Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1927

Search results for: electrical stimulation

1927 Investigation of Different Stimulation Patterns to Reduce Muscle Fatigue during Functional Electrical Stimulation

Authors: R. Ruslee, H. Gollee

Abstract:

Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is a commonly used technique in rehabilitation and often associated with rapid muscle fatigue which becomes the limiting factor in its applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects on the onset of fatigue of conventional synchronous stimulation, as well as asynchronous stimulation that mimic voluntary muscle activation targeting different motor units which are activated sequentially or randomly via multiple pairs of stimulation electrodes. We investigate three different approaches with various electrode configurations, as well as different patterns of stimulation applied to the gastrocnemius muscle: Conventional Synchronous Stimulation (CSS), Asynchronous Sequential Stimulation (ASS) and Asynchronous Random Stimulation (ARS). Stimulation was applied repeatedly for 300 ms followed by 700 ms of no-stimulation with 40 Hz effective frequency for all protocols. Ten able-bodied volunteers (28±3 years old) participated in this study. As fatigue indicators, we focused on the analysis of Normalized Fatigue Index (NFI), Fatigue Time Interval (FTI) and pre-post Twitch-Tetanus Ratio (ΔTTR). The results demonstrated that ASS and ARS give higher NFI and longer FTI confirming less fatigue for asynchronous stimulation. In addition, ASS and ARS resulted in higher ΔTTR than conventional CSS. In this study, we proposed a randomly distributed stimulation method for the application of FES and investigated its suitability for reducing muscle fatigue compared to previously applied methods. The results validated that asynchronous stimulation reduces fatigue, and indicates that random stimulation may improve fatigue resistance in some conditions.

Keywords: asynchronous stimulation, electrode configuration, functional electrical stimulation (FES), muscle fatigue, pattern stimulation, random stimulation, sequential stimulation, synchronous stimulation

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1926 Bio-Heat Transfer in Various Transcutaneous Stimulation Models

Authors: Trevor E. Davis, Isaac Cassar, Yi-Kai Lo, Wentai Liu

Abstract:

This study models the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on skin with a disk electrode in order to simulate tissue damage. The current density distribution above a disk electrode is known to be a dynamic and non-uniform quantity that is intensified at the edges of the disk. The non-uniformity is subject to change through using various electrode geometries or stimulation methods. One of these methods known as edge-retarded stimulation has shown to reduce this edge enhancement. Though progress has been made in modeling the behavior of a disk electrode, little has been done to test the validity of these models in simulating the actual heat transfer from the electrode. This simulation uses finite element software to couple the injection of current from a disk electrode to heat transfer described by the Pennesbioheat transfer equation. An example application of this model is studying an experimental form of stimulation, known as edge-retarded stimulation. The edge-retarded stimulation method will reduce the current density at the edges of the electrode. It is hypothesized that reducing the current density edge enhancement effect will, in turn, reduce temperature change and tissue damage at the edges of these electrodes. This study tests this hypothesis as a demonstration of the capabilities of this model. The edge-retarded stimulation proved to be safer after this simulation. It is shown that temperature change and the fraction of tissue necrosis is much greater in the square wave stimulation. These results bring implications for changes of procedures in transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation as well.

Keywords: bioheat transfer, electrode, neuroprosthetics, TENS, transcutaneous stimulation

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1925 System for Mechanical Stimulation of the Mesenchymal Stem Cells Supporting Differentiation into Osteogenic Cells

Authors: Jana Stepanovska, Roman Matejka, Jozef Rosina, Marta Vandrovcova, Lucie Bacakova

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to develop a system for mechanical and also electrical stimulation controlling in vitro osteogenesis under conditions more similar to the in vivo bone microenvironment than traditional static cultivation, which would achieve good adhesion, growth and other specific behaviors of osteogenic cells in cultures. An engineered culture system for mechanical stimulation of the mesenchymal stem cells on the charged surface was designed. The bioreactor allows efficient mechanical loading inducing an electrical response and perfusion of the culture chamber with seeded cells. The mesenchymal stem cells were seeded to specific charged materials, like polarized hydroxyapatite (Hap) or other materials with piezoelectric and ferroelectric features, to create electrical potentials for stimulating of the cells. The material of the matrix was TiNb alloy designed for these purposes, and it was covered by BaTiO3 film, like a kind of piezoelectric material. The process of mechanical stimulation inducing electrical response is controlled by measuring electrical potential in the chamber. It was performed a series of experiments, where the cells were seeded, perfused and stimulated up to 48 hours under different conditions, especially pressure and perfusion. The analysis of the proteins expression was done, which demonstrated the effective mechanical and electrical stimulation. The experiments demonstrated effective stimulation of the cells in comparison with the static culture. This work was supported by the Ministry of Health, grant No. 15-29153A and the Grant Agency of the Czech Republic grant No. GA15-01558S.

Keywords: charged surface, dynamic cultivation, electrical stimulation, ferroelectric layers, mechanical stimulation, piezoelectric layers

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1924 The Effectiveness of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation on Brain Wave Pattern and Blood Pressure in Patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Authors: Mahtab Baghaei, Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei

Abstract:

Aim & Background: Electrical stimulation of transcranial direct current is considered one of the treatment methods for mental disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of transcranial electrical stimulation on the delta, theta, alpha, beta and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in patients with generalized anxiety disorder. Materials and Methods: The present study was a double-blind intervention with a pre-test and post-test design on people with generalized anxiety disorder in Tabriz in 1400. In this study, 30 patients with generalized anxiety disorder were selected by purposive sampling method based on the criteria specified in DSM-5 and randomly divided into an experimental group (n = 15) and a control group (n = 15). The experimental group received two sessions of 30 minutes of electrical stimulation of transcranial direct current with an intensity of 2 mA in the area of the lateral dorsal prefrontal cortex, and the control group also received artificial stimulation. Results: The results showed that transcranial electrical stimulation reduces delta and theta waves and increases beta and alpha brain waves in the experimental group. On the other hand, this method also showed a significant decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in these patients (p <0.01). Conclusion: The results show that transcranial electrical stimulation has a statistically significant effect on brain waves and blood pressure, and this non-invasive method can be used as one of the treatment methods in people with generalized anxiety disorder.

