Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3229

Search results for: shape memory alloy

3229 Thermomechanical Processing of a CuZnAl Shape-Memory Alloy

Authors: Pedro Henrique Alves Martins, Paulo Guilherme Ferreira De Siqueira, Franco De Castro Bubani, Maria Teresa Paulino Aguilar, Paulo Roberto Cetlin


Cu-base shape-memory alloys (CuZnAl, CuAlNi, CuAlBe, etc.) are promising engineering materials for several unconventional devices, such as sensors, actuators, and mechanical vibration dampers. Brittleness is one of the factors that limit the commercial use of these alloys, as it makes thermomechanical processing difficult. In this work, a method for the hot extrusion of a 75.50% Cu, 16,74% Zn, 7,76% Al (weight %) alloy is presented. The effects of the thermomechanical processing in the microstructure and the pseudoelastic behavior of the alloy are assessed by optical metallography, compression and hardness tests. Results show that hot extrusion is a suitable method to obtain severe cross-section reductions in the CuZnAl shape-memory alloy studied. The alloy maintained its pseudoelastic effect after the extrusion and the modifications in the mechanical behavior caused by precipitation during hot extrusion can be minimized by a suitable precipitate dissolution heat treatment.

Keywords: hot extrusion, pseudoelastic, shape-memory alloy, thermomechanical processing

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3228 Study of Energy Dissipation in Shape Memory Alloys: A Comparison between Austenite and Martensite Phase of SMAs

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Khatere Kashmari, Farzad Hatami, Mesbah Saybani


Shape memory alloys with high capability of energy dissipation and large deformation bearing with return ability to their original shape without too much hysteresis strain have opened their place among the other damping systems as smart materials. Ninitol which is the most well-known and most used alloy material from the shape memory alloys family, has high resistance and fatigue and is coverage for large deformations. Shape memory effect and super-elasticity by shape alloys like Nitinol, are the reasons of the high power of these materials in energy depreciation. Thus, these materials are suitable for use in reciprocating dynamic loading conditions. The experiments results showed that Nitinol wires with small diameter have greater energy dissipation capability and by increase of diameter and thickness the damping capability and energy dissipation increase.

Keywords: shape memory alloys, shape memory effect, super elastic effect, nitinol, energy dissipation

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3227 Investigate the Performance of SMA-FRP Composite Bars in Seismic Regions under Corrosion Conditions

Authors: Amirmozafar Benshams, Saman Shafeinejad, Mohammad Zaman Kabir, Farzad Hatami, Mohammadreza Khedmati, Mesbah Saybani


Steel bars has been used in concrete structures for more than one hundred years but lack of corrosion resistance of steel reinforcement has resulted in many structural failures. Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) bar is an acceptable solution to replace steel to mitigate corrosion problem. Since FRP is a brittle material its use in seismic region has been a concern. FRP RC structures can be made ductile by employing a ductile material such as Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) at the plastic hinge region and FRP at the other regions on the other hand SMA is highly resistant to corrosion. Shape Memory Alloy has the unique ability to undergo large inelastic deformation and regain its initial shape through stress removal therefore utilizing composite SMA-FRP bars not only have good corrosion resistance but also have good performance in seismic region. The result show indicate that such composite SMA-FRP bars can substantially reduce the residual drift with adequate energy dissipation capacity during earthquake.

Keywords: steel bar, shape memory alloy, FRP, corrosion

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3226 Rheological Modeling for Shape-Memory Thermoplastic Polymers

Authors: H. Hosseini, B. V. Berdyshev, I. Iskopintsev


This paper presents a rheological model for producing shape-memory thermoplastic polymers. Shape-memory occurs as a result of internal rearrangement of the structural elements of a polymer. A non-linear viscoelastic model was developed that allows qualitative and quantitative prediction of the stress-strain behavior of shape-memory polymers during heating. This research was done to develop a technique to determine the maximum possible change in size of heat-shrinkable products during heating. The rheological model used in this work was particularly suitable for defining process parameters and constructive parameters of the processing equipment.

Keywords: elastic deformation, heating, shape-memory polymers, stress-strain behavior, viscoelastic model

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3225 Direct Laser Fabrication and Characterization of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy for Seismic Damping Applications

Authors: Gonzalo Reyes, Magdalena Walczak, Esteban Ramos-Moore, Jorge Ramos-Grez


Metal additive manufacture technologies have gained strong support and acceptance as a promising and alternative method to manufacture high performance complex geometry products. The main purpose of the present work is to study the microstructure and phase transformation temperatures of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys fabricated from a direct laser additive process using metallic powders as precursors. The potential application is to manufacture self-centering seismic dampers for earthquake protection of buildings out of a copper based alloy by an additive process. In this process, the Cu-Al-Ni alloy is melted, inside of a high temperature and vacuum chamber with the aid of a high power fiber laser under inert atmosphere. The laser provides the energy to melt the alloy powder layer. The process allows fabricating fully dense, oxygen-free Cu-Al-Ni specimens using different laser power levels, laser powder interaction times, furnace ambient temperatures, and cooling rates as well as modifying concentration of the alloying elements. Two sets of specimens were fabricated with a nominal composition of Cu-13Al-3Ni and Cu-13Al-4Ni in wt.%, however, semi-quantitative chemical analysis using EDX examination showed that the specimens’ resulting composition was closer to Cu-12Al-5Ni and Cu-11Al-8Ni, respectively. In spite of that fact, it is expected that the specimens should still possess shape memory behavior. To confirm this hypothesis, phase transformation temperatures will be measured using DSC technique, to look for martensitic and austenitic phase transformations at 150°C. So far, metallographic analysis of the specimens showed defined martensitic microstructures. Moreover, XRD technique revealed diffraction peaks corresponding to (0 0 18) and (1 2 8) planes, which are too associated with the presence of martensitic phase. We conclude that it would be possible to obtain fully dense Cu-Al-Ni alloys having shape memory effect behavior by direct laser fabrication process, and to advance into fabrication of self centering seismic dampers by a controllable metal additive manufacturing process.

