Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 130

Search results for: long-term implantation

130 Characterization of N+C, Ti+N and Ti+C Ion Implantation into Ti6Al4V Alloy

Authors: Xingguo Feng, Hui Zhou, Kaifeng Zhang, Zhao Jiang, Hanjun Hu, Jun Zheng, Hong Hao


TiN and TiC films have been prepared on Ti6Al4V alloy substrates by plasma-based ion implantation. The effect of N+C and Ti+N hybrid ion implantation at 50 kV, and Ti+C hybrid ion implantation at 20 kV, 35 kV and 50 kV extraction voltages on mechanical properties at a dose of 2×10¹⁷ ions / cm² was studied. The chemical states and microstructures of the implanted samples were investigated using X-ray photoelectron (XPS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), together with the mechanical and tribological properties of the samples were characterized using nano-indentation and ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that the modified layer by Ti+C implanted at 50 kV was composed of mainly TiC and Ti-O bond and the layer of Ti+N implanted at 50 kV was observed to be TiN and Ti-O bond. Hardness tests have shown that the hardness values for N+C, Ti+N, and Ti+C hybrid ion implantation samples were much higher than the un-implanted ones. The results of wear tests showed that both Ti+C and Ti+N ion implanted samples had much better wear resistance compared un-implanted sample. The wear rate of Ti+C implanted at 50 kV sample was 6.7×10⁻⁵mm³ / N.m, which was decreased over one order than unimplanted samples.

Keywords: plasma ion implantation, x-ray photoelectron (XPS), hardness, wear

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129 The Long-Term Effects of Immediate Implantation, Early Implantation and Delayed Implantation at Aesthetics Area

Authors: Xing Wang, Lin Feng, Xuan Zou, Hongchen liu


Immediate Implantation after tooth extraction is considered to be the ideal way to retain the alveolar bone, but some scholars believe the aesthetic effect in the Early Implantation case are more reliable. In this study, 89 patients were added to this retrospective study up to 5 years. Assessment indicators was including the survival of the implant (peri-implant infection, implant loosening, shedding, crowns and occlusal), aesthetics (color and fullness gums, papilla height, probing depth, X-ray alveolar crest height, the patient's own aesthetic satisfaction, doctors aesthetics score), repair defects around the implant (peri-implant bone changes in height and thickness, whether the use of autologous bone graft, whether to use absorption/repair manual nonabsorbable material), treatment time, cost and the use of antibiotics.The results demonstrated that there is no significant difference in long-term success rate of immediate implantation, early implantation and delayed implantation (p> 0.05). But the results indicated immediate implantation group could get get better aesthetic results after two years (p< 0.05), but may increase the risk of complications and failures (p< 0.05). High-risk indicators include gingival recession, labial bone wall damage, thin gingival biotypes, planting position and occlusal restoration bad and so on. No matter which type of implanting methods was selected, the extraction methods and bone defect amplification techniques are observed as a significant factors on aesthetic effect (p< 0.05).

Keywords: immediate implantation, long-term effects, aesthetics area, dental implants

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128 Defect Profile Simulation of Oxygen Implantation into Si and GaAs

Authors: N. Dahbi, R. B. Taleb


This study concerns the ion implantation of oxygen in two semiconductors Si and GaAs realized by a simulation using the SRIM tool. The goal of this study is to compare the effect of implantation energy on the distribution of implant ions in the two targets and to examine the different processes resulting from the interaction between the ions of oxygen and the target atoms (Si, GaAs). SRIM simulation results indicate that the implanted ions have a profile as a function of Gaussian-type; oxygen produced more vacancies and implanted deeper in Si compared to GaAs. Also, most of the energy loss is due to ionization and phonon production, where vacancy production amounts to few percent of the total energy.

Keywords: defect profile, GaAs, ion implantation, SRIM, phonon production, vacancies

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127 Anti-Implantation Activity of Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) Pulp Ethanol Extract in Female Mice

Authors: Suparmi, Israhnanto Isradji, Dina Fatmawati, Iwang Yusuf


Kepel (Stelechocarpus burahol) is one of the traditional plants originating from Indonesia that can be used to prevent pregnancy, launched urine and kidney inflammation. Kepel pulp has compounds alkaloid, triterpenoid, tannin, saponin, and flavonoid, when used will give the hormonal and cytotoxic effect. This study was aimed at evaluating ethanol extract of kepel in vivo for anti-implantation activities. In this experimental study with post test only control group design, 20 female mice were randomly divided into 4 groups. It was divided into the control, the 0,65 mg dose, 1,3 mg dose, and 3,6 mg dose of kepel pulp extract group. The extract soluted in DMSO’s solution and was given 1 ml per mice. The extract was given 10 days before copulation until 18 days of pregnancy. Then, the number of implantation, presence of fetus, and embrio resorbtion were recorded and used to calculate the percentage anti-implantation effect. The results were tested by One-way ANOVA. The mean number of implantation in group control, 0,65 mg;1,3 mg; and 2,6 mg were 5,60±1,14; 6,20± 1,64; 7,60±1,51; 8,00± 1,58, respectively. One way Annova test showed that there is no significant difference in the number of implantation between the group (p > 0,05). The administration of kepel pulp ethanol extract had no effect on the percentage anti-implantation effect and the number of and embrio resorbtion.

