in the form of salicylates exhibit a wavelength shifting effect. Namely, the addition of small amounts (around 0.8 g) of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium salicylate increases the detection efficiency from 16% to >70%, consequently reducing the detection threshold by more than four times. Moreover, the addition of ionic liquids could find application in the quantification of other radionuclides besides ²¹⁰Pb/²¹⁰Bi via Cherenkov counting method.

Keywords: liquid scintillation counting, ionic liquids, Cherenkov counting, ²¹⁰PB/²¹⁰BI in water

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414 Ionometallurgy for Recycling Silver in Silicon Solar Panel

Authors: Emmanuel Billy


This work is in the CABRISS project (H2020 projects) which aims at developing innovative cost-effective methods for the extraction of materials from the different sources of PV waste: Si based panels, thin film panels or Si water diluted slurries. Aluminum, silicon, indium, and silver will especially be extracted from these wastes in order to constitute materials feedstock which can be used later in a closed-loop process. The extraction of metals from silicon solar cells is often an energy-intensive process. It requires either smelting or leaching at elevated temperature, or the use of large quantities of strong acids or bases that require energy to produce. The energy input equates to a significant cost and an associated CO2 footprint, both of which it would be desirable to reduce. Thus there is a need to develop more energy-efficient and environmentally-compatible processes. Thus, ‘ionometallurgy’ could offer a new set of environmentally-benign process for metallurgy. This work demonstrates that ionic liquids provide one such method since they can be used to dissolve and recover silver. The overall process associates leaching, recovery and the possibility to re-use the solution in closed-loop process. This study aims to evaluate and compare different ionic liquids to leach and recover silver. An electrochemical analysis is first implemented to define the best system for the Ag dissolution. Effects of temperature, concentration and oxidizing agent are evaluated by this approach. Further, a comparative study between conventional approach (nitric acid, thiourea) and the ionic liquids (Cu and Al) focused on the leaching efficiency is conducted. A specific attention has been paid to the selection of the Ionic Liquids. Electrolytes composed of chelating anions are used to facilitate the lixiviation (Cl, Br, I,), avoid problems dealing with solubility issues of metallic species and of classical additional ligands. This approach reduces the cost of the process and facilitates the re-use of the leaching medium. To define the most suitable ionic liquids, electrochemical experiments have been carried out to evaluate the oxidation potential of silver include in the crystalline solar cells. Then, chemical dissolution of metals for crystalline solar cells have been performed for the most promising ionic liquids. After the chemical dissolution, electrodeposition has been performed to recover silver under a metallic form.

Keywords: electrodeposition, ionometallurgy, leaching, recycling, silver

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413 Eco-Benign and Highly Efficient Procedures for the Synthesis of Amides Catalyzed by Heteropolyanion-Based Ionic Liquids under Solvent-Free Conditions

Authors: Zhikai Chena, Renzhong Fu, Wen Chaib, Rongxin Yuanb


Two eco-benign and highly efficient routes for the synthesis of amides have been developed by treating amines with corresponding carboxylic acids or carboxamides in the presence of heteropolyanion-based ionic liquids (HPAILs) as catalysts. These practical reactions can tolerate a wide range of substrates. Thus, various amides were obtained in good to excellent yields under solvent-free conditions at heating. Moreover, recycling studies revealed that HPAILs are easily reusable for this two procedures. These methods provide green and much improved protocols over the existing methods.

Keywords: synthesis, amide, ıonic liquid, catalyst

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412 Syntheses of Anionic Poly(urethanes) with Imidazolium, Phosphonium, and Ammonium as Counter-cations and Their Evaluation for CO2 Separation

Authors: Franciele L. Bernard, Felipe Dalla Vecchia, Barbara B. Polesso, Jose A. Donato, Marcus Seferin, Rosane Ligabue, Jailton F. do Nascimento, Sandra Einloft


The increasing level of carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere related to fossil fuels processing and utilization are contributing to global warming phenomena considerably. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies appear as one of the key technologies to reduce CO2 emissions mitigating the effects of climate change. Absorption using amines solutions as solvents have been extensively studied and used in industry for decades. However, solvent degradation and equipment corrosion are two of the main problems in this process. Poly (ionic liquid) (PIL) is considered as a promising material for CCS technology, potentially more environmentally friendly and lesser energy demanding than traditional material. PILs possess a unique combination of ionic liquids (ILs) features, such as affinity for CO2, thermal and chemical stability and adjustable properties, coupled with the intrinsic properties of the polymer. This study investigated new Poly (ionic liquid) (PIL) based on polyurethanes with different ionic liquids cations and its potential for CO2 capture. The PILs were synthesized by the addition of diisocyante to a difunctional polyol, followed by an exchange reaction with the ionic Liquids 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIM Cl); tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) and tetrabutylphosphonium bromide (TBPB). These materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H-NMR), Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Tensile strength analysis, Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The PILs CO2 sorption capacity were gravimetrically assessed in a Magnetic Suspension Balance (MSB). It was found that the ionic liquids cation influences in the compounds properties as well as in the CO2 sorption. The best result for CO2 sorption (123 mgCO2/g at 30 bar) was obtained for the PIL (PUPT-TBA). The higher CO2 sorption in PUPT-TBA is probably linked to the fact that the tetraalkylammonium cation having a higher positive density charge can have a stronger interaction with CO2, while the imidazolium charge is delocalized. The comparative CO2 sorption values of the PUPT-TBA with different ionic liquids showed that this material has greater capacity for capturing CO2 when compared to the ILs even at higher temperature. This behavior highlights the importance of this study, as the poly (urethane) based PILs are cheap and versatile materials.

Keywords: capture, CO2, ionic liquids, ionic poly(urethane)

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