Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 364

Search results for: cranial defect

364 A Comparative Study on the Dimensional Error of 3D CAD Model and SLS RP Model for Reconstruction of Cranial Defect

Authors: L. Siva Rama Krishna, Sriram Venkatesh, M. Sastish Kumar, M. Uma Maheswara Chary


Rapid Prototyping (RP) is a technology that produces models and prototype parts from 3D CAD model data, CT/MRI scan data, and model data created from 3D object digitizing systems. There are several RP process like Stereolithography (SLA), Solid Ground Curing (SGC), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), 3D Printing (3DP) among them SLS and FDM RP processes are used to fabricate pattern of custom cranial implant. RP technology is useful in engineering and biomedical application. This is helpful in engineering for product design, tooling and manufacture etc. RP biomedical applications are design and development of medical devices, instruments, prosthetics and implantation; it is also helpful in planning complex surgical operation. The traditional approach limits the full appreciation of various bony structure movements and therefore the custom implants produced are difficult to measure the anatomy of parts and analyse the changes in facial appearances accurately. Cranioplasty surgery is a surgical correction of a defect in cranial bone by implanting a metal or plastic replacement to restore the missing part. This paper aims to do a comparative study on the dimensional error of CAD and SLS RP Models for reconstruction of cranial defect by comparing the virtual CAD with the physical RP model of a cranial defect.

Keywords: rapid prototyping, selective laser sintering, cranial defect, dimensional error

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
363 Ultrasonographic Manifestation of Periventricular Leukomalacia in Preterm Neonates at Teaching Hospital Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

Authors: P. P. Chandrasekera, P. B. Hewavithana, S. Rosairo, M. H. M. N. Herath, D. M. R. D. Mirihella


Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL) is a White Matter Injury (WMI) of preterm neonatal brain. Objectives of the study were to assess the neuro-developmental outcome at one year of age and to determine a good protocol of cranial ultrasonography to detect PVL. Two hundred and sixty four preterm neonates were included in the study. Series of cranial ultrasound scans were done by using a dedicated neonatal head probe 4-10 MHz of Logic e portable ultrasound scanner. Clinical history of seizures, abnormal head growth (hydrocephalus or microcephaly) and developmental milestones were assessed and neurological examinations were done until one year of age. Among live neonates, 57% who had cystic PVL (Grades2 and 3) manifested as cerebral palsy. In conclusion cystic PVL has permanent neurological disabilities like cerebral palsy. Good protocol of real time cranial ultrasonography to detect PVL is to perform scans at least once a week until one month and at term (40 weeks of gestation).

Keywords: cerebral palsy, cranial ultrasonography, Periventricular Leukomalacia, preterm neonates

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
362 A Social Network Analysis for Formulating Construction Defect Generation Mechanisms

Authors: Hamad Aljassmi, Sangwon Han


Various solutions for preventing construction defects have been suggested. However, a construction company may have difficulties adopting all these suggestions due to financial and practical constraints. Based on this recognition, this paper aims to identify the most significant defect causes and formulate their defect generation mechanism in order to help a construction company to set priorities of its defect prevention strategies. For this goal, we conducted a questionnaire survey of 106 industry professionals and identified five most significant causes including: (1) organizational culture, (2) time pressure and constraints, (3) workplace quality system, (4) financial constraints upon operational expenses and (5) inadequate employee training or learning opportunities.

Keywords: defect, quality, failure, risk

Procedia PDF Downloads 455
361 The Effect on Rolling Mill of Waviness in Hot Rolled Steel

Authors: Sunthorn Sittisakuljaroen


The edge waviness in hot rolled steel is a common defect. Variables that effect for such defect include as raw material and machine. These variables are necessary to consider. This research studied the defect of edge waviness for SS 400 of metal sheet manufacture. Defect of metal sheets divided into two groups. The specimens were investigated on chemical composition and mechanical properties to find the difference. The results of investigate showed that not different to a standard significantly. Therefore the roll milled machine for sample need to adjustable rollers for press on metal sheet which was more appropriate to adjustable at both ends.