Keywords: Cu-Al-Ni alloys, direct laser fabrication, shape memory alloy, self-centering seismic dampers

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3224 Finite Element Analysis of Shape Memory Alloy Stents in Coronary Arteries

Authors: Amatulraheem Al-Abassi, K. Khanafer, Ibrahim Deiab


The coronary artery stent is a promising technology that can treat various coronary diseases. Materials used for manufacturing medical stents should have high biocompatible properties. Stent alloys, in particular, are remarkably promising good clinical outcomes, however, there is threaten of restenosis (reoccurring of artery narrowing due to fatty plaque), stent recoiling, or in long-term the occurrence of stent fracture. However, stents that are made of Nickel-titanium (Nitinol) can bare extensive plastic deformation and resist restenosis. This shape memory alloy has outstanding mechanical properties. Nitinol is a unique shape memory alloy as it has unique mechanical properties such as; biocompatibility, super-elasticity, and recovery to original shape under certain loads. Stent failure may cause complications in vascular diseases and possibly blockage of blood flow. Thus, studying the behaviors of the stent under different medical conditions will help the doctors and cardiologists to predict when it is necessary to change the stent in order to prevent any severe morbidity outcomes. To the best of our knowledge, there are limited published papers that analyze the stent behavior with regards to the contact surfaces of plaque layer and blood vessel. Thus, stent material properties will be discussed in this investigation to highlight the mechanical and clinical differences between various stents. This research analyzes the performance of Nitinol stent in well-known stent design to determine its bearing with stress and its dislocation in blood vessels, in comparison to stents made of different biocompatible materials. In addition, a study of its performance will be represented in the system. Finite Element Analysis is the core of this study. Thus, a physical representative model will be discussed to show the distribution of stress and strain along the interaction surface between the stent and the artery. The reaction of vascular tissue to the stent will be evaluated to predict the possibility of restenosis within the treated area.

Keywords: shape memory alloy, stent, coronary artery, finite element analysis

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3223 Application of Shape Memory Alloy as Shear Connector in Composite Bridges: Overview of State-of-the-Art

Authors: Apurwa Rastogi, Anant Parghi


Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are memory metals with a high calibre to outperform as a civil construction material. They showcase novel functionality of undergoing large deformations and self-healing capability (pseudoelasticity) that leads to its emerging applications in a variety of areas. In the existing literature, most of the studies focused on the behaviour of SMA when used in critical regions of the smart buildings/bridges designed to withstand severe earthquakes without collapse and also its various applications in retrofitting works. However, despite having high ductility, their uses as construction joints and shear connectors in composite bridges are still unexplored in the research domain. This article presents to gain a broad outlook on whether SMAs can be partially used as shear connectors in composite bridges. In this regard, existing papers on the characteristics of shear connectors in the composite bridges will be discussed thoroughly and matched with the fundamental characteristics and properties of SMA. Since due to the high strength, stiffness, and ductility phenomena of SMAs, it is expected to be a good material for the shear connectors in composite bridges, and the collected evidence encourages the prior scrutiny of its partial use in the composite constructions. Based on the comprehensive review, important and necessary conclusions will be affirmed, and further emergence of research direction on the use of SMA will be discussed. This opens the window of new possibilities of using smart materials to enhance the performance of bridges even more in the near future.

Keywords: composite bridges, ductility, pseudoelasticity, shape memory alloy, shear connectors

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3222 Dynamic Response of Doubly Curved Composite Shell with Embedded Shape Memory Alloys Wires

Authors: Amin Ardali, Mohammadreza Khalili, Mohammadreza Rezai


In this paper, dynamic response of thin smart composite panel subjected to low-velocity transverse impact is investigated. Shape memory wires are used to reinforced curved composite panel in a smart way. One-dimensional thermodynamic constitutive model by Liang and Rogers is used for estimating the structural recovery stress. The two degrees-of-freedom mass-spring model is used for evaluation of the contact force between the curved composite panel and the impactor. This work is benefited from the Hertzian linear contact model which is linearized for the impact analysis of curved composite panel. The governing equations of curved panel are provided by first-order shear theory and solved by Fourier series related to simply supported boundary condition. For this purpose, the equation of doubly curved panel motion included the uniform in-plane forces is obtained. By the present analysis, the curved panel behavior under low-velocity impact, and also the effect of the impact parameters, the shape memory wire and the curved panel dimensions are studied.

Keywords: doubly curved shell, SMA wire, impact response, smart material, shape memory alloy

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3221 Formation of Nanostructured Surface Layers of a Material with TiNi-Based Shape Memory by Diffusion Metallization

Authors: Zh. M. Blednova, P. O. Rusinov


Results of research on the formation of the surface layers of a material with shape memory effect (SME) based on TiNi diffusion metallization in molten Pb-Bi under isothermal conditions in an argon atmosphere are presented. It is shown that this method allows obtaining of uniform surface layers in nanostructured state of internal surfaces on the articles of complex shapes with stress concentrators. Structure, chemical and phase composition of the surface layers provide a manifestation of TiNi shape memory. The average grain size of TiNi coatings ranges between 60 ÷ 160 nm.