Keywords: antiimplantation, fetus, Stelechocarpus burahol, flavonoid

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126 Nano Effects of Nitrogen Ion Implantation on TiN Hard Coatings Deposited by Physical Vapour Deposition and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition

Authors: Branko Skoric, Aleksandar Miletic, Pal Terek, Lazar Kovacevic, Milan Kukuruzovic


In this paper, we present the results of a study of TiN thin films which are deposited by a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) and Ion Beam Assisted Deposition (IBAD). In the present investigation the subsequent ion implantation was provided with N5+ ions. The ion implantation was applied to enhance the mechanical properties of surface. The thin film deposition process exerts a number of effects such as crystallographic orientation, morphology, topography, densification of the films. A variety of analytic techniques were used for characterization, such as scratch test, calo test, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX).

Keywords: coating, super hard, ion implantation, nanohardness

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125 Minimal Incision Cochlear Implantation in Congenital Abnormality: A Case Report

Authors: Munish Saroch, Amit Saini


Introduction: Many children with congenital malformation of inner ear have undergone cochlear implant (CI) surgery. The results for cochlear implant surgery in these children are very encouraging and provide a ray of hope for these patients. Objective: The main objective of this presentation is to prove that even in Mondini’s deformity Minimal incision cochlear implantation improves cosmesis, reduces post-operative infection and earliest switch on of device. Methods: We report a case of two-year-old child suffering from Mondini’s deformity who underwent CI with minimal incision cochlear implantation (MICI). MICI has been developed with the aims of reducing the impact of surgery on the patient without any preoperative shaving of hairs. Results: Patient after surgery with MICI showed better looking postauricular scar, low post-operative morbidity in comparison to conventional wider access approach and hence earliest switch on of device (1st post operative day). Conclusion: We are of opinion that MICI is safe and successful in Mondini’s deformity.

Keywords: CI, Cochlear Implant, MICI, Minimal Incision Cochlear Implantation, HL, Hearing Loss, HRCT, High Resolution Computer Tomography, MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging, SCI, Standard cochlear implantation

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
124 Nanomechanical Characterization of Titanium Alloy Modified by Nitrogen Ion Implantation

Authors: Josef Sepitka, Petr Vlcak, Tomas Horazdovsky, Vratislav Perina


An ion implantation technique was used for designing the surface area of a titanium alloy and for irradiation-enhanced hardening of the surface. The Ti6Al4V alloy was treated by nitrogen ion implantation at fluences of 2·1017 and 4·1017 cm-2 and at ion energy 90 keV. The depth distribution of the nitrogen was investigated by Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy. The gradient of mechanical properties was investigated by nanoindentation. The continuous measurement mode was used to obtain depth profiles of the indentation hardness and the reduced storage modulus of the modified surface area. The reduced storage modulus and the hardness increase with increasing fluence. Increased fluence shifts the peak of the mechanical properties as well as the peak of nitrogen concentration towards to the surface. This effect suggests a direct relationship between mechanical properties and nitrogen distribution.

Keywords: nitrogen ion implantation, titanium-based nanolayer, storage modulus, hardness, microstructure

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123 Warning about the Risk of Blood Flow Stagnation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

Authors: Aymen Laadhari, Gábor Székely


In this work, the hemodynamics in the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation is numerically examined. We focus on the physical results in the two-dimensional case. We use a finite element methodology based on a Lagrange multiplier technique that enables to couple the dynamics of blood flow and the leaflets’ movement. A massively parallel implementation of a monolithic and fully implicit solver allows more accuracy and significant computational savings. The elastic properties of the aortic valve are disregarded, and the numerical computations are performed under physiologically correct pressure loads. Computational results depict that blood flow may be subject to stagnation in the lower domain of the sinuses of Valsalva after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

Keywords: hemodynamics, simulations, stagnation, valve

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122 Gel-Based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) in the Knee: Multicentric Short Term Study

Authors: Shaival Dalal, Nilesh Shah, Dinshaw Pardiwala, David Rajan, Satyen Sanghavi, Charul Bhanji


Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is used worldwide since 1998 to treat cartilage defect. GEL based ACI is a new tissue-engineering technique to treat full thickness cartilage defect with fibrin and thrombin as scaffold for chondrocytes. Purpose of this study is to see safety and efficacy of gel based ACI for knee cartilage defect in multiple centres with different surgeons. Gel-based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) has shown effectiveness in treating isolated cartilage defect of knee joint. Long term results are still needed to be studied. This study was followed-up up to two years and showed benefit to patients. All enrolled patients with a mean age of 28.5 years had an average defect size of3 square centimeters, and were grade IV as per ICRS grading. All patients were followed up several times and at several intervals at 6th week, 8th week, 11th week, 17th week, 29th week, 57th week after surgery. The outcomes were measured based on the IKDC (subjective and objective) and MOCART scores.

Keywords: knee, chondrocyte, autologous chondrocyte implantation, fibrin gel based

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121 Non-Invasive Pre-Implantation Genetic Assessment Using NGS in IVF Clinical Routine

Authors: Katalin Gombos, Bence Gálik, Krisztina Ildikó Kalács, Krisztina Gödöny, Ákos Várnagy, József Bódis, Attila Gyenesei, Gábor L. Kovács