Keywords: edge waviness, hot rolling steel, metal sheet defect, SS 400, roll leveller

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
360 Benign Recurrent Unilateral Abducens (6th) Nerve Palsy in 14 Months Old Girl: A Case Report

Authors: Khaled Alabduljabbar


Background: Benign, isolated, recurrent sixth nerve palsy is very rare in children. Here we report a case of recurrent abducens nerve palsy with no obvious etiology. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. A recurrent benign form of 6th nerve palsy, a rarer still palsy, has been described in the literature, and it is of most likely secondary to inflammatory causes, e.g, following viral and bacterial infections. Purpose: To present a case of 14 months old girl with recurrent attacks of isolated left sixth cranial nerve palsy following upper respiratory tract infection. Observation: The patient presented to opthalmology clinic with sudden onset of inward deviation (esotropia) of the left eye with a compensatory left face turn one week following signs of upper respiratory tract infection. Ophthalmological examination revealed large angle esotropia of the left eye in primary position, with complete limitation of abduction of the left eye, no palpebral fissure changes, and abnormal position of the head (left face turn). Visual acuity was normal, and no significant refractive error on cycloplegic refraction for her age. Fundus examination was normal with no evidence of papilledema. There was no relative afferent pupillary defect (RAPD) and no anisocoria. Past medical history and family history were unremarkable, with no history of convulsion attacks or head trauma. Additional workout include CBC. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Urgent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and angiography of the brain were performed and demonstrated the absence of intracranial and orbital lesions. Referral to pediatric neurologist was also done and concluded no significant finding. The patient showed improvement of the left sixth cranial nerve palsy and left face turn over a period of two months. Seven months since the first attack, she experienced a recurrent attack of left eye esotropia with left face turn concurrent with URTI. The rest of eye examination was again unremarkable. CT scan and MRI scan of brain and orbit were performed and showed only signs of sinusitis with no intracranial pathology. The palsy resolved spontaneously within two months. A third episode of left 6th nerve palsy occurred 6 months later, whichrecovered over one month. Examination and neuroimagingwere unremarkable. A diagnosis of benign recurrent left 6th cranial nerve palsy was made. Conclusion: Benign sixth cranial nerve palsy is always a diagnosis of exclusion given the more serious and life-threatening alternative causes. It seems to have a good prognosis with only supportive measures. The likelihood of benign 6th cranial nerve palsy to resolve completely and spontaneously is high. Observation for at least 6 months without intervention is advisable.

Keywords: 6th nerve pasy, abducens nerve pasy, recurrent nerve palsy, cranial nerve palsy

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
359 A Practical and Theoretical Study on the Electromotor Bearing Defect Detection in a Wet Mill Using the Vibration Analysis Method and Defect Length Calculation in the Bearing

Authors: Mostafa Firoozabadi, Alireza Foroughi Nematollahi


Wet mills are one of the most important equipment in the mining industries and any defect occurrence in them can stop the production line and it can make some irrecoverable damages to the system. Electromotors are the significant parts of a mill and their monitoring is a necessary process to prevent unwanted defects. The purpose of this study is to investigate the Electromotor bearing defects, theoretically and practically, using the vibration analysis method. When a defect happens in a bearing, it can be transferred to the other parts of the equipment like inner ring, outer ring, balls, and the bearing cage. The electromotor defects source can be electrical or mechanical. Sometimes, the electrical and mechanical defect frequencies are modulated and the bearing defect detection becomes difficult. In this paper, to detect the electromotor bearing defects, the electrical and mechanical defect frequencies are extracted firstly. Then, by calculating the bearing defect frequencies, and the spectrum and time signal analysis, the bearing defects are detected. In addition, the obtained frequency determines that the bearing level in which the defect has happened and by comparing this level to the standards it determines the bearing remaining lifetime. Finally, the defect length is calculated by theoretical equations to demonstrate that there is no need to replace the bearing. The results of the proposed method, which has been implemented on the wet mills in the Golgohar mining and industrial company in Iran, show that this method is capable of detecting the electromotor bearing defects accurately and on time.

Keywords: bearing defect length, defect frequency, electromotor defects, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 426
358 Defect Management Life Cycle Process for Software Quality Improvement

Authors: Aedah Abd Rahman, Nurdatillah Hasim


Software quality issues require special attention especially in view of the demands of quality software product to meet customer satisfaction. Software development projects in most organisations need proper defect management process in order to produce high quality software product and reduce the number of defects. The research question of this study is how to produce high quality software and reducing the number of defects. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to provide a framework for managing software defects by following defined life cycle processes. The methodology starts by reviewing defects, defect models, best practices and standards. A framework for defect management life cycle is proposed. The major contribution of this study is to define a defect management road map in software development. The adoption of an effective defect management process helps to achieve the ultimate goal of producing high quality software products and contributes towards continuous software process improvement.