Keywords: transcranial direct current electrical stimulation, brain waves, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure

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1923 A Self-Adaptive Stimulus Artifacts Removal Approach for Electrical Stimulation Based Muscle Rehabilitation

Authors: Yinjun Tu, Qiang Fang, Glenn I. Matthews, Shuenn-Yuh Lee

Abstract:

This paper reports an efficient and rigorous self-adaptive stimulus artifacts removal approach for a mixed surface EMG (Electromyography) and stimulus signal during muscle stimulation. The recording of EMG and the stimulation of muscles were performing simultaneously. It is difficult to generate muscle fatigue feature from the mixed signal, which can be further used in closed loop system. A self-adaptive method is proposed in this paper, the stimulation frequency was calculated and verified firstly. Then, a mask was created based on this stimulation frequency to remove the undesired stimulus. 20 EMG signal recordings were analyzed, and the ANOVA (analysis of variance) approach illustrated that the decreasing trend of median power frequencies was successfully generated from the 'cleaned' EMG signal.

Keywords: EMG, FES, stimulus artefacts, self-adaptive

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1922 In-Vitro Evaluation of the Long-Term Stability of PEDOT:PSS Coated Microelectrodes for Chronic Recording and Electrical Stimulation

Authors: A. Schander, T. Tessmann, H. Stemmann, S. Strokov, A. Kreiter, W. Lang

Abstract:

For the chronic application of neural prostheses and other brain-computer interfaces, long-term stable microelectrodes for electrical stimulation are essential. In recent years many developments were done to investigate different appropriate materials for these electrodes. One of these materials is the electrical conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), which has lower impedance and higher charge injection capacity compared to noble metals like gold and platinum. However the long-term stability of this polymer is still unclear. Thus this paper reports on the in-vitro evaluation of the long-term stability of PEDOT coated gold microelectrodes. For this purpose a highly flexible electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode array, based on the polymer polyimide, is used. This array consists of circular gold electrodes with a diameter of 560 µm (0.25 mm2). In total 25 electrodes of this array were coated simultaneously with the polymer PEDOT:PSS in a cleanroom environment using a galvanostatic electropolymerization process. After the coating the array is additionally sterilized using a steam sterilization process (121°C, 1 bar, 20.5 min) to simulate autoclaving prior to the implantation of such an electrode array. The long-term measurements were performed in phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS, pH 7.4) at the constant body temperature of 37°C. For the in-vitro electrical stimulation a one channel bipolar current stimulator is used. The stimulation protocol consists of a bipolar current amplitude of 5 mA (cathodal phase first), a pulse duration of 100 µs per phase, a pulse pause of 50 µs and a frequency of 1 kHz. A PEDOT:PSS coated gold electrode with an area of 1 cm2 serves as the counter electrode. The electrical stimulation is performed continuously with a total amount of 86.4 million bipolar current pulses per day. The condition of the PEDOT coated electrodes is monitored in between with electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements. The results of this study demonstrate that the PEDOT coated electrodes are stable for more than 3.6 billion bipolar current pulses. Also the unstimulated electrodes show currently no degradation after the time period of 5 months. These results indicate an appropriate long-term stability of this electrode coating for chronic recording and electrical stimulation. The long-term measurements are still continuing to investigate the life limit of this electrode coating.

Keywords: chronic recording, electrical stimulation, long-term stability, microelectrodes, PEDOT

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1921 Isolated Contraction of Deep Lumbar Paraspinal Muscle with Magnetic Nerve Root Stimulation: A Pilot Study

Authors: Shi-Uk Lee, Chae Young Lim

Abstract:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of lumbar deep muscle thickness and cross-sectional area using ultrasonography with magnetic stimulation. Methods: To evaluate the changes of lumbar deep muscle by using magnetic stimulation, 12 healthy volunteers (39.6±10.0 yrs) without low back pain during 3 months participated in this study. All the participants were checked with X-ray and electrophysiologic study to confirm that they had no problems with their back. Magnetic stimulation was done on the L5 and S1 root with figure-eight coil as previous study. To confirm the proper motor root stimulation, the surface electrode was put on the tibialis anterior (L5) and abductor hallucis muscles (S1) and the hot spots of magnetic stimulation were found with 50% of maximal magnetic stimulation and determined the stimulation threshold lowering the magnetic intensity by 5%. Ultrasonography was used to assess the changes of L5 and S1 lumbar multifidus (superficial and deep) cross-sectional area and thickness with maximal magnetic stimulation. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and thickness was evaluated with image acquisition program, ImageJ software (National Institute of Healthy, USA). Wilcoxon signed-rank was used to compare outcomes between before and after stimulations. Results: The mean minimal threshold was 29.6±3.8% of maximal stimulation intensity. With minimal magnetic stimulation, thickness of L5 and S1 deep multifidus (DM) were increased from 1.25±0.20, 1.42±0.23 cm to 1.40±0.27, 1.56±0.34 cm, respectively (P=0.005, P=0.003). CSA of L5 and S1 DM were also increased from 2.26±0.18, 1.40±0.26 cm2 to 2.37±0.18, 1.56±0.34 cm2, respectively (P=0.002, P=0.002). However, thickness of L5 and S1 superficial multifidus (SM) were not changed from 1.92±0.21, 2.04±0.20 cm to 1.91±0.33, 1.96±0.33 cm (P=0.211, P=0.199) and CSA of L5 and S1 were also not changed from 4.29±0.53, 5.48±0.32 cm2 to 4.42±0.42, 5.64±0.38 cm2. With maximal magnetic stimulation, thickness of L5, S1 of DM and SM were increased (L5 DM, 1.29±0.26, 1.46±0.27 cm, P=0.028; L5 SM, 2.01±0.42, 2.24±0.39 cm, P=0.005; S1 DM, 1.29±0.19, 1.67±0.29 P=0.002; S1 SM, 1.90±0.36, 2.30±0.36, P=0.002). CSA of L5, S1 of DM and SM were also increased (all P values were 0.002). Conclusions: Deep lumbar muscles could be stimulated with lumbar motor root magnetic stimulation. With minimal stimulation, thickness and CSA of lumbosacral deep multifidus were increased in this study. Further studies are needed to confirm whether the similar results in chronic low back pain patients are represented. Lumbar magnetic stimulation might have strengthening effect of deep lumbar muscles with no discomfort.