Although non-invasive pre-implantation genetic testing for aneuploidy (NIPGT-A) is potentially appropriate to assess chromosomal ploidy of the embryo, practical application of it in a routine IVF center has not been started in the absence of a recommendation. We developed a comprehensive workflow for a clinically applicable strategy for NIPGT-A based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. We performed MALBAC whole genome amplification and NGS on spent blastocyst culture media of Day 3 embryos fertilized with intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Spent embryonic culture media of morphologically good quality score embryos were enrolled in further analysis with the blank culture media as background control. Chromosomal abnormalities were identified by an optimized bioinformatics pipeline applying a copy number variation (CNV) detecting algorithm. We demonstrate a comprehensive workflow covering both wet- and dry-lab procedures supporting a clinically applicable strategy for NIPGT-A. It can be carried out within 48 h which is critical for the same-cycle blastocyst transfer, but also suitable for “freeze all” and “elective frozen embryo” strategies. The described integrated approach of non-invasive evaluation of embryonic DNA content of the culture media can potentially supplement existing pre-implantation genetic screening methods.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, in vitro fertilization, embryo assessment, non-invasive pre-implantation genetic testing

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120 Nanocharacterization of PIII Treated 7075 Aluminum Alloy

Authors: Bruno Bacci Fernandes, Stephan Mändl, Ataíde Ribeiro da Silva Junior, José Osvaldo Rossi, Mário Ueda


Nitrogen implantation in aluminum and its alloys is acquainted for the difficulties in obtaining modified layers deeper than 200 nm. The present work addresses a new method to overcome such a problem; although, the coating with nitrogen and oxygen obtained by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) into a 7075 aluminum alloy surface was too shallow. This alloy is commonly used for structural parts in aerospace applications. Such a layer was characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and nanoindentation experiments reciprocating wear tests. From the results, one can assume that the wear of this aluminum alloy starts presenting severe abrasive wear followed by an additional adhesive mechanism. PIII produced a slight difference, as shown in all characterizations carried out in this work. The results shown here can be used as the scientific basis for further nitrogen PIII experiments in aluminum alloys which have the goal to produce thicker modified layers or to improve their surface properties.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, plasma immersion ion implantation, tribological properties, hardness, nanofatigue

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119 Luminescent Si Nanocrystals Synthesized by Si Ion Implantation and Reactive Pulsed Laser Deposition: The Effects of RTA, Excimer-Uv and E-Beam Irradiation

Authors: Tsutomu Iwayama, Takayuki Hama


Si ion implantation was widely used to synthesize specimens of SiO2 containing supersaturated Si and subsequent high temperature annealing induces the formation of embedded luminescent Si nanocrystals. In this work, the potentialities of excimer UV-light (172 nm, 7.2 eV) irradiation and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) to enhance the photoluminescence and to achieve low temperature formation of Si nanocrystals have been investigated. The Si ions were introduced at acceleration energy of 180 keV to fluence of 7.5 x 1016 ions/cm2. The implanted samples were subsequently irradiated with an excimer-UV lamp. After the process, the samples were rapidly thermal annealed before furnace annealing (FA). Photoluminescence spectra were measured at various stages at the process. We found that the luminescence intensity is strongly enhanced with excimer-UV irradiation and RTA. Moreover, effective visible photoluminescence is found to be observed even after FA at 900 oC, only for specimens treated with excimer-UV lamp and RTA. We also prepared specimens of Si nanocrystals embedded in a SiO2 by reactive pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in an oxygen atmosphere. We will make clear the similarities and differences with the way of preparation.

Keywords: Ion implantation, photoluminescence, pulsed laser deposition, rapid thermal anneal, Si nanocrystals

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118 Comparison of Intraocular Pressure Measurement Prior and Following Full Intracorneal Ring Implantation in Patient with Keratoconus by Three Different Instruments

Authors: Seyed Aliasghar Mosavi, Mostafa Naderi, Khosrow Jadidi, Amir Hashem Mohammadi


To study the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP) before and after implantation of intrastromal corneal ring (MyoRing) in patients with keratoconus. Setting: Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Methods: We compared the IOP of 13 eyes which underwent MyoRing implantation prior and six months post operation using Goldman applanation (as gold standard), Icare, and Corvis ST (uncorrected, corrected and corrected with cornea biomechanics). Results: The resulting intraocular pressure measurements prior to surgery, Icare, Corvis (corrected with cornea biomechanics) overestimated the IOP, however measurements by Corvis uncorrected underestimate the IOP. The resulting intraocular pressure measurements after surgery, Icare, Corvis (corrected with cornea biomechanics) overestimated the IOP but measurements by Corvis uncorrected underestimate the IOP. Conclusion: Consistent intraocular pressure measurements on eyes with Myoring in keratoconus can be obtained with the Goldman applanation tonometer as the gold standard measurement. We were not able to obtain consistent results when we measured the IOP by Icare and Corvis prior and after surgery.

Keywords: intraocular pressure, MyoRing, Keratoconus, Goldmann applanation, Icare, Corvis ST

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117 Fast and Non-Invasive Patient-Specific Optimization of Left Ventricle Assist Device Implantation