Keywords: defects, defect management, life cycle process, software quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
357 Analysis of Causality between Defect Causes Using Association Rule Mining

Authors: Sangdeok Lee, Sangwon Han, Changtaek Hyun


Construction defects are major components that result in negative impacts on project performance including schedule delays and cost overruns. Since construction defects generally occur when a few associated causes combine, a thorough understanding of defect causality is required in order to more systematically prevent construction defects. To address this issue, this paper uses association rule mining (ARM) to quantify the causality between defect causes, and social network analysis (SNA) to find indirect causality among them. The suggested approach is validated with 350 defect instances from concrete works in 32 projects in Korea. The results show that the interrelationships revealed by the approach reflect the characteristics of the concrete task and the important causes that should be prevented.

Keywords: causality, defect causes, social network analysis, association rule mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
356 Cranioplasty with Custom Implant Realized Using 3D Printing Technology

Authors: Trad Khodja Rafik, Mahtout Amine, Ghoul Rachid, Benbouali Amine, Boulahlib Amine, Hariza Abdelmalik


Cranioplasty with custom implant realized using 3D printing technology. Cranioplasty is a surgical act that aims restoring cranial bone losses in order to protect the brain from external aggressions and to improve the patient aesthetic appearance. This objective can be achieved with taking advantage of the current technological development in computer science and biomechanics. The objective of this paper it to present an approach for the realization of high precision biocompatible cranial implants using new 3D printing technologies at the lowest cost. The proposed method is to reproduce the missing part of the skull by referring to its healthy contralateral part. Once the model is validated by the neurosurgeons, a mold is 3D printed for the production of a biocompatible implant in Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic cement. Using this procedure four patients underwent this procedure with excellent aesthetic results.

Keywords: cranioplasty, cranial bone loss, 3D printing technology, custom-made implants, PMMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 9
355 A Comparative Study of Linearly Graded and without Graded Photonic Crystal Structure

Authors: Rajeev Kumar, Angad Singh Kushwaha, Amritanshu Pandey, S. K. Srivastava


Photonic crystals (PCs) have attracted much attention due to its electromagnetic properties and potential applications. In PCs, there is certain range of wavelength where electromagnetic waves are not allowed to pass are called photonic band gap (PBG). A localized defect mode will appear within PBG, due to change in the interference behavior of light, when we create a defect in the periodic structure. We can also create different types of defect structures by inserting or removing a layer from the periodic layered structure in two and three-dimensional PCs. We can design microcavity, waveguide, and perfect mirror by creating a point defect, line defect, and palanar defect in two and three- dimensional PC structure. One-dimensional and two-dimensional PCs with defects were reported theoretically and experimentally by Smith et al.. in conventional photonic band gap structure. In the present paper, we have presented the defect mode tunability in tilted non-graded photonic crystal (NGPC) and linearly graded photonic crystal (LGPC) using lead sulphide (PbS) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) in the infrared region. A birefringent defect layer is created in NGPC and LGPC using potassium titany phosphate (KTP). With the help of transfer matrix method, the transmission properties of proposed structure is investigated for transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. NGPC and LGPC without defect layer is also investigated. We have found that a photonic band gap (PBG) arises in the infrared region. An additional defect layer of KTP is created in NGPC and LGPC structure. We have seen that an additional transmission mode appers in PBG region. It is due to the addition of defect layer. We have also seen the effect, linear gradation in thickness, angle of incidence, tilt angle, and thickness of defect layer, on PBG and additional transmission mode. We have observed that the additional transmission mode and PBG can be tuned by changing the above parameters. The proposed structure may be used as channeled filter, optical switches, monochromator, and broadband optical reflector.

Keywords: defect modes, graded photonic crystal, photonic crystal, tilt angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
354 Statistical Characteristics of Distribution of Radiation-Induced Defects under Random Generation

Authors: P. Selyshchev


We consider fluctuations of defects density taking into account their interaction. Stochastic field of displacement generation rate gives random defect distribution. We determinate statistical characteristics (mean and dispersion) of random field of point defect distribution as function of defect generation parameters, temperature and properties of irradiated crystal.

Keywords: irradiation, primary defects, interaction, fluctuations

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
353 Deformation Severity Prediction in Sewer Pipelines