Keywords: magnetic stimulation, lumbar multifidus, strengthening, ultrasonography

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1920 Hydrogen Peroxide: A Future for Well Stimulation and Heavy Oil Recovery

Authors: Meet Bhatia

Abstract:

Well stimulation and heavy oil recovery continue to be a hot topic in our industry, particularly with formation damage and viscous oil respectively. Cyclic steam injection has been recognised for most of the operations related to heavy oil recovery. However, the cost of implementation is high and operation is time-consuming, moreover most of the viscous oil reservoirs such as oil sands, Bitumen deposits and oil shales require additional treatment of well stimulation. The use of hydrogen peroxide can efficiently replace the cyclic steam injection process as it can be used for both well stimulation and heavy oil recovery simultaneously. The decomposition of Hydrogen peroxide produces oxygen, superheated steam and heat. The increase in temperature causes clays to shrink, destroy carbonates and remove emulsion thus it can efficiently remove the near wellbore damage. The paper includes mechanisms, parameters to be considered and the challenges during the treatment for the effective hydrogen peroxide injection for both conventional and heavy oil reservoirs.

Keywords: hydrogen peroxide, well stimulation, heavy oil recovery, steam injection

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1919 Effect of Naphtha on the Composition of a Heavy Crude, in Addition to a Cycle Steam Stimulation Process

Authors: A. Guerrero, A. Leon, S. Munoz, M. Sandoval

Abstract:

The addition of solvent to cyclic steam stimulation is done in order to reduce the solvent-vapor ratio at late stages of the process, the moment in which this relationship increases significantly. The study of the use of naphtha in addition to the cyclic steam stimulation has been mainly oriented to the effect it achieves on the incremental recovery compared to the application of steam only. However, the effect of naphtha on the reactivity of crude oil components under conditions of cyclic steam stimulation or if its effect is the only dilution has not yet been considered, to author’s best knowledge. The present study aims to evaluate and understand the effect of naphtha and the conditions of cyclic steam stimulation, on the remaining composition of the improved oil, as well as the main mechanisms present in the heavy crude - naphtha interaction. Tests were carried out with the system solvent (naphtha)-oil (12.5° API, 4216 cP @ 40° C)- steam, in a batch micro-reactor, under conditions of cyclic steam stimulation (250-300 °C, 400 psi). The characterization of the samples obtained was carried out by MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry) and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) techniques. The results indicate that there is a rearrangement of the microstructure of asphaltenes, resulting in a decrease in these and an increase in lighter components such as resins.

Keywords: composition change, cyclic steam stimulation, interaction mechanism, naphtha

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1918 Electromagnetic-Mechanical Stimulation on PC12 for Enhancement of Nerve Axonal Extension

Authors: E. Nakamachi, K. Matsumoto, K. Yamamoto, Y. Morita, H. Sakamoto

Abstract:

In recently, electromagnetic and mechanical stimulations have been recognized as the effective extracellular environment stimulation technique to enhance the defected peripheral nerve tissue regeneration. In this study, we developed a new hybrid bioreactor by adopting 50 Hz uniform alternative current (AC) magnetic stimulation and 4% strain mechanical stimulation. The guide tube for nerve regeneration is mesh structured tube made of biodegradable polymer, such as polylatic acid (PLA). However, when neural damage is large, there is a possibility that peripheral nerve undergoes necrosis. So it is quite important to accelerate the nerve tissue regeneration by achieving enhancement of nerve axonal extension rate. Therefore, we try to design and fabricate the system that can simultaneously load the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation and the stretch stimulation to cells for enhancement of nerve axonal extension. Next, we evaluated systems performance and the effectiveness of each stimulation for rat adrenal pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). First, we designed and fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field system and the stretch stimulation system. For the AC magnetic stimulation system, we focused on the use of pole piece structure to carry out in-situ microscopic observation. We designed an optimum pole piece structure using the magnetic field finite element analyses and the response surface methodology. We fabricated the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation system as a bio-reactor by adopting analytically determined design specifications. We measured magnetic flux density that is generated by the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation system. We confirmed that measurement values show good agreement with analytical results, where the uniform magnetic field was observed. Second, we fabricated the cyclic stretch stimulation device under the conditions of particular strains, where the chamber was made of polyoxymethylene (POM). We measured strains in the PC12 cell culture region to confirm the uniform strain. We found slightly different values from the target strain. Finally, we concluded that these differences were allowable in this mechanical stimulation system. We evaluated the effectiveness of each stimulation to enhance the nerve axonal extension using PC12. We confirmed that the average axonal extension length of PC12 under the uniform AC magnetic stimulation was increased by 16 % at 96 h in our bio-reactor. We could not confirm that the axonal extension enhancement under the stretch stimulation condition, where we found the exfoliating of cells. Further, the hybrid stimulation enhanced the axonal extension. Because the magnetic stimulation inhibits the exfoliating of cells. Finally, we concluded that the enhancement of PC12 axonal extension is due to the magnetic stimulation rather than the mechanical stimulation. Finally, we confirmed that the effectiveness of the uniform AC magnetic field stimulation for the nerve axonal extension using PC12 cells.

