Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: ibuprofen

37 Functional Slow Release of Encapsulated Ibuprofen in Cross-linked Gellan Gum Hydrogel for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Nor Jannah Mohd Sebri, Khairul Anuar Mat Amin


Dication cross-linked gellan gum hydrogel loaded with Ibuprofen with excellent mechanical properties had been synthesized as potential candidate for non-toxic biocompatible polymer material in tissue engineering. The gellan gum hydrogel with 5% Ibuprofen had produced a slow release profile with total drug release time of 25 hours as a resulting low swelling value recorded at 22+0.5%. Its compressive strength, 200.13+21 kPa was highest of all other hydrogel ratio of 0.5% and 1.0% Ibuprofen incorporation. Young’s Modulus of the hydrogel with 5% Ibuprofen was recorded at 1.8+0.01 MPa, indicating good gel strength in which it is capable of withstanding a fair amount of subjected force during topical wound dressing application. Excellent mechanical properties, together with slow release profile, make the ibuprofen-loaded hydrogel a prospect candidate as biocompatible extracellular matrices in wound management.

Keywords: gellan gum, ibuprofen, slow drug release, hydrogel

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36 Direct Compression Formulation of Poorly Compressible Drugs to Minimize the Tablet Defects

Authors: Abhishek Pandey


Capping and lamination are the most common tablet defects with poorly compressible drugs the common example of that Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen. Generally both these drugs are compressed by wet granulation method which is very time consuming process Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis Acetaminophen used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression technique and their evaluation. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimize formulation nine different formulations were generated among them batch F5, F6, F7 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of evaluation parameters.

Keywords: capping, lamination, tablet defects, direct compression

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
35 Hydrogen Sulfide Releasing Ibuprofen Derivative Can Protect Heart After Ischemia-Reperfusion

Authors: Virag Vass, Ilona Bereczki, Erzsebet Szabo, Nora Debreczeni, Aniko Borbas, Pal Herczegh, Arpad Tosaki


Hydrogen sulfide (H₂S) is a toxic gas, but it is produced by certain tissues in a small quantity. According to earlier studies, ibuprofen and H₂S has a protective effect against damaging heart tissue caused by ischemia-reperfusion. Recently, we have been investigating the effect of a new water-soluble H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule administered after artificially generated ischemia-reperfusion on isolated rat hearts. The H₂S releasing property of the new ibuprofen derivative was investigated in vitro in medium derived from heart endothelial cell isolation at two concentrations. The ex vivo examinations were carried out on rat hearts. Rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of ketamine, xylazine, and heparin. After thoracotomy, hearts were excised and placed into ice-cold perfusion buffer. Perfusion of hearts was conducted in Langendorff mode via the cannulated aorta. In our experiments, we studied the dose-effect of the H₂S releasing molecule in Langendorff-perfused hearts with the application of gradually increasing concentration of the compound (0- 20 µM). The H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative was applied before the ischemia for 10 minutes. H₂S concentration was measured with an H₂S detecting electrochemical sensor from the coronary effluent solution. The 10 µM concentration was chosen for further experiments when the treatment with this solution was occurred after the ischemia. The release of H₂S is occurred by the hydrolyzing enzymes that are present in the heart endothelial cells. The protective effect of the new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule can be confirmed by the infarct sizes of hearts using the Triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining method. Furthermore, we aimed to define the effect of the H₂S releasing ibuprofen derivative on autophagic and apoptotic processes in damaged hearts after investigating the molecular markers of these events by western blotting and immunohistochemistry techniques. Our further studies will include the examination of LC3I/II, p62, Beclin1, caspase-3, and other apoptotic molecules. We hope that confirming the protective effect of new H₂S releasing ibuprofen molecule will open a new possibility for the development of more effective cardioprotective agents with exerting fewer side effects. Acknowledgment: This study was supported by the grants of NKFIH- K-124719 and the European Union and the State of Hungary co- financed by the European Social Fund in the framework of GINOP- 2.3.2-15-2016-00043.

Keywords: autophagy, hydrogen sulfide, ibuprofen, ischemia, reperfusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
34 Photochemical Degradation of Ibuprofren in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Stavros Poulopoulos, Aphrodite Tetorou, Constantine Philippopoulos


Day after day more pharmaceutical compounds that are not efficiently removed by conventional treatment methods are found in treated wastewaters and drinking waters. Due to their refractory nature, they escape conventional wastewater treatment facilities, and thus advanced oxidation processes have to be utilized to effectively eliminate them. In the present study, the removal of Ibuprofen from aqueous solutions containing the commercial drug Algofren (non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory) using UV irradiation, hydrogen peroxide, titanium dioxide and ferric ions was examined. All experiments were conducted in a batch photoreactor operated for 120 min. The main target was to select the most effective operating conditions for the mineralization of the solutions treated. The combination of Fe(III)/ H₂O₂/UV proved to be very efficient in terms of total organic carbon removal and ibuprofen conversion. For solutions containing 5 mg/L ibuprofen and initial total carbon 51.1 mg/L, complete mineralization was achieved by means of 2.2 ppm Fe(III) and 333 mg/L H₂O₂.

Keywords: pharmaceuticals, photocatalytic, photo-Fenton, TiO₂

Procedia PDF Downloads 75
33 Multi-Template Molecularly Imprinted Polymer: Synthesis, Characterization and Removal of Selected Acidic Pharmaceuticals from Wastewater

Authors: Lawrence Mzukisi Madikizela, Luke Chimuka


Removal of organics from wastewater offers a better water quality, therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the use of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the elimination of selected organics from water. A multi-template MIP for the adsorption of naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac was synthesized using a bulk polymerization method. A MIP was synthesized at 70°C by employing 2-vinylpyridine, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, toluene and 1,1’-azobis-(cyclohexanecarbonitrile) as functional monomer, cross-linker, porogen and initiator, respectively. Thermogravimetric characterization indicated that the polymer backbone collapses at 250°C and scanning electron microscopy revealed the porous and roughness nature of the MIP after elution of templates. The performance of the MIP in aqueous solutions was evaluated by optimizing several adsorption parameters. The optimized adsorption conditions were 50 mg of MIP, extraction time of 10 min, a sample pH of 4.6 and the initial concentration of 30 mg/L. The imprinting factors obtained for naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac were 1.25, 1.42, and 2.01, respectively. The order of selectivity for the MIP was; diclofenac > ibuprofen > naproxen. MIP showed great swelling in water with an initial swelling rate of 2.62 g/(g min). The synthesized MIP proved to be able to adsorb naproxen, ibuprofen and diclofenac from contaminated deionized water, wastewater influent and effluent.