Authors: Huidan Yu, Anurag Deb, Rou Chen, I-Wen Wang


The use of left ventricle assist devices (LVADs) in patients with heart failure has been a proven and effective therapy for patients with severe end-stage heart failure. Due to the limited availability of suitable donor hearts, LVADs will probably become the alternative solution for patient with heart failure in the near future. While the LVAD is being continuously improved toward enhanced performance, increased device durability, reduced size, a better understanding of implantation management becomes critical in order to achieve better long-term blood supplies and less post-surgical complications such as thrombi generation. Important issues related to the LVAD implantation include the location of outflow grafting (OG), the angle of the OG, the combination between LVAD and native heart pumping, uniform or pulsatile flow at OG, etc. We have hypothesized that an optimal implantation of LVAD is patient specific. To test this hypothesis, we employ a novel in-house computational modeling technique, named InVascular, to conduct a systematic evaluation of cardiac output at aortic arch together with other pertinent hemodynamic quantities for each patient under various implantation scenarios aiming to get an optimal implantation strategy. InVacular is a powerful computational modeling technique that integrates unified mesoscale modeling for both image segmentation and fluid dynamics with the cutting-edge GPU parallel computing. It first segments the aortic artery from patient’s CT image, then seamlessly feeds extracted morphology, together with the velocity wave from Echo Ultrasound image of the same patient, to the computation model to quantify 4-D (time+space) velocity and pressure fields. Using one NVIDIA Tesla K40 GPU card, InVascular completes a computation from CT image to 4-D hemodynamics within 30 minutes. Thus it has the great potential to conduct massive numerical simulation and analysis. The systematic evaluation for one patient includes three OG anastomosis (ascending aorta, descending thoracic aorta, and subclavian artery), three combinations of LVAD and native heart pumping (1:1, 1:2, and 1:3), three angles of OG anastomosis (inclined upward, perpendicular, and inclined downward), and two LVAD inflow conditions (uniform and pulsatile). The optimal LVAD implantation is suggested through a comprehensive analysis of the cardiac output and related hemodynamics from the simulations over the fifty-four scenarios. To confirm the hypothesis, 5 random patient cases will be evaluated.

Keywords: graphic processing unit (GPU) parallel computing, left ventricle assist device (LVAD), lumped-parameter model, patient-specific computational hemodynamics

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116 Tactile Sensory Digit Feedback for Cochlear Implant Electrode Insertion

Authors: Yusuf Bulale, Mark Prince, Geoff Tansley, Peter Brett


Cochlear Implantation (CI) which became a routine procedure for the last decades is an electronic device that provides a sense of sound for patients who are severely and profoundly deaf. Today, cochlear implantation technology uses electrode array (EA) implanted manually into the cochlea. The optimal success of this implantation depends on the electrode technology and deep insertion techniques. However, this manual insertion procedure may cause mechanical trauma which can lead to a severe destruction of the delicate intracochlear structure. Accordingly, future improvement of the cochlear electrode implant insertion needs reduction of the excessive force application during the cochlear implantation which causes tissue damage and trauma. This study is examined tool-tissue interaction of large prototype scale digit embedded with distributive tactile sensor based upon cochlear electrode and large prototype scale cochlea phantom for simulating the human cochlear which could lead to small-scale digit requirements. The digit, distributive tactile sensors embedded with silicon-substrate was inserted into the cochlea phantom to measure any digit/phantom interaction and position of the digit in order to minimize tissue and trauma damage during the electrode cochlear insertion. The digit has provided tactile information from the digit-phantom insertion interaction such as contact status, tip penetration, obstacles, relative shape and location, contact orientation and multiple contacts. The tests demonstrated that even devices of such a relative simple design with low cost have a potential to improve cochlear implant surgery and other lumen mapping applications by providing tactile sensory feedback information and thus controlling the insertion through sensing and control of the tip of the implant during the insertion. In that approach, the surgeon could minimize the tissue damage and potential damage to the delicate structures within the cochlear caused by current manual electrode insertion of the cochlear implantation. This approach also can be applied to other minimally invasive surgery applications as well as diagnosis and path navigation procedures.

Keywords: cochlear electrode insertion, distributive tactile sensory feedback information, flexible digit, minimally invasive surgery, tool/tissue interaction

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115 Dys-Regulation of Immune and Inflammatory Response in in vitro Fertilization Implantation Failure Patients under Ovarian Stimulation

Authors: Amruta D. S. Pathare, Indira Hinduja, Kusum Zaveri


Implantation failure (IF) even after the good-quality embryo transfer (ET) in the physiologically normal endometrium is the main obstacle in in vitro fertilization (IVF). Various microarray studies have been performed worldwide to elucidate the genes requisite for endometrial receptivity. These studies have included the population based on different phases of menstrual cycle during natural cycle and stimulated cycle in normal fertile women. Additionally, the literature is also available in recurrent implantation failure patients versus oocyte donors in natural cycle. However, for the first time, we aim to study the genomics of endometrial receptivity in IF patients under controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) during which ET is generally practised in IVF. Endometrial gene expression profiling in IF patients (n=10) and oocyte donors (n=8) were compared during window of implantation under COS by whole genome microarray (using Illumina platform). Enrichment analysis of microarray data was performed to determine dys-regulated biological functions and pathways using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery, v6.8 (DAVID). The enrichment mapping was performed with the help of Cytoscape software. Microarray results were validated by real-time PCR. Localization of genes related to immune response (Progestagen-Associated Endometrial Protein (PAEP), Leukaemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF), Interleukin-6 Signal Transducer (IL6ST) was detected by immunohistochemistry. The study revealed 418 genes downregulated and 519 genes upregulated in IF patients compared to healthy fertile controls. The gene ontology, pathway analysis and enrichment mapping revealed significant downregulation in activation and regulation of immune and inflammation response in IF patients under COS. The lower expression of Progestagen Associated Endometrial Protein (PAEP), Leukemia Inhibitory Factor (LIF) and Interleukin 6 Signal Transducer (IL6ST) in cases compared to controls by real time and immunohistochemistry suggests the functional importance of these genes. The study was proved useful to uncover the probable reason of implantation failure being imbalance of immune and inflammatory regulation in our group of subjects. Based on the present study findings, a panel of significant dysregulated genes related to immune and inflammatory pathways needs to be further substantiated in larger cohort in natural as well as stimulated cycle. Upon which these genes could be screened in IF patients during window of implantation (WOI) before going for embryo transfer or any other immunological treatment. This would help to estimate the regulation of specific immune response during WOI in a patient. The appropriate treatment of either activation of immune response or suppression of immune response can be then attempted in IF patients to enhance the receptivity of endometrium.