Authors: Khalid Kaddoura, Ahmed Assad, Tarek Zayed


Sewer pipelines are prone to deterioration over-time. In fact, their deterioration does not follow a fixed downward pattern. This is in fact due to the defects that propagate through their service life. Sewer pipeline defects are categorized into distinct groups. However, the main two groups are the structural and operational defects. By definition, the structural defects influence the structural integrity of the sewer pipelines such as deformation, cracks, fractures, holes, etc. However, the operational defects are the ones that affect the flow of the sewer medium in the pipelines such as: roots, debris, attached deposits, infiltration, etc. Yet, the process for each defect to emerge follows a cause and effect relationship. Deformation, which is the change of the sewer pipeline geometry, is one type of an influencing defect that could be found in many sewer pipelines due to many surrounding factors. This defect could lead to collapse if the percentage exceeds 15%. Therefore, it is essential to predict the deformation percentage before confronting such a situation. Accordingly, this study will predict the percentage of the deformation defect in sewer pipelines adopting the multiple regression analysis. Several factors will be considered in establishing the model, which are expected to influence the defamation defect severity. Besides, this study will construct a time-based curve to understand how the defect would evolve overtime. Thus, this study is expected to be an asset for decision-makers as it will provide informative conclusions about the deformation defect severity. As a result, inspections will be minimized and so the budgets.

Keywords: deformation, prediction, regression analysis, sewer pipelines

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
352 Defect Detection for Nanofibrous Images with Deep Learning-Based Approaches

Authors: Gaokai Liu


Automatic defect detection for nanomaterial images is widely required in industrial scenarios. Deep learning approaches are considered as the most effective solutions for the great majority of image-based tasks. In this paper, an edge guidance network for defect segmentation is proposed. First, the encoder path with multiple convolution and downsampling operations is applied to the acquisition of shared features. Then two decoder paths both are connected to the last convolution layer of the encoder and supervised by the edge and segmentation labels, respectively, to guide the whole training process. Meanwhile, the edge and encoder outputs from the same stage are concatenated to the segmentation corresponding part to further tune the segmentation result. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified via the experiments on open nanofibrous datasets.

Keywords: deep learning, defect detection, image segmentation, nanomaterials

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
351 Modeling of Digital and Settlement Consolidation of Soil under Oedomete

Authors: Yu-Lin Shen, Ming-Kuen Chang


In addition to a considerable amount of machinery and equipment, intricacies of the transmission pipeline exist in Petrochemical plants. Long term corrosion may lead to pipeline thinning and rupture, causing serious safety concerns. With the advances in non-destructive testing technology, more rapid and long-range ultrasonic detection techniques are often used for pipeline inspection, EMAT without coupling to detect, it is a non-contact ultrasonic, suitable for detecting elevated temperature or roughened e surface of line. In this study, we prepared artificial defects in pipeline for Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer Testing (EMAT) to survey the relationship between the defect location, sizing and the EMAT signal. It was found that the signal amplitude of EMAT exhibited greater signal attenuation with larger defect depth and length.. In addition, with bigger flat hole diameter, greater amplitude attenuation was obtained. In summary, signal amplitude attenuation of EMAT was affected by the defect depth, defect length and the hole diameter and size.

Keywords: EMAT, artificial defect, NDT, ultrasonic testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
350 Design Study for the Rehabilitation of a Retaining Structure and Water Intake on Site

Authors: Yu-Lin Shen, Ming-Kuen Chang


In addition to a considerable amount of machinery and equipment, intricacies of the transmission pipeline exist in Petrochemical plants. Long term corrosion may lead to pipeline thinning and rupture, causing serious safety concerns. With the advances in non-destructive testing technology, more rapid and long-range ultrasonic detection techniques are often used for pipeline inspection, EMAT without coupling to detect, it is a non-contact ultrasonic, suitable for detecting elevated temperature or roughened e surface of line. In this study, we prepared artificial defects in pipeline for Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducer testing (EMAT) to survey the relationship between the defect location, sizing and the EMAT signal. It was found that the signal amplitude of EMAT exhibited greater signal attenuation with larger defect depth and length. In addition, with bigger flat hole diameter, greater amplitude attenuation was obtained. In summary, signal amplitude attenuation of EMAT was affected by the defect depth, defect length and the hole diameter and size.

Keywords: EMAT, artificial defect, NDT, ultrasonic testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 275
349 Gel-Based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) in the Knee: Multicentric Short Term Study

Authors: Shaival Dalal, Nilesh Shah, Dinshaw Pardiwala, David Rajan, Satyen Sanghavi, Charul Bhanji


Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (ACI) is used worldwide since 1998 to treat cartilage defect. GEL based ACI is a new tissue-engineering technique to treat full thickness cartilage defect with fibrin and thrombin as scaffold for chondrocytes. Purpose of this study is to see safety and efficacy of gel based ACI for knee cartilage defect in multiple centres with different surgeons. Gel-based Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation (GACI) has shown effectiveness in treating isolated cartilage defect of knee joint. Long term results are still needed to be studied. This study was followed-up up to two years and showed benefit to patients. All enrolled patients with a mean age of 28.5 years had an average defect size of3 square centimeters, and were grade IV as per ICRS grading. All patients were followed up several times and at several intervals at 6th week, 8th week, 11th week, 17th week, 29th week, 57th week after surgery. The outcomes were measured based on the IKDC (subjective and objective) and MOCART scores.