Keywords: diffusion metallization, nikelid titanium surface layers, shape memory effect, nanostructures

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3220 The Shape Memory Recovery Properties under Load of a Polymer Composite

Authors: Abdul Basit, Gildas Lhostis, Bernard Durand


Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are replacing shape memory alloys (SMAs) in many applications as SMPs have certain superior properties than SMAs. However, SMAs possess some properties like recovery under stress that SMPs lack. SMPs cannot give complete recovery even under a small load. SMPs are initially heated close to their transition temperature (glass transition temperature or the melting temperature). Then force is applied to deform the heated SMP to a specific position. Subsequently, SMP is allowed to cool keeping it deformed. After cooling, SMP gets the temporary shape. This temporary shape can be recovered by heating it again at the same temperature that was given it while heating it initially. As a result, it will recover its original position. SMP can perform unconstrained recovery and constrained recovery, however; under the load, it only recovers partially. In this work, the recovery under the load of an asymmetrical shape memory composite called as CBCM-SMPC has been investigated. It is found that it has the ability to recover under different loads. Under different loads, it shows powerful complete recovery in reference to initial position. This property can be utilized in many applications.

Keywords: shape memory, polymer composite, thermo-mechanical testing, recovery under load

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3219 Different Orientations of Shape Memory Alloy Wire in Automotive Sector Product

Authors: Srishti Bhatt, Vaibhav Bhavsar, Adil Hussain, Aashay Mhaske, S. C. Bali, T. S. Srikanth


Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are widely known for their unique shape recovery properties. SMA based actuation systems have high-force to weight ratio, light weight and also bio-compatible material. Which is why they are being used in different fields of aerospace, robotics, automotive and biomedical industries. However, in the automotive industry plenty of patents are available but commercially viable products are very few in market. This could be due to SMA material limitations like small stroke, direct dependability of lifecycle on stroke, pull load of the wire and high cycle time. In automotive sector, SMA being considered as an actuator which is required to have high stroke and constraint arises to accommodate a long length of wire (to compensate maximum 4 % strain as per better fatigue life cycle) not only increases complexity but also adds on the cost. More than 200 different types of actuators are used in an automobile, few of them whose efficiency can highly increase by replacing them with SMA based actuators which include latch lock mechanism, glove box, Head lamp leveling, side mirror and rear mirror leveling, tailgate opener and fuel lid cap actuator. To overcome the limitation of available space for required stroke of an actuator which leads to study the effect of different loading positions on SMA wires, different orientations of SMA wire by using pulleys and lever based systems to achieve maximum stroke. This investigation summarizes the loading under the V shape orientation the required stroke and carrying load capacity in more compact in comparison with straight orientation of wire. Similarly, the U shape orientation its showing higher load carrying capacity but reduced stroke which is aligned with concept of bundled wire method. Life-cycle of these orientations were also evaluated.

Keywords: actuators, automotive, nitinol, shape memory alloy, SMA wire orientations

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3218 Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis of One Dimensional Shape Memory Alloy Constitutive Models

Authors: A. B. M. Rezaul Islam, Ernur Karadogan


Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are known for their shape memory effect and pseudoelasticity behavior. Their thermomechanical behaviors are modeled by numerous researchers using microscopic thermodynamic and macroscopic phenomenological point of view. Tanaka, Liang-Rogers and Ivshin-Pence models are some of the most popular SMA macroscopic phenomenological constitutive models. They describe SMA behavior in terms of stress, strain and temperature. These models involve material parameters and they have associated uncertainty present in them. At different operating temperatures, the uncertainty propagates to the output when the material is subjected to loading followed by unloading. The propagation of uncertainty while utilizing these models in real-life application can result in performance discrepancies or failure at extreme conditions. To resolve this, we used probabilistic approach to perform the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence models. Sobol and extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Testing (eFAST) methods have been used to perform the sensitivity analysis for simulated isothermal loading/unloading at various operating temperatures. As per the results, it is evident that the models vary due to the change in operating temperature and loading condition. The average and stress-dependent sensitivity indices present the most significant parameters at several temperatures. This work highlights the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis results and shows comparison of them at different temperatures and loading conditions for all these models. The analysis presented will aid in designing engineering applications by eliminating the probability of model failure due to the uncertainty in the input parameters. Thus, it is recommended to have a proper understanding of sensitive parameters and the uncertainty propagation at several operating temperatures and loading conditions as per Tanaka, Liang-Rogers, and Ivshin-Pence model.

Keywords: constitutive models, FAST sensitivity analysis, sensitivity analysis, sobol, shape memory alloy, uncertainty analysis

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3217 Characteristic of Ta Alloy Coating Films on Near-Net Shape with Different Current Densities Using MARC Process

Authors: Young Jun Lee, Tae Hyuk Lee, Kyoung Tae Park, Jong Hyeon Lee


The harsh atmosphere of the sulfur-iodine process used for producing hydrogen requires better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties that is possible to obtain with pure tantalum. Ta-W alloy is superior to pure tantalum but is difficult to alloy due to its high melting temperature. In this study, substrates of near-net shape (Swagelok® tube ISSG8UT4) were coated with Ta-W using the multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt (LiF-NaF-K2TaF7) at different current densities (1, 2 and 4mA/cm2). Ta-4W coating films of uniform coating thicknesses, without any entrapped salt, were successfully deposited on Swagelok tube by electrodeposition at 1 mA/cm2. The resulting coated film with a corrosion rate of less than 0.011 mm/year was attained in hydriodic acid at 160°C, and hardness up to 12.9 % stronger than pure tantalum coated film. The alloy coating films also contributed to significant enhancement of corrosion resistance.