Keywords: endometrial receptivity, immune and inflammatory response, gene expression microarray, window of implantation

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114 Auditory and Language Skills Development after Cochlear Implantation in Children with Multiple Disabilities

Authors: Tamer Mesallam, Medhat Yousef, Ayna Almasaad


BACKGROUND: Cochlear implantation (CI) in children with additional disabilities can be a fundamental and supportive intervention. Although, there may be some positive impacts of CI on children with multiple disabilities such as better outcomes of communication skills, development, and quality of life, the families of those children complain from the post-implant habilitation efforts that considered as a burden. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of CI children with different co-disabilities through using the Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale (MAIS) and the Meaningful Use of Speech Scale (MUSS) as outcome measurement tools. METHODS: The study sample comprised 25 hearing-impaired children with co-disability who received cochlear implantation. Age and gender-matched control group of 25 cochlear-implanted children without any other disability has been also included. The participants' auditory skills and speech outcomes were assessed using MAIS and MUSS tests. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in the different outcomes measure between the two groups. However, the outcomes of some multiple disabilities subgroups were comparable to the control group. Around 40% of the participants with co-disabilities experienced advancement in their methods of communication from behavior to oral mode. CONCLUSION: Cochlear-implanted children with multiple disabilities showed variable degrees of auditory and speech outcomes. The degree of benefits depends on the type of the co-disability. Long-term follow-up is recommended for those children.

Keywords: children with disabilities, Cochlear implants, hearing impairment, language development

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113 Intrastromal Donor Limbal Segments Implantation as a Surgical Treatment of Progressive Keratoconus: Clinical and Functional Results

Authors: Mikhail Panes, Sergei Pozniak, Nikolai Pozniak


Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of intrastromal donor limbal segments implantation for treatment of progressive keratoconus considering on main characteristics of corneal endothelial cells. Setting: Outpatient ophthalmic clinic. Methods: Twenty patients (20 eyes) with progressive keratoconus II-III of Amsler classification were recruited. The worst eye was treated with the transplantation of donor limbal segments in the recipient corneal stroma, while the fellow eye was left untreated as a control of functional and morphological changes. Furthermore, twenty patients (20 eyes) without progressive keratoconus was used as a control of corneal endothelial cells changes. All patients underwent a complete ocular examination including uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, CDVA), slit lamp examination fundus examination, corneal topography and pachymetry, auto-keratometry, Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography and Corneal Endothelial Specular Microscopy. Results: After two years, statistically significant improvement in the UDVA and CDVA (on the average on two lines for UDVA and three-four lines for CDVA) were noted. Besides corneal astigmatism decreased from 5.82 ± 2.64 to 1.92 ± 1.4 D. Moreover there were no statistically significant differences in the changes of mean spherical equivalent, keratometry and pachymetry indicators. It should be noted that after two years there were no significant differences in the changes of the number and form of corneal endothelial cells. It can be regarded as a process stabilization. In untreated control eyes, there was a general trend towards worsening of UDVA, CDVA and corneal thickness, while corneal astigmatism was increased. Conclusion: Intrastromal donor segments implantation is a safe technique for keratoconus treatment. Intrastromal donor segments implantation is an efficient procedure to stabilize and improve progressive keratoconus.

Keywords: corneal endothelial cells, intrastromal donor limbal segments, progressive keratoconus, surgical treatment of keratoconus

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112 Triple Modulation on Wound Healing in Glaucoma Surgery Using Mitomycin C and Ologen Augmented with Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

Authors: Reetika Sharma, Lalit Tejwani, Himanshu Shekhar, Arun Singhvi


Purpose: To describe a novel technique of trabeculectomy targeting triple modulation on wound healing to increase the overall success rate. Method: Ten eyes of 10 patients underwent trabeculectomy with subconjunctival mitomycin C (0.4mg/ml for 4 minutes) application combined with Ologen implantation subconjunctivally and subsclerally. Five of these patients underwent additional phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. The Ologen implant was wet with 0.1 ml Bevacizumab. Result: All the eyes achieved target intraocular pressure (IOP), which was maintained until one year of follow-up. Two patients needed anterior chamber reformation at day two post surgery. One patient needed cataract surgery after four months of surgery and achieved target intraocular pressure on two topical antiglaucoma medicines. Conclusion: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration has been seen to increase in the aqueous humor after filtration surgery. Ologen implantation helps in collagen remodelling, antifibroblastic response, and acts as a spacer. Bevacizumab augmented Ologen, in addition, targets the increased VEGF and helps in decreasing scarring. Anti-VEGF augmented Ologen in trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) hence appears to have encouraging short-term intraocular pressure control.

Keywords: ologen, anti-VEGF, trabeculectomy, scarring

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111 Magneto-Optical Properties in Transparent Region of Implanted Garnet Films

Authors: Lali Kalanadzde


We investigated magneto-optical Kerr effect in transparent region of implanted ferrite-garnet films for the (YBiCa)3(FeGe)5O12. The implantation process was carried out at room temperature by Ne+ ions with energy of 100 KeV and with various doses (0.5-2.5) 1014 ion/cm2. We discovered that slight deviation of the plane of external alternating magnetic field from plane of sample leads to appearance intensive magneto-optical maximum in transparent region of garnet films ħω=0.5-2.0 eV. In the proceeding, we have also found that the deviation of polarization plane from P- component of incident light leads to the appearance of the similar magneto-optical effects in this region. The research of magnetization processes in transparent region of garnet films showed that the formation of magneto-optical effects in region ħω=0.5-2.3 eV has a rather complex character.