Keywords: knee, chondrocyte, autologous chondrocyte implantation, fibrin gel based

Procedia PDF Downloads 309
348 A Comparative Study of a Defective Superconductor/ Semiconductor-Dielectric Photonic Crystal

Authors: S. Sadegzadeh, A. Mousavi


Temperature-dependent tunable photonic crystals have attracted widespread interest in recent years. In this research, transmission characteristics of a one-dimensional photonic crystal structure with a single defect have been studied. Here, we assume two different defect layers: InSb as a semiconducting layer and HgBa2Ca2Cu3O10 as a high-temperature superconducting layer. Both the defect layers have temperature-dependent refractive indexes. Two different types of dielectric materials (Si as a high-refractive index dielectric and MgF2 as a low-refractive index dielectric) are used to construct the asymmetric structures (Si/MgF2)NInSb(Si/MgF2)N named S.I, and (Si/MgF2)NHgBa2Ca2Cu3O10(Si/MgF2)N named S.II. It is found that in response to the temperature changes, transmission peaks within the photonic band gap of the S.II structure, in contrast to S.I, show a small wavelength shift. Furthermore, the results show that under the same conditions, S.I structure generates an extra defect mode in the transmission spectra. Besides high efficiency transmission property of S.II structure, it can be concluded that the semiconductor-dielectric photonic crystals are more sensitive to temperature variation than superconductor types.

Keywords: defect modes, photonic crystals, semiconductor, superconductor, transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
347 Electric Field Investigation in MV PILC Cables with Void Defect

Authors: Mohamed A. Alsharif, Peter A. Wallace, Donald M. Hepburn, Chengke Zhou


Worldwide, most PILC MV underground cables in use are approaching the end of their design life; hence, failures are likely to increase. This paper studies the electric field and potential distributions within the PILC insulted cable containing common void-defect. The finite element model of the performance of the belted PILC MV underground cable is presented. The variation of the electric field stress within the cable using the Finite Element Method (FEM) is concentrated. The effects of the void-defect within the insulation are given. Outcomes will lead to deeper understanding of the modeling of Paper Insulated Lead Covered (PILC) and electric field response of belted PILC insulted cable containing void defect.

Keywords: MV PILC cables, finite element model/COMSOL multiphysics, electric field stress, partial discharge degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
346 Study of Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer to Detect Flaw in Pipeline

Authors: Yu-Lin Shen, Ming-Kuen Chang


In addition to a considerable amount of machinery and equipment, intricacies of the transmission pipeline exist in Petrochemical plants. Long term corrosion may lead to pipeline thinning and rupture, causing serious safety concerns. With the advances in non-destructive testing technology, more rapid and long-range ultrasonic detection techniques are often used for pipeline inspection, EMAT without coupling to detect, it is a non-contact ultrasonic, suitable for detecting elevated temperature or roughened e surface of line. In this study, we prepared artificial defects in pipeline for Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer Testing (EMAT) to survey the relationship between the defect location, sizing and the EMAT signal. It was found that the signal amplitude of EMAT exhibited greater signal attenuation with larger defect depth and length.. In addition, with bigger flat hole diameter, greater amplitude attenuation was obtained. In summary, signal amplitude attenuation of EMAT was affected by the defect depth, defect length and the hole diameter and size.

Keywords: EMAT, NDT, artificial defect, ultrasonic testing

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
345 Gearbox Defect Detection in the Semi Autogenous Mills Using the Vibration Analysis Technique

Authors: Mostafa Firoozabadi, Alireza Foroughi Nematollahi


Semi autogenous mills are designed for grinding or primary crushed ore, and are the most widely used in concentrators globally. Any defect occurrence in semi autogenous mills can stop the production line. A Gearbox is a significant part of a rotating machine or a mill, so, the gearbox monitoring is a necessary process to prevent the unwanted defects. When a defect happens in a gearbox bearing, this defect can be transferred to the other parts of the equipment like inner ring, outer ring, balls, and the bearing cage. Vibration analysis is one of the most effective and common ways to detect the bearing defects in the mills. Vibration signal in a mill can be made by different parts of the mill including electromotor, pinion girth gear, different rolling bearings, and tire. When a vibration signal, made by the aforementioned parts, is added to the gearbox vibration spectrum, an accurate and on time defect detection in the gearbox will be difficult. In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect the gearbox bearing defects in the semi autogenous mill on time and accurately, using the vibration signal analysis method. In this method, if the vibration values are increased in the vibration curve, the probability of defect occurrence is investigated by comparing the equipment vibration values and the standard ones. Then, all vibration frequencies are extracted from the vibration signal and the equipment defect is detected using the vibration spectrum curve. This method is implemented on the semi autogenous mills in the Golgohar mining and industrial company in Iran. The results show that the proposed method can detect the bearing looseness on time and accurately. After defect detection, the bearing is opened before the equipment failure and the predictive maintenance actions are implemented on it.