Keywords: adsorption, molecularly imprinted polymer, multi template, pharmaceuticals

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32 Antioxidants Reveal Protection against the Biochemical Changes in Liver, Kidney, and Blood Profiles after Clindamycin/Ibuprofen Administration in Dental Patients

Authors: Gouda K. Helal, Marwa I. Shabayek, Heba A. El-Ramly, Heba A. Awida


The adverse effects of Clindamycin (Clind.) / Ibuprofen (Ibu.) combination on liver, kidney, blood elements and the significances of antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and Zinc) against these effects were evaluated. The study includes: Group I; control n=30, Group II; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg twice daily for a week n=30, Group III; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+N-acetylcysteine 200mg twice daily for a week n=15 and Group IV; patients on Clind.300mg/Ibu.400mg+Zinc50mg twice daily for a week n=15. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine transferase (ALT), aspartate transferase (AST), γ glutamyl transferase (GGT), creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured. Applying one way ANOVA followed by Tuckey Kramer post test, Group II showed significant increase in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN and decrease in Hb, RBCs, platelets than Group I. Group III showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT, BUN than Group II. Moreover, Group IV showed significant decrease in ALT, AST, GGT and increase in Hb, RBCs, and platelets than Group II. Conclusively, Adding Zinc or N-acetylcysteine buffer the oxidative stress and improve the therapeutic outcome of Clindamycin/Ibuprofen combination.

Keywords: clindamycin, ibuprofen, adverse effects, antioxidant, zinc, N-acetylcysteine

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31 Self-Assembled ZnFeAl Layered Double Hydroxides as Highly Efficient Fenton-Like Catalysts

Authors: Marius Sebastian Secula, Mihaela Darie, Gabriela Carja


Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDs) and is among the most frequently detected pharmaceuticals in environmental samples and among the most widespread drug in the world. Its concentration in the environment is reported to be between 10 and 160 ng L-1. In order to improve the abatement efficiency of this compound for water source prevention and reclamation, the development of innovative technologies is mandatory. AOPs (advanced oxidation processes) are known as highly efficient towards the oxidation of organic pollutants. Among the promising combined treatments, photo-Fenton processes using layered double hydroxides (LDHs) attracted significant consideration especially due to their composition flexibility, high surface area and tailored redox features. This work presents the self-supported Fe, Mn or Ti on ZnFeAl LDHs obtained by co-precipitation followed by reconstruction method as novel efficient photo-catalysts for Fenton-like catalysis. Fe, Mn or Ti/ZnFeAl LDHs nano-hybrids were tested for the degradation of a model pharmaceutical agent, the anti-inflammatory agent ibuprofen, by photocatalysis and photo-Fenton catalysis, respectively, by means of a lab-scale system consisting of a batch reactor equipped with an UV lamp (17 W). The present study presents comparatively the degradation of Ibuprofen in aqueous solution UV light irradiation using four different types of LDHs. The newly prepared Ti/ZnFeAl 4:1 catalyst results in the best degradation performance. After 60 minutes of light irradiation, the Ibuprofen removal efficiency reaches 95%. The slowest degradation of Ibuprofen solution occurs in case of Fe/ZnFeAl 4:1 LDH, (67% removal efficiency after 60 minutes of process). Evolution of Ibuprofen degradation during the photo Fenton process is also studied using Ti/ZnFeAl 2:1 and 4:1 LDHs in the presence and absence of H2O2. It is found that after 60 min the use of Ti/ZnFeAl 4:1 LDH in presence of 100 mg/L H2O2 leads to the fastest degradation of Ibuprofen molecule. After 120 min, both catalysts Ti/ZnFeAl 4:1 and 2:1 result in the same value of removal efficiency (98%). In the absence of H2O2, Ibuprofen degradation reaches only 73% removal efficiency after 120 min of degradation process. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-0405.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, advanced oxidation process, micropollutant, heterogeneous Fenton

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30 Synthesis of Visible-Light-Driven Magnetically Recoverable [email protected]@Fe3O4 Nanophotocatalyst for Enhanced Degradation of Ibuprofen

Authors: Ashutosh Kumar, Irene M. C. Lo


Ever since the discovery of TiO2 for decomposition of cyanide in water, it has been investigated extensively for the photocatalytic degradation of environmental pollutants, and became the most practical and prevalent photocatalyst. The superiority of TiO2 is due to its chemical and biological inertness, nontoxicity, strong oxidizing power and cost-effectiveness. However, during degradation of pollutants in wastewater, it suffers from problems, such as (a) separation after use, and (b) its poor photocatalytic performance under visible light irradiation (~45% of the solar spectrum). In order to bridge the research gaps, [email protected]@Fe3O4 nanophotocatalysts of average size 19 nm and effective surface area 47 m2 gm-1 were synthesized using sol-gel method. The characterization was performed using BET, TEM-EDX, VSM and XRD. The performance was improved by considering different factors involved during the synthesis, such as calcination temperature, amount of Fe3O4 nanoparticles used and amount of urea used for N-doping. The final nanophotocatalyst was calcined at 500 °C which was able to degrade 94% of the ibuprofen within 5 h of irradiation time. Under the influence of ~200 mT electromagnetic field, 95% nanophotocatalysts separation efficiency was achieved within 20-25 min. Moreover, the effect of different visible light source of similar irradiance, such as compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) and light emitting diode (LED), is also investigated in this research. The performance of nanophotocatalysts was found to be comparatively higher under ~310 µW cm-2 irradiance with peak emissive wavelengths of 543 nm emitted by CFL. Therefore, a promising visible-light-driven magnetically separable TiO2-based nanophotocatalysts was synthesized for the efficient degradation of ibuprofen.