Keywords: ferrite-garnet films, ion implantation, magneto-optical, thin films

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110 The Clinical Use of Ahmed Valve Implant as an Aqueous Shunt for Control of Uveitic Glaucoma in Dogs

Authors: Khaled M. Ali, M. A. Abdel-Hamid, Ayman A. Mostafa


Objective: Safety and efficacy of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation for the management of uveitis induced glaucoma evaluated on the five dogs with uncontrollable glaucoma. Materials and Methods: Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV®; New World Medical, Rancho Cucamonga, CA, USA) is a flow restrictive, non-obstructive self-regulating valve system. Preoperative ocular evaluation included direct ophthalmoscopy and measurement of the intraocular pressure (IOP). The implant was examined and primed prior to implantation. The selected site of the valve implantation was the superior quadrant between the superior and lateral rectus muscles. A fornix-based incision was made through the conjunectiva and Tenon’s capsule. A pocket is formed by blunt dissection of Tenon’s capsule from the episclera. The body of the implant was inserted into the pocket with the leading edge of the device around 8-10 mm from the limbus. Results: No post operative complications were detected in the operated eyes except a persistent corneal edema occupied the upper half of the cornea in one case. Hyphaema was very mild and seen only in two cases which resolved quickly two days after surgery. Endoscopical evaluation for the operated eyes revealed a normal ocular fundus with clearly visible optic papilla, tapetum and retinal blood vessels. No evidence of hemorrhage, infection, adhesions or retinal abnormalities was detected. Conclusion: Ahmed glaucoma valve is safe and effective implant for treatment of uveitic glaucoma in dogs.

Keywords: Ahmed valve, endoscopy, glaucoma, ocular fundus

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109 Culture of Primary Cortical Neurons on Hydrophobic Nanofibers Induces the Formation of Organoid-Like Structures

Authors: Nick Weir, Robert Stevens, Alan Hargreaves, Martin McGinnity, Chris Tinsley


Hydrophobic materials have previously demonstrated the ability to elevate cell-cell interactions and promote the formation of neural networks whilst aligned nanofibers demonstrate the ability to induce extensive neurite outgrowth in an aligned manner. Hydrophobic materials typically elicit an immune response upon implantation and thus materials used for implantation are typically hydrophilic. Poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) is a hydrophobic, non-immunogenic, FDA approved material that can be electrospun to form aligned nanofibers. Primary rat cortical neurons cultured for 10 days on aligned PLLA nanofibers formed 3D cell clusters, approximately 800 microns in diameter. Neurites that extended from these clusters were highly aligned due to the alignment of the nanofibers they were cultured upon and fasciculation was also evident. Plasma treatment of the PLLA nanofibers prior to seeding of cells significantly reduced the hydrophobicity and abolished the cluster formation and neurite fasciculation, whilst reducing the extent and directionality of neurite outgrowth; it is proposed that hydrophobicity induces the changes to cellular behaviors. Aligned PLLA nanofibers induced the formation of a structure that mimics the grey-white matter compartmentalization that is observed in vivo and thus represents a step forward in generating organoids or biomaterial-based implants. Upon implantation into the brain, the biomaterial architectures described here may provide a useful platform for both brain repair and brain remodeling initiatives.

Keywords: hydrophobicity, nanofibers, neurite fasciculation, neurite outgrowth, PLLA

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108 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn-Doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif


n-Type 6H-SiC(0001) substrates were implanted with three fluencies of Mn+ 5x1015 Mn/cm2 (Mn content: 0.7%), 1x1016 (~2 %), and 5x1016 cm–2 (7%) with implantation energy of 80 keV and substrate temperature of 365ºC. The samples were characterized using Rutherford Backscattering and Channeling Spectroscopy (RBS/C), High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction technique (HRXRD), micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) techniques. The aim of our work is to investigate implantation induced defects with dose and to study any correlation between disorder-composition and magnetic properties. In addition, ab-initio calculations were used to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC. Various configurations of Mn sites and vacancy types were considered. The calculations showed that a substitutional Mn atom at Si site possesses larger magnetic moment than Mn atom at C site. A model is introduced to explain the dependence of the magnetic structure on site occupation. The magnetic properties of ferromagnetically (FM) and antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled pairs of Mn atoms with and without neighboring vacancies have also been explored.

Keywords: ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors, magnetic properties, silicon carbide

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107 Packaging Processes for the Implantable Medical Microelectronics

Authors: Chung-Yu Wu, Chia-Chi Chang, Wei-Ming Chen, Pu-Wei Wu, Shih-Fan Chen, Po-Chun Chen


Electrostimulation medical devices for neural diseases require electroactive and biocompatible materials to transmit signals from electrodes to targeting tissues. Protection of surrounding tissues has become a great challenge for long-term implants. In this study, we designed back-end processes with compatible, efficient, and reliable advantages over the current state-of-the-art. We explored a hermetic packaging process with high quality of adhesion and uniformity as the biocompatible devices for long-term implantation. This approach is able to provide both excellent biocompatibility and protection to the biomedical electronic devices by performing conformal coating of biocompatible materials. We successfully developed a packaging process that is capable of exposing the stimulating electrode and cover all other faces of chip with high quality of protection to prevent leakage of devices and body fluid.