Keywords: nerve cell PC12, axonal extension, nerve regeneration, electromagnetic-mechanical stimulation, bioreactor

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1917 A Robotic Rehabilitation Arm Driven by Somatosensory Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Jiewei Li, Hongyan Cui, Chunqi Chang, Yong Hu

Abstract:

It was expected to benefit patient with hemiparesis after stroke by extensive arm rehabilitation, to partially regain forearm and hand function. This paper propose a robotic rehabilitation arm in assisting the hemiparetic patient to learn new ways of using and moving their weak arms. In this study, the robotic arm was driven by a somatosensory stimulated brain computer interface (BCI), which is a new modality BCI. The use of somatosensory stimulation is not only an input for BCI, but also a electrical stimulation for treatment of hemiparesis to strengthen the arm and improve its range of motion. A trial of this robotic rehabilitation arm was performed in a stroke patient with pure motor hemiparesis. The initial trial showed a promising result from the patient with great motivation and function improvement. It suggests that robotic rehabilitation arm driven by somatosensory BCI can enhance the rehabilitation performance and progress for hemiparetic patients after stroke.

Keywords: robotic rehabilitation arm, brain computer interface (BCI), hemiparesis, stroke, somatosensory stimulation

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1916 Effects of EMS on Foot Drop Associated with Grade III Wound: A Case Report

Authors: Mirza Obaid Baig, MaimoonaYaqub

Abstract:

A 51 year old lady; known case of diabetes mellitus, post wound debridement i.e. 4 open wounds of grade III presented to us with foot drop, with prominent sensory deficit over right lower leg/foot i.e. 0 on Nottingham scale for impaired sensation, marked pedal edema and 5/10 – 6/10 pain on VAS during day and night respectively, Wounds were poorly granulated and foul smelling. Physiotherapy sessions were planned including twice a day electrical muscle stimulation sessions, strategies to decrease edema and improve muscle action which resulted in noticeable improvement in motor and sensory ability, pain levels, edema and psychological status of patient. Thus, this study gives evidence of the effect of Electrical muscle stimulation in grade III open wounds associated with motor/sensory weakness post-surgery.

Keywords: EMS, foot drop, grade III wound, diabetes mellitus

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1915 Rehabilitative Walking: The Development of a Robotic Walking Training Device Using Functional Electrical Stimulation for Treating Spinal Cord Injuries and Lower-Limb Paralysis

Authors: Chung Hyun Goh, Armin Yazdanshenas, X. Neil Dong, Yong Tai Wang

Abstract:

Physical rehabilitation is a necessary step in regaining lower body function after a partial paralysis caused by a spinal cord injury or a stroke. The purpose of this paper is to present the development and optimization of a training device that accurately recreates the motions in a gait cycle with the goal of rehabilitation for individuals with incomplete spinal cord injuries or who are victims of a stroke. A functional electrical stimulator was used in conjunction with the training device to stimulate muscle groups pertaining to rehabilitative walking. The feasibility and reliability of the design are presented. To validate the design functionality, motion analyses of the knee and ankle gait paths were made using motion capture systems. Key results indicate that the robotic walking training device provides a viable mode of physical rehabilitation.

Keywords: functional electrical stimulation, rehabilitative walking, robotic walking training device, spinal cord injuries

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1914 Response of Selected Echocardiographic Features to Aerobic Training in Obese Hypertensive Males

Authors: Abeer Ahmed Abdelhameed

Abstract:

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of aerobic exercises on LV parameters, lipid profile, and anthropometric measurements in hypertensive middle aged male subjects. Thirty obese patients were recruited for the study from the outpatient clinic of National Heart Institute, Egypt. Their ages ranges from 40 to 60 years. All participants underwent an aerobic training program including regular aerobic sub-maximal exercises in the form of treadmill walking and abdominal exercises 3/week for four months, the exercise were individually tailored for each participant depending on the result of cardiopulmonary exercise test. The result showed no significant difference observed in both LVPWT and LVSWT data from pre-test values to post-test values in all subjects after 4 months, with a significant reduction in WHR, systolic blood pressure, TAG and LDL records. Result also revealed a significant increase in HDL, Eƒ, LVEDD and FS records for all participants. The significant improvement in ventricular functions in form of ejection fraction of electrical group more than exercise group after 4 months at the end of the study may be due to the beneficial effect of faradic stimulation in lipolysis of storage adipose tissues, stimulation of lean body mass and muscles and/or thermal effect that improves vascularization.

Keywords: left ventricular parameters, aerobic training, electrical stimulation, lipid profile

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1913 Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Development of Demand-Controlled Deep Brain Stimulation with Methods from Stochastic Phase Resetting

Authors: Mahdi Akhbardeh

Abstract:

Synchronization of neuronal firing is a hallmark of several neurological diseases. Recently, stimulation techniques have been developed which make it possible to desynchronize oscillatory neuronal activity in a mild and effective way, without suppressing the neurons' firing. As yet, these techniques are being used to establish demand-controlled deep brain stimulation (DBS) techniques for the therapy of movement disorders like severe Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. We here present a first conceptualization suggesting that the nucleus accumbens is a promising target for the standard, that is, permanent high-frequency, DBS in patients with severe and chronic obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we explain how demand-controlled DBS techniques may be applied to the therapy of OCD in those cases that are refractory to behavioral therapies and pharmacological treatment.