Keywords: tantalum, tantalum alloy, tungsten alloy, electroplating

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3216 Lattice Twinning and Detwinning Processes in Phase Transformation in Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel


Shape memory effect is a peculiar property exhibited by certain alloy systems and based on martensitic transformation, and shape memory properties are closely related to the microstructures of the material. Shape memory effect is linked with martensitic transformation, which is a solid state phase transformation and occurs with the cooperative movement of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears on cooling from high-temperature parent phase. Lattice twinning and detwinning can be considered as elementary processes activated during the transformation. Thermally induced martensite occurs as martensite variants, in self-accommodating manner and consists of lattice twins. Also, this martensite is called the twinned martensite or multivariant martensite. Deformation of shape memory alloys in martensitic state proceeds through a martensite variant reorientation. The martensite variants turn into the reoriented single variants with deformation, and the reorientation process has great importance for the shape memory behavior. Copper based alloys exhibit this property in metastable β- phase region, which has DO3 –type ordered lattice in ternary case at high temperature, and these structures martensiticaly turn into the layered complex structures with lattice twinning mechanism, on cooling from high temperature parent phase region. The twinning occurs as martensite variants with lattice invariant shears in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110}- type plane of austenite matrix. Lattice invariant shear is not uniform in copper based ternary alloys and gives rise to the formation of unusual layered structures, like 3R, 9R, or 18R depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered lattice. The unit cell and periodicity are completed through 18 atomic layers in case of 18R-structure. On the other hand, the deformed material recovers the original shape on heating above the austenite finish temperature. Meanwhile, the material returns to the twinned martensite structures (thermally induced martensite structure) in one way (irreversible) shape memory effect on cooling below the martensite finish temperature, whereas the material returns to the detwinned martensite structure (deformed martensite) in two-way (reversible) shape memory effect. Shortly one can say that the microstructural mechanisms, responsible for the shape memory effect are the twinning and detwinning processes as well as martensitic transformation. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies were carried out on two copper-based ternary alloys, CuZnAl, and CuAlMn.

Keywords: shape memory effect, martensitic transformation, twinning and detwinning, layered structures

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3215 Seismic Response of Braced Steel Frames with Shape Memory Alloy and Mega Bracing Systems

Authors: Mohamed Omar


Steel bracing members are widely used in steel structures to reduce lateral displacement and dissipate energy during earthquake motions. Concentric steel bracing provide an excellent approach for strengthening and stiffening steel buildings. Using these braces the designer can hardly adjust the stiffness together with ductility as needed because of buckling of braces in compression. In this study the use of SMA bracing and steel bracing (Mega) utilized in steel frames are investigated. The effectiveness of these two systems in rehabilitating a mid-rise eight-storey steel frames were examined using time-history nonlinear analysis utilizing Seismo-Struct software. Results show that both systems improve the strength and stiffness of the original structure but due to excellent behavior of SMA in nonlinear phase and under compressive forces this system shows much better performance than the rehabilitation system of Mega bracing.

Keywords: finite element analysis, seismic response, shapes memory alloy, steel frame, mega bracing

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3214 On Crack Tip Stress Field in Pseudo-Elastic Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Gulcan Ozerim, Gunay Anlas


In shape memory alloys, upon loading, stress increases around crack tip and a martensitic phase transformation occurs in early stages. In many studies the stress distribution in the vicinity of the crack tip is represented by using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) although the pseudo-elastic behavior results in a nonlinear stress-strain relation. In this study, the HRR singularity (Hutchinson, Rice and Rosengren), that uses Rice’s path independent J-integral, is tried to formulate the stress distribution around the crack tip. In HRR approach, the Ramberg-Osgood model for the stress-strain relation of power-law hardening materials is used to represent the elastic-plastic behavior. Although it is recoverable, the inelastic portion of the deformation in martensitic transformation (up to the end of transformation) resembles to that of plastic deformation. To determine the constants of the Ramberg-Osgood equation, the material’s response is simulated in ABAQUS using a UMAT based on ZM (Zaki-Moumni) thermo-mechanically coupled model, and the stress-strain curve of the material is plotted. An edge cracked shape memory alloy (Nitinol) plate is loaded quasi-statically under mode I and modeled using ABAQUS; the opening stress values ahead of the cracked tip are calculated. The stresses are also evaluated using the asymptotic equations of both LEFM and HRR. The results show that in the transformation zone around the crack tip, the stress values are much better represented when the HRR singularity is used although the J-integral does not show path independent behavior. For the nodes very close to the crack tip, the HRR singularity is not valid due to the non-proportional loading effect and high-stress values that go beyond the transformation finish stress.

Keywords: crack, HRR singularity, shape memory alloys, stress distribution

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3213 Measurements of Recovery Stress and Recovery Strain of Ni-Based Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: W. J. Kim


The behaviors of the recovery stress and strain of an ultrafine-grained Ni-50.2 at.% Ti alloy prepared by high-ratio differential speed rolling (HRDSR) were examined by a specially designed tensile-testing set up, and the factors that influence the recovery stress and strain were studied. After HRDSR, both the recovery stress and strain were enhanced compared to the initial condition. The constitutive equation showing that the maximum recovery stress is a sole function of the recovery strain was developed based on the experimental data. The recovery strain increased as the yield stress increased. The maximum recovery stress increased with an increase in yield stress. The residual recovery stress was affected by the yield stress as well as the austenite-to-martensite transformation temperature. As the yield stress increased and as the martensitic transformation temperature decreased, the residual recovery stress increased.