Keywords: biocompatible package, medical microelectronics, surface coating, long-term implantation

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106 Duration of Isolated Vowels in Infants with Cochlear Implants

Authors: Paris Binos


The present work investigates developmental aspects of the duration of isolated vowels in infants with normal hearing compared to those who received cochlear implants (CIs) before two years of age. Infants with normal hearing produced shorter vowel duration since this find related with more mature production abilities. First isolated vowels are transparent during the protophonic stage as evidence of an increased motor and linguistic control. Vowel duration is a crucial factor for the transition of prelexical speech to normal adult speech. Despite current knowledge of data for infants with normal hearing more research is needed to unravel productions skills in early implanted children. Thus, isolated vowel productions by two congenitally hearing-impaired Greek infants (implantation ages 1:4-1:11; post-implant ages 0:6-1:3) were recorded and sampled for six months after implantation with a Nucleus-24. The results compared with the productions of three normal hearing infants (chronological ages 0:8-1:1). Vegetative data and vocalizations masked by external noise or sounds were excluded. Participants had no other disabilities and had unknown deafness etiology. Prior to implantation the infants had an average unaided hearing loss of 95-110 dB HL while the post-implantation PTA decreased to 10-38 dB HL. The current research offers a methodology for the processing of the prelinguistic productions based on a combination of acoustical and auditory analyses. Based on the current methodological framework, duration measured through spectrograms based on wideband analysis, from the voicing onset to the end of the vowel. The end marked by two co-occurring events: 1) The onset of aperiodicity with a rapid change in amplitude in the waveform and 2) a loss in formant’s energy. Cut-off levels of significance were set at 0.05 for all tests. Bonferroni post hoc tests indicated that difference was significant between the mean duration of vowels of infants wearing CIs and their normal hearing peers. Thus, the mean vowel duration of CIs measured longer compared to the normal hearing peers (0.000). The current longitudinal findings contribute to the existing data for the performance of children wearing CIs at a very young age and enrich also the data of the Greek language. The above described weakness for CI’s performance is a challenge for future work in speech processing and CI’s processing strategies.

Keywords: cochlear implant, duration, spectrogram, vowel

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105 Plasma Ion Implantation Study: A Comparison between Tungsten and Tantalum as Plasma Facing Components

Authors: Tahreem Yousaf, Michael P. Bradley, Jerzy A. Szpunar


Currently, nuclear fusion is considered one of the most favorable options for future energy generation, due both to its abundant fuel and lack of emissions. For fusion power reactors, a major problem will be a suitable material choice for the Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) which will constitute the reactor first wall. Tungsten (W) has advantages as a PFC material because of its high melting point, low vapour pressure, high thermal conductivity and low retention of hydrogen isotopes. However, several adverse effects such as embrittlement, melting and morphological evolution have been observed in W when it is bombarded by low-energy and high-fluence helium (He) and deuterium (D) ions, as a simulation conditions adjacent to a fusion plasma. Recently, tantalum (Ta) also investigate as PFC and show better reluctance to nanostructure fuzz as compared to W under simulated fusion plasma conditions. But retention of D ions found high in Ta than W. Preparatory to plasma-based ion implantation studies, the effect of D and He ion impact on W and Ta is predicted by using the stopping and range of ions in the matter (SRIM) code. SRIM provided some theoretical results regarding projected range, ion concentration (at. %) and displacement damage (dpa) in W and Ta. The projected range for W under Irradiation of He and D ions with an energy of 3-keV and 1×fluence is determined 75Å and 135 Å and for Ta 85Å and 155Å, respectively. For both W and Ta samples, the maximum implanted peak for helium is predicted ~ 5.3 at. % at 12 nm and for De ions concentration peak is located near 3.1 at. % at 25 nm. For the same parameters, the displacement damage for He ions is observed in W ~ 0.65 dpa and Ta ~ 0.35 dpa at 5 nm. For D ions the displacement damage for W ~ 0.20 dpa at 8 nm and Ta ~ 0.175 dpa at 7 nm. The mean implantation depth is same for W and Ta, i.e. for He ions ~ 40 nm and D ions ~ 70 nm. From these results, we conclude that retention of D is high than He ions, but damage is low for Ta as compared to W. Further investigation still in progress regarding W and T.

Keywords: helium and deuterium ion impact, plasma facing components, SRIM simulation, tungsten, tantalum

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104 Investment Casting Conditions with Tourmaline In-Situ

Authors: Kageeporn Wongpreedee, Bongkot Phichaikamjornwut, Duangkhae Bootkul


The technique of stone in place casting had been established in jewelry production for two decades. However, the process were not widely used since it was limited to precious stones with high hardness and high stabililty at high temperature. This experiment were tested on tourmaline which is semi-precious gemstone having less hardness and less stability comparing to precious stones. The experiment were designed into two parts. The first part is to understand the phenomena of tourmaline under the heating conditions. Natural tourmaline stones were investigated and compared inclusions inside stones tested at temperature of 500 °C, 600 °C, and 700 °C. The second part is to cast the treated tourmaline with ion-implanation under the stones in place casting conditions. The results showed that stones were able to tolerate as much as at 700 °C showing the growths of inclusions inside the stones. The second part of this experiment were compared tourmaline with ion-implantation and natural tourmaline using on stones in place casting process at different stone setting types. The results showed that the cracks and inclustions of both treat and natural tourmaline with stones in place casting were propagate due to high stress of metal contractions. The stones with ion-implatation were more likely tolerate to cracks and inclusion propagations inside the stones.