Keywords: stereotactic neurosurgery, deep brain stimulation, obsessive-compulsive disorder, phase resetting

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1912 Designing Stochastic Non-Invasively Applied DC Pulses to Suppress Tremors in Multiple Sclerosis by Computational Modeling

Authors: Aamna Lawrence, Ashutosh Mishra

Abstract:

Tremors occur in 60% of the patients who have Multiple Sclerosis (MS), the most common demyelinating disease that affects the central and peripheral nervous system, and are the primary cause of disability in young adults. While pharmacological agents provide minimal benefits, surgical interventions like Deep Brain Stimulation and Thalamotomy are riddled with dangerous complications which make non-invasive electrical stimulation an appealing treatment of choice for dealing with tremors. Hence, we hypothesized that if the non-invasive electrical stimulation parameters (mainly frequency) can be computed by mathematically modeling the nerve fibre to take into consideration the minutest details of the axon morphologies, tremors due to demyelination can be optimally alleviated. In this computational study, we have modeled the random demyelination pattern in a nerve fibre that typically manifests in MS using the High-Density Hodgkin-Huxley model with suitable modifications to account for the myelin. The internode of the nerve fibre in our model could have up to ten demyelinated regions each having random length and myelin thickness. The arrival time of action potentials traveling the demyelinated and the normally myelinated nerve fibre between two fixed points in space was noted, and its relationship with the nerve fibre radius ranging from 5µm to 12µm was analyzed. It was interesting to note that there were no overlaps between the arrival time for action potentials traversing the demyelinated and normally myelinated nerve fibres even when a single internode of the nerve fibre was demyelinated. The study gave us an opportunity to design DC pulses whose frequency of application would be a function of the random demyelination pattern to block only the delayed tremor-causing action potentials. The DC pulses could be delivered to the peripheral nervous system non-invasively by an electrode bracelet that would suppress any shakiness beyond it thus paving the way for wearable neuro-rehabilitative technologies.

Keywords: demyelination, Hodgkin-Huxley model, non-invasive electrical stimulation, tremor

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1911 The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Oxygenation and Pleasure during Exercise

Authors: Alexandre H. Okano, Pedro M. D. Agrícola, Daniel G. Da S. Machado, Luiz I. Do N. Neto, Luiz F. Farias Junior, Paulo H. D. Nascimento, Rickson C. Mesquita, John F. Araujo, Eduardo B. Fontes, Hassan M. Elsangedy, Shinsuke Shimojo, Li M. Li

Abstract:

The prefrontal cortex is involved in the reward system and the insular cortex integrates the afferent inputs arriving from the body’ systems and turns into feelings. Therefore, modulating neuronal activity in these regions may change individuals’ perception in a given situation such as exercise. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) change cerebral oxygenation and pleasure during exercise. Fourteen volunteer healthy adult men were assessed into five different sessions. First, subjects underwent to a maximum incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Then, subjects were randomly assigned to a transcranial direct current stimulation (2mA for 15 min) intervention in a cross over design in four different conditions: anode and cathode electrodes on T3 and Fp2 targeting the insular cortex, and Fpz and F4 targeting prefrontal cortex, respectively; and their respective sham. These sessions were followed by 30 min of moderate intensity exercise. Brain oxygenation was measured in prefrontal cortex with a near infrared spectroscopy. Perceived exertion and pleasure were also measured during exercise. The asymmetry in prefrontal cortex oxygenation before the stimulation decreased only when it was applied over this region which did not occur after insular cortex or sham stimulation. Furthermore, pleasure was maintained during exercise only after prefrontal cortex stimulation (P > 0.7), while there was a decrease throughout exercise (P < 0.03) during the other conditions. We conclude that tDCS over the prefrontal cortex changes brain oxygenation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and maintains perceived pleasure during exercise. Therefore, this technique might be used to enhance effective responses related to exercise.

Keywords: affect, brain stimulation, dopamine neuromodulation, pleasure, reward, transcranial direct current stimulation

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1910 Close Loop Controlled Current Nerve Locator

Authors: H. A. Alzomor, B. K. Ouda, A. M. Eldeib

Abstract:

Successful regional anesthesia depends upon precise location of the peripheral nerve or nerve plexus. Locating peripheral nerves is preferred to be done using nerve stimulation. In order to generate a nerve impulse by electrical means, a minimum threshold stimulus of current “rheobase” must be applied to the nerve. The technique depends on stimulating muscular twitching at a close distance to the nerve without actually touching it. Success rate of this operation depends on the accuracy of current intensity pulses used for stimulation. In this paper, we will discuss a circuit and algorithm for closed loop control for the current, theoretical analysis and test results and compare them with previous techniques.

Keywords: Close Loop Control (CLC), constant current, nerve locator, rheobase

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1909 The Effects of Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) towards Male Skeletal Muscle Mass

Authors: Mohd Faridz Ahmad, Amirul Hakim Hasbullah

Abstract:

Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) has been introduced to the world in the 19th and 20th centuries and has globally gained increasing attention on its usefulness. EMS is known as the application of electrical current transcutaneous to muscles through electrodes to induce involuntary contractions that can lead to the increment of muscle mass and strength. This study can be used as an alternative to help people especially those living a sedentary lifestyle to improve their muscle activity without having to go through a heavy workout session. Therefore, this study intended to investigate the effectiveness of EMS training in 5 weeks interventions towards male body composition. It was a quasi-experimental design, held at the Impulse Studio Bangsar, which examined the effects of EMS training towards skeletal muscle mass among the subjects. Fifteen subjects (n = 15) were selected to assist in this study. The demographic data showed that, the average age of the subjects was 43.07 years old ± 9.90, height (173.4 cm ± 9.09) and weight was (85.79 kg ± 18.07). Results showed that there was a significant difference on the skeletal muscle mass (p = 0.01 < 0.05), upper body (p = 0.01 < 0.05) and lower body (p = 0.00 < 0.05). Therefore, the null hypothesis has been rejected in this study. As a conclusion, the application of EMS towards body composition can increase the muscle size and strength. This method has been proven to be able to improve athlete strength and thus, may be implemented in the sports science area of knowledge.