Keywords: ibuprofen, magnetic N-TiO2, photocatalysis, visible light sources

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
29 Formulation Development, Process Optimization and Comparative study of Poorly Compressible Drugs Ibuprofen, Acetaminophen Using Direct Compression and Top Spray Granulation Technique

Authors: Abhishek Pandey


Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen is widely used as prescription & non-prescription medicine. Ibuprofen mainly used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain related to headache, migraine, postoperative condition and in the management of spondylitis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic drug. Ibuprofen having high tendency of sticking to punches of tablet punching machine while Acetaminophen is not ordinarily compressible to tablet formulation because Acetaminophen crystals are very hard and brittle in nature and fracture very easily when compressed producing capping and laminating tablet defects therefore wet granulation method is used to make them compressible. The aim of study was to prepare Ibuprofen and Acetaminophen tablets by direct compression and top spray granulation technique. In this Investigation tablets were prepared by using directly compressible grade excipients. Dibasic calcium phosphate, lactose anhydrous (DCL21), microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 101). In order to obtain best or optimized formulation, nine different formulations were generated among them batch F7, F8, F9 shows good results and within the acceptable limit. Formulation (F7) selected as optimize product on the basis of dissolution study. Furtherly, directly compressible granules of both drugs were prepared by using top spray granulation technique in fluidized bed processor equipment and compressed .In order to obtain best product process optimization was carried out by performing four trials in which various parameters like inlet air temperature, spray rate, peristaltic pump rpm, % LOD, properties of granules, blending time and hardness were optimized. Batch T3 coined as optimized batch on the basis physical & chemical evaluation. Finally formulations prepared by both techniques were compared.

Keywords: direct compression, top spray granulation, process optimization, blending time

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28 Modelling Ibuprofen with Human Albumin

Authors: U. L. Fulco, E. L. Albuquerque, José X. Lima Neto, L. R. Da Silva


The binding of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBU) to human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated using density functional theory (DFT) calculations within a fragmentation strategy. Crystallographic data for the IBU–HSA supramolecular complex shows that the ligand is confined to a large cavity at the subdomain IIIA and at the interface between the subdomains IIA and IIB, whose binding sites are FA3/FA4 and FA6, respectively. The interaction energy between the IBU molecule and each amino acid residue of these HSA binding pockets was calculated using the Molecular Fractionation with Conjugate Caps (MFCC) approach employing a dispersion corrected exchange–correlation functional. Our investigation shows that the total interaction energy of IBU bound to HSA at binding sites of the fatty acids FA3/FA4 (FA6) converges only for a pocket radius of at least 8.5 °A, mainly due to the action of residues Arg410, Lys414 and Ser489 (Lys351, Ser480 and Leu481) and residues in nonhydrophobic domains, namely Ile388, Phe395, Phe403, Leu407, Leu430, Val433, and Leu453 (Phe206, Ala210, Ala213, and Leu327), which is unusual. Our simulations are valuable for a better understanding of the binding mechanism of IBU to albumin and can lead to the rational design and the development of novel IBU-derived drugs with improved potency.

Keywords: ibuprofen, human serum albumin, density functional theory, binding energies

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27 Effect of Different Model Drugs on the Properties of Model Membranes from Fishes

Authors: M. Kumpugdee-Vollrath, T. G. D. Phu, M. Helmis


A suitable model membrane to study the pharmacological effect of pharmaceutical products is human stratum corneum because this layer of human skin is the outermost layer and it is an important barrier to be passed through. Other model membranes which were also used are for example skins from pig, mouse, reptile or fish. We are interested in fish skins in this project. The advantages of the fish skins are, that they can be obtained from the supermarket or fish shop. However, the fish skins should be freshly prepared and used directly without storage. In order to understand the effect of different model drugs e.g. lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid on the properties of the model membrane from various types of fishes e.g. trout, salmon, cod, plaice permeation tests were performed and differential scanning calorimetry was applied.

Keywords: fish skin, model membrane, permeation, DSC, lidocaine HCl, resveratrol, paracetamol, ibuprofen, acetyl salicylic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
26 Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Ibuprofen in Ultrapure Water, Municipal and Pharmaceutical Industry Wastewaters Using a TiO2/UV-LED System

Authors: Nabil Jallouli, Luisa M. Pastrana-Martínez, Ana R. Ribeiro, Nuno F. F. Moreira, Joaquim L. Faria, Olfa Hentati, Adrián M. T. Silva, Mohamed Ksibi


Degradation and mineralization of ibuprofen (IBU) were investigated using Ultraviolet (UV) Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in TiO2 photocatalysis. Samples of ultrapure water (UP) and a secondary treated effluent of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), both spiked with IBU, as well as a highly concentrated IBU (230 mgL-1) pharmaceutical industry wastewater (PIWW), were tested in the TiO2/UV-LED system. Three operating parameters, namely, pH, catalyst load and number of LEDs were optimized. The process efficiency was evaluated in terms of IBU removal using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Additionally, the mineralization was investigated by determining the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content. The chemical structures of transformation products were proposed based on the data obtained using liquid chromatography with a high resolution mass spectrometer ion trap/time-of-flight (LC-MS-IT-TOF). A possible pathway of IBU degradation was accordingly proposed. Bioassays were performed using the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri to evaluate the potential acute toxicity of original and treated wastewaters. TiO2 heterogeneous photocatalysis was efficient to remove IBU from UP and from PIWW, and less efficient in treating the wastewater from the municipal WWTP. The acute toxicity decreased by ca. 40% after treatment, regardless of the studied matrix.