Keywords: high-ratio differential speed rolling, tensile testing, severe plastic deformation, shape memory alloys

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3212 Concepts of Technologies Based on Smart Materials to Improve Aircraft Aerodynamic Performance

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Zbigniew Czyz, Ksenia Siadkowska, Piotr Borowiec


The article presents selected concepts of technologies that use intelligent materials in aircraft in order to improve their performance. Most of the research focuses on solutions that improve the performance of fixed wing aircraft due to related to their previously dominant market share. Recently, the development of the rotorcraft has been intensive, so there are not only helicopters but also gyroplanes and unmanned aerial vehicles using rotors and vertical take-off and landing. There are many different technologies to change a shape of the aircraft or its elements. Piezoelectric, deformable actuator systems can be applied in the system of an active control of vibration dampening in the aircraft tail structure. Wires made of shape memory alloys (SMA) could be used instead of hydraulic cylinders in the rear part of the aircraft flap. The aircraft made of intelligent materials (piezoelectrics and SMA) is one of the NASA projects which provide the possibility of changing a wing shape coefficient by 200%, a wing surface by 50%, and wing deflections by 20 degrees. Active surfaces made of shape memory alloys could be used to control swirls in the flowing stream. An intelligent control system for helicopter blades is a method for the active adaptation of blades to flight conditions and the reduction of vibrations caused by the rotor. Shape memory alloys are capable of recovering their pre-programmed shapes. They are divided into three groups: nickel-titanium-based, copper-based, and ferromagnetic. Due to the strongest shape memory effect and the best vibration damping ability, a Ni-Ti alloy is the most commercially important. The subject of this work was to prepare a conceptual design of a rotor blade with SMA actuators. The scope of work included 3D design of the supporting rotor blade, 3D design of beams enabling to change the geometry by changing the angle of rotation and FEM (Finite Element Method) analysis. The FEM analysis was performed using NX 12 software in the Pre/Post module, which includes extended finite element modeling tools and visualizations of the obtained results. Calculations are presented for two versions of the blade girders. For FEM analysis, three types of materials were used for comparison purposes (ABS, aluminium alloy 7057, steel C45). The analysis of internal stresses and extreme displacements of crossbars edges was carried out. The internal stresses in all materials were close to the yield point in the solution of girder no. 1. For girder no. 2 solution, the value of stresses decreased by about 45%. As a result of the displacement analysis, it was found that the best solution was the ABS girder no. 1. The displacement of about 0.5 mm was obtained, which resulted in turning the crossbars (upper and lower) by an angle equal to 3.59 degrees. This is the largest deviation of all the tests. The smallest deviation was obtained for beam no. 2 made of steel. The displacement value of the second girder solution was approximately 30% lower than the first solution. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development under the LIDER program, Grant Agreement No. LIDER/45/0177/L-9/17/NCBR/2018.

Keywords: aircraft, helicopters, shape memory alloy, SMA, smart material, unmanned aerial vehicle, UAV

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3211 Heat Forging Analysis Method on Blank Consist of Two Metals

Authors: Takashi Ueda, Shinichi Enoki


Forging parts is used to automobiles. Because they have high strength and it is possible to press them into complicated shape. When it is possible to manufacture hollow forging parts, it leads to reduce weight of the automobiles. But, hollow forging parts are confined to axisymmetrical shape. Hollow forging parts that were pressed to complicated shape are expected. Therefore, we forge a blank that aluminum alloy was inserted in stainless steel. After that, we can provide complex forging parts that are reduced weight, if it is possible to be melted the aluminum alloy away by using different of melting points. It is necessary to establish heat forging analysis method on blank consist of stainless steel and aluminum alloy. Because, this forging is different from conventional forging and this technology is not confirmed. In this study, we compared forging experiment with numerical analysis on the view point of forming load and shape after forming and establish how to set the material temperatures of two metals and material property of stainless steel on the analysis method. Consequently, temperature difference of stainless steel and aluminum alloy was obtained by experiment. We got material property of stainless steel on forging experimental by compression tests. We had compared numerical analysis that was used the temperature difference of two metals and the material property of stainless steel on forging experimental with forging experiment. Forging analysis method on blank consist of two metals was established by result of numerical analysis having agreed with result of forging experiment.

Keywords: forging, lightweight, analysis, hollow

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3210 Non-Linear Load-Deflection Response of Shape Memory Alloys-Reinforced Composite Cylindrical Shells under Uniform Radial Load

Authors: Behrang Tavousi Tehrani, Mohammad-Zaman Kabir


Shape memory alloys (SMA) are often implemented in smart structures as the active components. Their ability to recover large displacements has been used in many applications, including structural stability/response enhancement and active structural acoustic control. SMA wires or fibers can be embedded with composite cylinders to increase their critical buckling load, improve their load-deflection behavior, and reduce the radial deflections under various thermo-mechanical loadings. This paper presents a semi-analytical investigation on the non-linear load-deflection response of SMA-reinforced composite circular cylindrical shells. The cylinder shells are under uniform external pressure load. Based on first-order shear deformation shell theory (FSDT), the equilibrium equations of the structure are derived. One-dimensional simplified Brinson’s model is used for determining the SMA recovery force due to its simplicity and accuracy. Airy stress function and Galerkin technique are used to obtain non-linear load-deflection curves. The results are verified by comparing them with those in the literature. Several parametric studies are conducted in order to investigate the effect of SMA volume fraction, SMA pre-strain value, and SMA activation temperature on the response of the structure. It is shown that suitable usage of SMA wires results in a considerable enhancement in the load-deflection response of the shell due to the generation of the SMA tensile recovery force.

Keywords: airy stress function, cylindrical shell, Galerkin technique, load-deflection curve, recovery stress, shape memory alloy

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3209 Loading Forces following Addition of 5% Cu in Nickel-Titanium Alloy Used for Orthodontics

Authors: Aphinan Phukaoluan, Surachai Dechkunakorn, Niwat Anuwongnukroh, Anak Khantachawana, Pongpan Kaewtathip, Julathep Kajornchaiyakul, Wassana Wichai