Keywords: body composition, EMS, skeletal muscle mass, strength

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1908 Stimulation of Nerve Tissue Differentiation and Development Using Scaffold-Based Cell Culture in Bioreactors

Authors: Simon Grossemy, Peggy P. Y. Chan, Pauline M. Doran

Abstract:

Nerve tissue engineering is the main field of research aimed at finding an alternative to autografts as a treatment for nerve injuries. Scaffolds are used as a support to enhance nerve regeneration. In order to successfully design novel scaffolds and in vitro cell culture systems, a deep understanding of the factors affecting nerve regeneration processes is needed. Physical and biological parameters associated with the culture environment have been identified as potentially influential in nerve cell differentiation, including electrical stimulation, exposure to extracellular-matrix (ECM) proteins, dynamic medium conditions and co-culture with glial cells. The mechanisms involved in driving the cell to differentiation in the presence of these factors are poorly understood; the complexity of each of them raises the possibility that they may strongly influence each other. Some questions that arise in investigating nerve regeneration include: What are the best protein coatings to promote neural cell attachment? Is the scaffold design suitable for providing all the required factors combined? What is the influence of dynamic stimulation on cell viability and differentiation? In order to study these effects, scaffolds adaptable to bioreactor culture conditions were designed to allow electrical stimulation of cells exposed to ECM proteins, all within a dynamic medium environment. Gold coatings were used to make the surface of viscose rayon microfiber scaffolds (VRMS) conductive, and poly-L-lysine (PLL) and laminin (LN) surface coatings were used to mimic the ECM environment and allow the attachment of rat PC12 neural cells. The robustness of the coatings was analyzed by surface resistivity measurements, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation and immunocytochemistry. Cell attachment to protein coatings of PLL, LN and PLL+LN was studied using DNA quantification with Hoechst. The double coating of PLL+LN was selected based on high levels of PC12 cell attachment and the reported advantages of laminin for neural differentiation. The underlying gold coatings were shown to be biocompatible using cell proliferation and live/dead staining assays. Coatings exhibiting stable properties over time under dynamic fluid conditions were developed; indeed, cell attachment and the conductive power of the scaffolds were maintained over 2 weeks of bioreactor operation. These scaffolds are promising research tools for understanding complex neural cell behavior. They have been used to investigate major factors in the physical culture environment that affect nerve cell viability and differentiation, including electrical stimulation, bioreactor hydrodynamic conditions, and combinations of these parameters. The cell and tissue differentiation response was evaluated using DNA quantification, immunocytochemistry, RT-qPCR and functional analyses.

Keywords: bioreactor, electrical stimulation, nerve differentiation, PC12 cells, scaffold

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1907 Mechanical Prosthesis Controlled by Brain-Computer Interface

Authors: Tianyu Cao, KIRA (Ruizhi Zhao)

Abstract:

The purpose of our research is to study the possibility of people with physical disabilities manipulating mechanical prostheses through brain-computer interface (BCI) technology. The brain-machine interface (BCI) of the neural prosthesis records signals from neurons and uses mathematical modeling to decode them, converting desired movements into body movements. In order to improve the patient's neural control, the prosthesis is given a natural feeling. It records data from sensitive areas from the body to the prosthetic limb and encodes signals in the form of electrical stimulation to the brain. In our research, the brain-computer interface (BCI) is a bridge connecting patients’ cognition and the real world, allowing information to interact with each other. The efficient work between the two is achieved through external devices. The flow of information is controlled by BCI’s ability to record neuronal signals and decode signals, which are converted into device control. In this way, we could encode information and then send it to the brain through electrical stimulation, which has significant medical application.

Keywords: biomedical engineering, brain-computer interface, prosthesis, neural control

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
1906 Evaluation of the Laser and Partial Vibration Stimulation on Osteoporosis

Authors: Ji Hyung Park, Dong-Hyun Seo, Young-Jin Jung, Han Sung Kim

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of the laser and partial vibration stimulation on the mice tibia with morphological characteristics. Twenty female C57BL/6 mice (12 weeks old) were used for the experiment. The study was carried out on four groups of animals each consisting of five mice. Four groups of mice were ovariectomized. Animals were scanned at 0 and 2 weeks after ovariectomy by using micro-computed tomography to estimate morphological characteristics of tibial trabecular bone. Morphological analysis showed that structural parameters of multi-stimuli group appear significantly better phase in BV/TV, BS/BV, Tb.Th, Tb.N, Tb.Sp, and Tb.pf than single stimulation groups. However, single stimulation groups didn’t show significant effect on tibia with Sham group. This study suggests that multi-stimuli may restrain the change as the degenerate phase on osteoporosis in the mice tibia.