Keywords: acute toxicity, Ibuprofen, UV-LEDs, wastewaters

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25 Nano-Sized Iron Oxides/ZnMe Layered Double Hydroxides as Highly Efficient Fenton-Like Catalysts for Degrading Specific Pharmaceutical Agents

Authors: Marius Sebastian Secula, Mihaela Darie, Gabriela Carja


Persistent organic pollutant discharged by various industries or urban regions into the aquatic ecosystems represent a serious threat to fauna and human health. The endocrine disrupting compounds are known to have toxic effects even at very low values of concentration. The anti-inflammatory agent Ibuprofen is an endocrine disrupting compound and is considered as model pollutant in the present study. The use of light energy to accomplish the latest requirements concerning wastewater discharge demands highly-performant and robust photo-catalysts. Many efforts have been paid to obtain efficient photo-responsive materials. Among the promising photo-catalysts, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) attracted significant consideration especially due to their composition flexibility, high surface area and tailored redox features. This work presents Fe(II) self-supported on ZnMeLDHs (Me =Al3+, Fe3+) as novel efficient photo-catalysts for Fenton-like catalysis. The co-precipitation method was used to prepare ZnAlLDH, ZnFeAlLDH and ZnCrLDH (Zn2+/Me3+ = 2 molar ratio). Fe(II) was self-supported on the LDHs matrices by using the reconstruction method, at two different values of weight concentration. X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to investigate the structural, textural, and micromorphology of the catalysts. The Fe(II)/ZnMeLDHs nano-hybrids were tested for the degradation of a model pharmaceutical agent, the anti-inflammatory agent ibuprofen, by photocatalysis and photo-Fenton catalysis, respectively. The results point out that the embedment Fe(II) into ZnFeAlLDH and ZnCrLDH lead to a slight enhancement of ibuprofen degradation by light irradiation, whereas in case of ZnAlLDH, the degradation process is relatively low. A remarkable enhancement of ibuprofen degradation was found in the case of Fe(II)/ZnMeLDHs by photo-Fenton process. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS - UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-0405.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, heterogeneous Fenton, micropollutant, photocatalysis

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24 Occurrence of Pharmaceutical Compounds in an Urban Lake

Authors: J. D. Villanueva, N. Peyraube, I. Allan, G. D. Salvosa, M. Reid, C. Harman, K. D. Salvosa, J. M. V. Castro, M. V. O. Espaldon, J. B. Sevilla-Nastor, P. Le Coustumer


The main objectives of this research are to (1) assess the occurrence of the pharmaceutical compounds and (2) present the environmental challenges posed by the existence of these pharmaceutical compounds in the surface water. These pharmaceuticals were measured in Napindan Lake, Philippines. This lake is not only a major tributary of the Pasig River (an estuary) and Laguna Lake (freshwater). It also joins these two important surface waters of the National Capital Region. Pharmaceutical compounds such as Atenolol, Carbamazepine, and two other over the counter medicines: Cetirizine, and Ibuprofen were measured in Napindan Lake. Atenolol is a beta blocker that helps in lowering hypertensions. Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant used as treatment for epilepsy and neuropathic pain. Cetirizine is an antihistamine that can relieve allergies. Ibuprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug normally used to relieve pains. Three different climatological conditions with corresponding hydro physico chemical characteristics were considered. First, was during a dry season with a simultaneous dredging. Second was during a transition period from dry to wet season. Finally, the third was during a continuous wet event. Based from the results of the study, most of these pharmaceuticals can be found in Napindan Lake. This is a proof that these pharmaceutical compounds are being released to a natural surface water. Even though climatological conditions were different, concentrations of these pharmaceuticals can still be detected. This implies that there is an incessant supply of these pharmaceutical compounds in Napindan Lake. Chronic exposure to these compounds even at low concentrations can lead to possible environmental and health risks. Given this information and since consistent occurrence of these compounds can be expected, the main challenge, at present, is on how to control the sources of these pharmaceutical compounds. Primarily, there is a need to manage the disposal of the pharmaceutical compounds. Yet, the main question is how to? This study would like to present the challenges and institutional roles in helping manage the pharmaceutical disposals in a developing country like the Philippines.

Keywords: atenolol, carbamazepine, cetirizine, ibuprofen, institutional roles, Napindan lake, pharmaceutical compound disposal management, surface water, urban lake

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23 Differentiation of Drug Stereoisomers by Their Stereostructure-Selective Membrane Interactions as One of Pharmacological Mechanisms

Authors: Maki Mizogami, Hironori Tsuchiya, Yoshiroh Hayabuchi, Kenji Shigemi


Since drugs exhibit significant structure-dependent differences in activity and toxicity, their differentiation based on the mechanism of action should have implications for comparative drug efficacy and safety. We aimed to differentiate drug stereoisomers by their stereostructure-selective membrane interactions underlying pharmacological and toxicological effects. Biomimetic lipid bilayer membranes were prepared with phospholipids and sterols (either cholesterol or epicholesterol) to mimic the lipid compositions of neuronal and cardiomyocyte membranes and to provide these membranes with the chirality. The membrane preparations were treated with different classes of stereoisomers at clinically- and pharmacologically-relevant concentrations (25-200 μM), followed by measuring fluorescence polarization to determine the membrane interactivity of drugs to change the physicochemical property of membranes. All the tested drugs acted on lipid bilayers to increase or decrease the membrane fluidity. Drug stereoisomers could not be differentiated when interacting with the membranes consisting of phospholipids alone. However, they stereostructure-selectively interacted with neuro-mimetic and cardio-mimetic membranes containing 40 mol% cholesterol ((3β)-cholest-5-en-3-ol) to show the relative potencies being local anesthetic R(+)-bupivacaine > rac-bupivacaine > S(‒)-bupivacaine, α2-adrenergic agonistic D-medetomidine > rac-medetomidine > L-medetomidine, β-adrenergic antagonistic R(+)-propranolol > rac-propranolol > S(–)-propranolol, NMDA receptor antagonistic S(+)-ketamine > rac-ketamine, analgesic monoterpenoid (+)-menthol > (‒)-menthol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory S(+)-ibuprofen > rac-ibuprofen > R(‒)-ibuprofen, and bioactive flavonoid (+)-epicatechin > (‒)-epicatechin. All of the order of membrane interactivity were correlated to those of beneficial and adverse effects of the tested stereoisomers. In contrast, the membranes prepared with epicholesterol ((3α)-chotest-5-en-3-ol), an epimeric form of cholesterol, reversed the rank order of membrane interactivity to be S(‒)-enantiomeric > racemic > R(+)-enantiomeric bupivacaine, L-enantiomeric > racemic > D-enantiomeric medetomidine, S(–)-enantiomeric > racemic > R(+)-enantiomeric propranolol, racemic > S(+)-enantiomeric ketamine, (‒)-enantiomeric > (+)-enantiomeric menthol, R(‒)-enantiomeric > racemic > S(+)-enantiomeric ibuprofen, and (‒)-enantiomeric > (+)-enantiomeric epicatechin. The opposite configuration allows drug molecules to interact with chiral sterol membranes enantiomer-selectively. From the comparative results, it is speculated that a 3β-hydroxyl group in cholesterol is responsible for the enantioselective interactions of drugs. In conclusion, the differentiation of drug stereoisomers by their stereostructure-selective membrane interactions would be useful for designing and predicting drugs with higher activity and/or lower toxicity.