Keywords: condition monitoring, gearbox defects, predictive maintenance, vibration analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
344 Defect Modes in Multilayered Piezoelectric Structures

Authors: D. G. Piliposyan


Propagation of electro-elastic waves in a piezoelectric waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer is studied using a modified transfer matrix method. The dispersion equation for a periodic structure consisting of unit cells made up from two piezoelectric materials with metallized interfaces is obtained. An analytical expression, for the transmission coefficient for a waveguide with finite stacks and a defect layer, that is found can be used to accurately detect and control the position of the passband within a stopband. The result can be instrumental in constructing a tunable waveguide made of layers of different or identical piezoelectric crystals and separated by metallized interfaces.

Keywords: piezoelectric layered structure, periodic phononic crystal, bandgap, bloch waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
343 The Effectiveness of Energy Index Technique in Bearing Condition Monitoring

Authors: Faisal Alshammari, Abdulmajid Addali, Mosab Alrashed, Taihiret Alhashan


The application of acoustic emission techniques is gaining popularity, as it can monitor the condition of gears and bearings and detect early symptoms of a defect in the form of pitting, wear, and flaking of surfaces. Early detection of these defects is essential as it helps to avoid major failures and the associated catastrophic consequences. Signal processing techniques are required for early defect detection – in this article, a time domain technique called the Energy Index (EI) is used. This article presents an investigation into the Energy Index’s effectiveness to detect early-stage defect initiation and deterioration, and compares it with the common r.m.s. index, Kurtosis, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov statistical test. It is concluded that EI is a more effective technique for monitoring defect initiation and development than other statistical parameters.

Keywords: acoustic emission, signal processing, kurtosis, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
342 Beam Deflection with Unidirectionality Due to Zeroth Order and Evanescent Wave Coupling in a Photonic Crystal with a Defect Layer without Corrugations under Oblique Incidence

Authors: Evrim Colak, Andriy E. Serebryannikov, Thore Magath, Ekmel Ozbay


Single beam deflection and unidirectional transmission are examined for oblique incidence in a Photonic Crystal (PC) structure which employs defect layer instead of surface corrugations at the interfaces. In all of the studied cases, the defect layer is placed such that the symmetry is broken. Two types of deflection are observed depending on whether the zeroth order is coupled or not. These two scenarios can be distinguished from each other by considering the simulated field distribution in PC. In the first deflection type, Floquet-Bloch mode enables zeroth order coupling. The energy of the zeroth order is redistributed between the diffraction orders at the defect layer, providing deflection. In the second type, when zeroth order is not coupled, strong diffractions cause blazing and the evanescent waves deliver energy to higher order diffraction modes. Simulated isofrequency contours can be utilized to estimate the coupling behavior. The defect layer is placed at varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC while evancescent waves can still couple to higher order modes. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission and beam deflection are still encountered when the zeroth order is not coupled. We assume ε=11.4 (refractive index close to that of GaAs and Si) for the PC rods. A possible operation wavelength can be within microwave and infrared range. Since the suggested material is low loss, the structure can be scaled down to operate higher frequencies. Thus, a sample operation wavelength is selected as 1.5μm. Although the structure employs no surface corrugations transmission value T≈0.97 can be achieved by means of diffraction order m=-1. Moreover, utilizing an extra line defect, T value can be increased upto 0.99, under oblique incidence even if the line defect layer is deeply embedded in the photonic crystal. The latter configuration can be used to obtain deflection in one frequency range and can also be utilized for the realization of another functionality like defect-mode wave guiding in another frequency range but still using the same structure.