Aims: This study aims to address the amount of force delivered by a NiTiCu orthodontic wire with a ternary composition ratio of 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu and to compare the results with a commercial NiTiCu 35 °C orthodontic archwire. Materials and Methods: Nickel (purity 99.9%), Titanium (purity 99.9%), and Copper (purity 99.9%) were used in this study with the atomic weight ratio 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu. The elements were melted to form an alloy using an electrolytic arc furnace in argon gas atmosphere and homogenized at 800 °C for 1 hr. The alloys were subsequently sliced into thin plates (1.5mm) by EDM wire cutting machine to obtain the specimens and were cold-rolled with 30% followed by heat treatment in a furnace at 400 °C for 1 hour. Then, the three newly fabricated NiTiCu specimens were cut in nearly identical wire sizes of 0.016 inch x0.022 inch. Commercial preformed Ormco NiTiCu35 °C archwire with size 0.016 inch x 0.022 inches were used for comparative purposes. Three-point bending test was performed using a Universal Testing Machine to investigate the force of the load-deflection curve at oral temperature (36 °C+ 1) with deflection points at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0. 1.25, and 1.5 mm. Descriptive statistics was used to evaluate each variables and independent t-test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. Results: Both NiTiCu wires presented typical superelastic properties as observed from the load-deflection curve. The average force was 341.70 g for loading, and 264.18 g for unloading for 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire. Similarly, the values were 299.88 g for loading, and 201.96 g for unloading of Ormco NiTiCu35°C. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in mean loading and unloading forces between the two NiTiCu wires. The deflection forces in loading and unloading force for Ormco NiTiCu at each point were less than 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire, except at the deflection point of 0.25mm. Regarding the force difference between each deflection point of loading and unloading force, Ormco NiTiCu35 °C exerted less force than 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu wire, except at difference deflection at 1.5-1.25 mm of unloading force. However, there were still within the acceptable limits for orthodontic use. Conclusion: The fabricated ternary alloy of 46.0 Ni: 49.0 Ti: 5.0 Cu (atomic weight) with 30% reduction and heat treatment at 400°C for 1 hr. and Ormco 35 °C NiTiCu presented the characteristics of the shape memory in their wire form. The unloading forces of both NiTiCu wires were in the range of orthodontic use. This should be a good foundation for further studies towards development of new orthodontic NiTiCu archwires.

Keywords: loading force, ternary alloy, NiTiCu, shape memory, orthodontic wire

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3208 Diamond-Like Carbon-Based Structures as Functional Layers on Shape-Memory Alloy for Orthopedic Applications

Authors: Piotr Jablonski, Krzysztof Mars, Wiktor Niemiec, Agnieszka Kyziol, Marek Hebda, Halina Krawiec, Karol Kyziol


NiTi alloys, possessing unique mechanical properties such as pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect (SME), are suitable for many applications, including implanthology and biomedical devices. Additionally, these alloys have similar values of elastic modulus to those of human bones, what is very important in orthopedics. Unfortunately, the environment of physiological fluids in vivo causes unfavorable release of Ni ions, which in turn may lead to metalosis as well as allergic reactions and toxic effects in the body. For these reasons, the surface properties of NiTi alloys should be improved to increase corrosion resistance, taking into account biological properties, i.e. excellent biocompatibility. The prospective in this respect are layers based on DLC (Diamond-Like Carbon) structures, which are an attractive solution for many applications in implanthology. These coatings (DLC), usually obtained by PVD (Physical Vapour Deposition) and PA CVD (Plasma Activated Chemical Vapour Deposition) methods, can be also modified by doping with other elements like silicon, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, titanium and silver. These methods, in combination with a suitably designed structure of the layers, allow the possibility co-decide about physicochemical and biological properties of modified surfaces. Mentioned techniques provide specific physicochemical properties of substrates surface in a single technological process. In this work, the following types of layers based on DLC structures (incl. Si-DLC or Si/N-DLC) were proposed as prospective and attractive approach in surface functionalization of shape memory alloy. Nitinol substrates were modified in plasma conditions, using RF CVD (Radio Frequency Chemical Vapour Deposition). The influence of plasma treatment on the useful properties of modified substrates after deposition DLC layers doped with silica and/or nitrogen atoms, as well as only pre-treated in O2 NH3 plasma atmosphere in a RF reactor was determined. The microstructure and topography of the modified surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, the atomic structure of coatings was characterized by IR and Raman spectroscopy. The research also included the evaluation of surface wettability, surface energy as well as the characteristics of selected mechanical and biological properties of the layers. In addition, the corrosion properties of alloys after and before modification in the physiological saline were also investigated. In order to determine the corrosion resistance of NiTi in the Ringer solution, the potentiodynamic polarization curves (LSV – Linear Sweep Voltamperometry) were plotted. Furthermore, the evolution of corrosion potential versus immersion time of TiNi alloy in Ringer solution was performed. Based on all carried out research, the usefullness of proposed modifications of nitinol for medical applications was assessed. It was shown, inter alia, that the obtained Si-DLC layers on the surface of NiTi alloy exhibit a characteristic complex microstructure, increased surface development, which is an important aspect in improving the osteointegration of an implant. Furthermore, the modified alloy exhibits biocompatibility, the transfer of the metal (Ni, Ti) to Ringer’s solution is clearly limited.

Keywords: bioactive coatings, corrosion resistance, doped DLC structure, NiTi alloy, RF CVD

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3207 Computational Analysis of Variation in Thrust of Oblique Detonation Ramjet Engine With Adaptive Inlet

Authors: Aditya, Ganapati Joshi, Vinod Kumar



Keywords: detonation, ramjet engine, shape memory alloy, ignition delay, shock-boundary layer interaction, eddy dissipation, asymmetric nozzle

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3206 Effect of Strontium on Surface Roughness and Chip Morphology When Turning Al-Si Cast Alloy Using Carbide Tool Insert

Authors: Mohsen Marani Barzani, Ahmed A. D. Sarhan, Saeed Farahany, Ramesh Singh


Surface roughness and chip morphology are important output in manufacturing product. In this paper, an experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effects of various cutting speeds and feed rates on surface roughness and chip morphology in turning the Al-Si cast alloy and Sr-containing. Experimental trials carried out using coated carbide inserts. Experiments accomplished under oblique dry cutting when various cutting speeds 70, 130 and 250 m/min and feed rates of 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15 mm/rev were used, whereas depth of cut kept constant at 0.05 mm. The results showed that Sr-containing Al-Si alloy have poor surface roughness in comparison to Al-Si alloy (base alloy). The surface roughness values reduce with cutting speed increment from 70 to 250 m/min. the size of chip changed with changing silicon shape in Al matrix. Also, the surface finish deteriorated with increase in feed rate from 0.5 mm/rev to 0.15 mm/rev.