Keywords: laser, partial vibration, osteoporosis, in-vivo micro-CT, mice

Procedia PDF Downloads 431
1905 Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy versus Functional Electrical Stimulation on Spasticity, Function and Gait Parameters in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

Authors: Mohamed A. Eid, Sobhy M. Aly

Abstract:

Background: About 75% of children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy walk independently, but most still show abnormal gait patterns because of contractures across the joints and muscle spasticity. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) versus functional electrical stimulation (FES) on spasticity, function, and gait parameters in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: A randomized controlled trail was conducted for 45 children with hemiplegic CP ranging in age from 6 to 9 years. They were assigned randomly using opaque envelopes into three groups. Physical Therapy (PT) group consisted of 15 children and received the conventional physical therapy program (CPTP) in addition to ankle foot orthosis (AFO). ESWT group consisted of 15 children and received the CPTP, AFO in addition to ESWT. FES group also consisted of 15 children and received the CPTP, AFO in addition to FES. All groups received the program of treatment 3 days/week for 12 weeks. Evaluation of spasticity by using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), function by using the Pediatric Evaluation Disability Inventory (PEDI) and gait parameters by using the 3-D gait analysis was conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks of the treatment program. Results: Within groups, significant improvements in spasticity, function, and gait (P = 0.05) were observed in both ESWT and FES groups after treatment. While between groups, ESWT group showed significant improvements in all measured variables compared with FES and PT groups (P ˂ 0.05) after treatment. Conclusion: ESWT induced significant improvement than FES in decreasing spasticity and improving function and gait in children with hemiplegic CP. Therefore, ESWT should be included as an adjunctive therapy in the rehabilitation program of these children.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, extracorporeal shock wave therapy, functional electrical stimulation, function, gait, spasticity

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1904 Ovarian Stimulation and Oocyte Cryopreservation for Fertility Preservation in Adolescent Females at the Royal Children’s Hospital: A Case Series

Authors: Kira Merigan

Abstract:

BACKGROUND- Fertility preservation (FP) measures are increasingly recognised as an important consideration for children and adolescents planned to undergo potentially damaging gonadotoxic therapy. Worldwide, there are very few documented cases of FP in young females by way of ovarian stimulation and oocyte cryopreservation.AIM – To report a case series of mature oocyte cryopreservation in 5post-pubertal adolescents aged 14-17 years old, with varied medical conditions requiring gonadotoxic treatment. SETTING-These cases took place via a multidisciplinary team approach at The Royal Children’s Hospital, a large tertiary centre in Melbourne, Australia. INTERVENTION– Ovarian stimulation and oocyte collection was performed as detailed in each case. RESULTS –Across the 5 patients, 3-28 oocytes were retrieved. We report pre-treatment workup, complications, and delays to treatment. CONCLUSION- Oocyte cryopreservation may be a safe alternative to ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) in the adolescent population

Keywords: fertility preservation, adolescent, ovarian stimulation, oocyte cryopreservation

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
1903 Modeling of Bioelectric Activity of Nerve Cells Using Bond Graph Method

Authors: M. Ghasemi, F. Eskandari, B. Hamzehei, A. R. Arshi

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Bioelectric activity of nervous cells might be changed causing by various factors. This alteration can lead to unforeseen circumstances in other organs of the body. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to model a single neuron and its behavior under an initial stimulation. This study was developed based on cable theory by means of the Bond Graph method. The numerical values of the parameters were derived from empirical studies of cellular electrophysiology experiments. Initial excitation was applied through square current functions, and the resulted action potential was estimated along the neuron. The results revealed that the model was developed in this research adapted with the results of experimental studies and demonstrated the electrical behavior of nervous cells properly.

Keywords: bond graph, stimulation, nervous cells, modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
1902 Somatosensory-Evoked Blink Reflex in Peripheral Facial Palsy

Authors: Sarah Sayed El- Tawab, Emmanuel Kamal Azix Saba

Abstract:

Objectives: Somatosensory blink reflex (SBR) is an eye blink response obtained from electrical stimulation of peripheral nerves or skin area of the body. It has been studied in various neurological diseases as well as among healthy subjects in different population. We designed this study to detect SBR positivity in patients with facial palsy and patients with post facial syndrome, to relate the facial palsy severity and the presence of SBR, and to associate between trigeminal BR changes and SBR positivity in peripheral facial palsy patients. Methods: 50 patients with peripheral facial palsy and post-facial syndrome 31 age and gender matched healthy volunteers were enrolled to this study. Facial motor conduction studies, trigeminal BR, and SBR were studied in all. Results: SBR was elicited in 67.7% of normal subjects, in 68% of PFS group, and in 32% of PFP group. On the non-paralytic side SBR was found in 28% by paralyzed side stimulation and in 24% by healthy side stimulation among PFP patients. For PFS group SBR was found on the non- paralytic side in 48%. Bilateral SBR elicitability was higher than its unilateral elicitability. Conclusion: Increased brainstem interneurons excitability is not essential to generate SBR. The hypothetical sensory-motor gating mechanism is responsible for SBR generation.

Keywords: somatosensory evoked blink reflex, post facial syndrome, blink reflex, enchanced gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 531
1901 Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Post-Stroke Dysphagia

Authors: Ehsan Kaviani, Azin Golmoradizade

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Introduction: Traditionally, tendons are considered to only contain tenocytes that are responsible for the maintenance, repair, and remodeling of tendons. Stem cells, which are termed tendon-derived stem cells, so this study we investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation combined with swallowing training on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods: This review article is about effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on post-stroke dysphagia that were extracted from Science Direct, Pro quest, and Pub med Data Bases. 15 articles had been selected according to inclusion criteria from 2014 to 2019, and 6 of them had been deleted by exclusion criteria. Results: The results of our systematic review suggest that tDCS may represent a promising novel treatment for post-stroke dysphagia. However, to date, little is known about the optimal parameters of tDCS for relieving post-stroke dysphagia. Further studies are warranted to refine this promising intervention by exploring the optimal parameters of tDCS. Conclusion: anodal tDCS over the affected hemisphere may be as effective as cathodal tDCS on the unaffected hemisphere to enhance recovery after subacute ischemic stroke and anodal tdcs applied over the affected pharyngeal motor cortex can enhance the outcome of swallowing training in post-stroke dysphagia.