Keywords: chiral membrane, differentiation, drug stereoisomer, enantioselective membrane interaction

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22 The Effects of Chamomile on Serum Levels of Inflammatory Indexes to a Bout of Eccentric Exercise in Young Women

Authors: K. Azadeh, M. Ghasemi, S. Fazelifar


Aim: Changes in stress hormones can be modify response of immune system. Cortisol as the most important body corticosteroid is anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive hormone. Normal levels of cortisol in humans has fluctuated during the day, In other words, cortisol is released periodically, and regulate through the release of ACTH circadian rhythm in every day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of Chamomile on serum levels of inflammatory indexes to a bout of eccentric exercise in young women. Methodology: 32 women were randomly divided into 4 groups: high dose of Chamomile, low dose of Chamomile, ibuprofen and placebo group. Eccentric exercise included 5 set and rest period between sets was 1 minute. For this purpose, subjects warm up 10 min and then done eccentric exercise. Each participant completed 15 repetitions with optional 20 kg weight or until can’t continue moving. When the subject was no longer able to continue to move, immediately decreased 5 kg from the weight and the protocol continued until cause exhaustion or complete 15 repetitions. Also, subjects received specified amount of ibuprofen and Chamomile capsules in target groups. Blood samples in 6 stages (pre of starting pill, pre of exercise protocol, 4, 24, 48 and 72 hours after eccentric exercise) was obtained. The levels of cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone levels were measured by ELISA way. K-S test to determine the normality of the data and analysis of variance for repeated measures was used to analyze the data. A significant difference in the p < 0/05 accepted. Results: The results showed that Individual characteristics including height, weight, age and body mass index were not significantly different among the four groups. Analyze of data showed that cortisol and ACTH basic levels significantly decreased after supplementation consumption, but then gradually significantly increased in all stages of post exercise. In High dose of Chamomile group, increasing tendency of post exercise somewhat less than other groups, but not to a significant level. The inter-group analysis results indicate that time effect had a significant impact in different stages of the groups. Conclusion: The results of this study, one session of eccentric exercise increased cortisol and ACTH hormone. The results represent the effect of high dose of Chamomile in the prevention and reduction of increased stress hormone levels. As regards use of medicinal plants and ibuprofen as a pain medication and inflammation has spread among athletes and non-athletes, the results of this research can provide information about the advantages and disadvantages of using medicinal plants and ibuprofen.

Keywords: chamomile, inflammatory indexes, eccentric exercise, young girls

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21 The Influence of Ibuprofen, Diclofenac and Naproxen on Composition and Ultrastructural Characteristics of Atriplex patula and Spinacia oleracea

Authors: Ocsana Opris, Ildiko Lung, Maria L. Soran, Alexandra Ciorita, Lucian Copolovici


The effects assessment of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value are a very important research topic. Continuously worldwide consumption of drugs leads to significant environmental pollution, thus generating environmental stress. Understanding the effects of the important drugs on plant composition and ultrastructural modification is still limited, especially at environmentally relevant concentrations. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of three non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on chlorophylls content, carotenoids content, total polyphenols content, antioxidant capacity, and ultrastructure of orache (Atriplex patula L.) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). All green leafy vegetables selected for this study were grown in controlled conditions and treated with solutions of different concentrations (0.1‒1 mg L⁻¹) of diclofenac, ibuprofen, and naproxen. After eight weeks of exposure of the plants to NSAIDs, the chlorophylls and carotenoids content were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array and mass spectrometer detectors, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Also, the ultrastructural analyses of the vegetables were performed using transmission electron microscopy in order to assess the influence of the selected NSAIDs on cellular organisms, mainly photosynthetic organisms (chloroplasts), energy supply organisms (mitochondria) and nucleus as a cellular metabolism coordinator. In comparison with the control plants, decreases in the content of chlorophylls were observed in the case of the Atriplex patula L. plants treated with ibuprofen (11-34%) and naproxen (25-52%). Also, the chlorophylls content from Spinacia oleracea L. was affected, the lowest decrease (34%) being obtained in the case of the treatment with naproxen (1 mg L⁻¹). Diclofenac (1 mg L⁻¹) affected the total polyphenols content (a decrease of 45%) of Atriplex patula L. and ibuprofen (1 mg L⁻¹) affected the total polyphenols content (a decrease of 20%) of Spinacia oleracea L. The results obtained also indicate a moderate reduction of carotenoids and antioxidant capacity in the treated plants, in comparison with the controls. The investigations by transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the green leafy vegetables were affected by the selected NSAIDs. Thus, this research contributes to a better understanding of the adverse effects of these drugs on studied plants. Important to mention is that the dietary intake of these drugs contaminated plants, plants with important nutritional value, may also presume a risk to human health, but currently little is known about the fate of the drugs in plants and their effect on or risk to the ecosystem.