Keywords: strontium, surface roughness, chip, morphology, turning

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3205 Evaluation of Forming Properties on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy by Incremental Forming

Authors: A. Anbu Raj, V. Mugendiren


Sheet metal forming is a vital manufacturing process used in automobile, aerospace, agricultural industries, etc. Incremental forming is a promising process providing a short and inexpensive way of forming complex three-dimensional parts without using die. The aim of this research is to study the forming behaviour of AA 5052, Aluminium Alloy, using incremental forming and also to study the FLD of cone shape AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature. Initially the surface roughness and wall thickness through incremental forming on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy sheet at room temperature is optimized by controlling the effects of forming parameters. The central composite design (CCD) was utilized to plan the experiment. The step depth, feed rate, and spindle speed were considered as input parameters in this study. The surface roughness and wall thickness were used as output response. The process performances such as average thickness and surface roughness were evaluated. The optimized results are taken for minimum surface roughness and maximum wall thickness. The optimal results are determined based on response surface methodology and the analysis of variance. Formability Limit Diagram is constructed on AA 5052 Aluminium Alloy at room temperature and various annealing temperature by using optimized process parameters from the response surface methodology. The cone has higher formability than the square pyramid and higher wall thickness distribution. Finally the FLD on cone shape and square pyramid shape at room temperature and the various annealing temperature is compared experimentally and simulated with Abaqus software.

Keywords: incremental forming, response surface methodology, optimization, wall thickness, surface roughness

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3204 Design and Analysis of Hybrid Morphing Smart Wing for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

Authors: Chetan Gupta, Ramesh Gupta


Unmanned aerial vehicles, of all sizes, are prime targets of the wing morphing concept as their lightweight structures demand high aerodynamic stability while traversing unsteady atmospheric conditions. In this research study, a hybrid morphing technology is developed to aid the trailing edge of the aircraft wing to alter its camber as a monolithic element rather than functioning as conventional appendages like flaps. Kinematic tailoring, actuation techniques involving shape memory alloys (SMA), piezoelectrics – individually fall short of providing a simplistic solution to the conundrum of morphing aircraft wings. On the other hand, the feature of negligible hysteresis while actuating using compliant mechanisms has shown higher levels of applicability and deliverability in morphing wings of even large aircrafts. This research paper delves into designing a wing section model with a periodic, multi-stable compliant structure requiring lower orders of topological optimization. The design is sub-divided into three smaller domains with external hyperelastic connections to achieve deflections ranging from -15° to +15° at the trailing edge of the wing. To facilitate this functioning, a hybrid actuation system by combining the larger bandwidth feature of piezoelectric macro-fibre composites and relatively higher work densities of shape memory alloy wires are used. Finite element analysis is applied to optimize piezoelectric actuation of the internal compliant structure. A coupled fluid-surface interaction analysis is conducted on the wing section during morphing to study the development of the velocity boundary layer at low Reynold’s numbers of airflow.

Keywords: compliant mechanism, hybrid morphing, piezoelectrics, shape memory alloys

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3203 Techniques for Seismic Strengthening of Historical Monuments from Diagnosis to Implementation

Authors: Mircan Kaya


A multi-disciplinary approach is required in any intervention project for historical monuments. Due to the complexity of their geometry, the variable and unpredictable characteristics of original materials used in their creation, heritage structures are peculiar. Their histories are often complex, and they require correct diagnoses to decide on the techniques of intervention. This approach should not only combine technical aspects but also historical research that may help discover phenomena involving structural issues, and acquire a knowledge of the structure on its concept, method of construction, previous interventions, process of damage, and its current state. In addition to the traditional techniques like bed joint reinforcement, the repairing, strengthening and restoration of historical buildings may require several other modern methods which may be described as innovative techniques like pre-stressing and post-tensioning, use of shape memory alloy devices and shock transmission units, shoring, drilling, and the use of stainless steel or titanium. Regardless of the method to be incorporated in the strengthening process, which can be traditional or innovative, it is crucial to recognize that structural strengthening is the process of upgrading the structural system of the existing building with the aim of improving its performance under existing and additional loads like seismic loads. This process is much more complex than dealing with a new construction, owing to the fact that there are several unknown factors associated with the structural system. Material properties, load paths, previous interventions, existing reinforcement are especially important matters to be considered. There are several examples of seismic strengthening with traditional and innovative techniques around the world, which will be discussed in this paper in detail, including their pros and cons. Ultimately, however, the main idea underlying the philosophy of a successful intervention with the most appropriate techniques of strengthening a historic monument should be decided by a proper assessment of the specific needs of the building.