Keywords: dysphagia, stroke, cortical stimulation, transcranial direct current stimulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
1900 The Functional Roles of Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex in Risk-Taking Behavior

Authors: Aline M. Dantas, Alexander T. Sack, Elisabeth Bruggen, Peiran Jiao, Teresa Schuhmann

Abstract:

Risk-taking behavior has been associated with the activity of specific prefrontal regions of the brain, namely the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). While the deactivation of the rDLPFC has been shown to lead to increased risk-taking behavior, the functional relationship between VMPFC activity and risk-taking behavior is yet to be clarified. Correlational evidence suggests that the VMPFC is involved in valuation processes that involve risky choices, but evidence on the functional relationship is lacking. Therefore, this study uses brain stimulation to investigate the role of the VMPFC during risk-taking behavior and replicate the current findings regarding the role of the rDLPFC in this same phenomenon. We used continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to inhibit either the VMPFC or DLPFC during the execution of the computerized Maastricht Gambling Task (MGT) in a within-subject design with 30 participants. We analyzed the effects of such stimulation on risk-taking behavior, participants’ choices of probabilities and average values, and response time. We hypothesized that, compared to sham stimulation, VMPFC inhibition leads to a reduction in risk-taking behavior by reducing the appeal to higher-value options and, consequently, the attractiveness of riskier options. Right DLPFC (rDLPFC) inhibition, on the other hand, should lead to an increase in risk-taking due to a reduction in cognitive control, confirming existent findings. Stimulation of both the rDLPFC and the VMPFC led to an increase in risk-taking behavior and an increase in the average value chosen after both rDLPFC and VMPFC stimulation compared to sham. No significant effect on chosen probabilities was found. A significant increase in response time was observed exclusively after rDLPFC stimulation. Our results indicate that inhibiting DLPFC and VMPFC separately leads to similar effects, increasing both risk-taking behavior and average value choices, which is likely due to the strong anatomical and functional interconnection of the VMPFC and rDLPFC.

Keywords: decision-making, risk-taking behavior, brain stimulation, TMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
1899 Selective Effect of Occipital Alpha Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation in Perception and Working Memory

Authors: Andreina Giustiniani, Massimiliano Oliveri

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Rhythmic activity in different frequencies could subserve distinct functional roles during visual perception and visual mental imagery. In particular, alpha band activity is thought to play a role in active inhibition of both task-irrelevant regions and processing of non-relevant information. In the present blind placebo-controlled study we applied alpha transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) in the occipital cortex both during a basic visual perception and a visual working memory task. To understand if the role of alpha is more related to a general inhibition of distractors or to an inhibition of task-irrelevant regions, we added a non visual distraction to both the tasks.Sixteen adult volunteers performed both a simple perception and a working memory task during 10 Hz tACS. The electrodes were placed over the left and right occipital cortex, the current intensity was 1 mA peak-to-baseline. Sham stimulation was chosen as control condition and in order to elicit the skin sensation similar to the real stimulation, electrical stimulation was applied for short periods (30 s) at the beginning of the session and then turned off. The tasks were split in two sets, in one set distracters were included and in the other set, there were no distracters. Motor interference was added by changing the answer key after subjects completed the first set of trials.The results show that alpha tACS improves working memory only when no motor distracters are added, suggesting a role of alpha tACS in inhibiting non-relevant regions rather than in a general inhibition of distractors. Additionally, we found that alpha tACS does not affect accuracy and hit rates during the visual perception task. These results suggest that alpha activity in the occipital cortex plays a different role in perception and working memory and it could optimize performance in tasks in which attention is internally directed, as in this working memory paradigm, but only when there is not motor distraction. Moreover, alpha tACS improves working memory performance by means of inhibition of task-irrelevant regions while it does not affect perception.

Keywords: alpha activity, interference, perception, working memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1898 Cephalometric Changes of Patient with Class II Division 1 [Malocclusion] Post Orthodontic Treatment with Growth Stimulation: A Case Report

Authors: Pricillia Priska Sianita

Abstract:

An aesthetic facial profile is one of the goals in Orthodontics treatment. However, this is not easily achieved, especially in patients with Class II Division 1 malocclusion who have the clinical characteristics of convex profile and significant skeletal discrepancy due to mandibular growth deficiency. Malocclusion with skeletal problems require proper treatment timing for growth stimulation, and it must be done in early age and in need of good cooperation from the patient. If this is not done and the patient has passed the growth period, the ideal treatment is orthognathic surgery which is more complicated and more painful. The growth stimulation of skeletal malocclusion requires a careful cephalometric evaluation ranging from diagnosis to determine the parts that require stimulation to post-treatment evaluation to see the success achieved through changes in the measurement of the skeletal parameters shown in the cephalometric analysis. This case report aims to describe skeletal changes cephalometrically that were achieved through orthodontic treatment in growing period. Material and method: Lateral Cephalograms, pre-treatment, and post-treatment of cases of Class II Division 1 malocclusion is selected from a collection of cephalometric radiographic in a private clinic. The Cephalogram is then traced and measured for the skeletal parameters. The result is noted as skeletal condition data of pre-treatment and post-treatment. Furthermore, superimposition is done to see the changes achieved. The results show that growth stimulation through orthodontic treatment can solve the skeletal problem of Class II Division 1 malocclusion and the skeletal changes that occur can be verified through cephalometric analysis. The skeletal changes have an impact on the improvement of patient's facial profile. To sum up, the treatment timing on a skeletal malocclusion is very important to obtain satisfactory results for the improvement of the aesthetic facial profile, and skeletal changes can be verified through cephalometric evaluation of pre- and post-treatment.

Keywords: cephalometric evaluation, class II division 1 malocclusion, growth stimulation, skeletal changes, skeletal problems

Procedia PDF Downloads 187