Keywords: abiotic stress, green leafy vegetables, pigments content, ultra structure

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20 Patterns of Self-Medication with Over-the-Counter Pain Relievers (Acetaminophen, Ibuprofen, and Aspirin) among the Kuwaiti Population

Authors: Nabil Ahmed Kamal Badawy, Ali Falah Alhajraf, Mawaheb Falah Alsamdan


Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of self-medication with over-the-counter pain relievers (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and aspirin) among Kuwaiti citizens above the age of 16 years old and describe their patterns of use, perceived awareness of, and concerns about the drugs’ potential side effects. Design: A descriptive cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey. Setting: Samples were selected from the six Kuwaiti governorates. Subjects: The data were collected over a four-month period in 2012, from 850 subjects who identified as Kuwaiti citizens. These subjects were recruited using stratified random sampling. Results: Overall, a 67% response rate was obtained. In total, 68% (573) of the respondents reported the use of over-the-counter pain relievers. Women, middle-aged or single individuals, and those who had completed higher education used these drugs more than any other subgroup (p<0.05). We found evidence of inappropriate use of these drugs, with 15% (88) of the consumers using them almost daily. Further, 19% (111) of the consumers exceeded the recommended dosage at least once. Not only were 81% of the consumers unaware of the potential side effects, but also more than 61% were not concerned about them. Women were more knowledgeable than men regarding the maximum dose (p=0.036, OR 1.49, CI 1.03–2.17). Consumers with higher levels of education did not show distinct knowledge regarding the maximum allowed dose of the drugs (p=0.252, OR 1.71, CI 0.68-4.25). Conclusion: The results showed a high prevalence of self-medication with over-the-counter pain relievers among Kuwaiti citizens. The subjects showed marked unawareness and a lack of concern regarding the potential complications resulting from the inappropriate use of these analgesics. This demonstrates the need for educational interventions directed toward both patients and health care workers.

Keywords: awareness of side effects, concern, patterns of use, prevalence

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19 Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Plant Extracts, and Characterized Microparticles to Modulate Antimicrobial Resistance of Epidemic Meca Positive S. Aureus of Dairy Origin

Authors: Amjad I. Aqib, Shanza R. Khan, Tanveer Ahmad, Syed A. R. Shah, Muhammad A. Naseer, Muhammad Shoaib, Iqra Sarwar, Muhammad F. A. Kulyar, Zeeshan A. Bhutta, Mumtaz A. Khan, Mahboob Ali, Khadija Yasmeen


The current study focused on resistance modulation of dairy linked epidemic mec A positive S. aureus for resistance modulation by plant extract (Eucalyptus globolus, Calotropis procera), NSAIDs, and star like microparticles. Zinc oxide {ZnO}c and {Zn (OH)₂} microparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method and characterized by calcination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Plant extracts were prepared by the Soxhlet extraction method. The study found 34% of subclinical samples (n=200) positive for S. aureus from dairy milk having significant (p < 0.05) association of assumed risk factors with pathogen. The antimicrobial assay showed 55, 42, 41, and 41% of S. aureus resistant to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and enoxacin. Amoxicillin showed the highest percentage of increase in zone of inhibitions (ZOI) at 100mg of Calotropis procera extract (31.29%) followed by 1mg/mL (28.91%) and 10mg/mL (21.68%) of Eucalyptus globolus. Amoxicillin increased ZOI by 42.85, 37.32, 29.05, and 22.78% in combination with 500 ug/ml with each of diclofenac, aspirin, ibuprofen, and meloxicam, respectively. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) showed synergism of amoxicillin with diclofenac and aspirin and indifferent synergy with ibuprofen and meloxicam. The preliminary in vitro finding of combination of microparticles with amoxicillin proved to be synergistic, giving rise to 26.74% and 14.85% increase in ZOI of amoxicillin in combination with zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide, respectively. The modulated antimicrobial resistance incurred by NSAIDs, plant extracts, and microparticles against pathogenic S. aureus invite immediate attention to probe alternative antimicrobial sources.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, dairy milk, nanoparticles, NSIDs, plant extracts, resistance modulation, S. aureus

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18 Development of Nanostructured Materials for the Elimination of Emerging Pollutants in Water through Adsorption Processes

Authors: J. Morillo, Otal E., A. Caballero, R. M. Pereñiguez, J. Usero


The present work shows in the first place, the manufacture of the perovskitic material used as adsorbent, by means of two different methods to obtain two types of perovskites (LaFeO₃ and BiFeO₃). The results of this work show the characteristics of this manufactured material, as well as the synthesis yields obtained, achieving a better result for the self-combustion synthesis. Secondly, from the manufactured perovskites, an adsorption system has been developed, at the laboratory level, for the adsorption of the emerging pollutants Trimethoprim, Ciprofloxacin and Ibuprofen.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, emerging pollutants, water, adsorption processes

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17 Core-Shell Nanofibers for Prevention of Postsurgical Adhesion

Authors: Jyh-Ping Chen, Chia-Lin Sheu


In this study, we propose to use electrospinning to fabricate porous nanofibrous membranes as postsurgical anti-adhesion barriers and to improve the properties of current post-surgical anti-adhesion products. We propose to combine FDA-approved biomaterials with anti-adhesion properties, polycaprolactone (PCL), polyethylene glycol (PEG), hyaluronic acid (HA) with silver nanoparticles (Ag) and ibuprofen (IBU), to produce anti-adhesion barrier nanofibrous membranes. For this purpose, PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU core-shell nanofibers were prepared. The shell layer contains PEG + PCL to provide mechanical supports and Ag was added to the outer PEG-PCL shell layer during electrospinning to endow the nanofibrous membrane with anti-bacterial properties. The core contains HA to exert anti-adhesion and IBU to exert anti-inflammation effects, respectively. The nanofibrous structure of the membranes can reduce cell penetration while allowing nutrient and waste transports to prevent postsurgical adhesion. Nanofibers with different core/shell thickness ratio were prepared. The nanofibrous membranes were first characterized for their physico-chemical properties in detail, followed by in vitro cell culture studies for cell attachment and proliferation. The HA released from the core region showed extended release up to 21 days for prolonged anti-adhesion effects. The attachment of adhesion-forming fibroblasts is reduced using the nanofibrous membrane from DNA assays and confocal microscopic observation of adhesion protein vinculin expression. The Ag released from the shell showed burst release to prevent E Coli and S. aureus infection immediately and prevent bacterial resistance to Ag. Minimum cytotoxicity was observed from Ag and IBU when fibroblasts were culture with the extraction medium of the nanofibrous membranes. The peritendinous anti-adhesion model in rabbits and the peritoneal anti-adhesion model in rats were used to test the efficacy of the anti-adhesion barriers as determined by gross observation, histology, and biomechanical tests. Within all membranes, the PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU core-shell nanofibers showed the best reduction in cell attachment and proliferation when tested with fibroblasts in vitro. The PEG/PCL/Ag/HA/IBU nanofibrous membranes also showed significant improvement in preventing both peritendinous and peritoneal adhesions when compared with other groups and a commercial adhesion barrier film.