Keywords: stone in place casting, tourmaline, ion implantation, metal contraction

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103 Nitriding of Super-Ferritic Stainless Steel by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation in Radio Frequency and Microwave Plasma System

Authors: H. Bhuyan, S. Mändl, M. Favre, M. Cisternas, A. Henriquez, E. Wyndham, M. Walczak, D. Manova


The 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr are two alloys belonging to the next generation of super-ferritic nickel free stainless steel grades, containing titanium (Ti), niobium (Nb) and small percentage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N). The addition of Ti and Nb improves in general the corrosion resistance while the low interstitial content of C and N assures finer precipitates and greater ductility compared to conventional ferritic grades. These grades are considered an economic alternative to AISI 316L and 304 due to comparable or superior corrosion. However, since 316L and 304 can be nitrided to improve the mechanical surface properties like hardness and wear; it is hypothesize that the tribological properties of these super-ferritic stainless steels grades can also be improved by plasma nitriding. Thus two sets of plasma immersion ion implantation experiments have been carried out, one with a high pressure capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma at PUC Chile and the other using a low pressure microwave plasma at IOM Leipzig, in order to explore further improvements in the mechanical properties of 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr steel. Nitrided and unnitrided substrates have been subsequently investigated using different surface characterization techniques including secondary ion mass spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, Vickers hardness, wear resistance, as well as corrosion test. In most of the characterizations no major differences have been observed for nitrided 470 Li-24 Cr and 460Li-21 Cr. Due to the ion bombardment, an increase in the surface roughness is observed for higher treatment temperature, independent of the steel types. The formation of chromium nitride compound takes place only at a treatment temperature around 4000C-4500C, or above. However, corrosion properties deteriorate after treatment at higher temperatures. The physical characterization results show up to 25 at.% of nitrogen for a diffusion zone of 4-6 m, and a 4-5 times increase in hardness for different experimental conditions. The samples implanted with temperature higher than 400 °C presented a wear resistance around two orders of magnitude higher than the untreated substrates. The hardness is apparently affected by the different roughness of the samples and their different profile of nitrogen.

Keywords: ion implantation, plasma, RF and microwave plasma, stainless steel

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102 Finite Element Analysis and Design Optimization of Stent and Balloon System

Authors: V. Hashim, P. N. Dileep


Stent implantation is being seen as the most successful method to treat coronary artery diseases. Different types of stents are available in the market these days and the success of a stent implantation greatly depends on the proper selection of a suitable stent for a patient. Computer numerical simulation is the cost effective way to choose the compatible stent. Studies confirm that the design characteristics of stent do have great importance with regards to the pressure it can sustain, the maximum displacement it can produce, the developed stress concentration and so on. In this paper different designs of stent were analyzed together with balloon to optimize the stent and balloon system. Commercially available stent Palmaz-Schatz has been selected for analysis. Abaqus software is used to simulate the system. This work is the finite element analysis of the artery stent implant to find out the design factors affecting the stress and strain. The work consists of two phases. In the first phase, stress distribution of three models were compared - stent without balloon, stent with balloon of equal length and stent with balloon of extra length than stent. In second phase, three different design models of Palmaz-Schatz stent were compared by keeping the balloon length constant. The results obtained from analysis shows that, the design of the strut have strong effect on the stress distribution. A design with chamfered slots found better results. The length of the balloon also has influence on stress concentration of the stent. Increase in length of the balloon will reduce stress, but will increase dog boning effect.

Keywords: coronary stent, finite element analysis, restenosis, stress concentration

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101 Effect of Operative Stabilization on Rib Fracture Healing in Porcine Experimental Model: A Pilot Study

Authors: Maria Stepankova, Lucie Vistejnova, Pavel Klein, Tereza Blassova, Marketa Slajerova, Radek Sedlacek, Martin Bartos, Jaroslav Chlupac


Background: Clinical outcome benefits of the segment rib fracture surgical therapy are well known and follow from better stabilization of the chest wall. Despite this, some authors still incline to conservative therapy and point out to possible rib fracture healing failure in connection with the bone vascular supply disturbance caused by metal plate implantation. This suggestion met neither experimental nor clinical verification and remains the object of discussion. In our pilot study we investigated the titanium plate fixation effect on the rib fracture healing in porcine model and its histological, biomechanical and radiological aspects. Materials and Method: Two porcine models (experimental group) underwent the operative chest wall stabilization with a titanium plate implantation after osteotomy. Two other porcine models (control group) were treated conservatively after osteotomy. Three weeks after surgery, all animals were sacrificed, treated ribs were explanted and the histological analysis, µCT imaging and biomechanical testing of the calluses tissue were performed. Results: In µCT imaging, experimental group showed a higher cortical bone volume compared to the control group. Histological analysis using the non-decalcified bone tissue blocks demonstrated more maturated callus with higher newly-formed osseous tissue ratio in experimental group in comparison to controls. In contrast, no significant differences in bone blood vessels supply in both groups were observed. This finding suggests that the bone blood supply in experimental group was not impaired. Biomechanical analysis using 3-point bending test demonstrated significantly higher bending stiffness and the maximum force in experimental group. Conclusion: Based on our observation, it could be concluded, that the titanium plate fixation of the rib fractures leads to faster bone callus maturation whereas does not cause the vascular supply impairment after 3 weeks and thus has a beneficial effect on the rib fracture healing.

Keywords: bone vascular supply, chest wall stabilization, fracture healing, histological analysis, titanium plate implantation

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