Keywords: asymmetric transmission, beam deflection, blazing, bi-directional splitting, defect layer, dual beam splitting, Floquet-Bloch modes, isofrequency contours, line defect, oblique incidence, photonic crystal, unidirectionality

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
341 Effect of Non-metallic Inclusion from the Continuous Casting Process on the Multi-Stage Forging Process and the Tensile Strength of the Bolt: Case Study

Authors: Tomasz Dubiel, Tadeusz Balawender, Miroslaw Osetek


The paper presents the influence of non-metallic inclusions on the multi-stage forging process and the mechanical properties of the dodecagon socket bolt used in the automotive industry. The detected metallurgical defect was so large that it directly influenced the mechanical properties of the bolt and resulted in failure to meet the requirements of the mechanical property class. In order to assess the defect, an X-ray examination and metallographic examination of the defective bolt were performed, showing exogenous non-metallic inclusion. The size of the defect on the cross-section was 0.531 [mm] in width and 1.523 [mm] in length; the defect was continuous along the entire axis of the bolt. In analysis, a FEM simulation of the multi-stage forging process was designed, taking into account a non-metallic inclusion parallel to the sample axis, reflecting the studied case. The process of defect propagation due to material upset in the head area was analyzed. The final forging stage in shaping the dodecagonal socket and filling the flange area was particularly studied. The effect of the defect was observed to significantly reduce the effective cross-section as a result of the expansion of the defect perpendicular to the axis of the bolt. The mechanical properties of products with and without the defect were analyzed. In the first step, the hardness test confirmed that the required value for the mechanical class 8.8 of both bolt types was obtained. In the second step, the bolts were subjected to a static tensile test. The bolts without the defect gave a positive result, while all 10 bolts with the defect gave a negative result, achieving a tensile strength below the requirements. Tensile strength tests were confirmed by metallographic tests and FEM simulation with perpendicular inclusion spread in the area of the head. The bolts were damaged directly under the bolt head, which is inconsistent with the requirements of ISO 898-1. It has been shown that non-metallic inclusions with orientation in accordance with the axis of the bolt can directly cause loss of functionality and these defects should be detected even before assembling in the machine element.

Keywords: continuous casting, multi-stage forging, non-metallic inclusion, upset bolt head

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
340 Homogeneous Anti-Corrosion Coating of Spontaneously Dissolved Defect-Free Graphene

Authors: M. K. Bin Subhan, P. Cullen, C. Howard


A recent study by the World Corrosion Organization estimated that corrosion related damage causes $2.5tr worth of damage every year. As such, a low cost easily scalable solution is required to the corrosion problem which is economically viable. Graphene is an ideal anti-corrosion barrier layer material due to its excellent barrier properties and chemical stability, which makes it impermeable to all molecules. However, attempts to employ graphene as a barrier layer has been hampered by the fact that defect sites in graphene accelerate corrosion due to the inert nature of graphene which promotes galvanic corrosion at the expense of the metal. The recent discovery of spontaneous dissolution of charged graphite intercalation compounds in aprotic solvents enables defect free graphene platelets to be employed for anti-corrosion applications. These ‘inks’ of defect-free charged graphene platelets in solution can be coated onto a metallic surfaces via electroplating to form a homogeneous barrier layer. In this paper, initial data showing homogeneous coatings of graphene barrier layers on steel coupons via electroplating will be presented. This easily scalable technique also provides a controllable method for applying different barrier thicknesses from ultra thin layers to thick opaque coatings making it useful for a wide range of applications.

Keywords: anti-corrosion, defect-free, electroplating, graphene

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
339 Design of Photonic Crystal with Defect Layer to Eliminate Interface Corrugations for Obtaining Unidirectional and Bidirectional Beam Splitting under Normal Incidence

Authors: Evrim Colak, Andriy E. Serebryannikov, Pavel V. Usik, Ekmel Ozbay


Working with a dielectric photonic crystal (PC) structure which does not include surface corrugations, unidirectional transmission and dual-beam splitting are observed under normal incidence as a result of the strong diffractions caused by the embedded defect layer. The defect layer has twice the period of the regular PC segments which sandwich the defect layer. Although the PC has even number of rows, the structural symmetry is broken due to the asymmetric placement of the defect layer with respect to the symmetry axis of the regular PC. The simulations verify that efficient splitting and occurrence of strong diffractions are related to the dispersion properties of the Floquet-Bloch modes of the photonic crystal. Unidirectional and bi-directional splitting, which are associated with asymmetric transmission, arise due to the dominant contribution of the first positive and first negative diffraction orders. The effect of the depth of the defect layer is examined by placing single defect layer in varying rows, preserving the asymmetry of PC. Even for deeply buried defect layer, asymmetric transmission is still valid even if the zeroth order is not coupled. This transmission is due to evanescent waves which reach to the deeply embedded defect layer and couple to higher order modes. In an additional selected performance, whichever surface is illuminated, i.e., in both upper and lower surface illumination cases, incident beam is split into two beams of equal intensity at the output surface where the intensity of the out-going beams are equal for both illumination cases. That is, although the structure is asymmetric, symmetric bidirectional transmission with equal transmission values is demonstrated and the structure mimics the behavior of symmetric structures. Finally, simulation studies including the examination of a coupled-cavity defect for two different permittivity values (close to the permittivity values of GaAs or Si and alumina) reveal unidirectional splitting for a wider band of operation in comparison to the bandwidth obtained in the case of a single embedded defect layer. Since the dielectric materials that are utilized are low-loss and weakly dispersive in a wide frequency range including microwave and optical frequencies, the studied structures should be scalable to the mentioned ranges.