Keywords: bed joint reinforcement, historical monuments, post-tensioning, pre-stressing, seismic strengthening, shape memory alloy devices, shock transmitters, tie rods

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3202 Using Shape Memory Alloys for Structural Engineering Applications

Authors: Donatello Cardone


Shape memory alloys (SMAs) have great potential for use in the field of civil engineering. The author of this manuscript has been involved, since 1996, in several experimental and theoretical studies on the application of SMAs in structural engineering, within national and international research projects. This paper provides an overview of the main results achieved, including the conceptual design, implementation, and testing of different SMA-based devices, namely: (i) energy-dissipating braces for RC buildings, (ii) seismic isolation devices for buildings and bridges, (iii) smart tie-rods for arches and vaults and (iv) seismic restrainers for bridges. The main advantages of using SMA-based devices in the seismic protection of structures derive from the double-flag shape of their hysteresis loops, which implies three favourable features, i.e., self-centering capability, good energy dissipation capability, and high stiffness for small displacements. The main advantages of SMA-based units for steel tie-rods are associated with the thermal behaviour of superelastic SMAs, which is antagonistic compared to that of steel. This implies a strong reduction of force changes due to air temperature variations. Finally, SMA-based seismic restrainers proved to be effective in preventing bridge deck unseating and pounding.

Keywords: seismic protection of structures, shape memory alloys, structural engineering, steel tie-rods, seismic restrainers for bridges

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3201 Dynamic High-Rise Moment Resisting Frame Dissipation Performances Adopting Glazed Curtain Walls with Superelastic Shape Memory Alloy Joints

Authors: Lorenzo Casagrande, Antonio Bonati, Ferdinando Auricchio, Antonio Occhiuzzi


This paper summarizes the results of a survey on smart non-structural element dynamic dissipation when installed in modern high-rise mega-frame prototypes. An innovative glazed curtain wall was designed using Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) joints in order to increase the energy dissipation and enhance the seismic/wind response of the structures. The studied buildings consisted of thirty- and sixty-storey planar frames, extracted from reference three-dimensional steel Moment Resisting Frame (MRF) with outriggers and belt trusses. The internal core was composed of a CBF system, whilst outriggers were placed every fifteen stories to limit second order effects and inter-storey drifts. These structural systems were designed in accordance with European rules and numerical FE models were developed with an open-source code, able to account for geometric and material nonlinearities. With regard to the characterization of non-structural building components, full-scale crescendo tests were performed on aluminium/glass curtain wall units at the laboratory of the Construction Technologies Institute (ITC) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), deriving force-displacement curves. Three-dimensional brick-based inelastic FE models were calibrated according to experimental results, simulating the fac¸ade response. Since recent seismic events and extreme dynamic wind loads have generated the large occurrence of non-structural components failure, which causes sensitive economic losses and represents a hazard for pedestrians safety, a more dissipative glazed curtain wall was studied. Taking advantage of the mechanical properties of SMA, advanced smart joints were designed with the aim to enhance both the dynamic performance of the single non-structural unit and the global behavior. Thus, three-dimensional brick-based plastic FE models were produced, based on the innovated non-structural system, simulating the evolution of mechanical degradation in aluminium-to-glass and SMA-to-glass connections when high deformations occurred. Consequently, equivalent nonlinear links were calibrated to reproduce the behavior of both tested and smart designed units, and implemented on the thirty- and sixty-storey structural planar frame FE models. Nonlinear time history analyses (NLTHAs) were performed to quantify the potential of the new system, when considered in the lateral resisting frame system (LRFS) of modern high-rise MRFs. Sensitivity to the structure height was explored comparing the responses of the two prototypes. Trends in global and local performance were discussed to show that, if accurately designed, advanced materials in non-structural elements provide new sources of energy dissipation.

Keywords: advanced technologies, glazed curtain walls, non-structural elements, seismic-action reduction, shape memory alloy

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3200 Physical Aspects of Shape Memory and Reversibility in Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel


Shape memory alloys take place in a class of smart materials by exhibiting a peculiar property called the shape memory effect. This property is characterized by the recoverability of two certain shapes of material at different temperatures. These materials are often called smart materials due to their functionality and their capacity of responding to changes in the environment. Shape memory materials are used as shape memory devices in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, bioengineering, metallurgy, building industry and many engineering fields. The shape memory effect is performed thermally by heating and cooling after first cooling and stressing treatments, and this behavior is called thermoelasticity. This effect is based on martensitic transformations characterized by changes in the crystal structure of the material. The shape memory effect is the result of successive thermally and stress-induced martensitic transformations. Shape memory alloys exhibit thermoelasticity and superelasticity by means of deformation in the low-temperature product phase and high-temperature parent phase region, respectively. Superelasticity is performed by stressing and releasing the material in the parent phase region. Loading and unloading paths are different in the stress-strain diagram, and the cycling loop reveals energy dissipation. The strain energy is stored after releasing, and these alloys are mainly used as deformation absorbent materials in control of civil structures subjected to seismic events, due to the absorbance of strain energy during any disaster or earthquake. Thermal-induced martensitic transformation occurs thermally on cooling, along with lattice twinning with cooperative movements of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears, and ordered parent phase structures turn into twinned martensite structures, and twinned structures turn into the detwinned structures by means of stress-induced martensitic transformation by stressing the material in the martensitic condition. Thermal induced transformation occurs with the cooperative movements of atoms in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110} - type planes of austenite matrix which is the basal plane of martensite. Copper-based alloys exhibit this property in the metastable β-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high-temperature parent phase field. Lattice invariant shear and twinning is not uniform in copper-based ternary alloys and gives rise to the formation of complex layered structures, depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered parent phase lattice. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out on two copper-based CuAlMn and CuZnAl alloys. X-ray diffraction profiles and electron diffraction patterns reveal that both alloys exhibit superlattice reflections inherited from the parent phase due to the displacive character of martensitic transformation. X-ray diffractograms taken in a long time interval show that diffraction angles and intensities of diffraction peaks change with the aging duration at room temperature. In particular, some of the successive peak pairs providing a special relation between Miller indices come close to each other. This result refers to the rearrangement of atoms in a diffusive manner.

Keywords: shape memory effect, martensitic transformation, reversibility, superelasticity, twinning, detwinning

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