Keywords: anti-adhesion, electrospinning, hyaluronic acid, ibuprofen, nanofibers

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16 Poststreptococcal Reactive Arthritis in Children: A Serial Case

Authors: A. Lubis, S. S. Pasulu, Z. Hikmah, A. Endaryanto, A. Harsono


Infection by group A streptococci (GAS) can trigger an autoantibody that cause a poststreptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA). Four patients with PSRA aged 10 years to 14 years old with the main complaint of joint pain for five days to 10 days after suffering a fever and sore throat. The joint pain was persistent, additive, and non migratory. All patients revealed an increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and anti-streptolysin O (ASLO), but the chest x-ray, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were normal. Bone imaging showed no destruction on the affected joint. Jones Criteria were not fulfilled in all patients. Erythromycin and ibuprofen were given in all patients and an improvement was shown. Erythromycin was continued for one year and routine controls were conducted for cardiac evaluation. The prognosis of all the patients was good.

Keywords: arthritis, group a streptococcus, autoantibody, Jones criteria

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15 Multiclass Analysis of Pharmaceuticals in Fish and Shrimp Tissues by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Reza Pashaei, Reda Dzingelevičienė


An efficient, reliable, and sensitive multiclass analytical method has been expanded to simultaneously determine 15 human pharmaceutical residues in fish and shrimp tissue samples by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The investigated compounds comprise ten classes, namely analgesic, antibacterial, anticonvulsant, cardiovascular, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory, penicillins, stimulant, and sulfonamide. A simple liquid extraction procedure based on 0.1% formic acid in methanol was developed. Chromatographic conditions were optimized, and mobile phase namely 0.1 % ammonium acetate (A), and acetonitrile (B): 0 – 2 min, 15% B; 2 – 5 min, linear to 95% B; 5 – 10 min, 95% B; and 10 – 12 min was obtained. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 0.017 to 1.371 μg/kg and 0.051 to 4.113 μg/kg, respectively. Finally, amoxicillin, azithromycin, caffeine, carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, erythromycin, furosemide, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, naproxen, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, and triclosan were quantifiable in fish and shrimp samples.

Keywords: fish, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry, pharmaceuticals, shrimp, solid-phase extraction

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14 Management of Pain in Patients under Vitamin K Antagonists: Experience of the Unit of Clinical Pharmacology of EHU Oran, Algeria

Authors: Amina Bayazid, Habiba Fetati, Houari Toumi


Introduction: The clinical value of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) has been widely demonstrated in numerous indications. Unfortunately, VKA are not devoid of drawbacks and risk of serious bleeding. The iatrogenic induced by these drugs is a major public health problem. Patients & Methods: We conducted a retrospective study period extending from February 2012 to August 2013 in the pharmacovigilance service of EHUO (clinical pharmacology unit). The prescription of painkillers was analyzed in patients on VKA followed at our level. The influence of these analgesics on the evolution of the INR is an important component in our work. Results: We counted a total of 195 patients, of whom 32 (or 16.41% of the total population) had received analgesic treatment. The frequencies of different categories of analgesics administered were: • Analgesics opioids: 0% • Analgesics weak opioids: Tramadol: 21.87% • The non-opioid analgesics: -AINS: 71.87% (indomethacin: 68.75% ibuprofen: 3.12%) - Paracetamol: 6.25% -Salicyles (Acetylsalicylic acid): 0%. Conclusion: The management of pain in patients under vitamin K antagonists has special features, given their many drug interactions with analgesics and their influence on the evolution of the INR which can have dramatic consequences. As such, special attention must be paid to the use of analgesics in this type of patient.

Keywords: vitamin K antagonists, pain killers, interactions, INR

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13 Transfer Rate of Organic Water Contaminants through a Passive Sampler Membrane of Polyethersulfone (PES)

Authors: Hamidreza Sharifan, Audra Morse


Accurate assessments of contaminant concentrations based on traditional grab sampling methods are not always possible. Passive samplers offer an attractive alternative to traditional sampling methods that overcomes these limitations. The POCIS approach has been used as a screening tool for determining the presence/absence, possible sources and relative amounts of organic compounds at field sites. The objective for the present research is on mass transfer of five water contaminants (atrazine, caffeine, bentazon, ibuprofen, atenolol) through the Water Boundary Layer (WBL) and membrane. More specific objectives followed by establishing a relationship between the sampling rate and water solubility of the compounds, as well as comparing the molecular weight of the compounds and concentration of the compounds at the time of equilibrium. To determine whether water boundary layer effects transport rate through the membrane is another main objective in this paper. After GC mass analysis of compounds, regarding the WBL effect in this experiment, Sherwood number for the experimental tank developed. A close relationship between feed concentration of compound and sampling rate has been observed.

Keywords: passive sampler, water contaminants, PES-transfer rate, contaminant concentrations

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12 Ultrafine Non Water Soluble Drug Particles

Authors: Shahnaz Mansouri, David Martin, Xiao Dong Chen, Meng Wai Woo


Ultrafine hydrophobic and non-water-soluble drugs can increase the percentage of absorbed compared to their initial dosage. This paper provides a scalable new method of making ultrafine particles of substantially insoluble water compounds specifically, submicron particles of ethanol soluble and water insoluble pharmaceutical materials by steaming an ethanol droplet to prepare a suspension and then followed by immediate drying. This suspension is formed by adding evaporated water molecules as an anti-solvent to the solute of the samples and in early stage of precipitation continued to dry by evaporating both solvent and anti-solvent. This fine particle formation has produced fast dispersion powder in water. The new method is an extension of the antisolvent vapour precipitation technique which exposes a droplet to an antisolvent vapour with reference to the dissolved materials within the droplet. Ultrafine vitamin D3 and ibuprofen particles in the submicron ranges were produced. This work will form the basis for using spray dryers as high-throughput scalable micro-precipitators.