Keywords: asymmetric transmission, beam deflection, blazing, bi-directional splitting, defect layer, dual beam splitting, Floquet-Bloch modes, isofrequency contours, line defect, oblique incidence, photonic crystal, unidirectionality

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338 Defects Classification of Stator Coil Generators by Phase Resolve Partial Discharge

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Nando Purba, Benny Iskandar


This paper proposed a phase resolve partial discharge (PRPD) shape method to classify types of defect stator coil generator by using off-line PD measurement instrument. The recorded PRPD, by using the instruments MPD600, can illustrate the PRPD patterns of partial discharge of unit’s defects. In the paper, two of large units, No.2 and No.3, in Inalum hydropower plant, North Sumatera, Indonesia is adopted in the experimental measurement. The proposed PRPD shape method is to mark auxiliary lines on the PRPD patterns. The shapes of PRPD from two units are marked with the proposed method. Then, four types of defects in IEC 60034-27 standard is adopted to classify the defect types of the two units, which types are microvoids (S1), delamination tape layer (S2), slot defect (S3) and internal delamination (S4). Finally, the two units are actually inspected to validate the availability of the proposed PRPD shape method.

Keywords: partial discharge (PD), stator coil, defect, phase resolve pd (PRPD)

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337 PD Test in Gas Insulated Substation Using UHF Method

Authors: T. Prabakaran


Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) are widely used as important switchgear equipment because of its high reliability, low space requirement, low risk factor and easy maintenance, yet some failures have been reported. Some of the failures are due to presence of metallic particles inside the GIS compartment. The defect can be generated in GIS during production, maintenance, installation and can be due to ageing of the component. The Ultra-High Frequency (UHF) method is used to diagnose the insulation condition of GIS by detecting the PD signals in GIS. This paper identifies PD patterns for free moving particle defect and particle fixed on cone using UHF method. As insulation failure usually starts with PD activity, this paper investigates the differences in PD characteristics in SF6 gas with different types of defects. Experimental results show that correct identification of defects can be achieved based on considered PD characteristics. The method can be applied to prove the quality of assembly work at commissioning, also on a regular basis after many years in service to detect aged and conducting particles as a part of the condition based maintenance.

Keywords: gas insulated substation, partial discharge, free moving particle defect, particle fixed on cone defect, ultra high frequency method

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336 Microstructure and SEM Analysis of Joints Fabricated by FSW of Aluminum Alloys 5083 and 6063

Authors: Jaskirat Singh, Roshan Lal Virdi, Khushdeep Goyal


The purpose of this paper is to perform a microstructural analysis of Friction Stir Welded joints of aluminum alloys 6063 and 5083, also to check the properties of the weld zone by SEM analysis. FSW experiments were carried on CNC Vertical milling machine. The tools used for welding were the round cylindrical pin shape and square pin shape. It is found that Microstructure shows the uniformly distributed material with minimum heat affected zone and dense welded zone without any defect. Microstructures indicate that the weld material is defect free. The SEM shows the diffusion of material with base metal with proper bonding without any defect.

Keywords: friction stir welding, aluminum alloy, microstructure, SEM analysis

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335 Plastic Pipe Defect Detection Using Nonlinear Acoustic Modulation

Authors: Gigih Priyandoko, Mohd Fairusham Ghazali, Tan Siew Fun


This paper discusses about the defect detection of plastic pipe by using nonlinear acoustic wave modulation method. It is a sensitive method for damage detection and it is based on the propagation of high frequency acoustic waves in plastic pipe with low frequency excitation. The plastic pipe is excited simultaneously with a slow amplitude modulated vibration pumping wave and a constant amplitude probing wave. The frequency of both the excitation signals coincides with the resonances of the plastic pipe. A PVP pipe is used as the specimen as it is commonly used for the conveyance of liquid in many fields. The results obtained are being observed and the difference between uncracked specimen and cracked specimen can be distinguished clearly.

Keywords: plastic pipe, defect detection, nonlinear acoustic modulation, excitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 378