Keywords: single droplet drying, nano size particles, non-water-soluble drugs, precipitators

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11 Kinetic and Mechanistic Study on the Degradation of Typical Pharmaceutical and Personal Care Products in Water by Using Carbon Nanodots/C₃N₄ Composite and Ultrasonic Irradiation

Authors: Miao Yang


PPCPs (pharmaceutical and personal care products) in water, as an environmental pollutant, becomes an issue of increasing concern. Therefore, the techniques for degradation of PPCPs has been a hotspot in water pollution control field. Since there are several disadvantages for common degradation techniques of PPCPs, such as low degradation efficiency for certain PPCPs (ibuprofen and Carbamazepine) this proposal will adopt a combined technique by using CDs (carbon nanodots)/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation to mitigate or overcome these shortages. There is a significant scientific problem that the mechanism including PPCPs, major reactants, and interfacial active sites is not clear yet in the study of PPCPs degradation. This work aims to solve this problem by using both theoretical and experimental methodologies. Firstly, optimized parameters will be obtained by evaluating the kinetics and oxidation efficiency under different conditions. The competition between H₂O₂ and PPCPs with HO• will be elucidated, after which the degradation mechanism of PPCPs by the synergy of CDs/C₃N₄ composite and ultrasonic irradiation will be proposed. Finally, a sonolysis-adsorption-catalysis coupling mechanism will be established which is the theoretical basis and technical support for developing new efficient degradation techniques for PPCPs in the future.

Keywords: carbon nanodots/C₃N₄, pharmaceutical and personal care products, ultrasonic irradiation, hydroxyl radical, heterogeneous catalysis

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10 Drug-Drug Plasma Protein Binding Interactions of Ivacaftor

Authors: Elena K. Schneider, Johnny X. Huang, Vincenzo Carbone, Mark Baker, Mohammad A. K. Azad, Matthew A. Cooper, Jian Li, Tony Velkov


Ivacaftor is a novel CF trans-membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiator that improves the pulmonary function for cystic fibrosis patients bearing a G551D CFTR-protein mutation. Because ivacaftor is highly bound (>97%) to plasma proteins, there is the strong possibility that co-administered CF drugs that compete for the same plasma protein binding sites and impact the free drug concentration. This in turn could lead to drastic changes in the in vivo efficacy of ivacaftor and therapeutic outcomes. This study compares the binding affinity of ivacaftor and co-administered CF drugs for human serum albumin (HSA) and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) using surface plasmon resonance and fluorimetric binding assays that measure the displacement of site selective probes. Due to their high plasma protein binding affinities, drug-drug interactions between ivacaftor are to be expected with ducosate, montelukast, ibuprofen, dicloxacillin, omeprazole and loratadine. The significance of these drug-drug interactions is interpreted in terms of the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic parameters and molecular docking simulations. The translational outcomes of the data are presented as recommendations for a staggered treatment regimen for future clinical trials which aims to maximize the effective free drug concentration and clinical efficacy of ivacaftor.

Keywords: human α-1-acid glycoprotein, binding affinity, human serum albumin, ivacaftor, cystic fibrosis

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9 In-Situ Fabrication of ZnO PES Membranes for Treatment of Pharmaceuticals

Authors: Oranso T. Mahlangi, Bhekie B. Mamba


The occurrence of trace organic compounds (TOrCs) in water has raised health concerns for living organisms. The majority of TorCs, including pharmaceuticals and volatile organic compounds, are poorly monitored, partly due to the high cost of analysis and less strict water quality guidelines in South Africa. Therefore, the removal of TorCs is important to guarantee safe potable water. In this study, ZnO nanoparticles were fabricated in situ in polyethersulfone (PES) polymer solutions. This was followed by membrane synthesis using the phase inversion technique. Techniques such as FTIR, Raman, SEM, AFM, EDS, and contact angle measurements were used to characterize the membranes for several physicochemical properties. The membranes were then evaluated for their efficiency in treating pharmaceutical wastewater and resistance to organic (sodium alginate) and protein (bovine serum albumin) fouling. EDS micrographs revealed uniform distribution of ZnO nanoparticles within the polymer matrix, while SEM images showed uniform fingerlike structures. The addition of ZnO increased membrane roughness as well as hydrophilicity (which in turn improved water fluxes). The membranes poorly rejected monovalent and divalent salts (< 10%), making them resistant to flux decline due to concentration polarization effects. However, the membranes effectively removed carbamazepine, caffeine, sulfamethoxazole, ibuprofen, and naproxen by over 50%. ZnO PES membranes were resistant to organic and protein fouling compared to the neat membrane. ZnO PES ultrafiltration membranes may provide a solution in the reclamation of wastewater.

Keywords: trace organic compounds, pharmaceuticals, membrane fouling, wastewater reclamation

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8 Removal of Pharmaceuticals from Aquarius Solutions Using Hybrid Ceramic Membranes

Authors: Jenny Radeva, Anke-Gundula Roth, Christian Goebbert, Robert Niestroj-Pahl, Lars Daehne, Axel Wolfram, Juergen Wiese


The technological advantages of ceramic filtration elements were combined with polyelectrolyte films in the development process of hybrid membrane for the elimination of pharmaceuticals from Aquarius solutions. Previously extruded alumina ceramic membranes were coated with nanosized polyelectrolyte films using Layer-by-Layer technology. The polyelectrolyte chains form a network with nano-pores on the ceramic surface and promote the retention of small molecules like pharmaceuticals and microplastics, which cannot be eliminated using standard ultrafiltration methods. Additionally, the polyelectrolyte coat contributes with its adjustable (based on application) Zeta Potential for repulsion of contaminant molecules with opposite charges. Properties like permeability, bubble point, pore size distribution and Zeta Potential of ceramic and hybrid membranes were characterized using various laboratory and pilot tests and compared with each other. The most significant role for the membrane characterization played the filtration behavior investigation, during which retention against widely used pharmaceuticals like Diclofenac, Ibuprofen and Sulfamethoxazol was subjected to series of filtration tests. The presented study offers a new perspective on nanosized molecules removal from aqueous solutions and shows the importance of combined techniques application for the elimination of pharmaceutical contaminants from drinking water.

Keywords: water treatment, hybrid membranes, layer-by-layer coating, filtration, polyelectrolytes

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