Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 136

Search results for: scaffolds

136 3D Scaffolds Fabricated by Microfluidic Device for Rat Cardiomyocytes Observation

Authors: Chih-Wei Chao, Jiashing Yu


Microfluidic devices have recently emerged as promising tools for the fabrication of scaffolds for cell culture. To mimic the natural circumstances of organism for cells to grow, here we present three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds fabricated by microfluidics for cells cultivation. This work aims at investigating the behavior in terms of the viability and the proliferation capability of rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes in the gelatin 3D scaffolds by fluorescent images.

Keywords: microfluidic device, H9c2, tissue engineering, 3D scaffolds

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
135 A Green Approach towards the Production of CaCO₃ Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Sudhir Kumar Sharma, Abiy D. Woldetsadik, Mazin Magzoub, Ramesh Jagannathan


It is well known that bioactive ceramics exhibit specific biological affinities, especially in the area of tissue re-generation. In this context, we report the development of an eminently scalable, novel, supercritical CO₂ based process for the fabrication of hierarchically porous 'soft' CaCO₃ scaffolds. Porosity at the macro, micro, and nanoscales was obtained through process optimization of the so-called 'coffee-ring effect'. Exposure of these CaCO₃ scaffolds to monocytic THP-1 cells yielded negligible levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) thereby confirming the lack of immunogenicity of the scaffolds. ECM protein treatment of the scaffolds showed enhanced adsorption comparable to standard control such as glass. In vitro studies using osteoblast precursor cell line, MC3T3, also demonstrated the cytocompatibility of hierarchical porous CaCO₃ scaffolds.

Keywords: supercritical CO2, CaCO3 scaffolds, coffee-ring effect, ECM proteins

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
134 Effect of Varying Scaffold Architecture and Porosity of Calcium Alkali Orthophosphate Based-Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: D. Adel, F. Giacomini, R. Gildenhaar, G. Berger, C. Gomes, U. Linow, M. Hardt, B. Peleskae, J. Günster, A. Houshmand, M. Stiller, A. Rack, K. Ghaffar, A. Gamal, M. El Mofty, C. Knabe


The goal of this study was to develop 3D scaffolds from a silica containing calcium alkali orthophosphate utilizing two different fabrication processes, first a replica technique namely the Schwartzwalder Somers method (SSM), and second 3D printing, i.e. Rapid prototyping (RP). First, the mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds (porosity, compressive strength, and solubility) was assessed and second their potential to facilitate homogenous colonization with osteogenic cells and extracellular bone matrix formation throughout the porous scaffold architecture. To this end murine and rat calavarie osteoblastic cells were dynamically seeded on both scaffold types under perfusion with concentrations of 3 million cells. The amount of cells and extracellular matrix as well as osteogenic marker expression was evaluated using hard tissue histology, immunohistochemistry, and histomorphometric analysis. Total porosities of both scaffolds were 86.9 % and 50% for SSM and RP respectively, Compressive strength values were 0.46 ± 0.2 MPa for SSM and 6.6± 0.8 MPa for RP. Regarding the cellular behavior, RP scaffolds displayed a higher cell and matrix percentage of 24.45%. Immunoscoring yielded strong osteocalcin expression of cells and matrix in RP scaffolds and a moderate expression in SSM scaffolds. 3D printed RP scaffolds displayed superior mechanical and biological properties compared to SSM. 3D printed scaffolds represent excellent candidates for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: calcium alkali orthophosphate, extracellular matrix mineralization, osteoblast differentiation, rapid prototyping, scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
133 Porous Titanium Scaffolds Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding Using Potassium-Chloride and Space Holder

Authors: Ali Dehghan Manshadi, David H. StJohn, Matthew S. Dargusch, M. Qian


Biocompatible, highly porous titanium scaffolds were manufactured by metal injection moulding of spherical titanium powder (powder size: -45 µm) with potassium chloride (powder size: -250 µm) as a space holder. Property evaluation of scaffolds confirmed a high level of compatibility between their mechanical properties and those of human cortical bone. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1250°C producing scaffolds with more than 90% interconnected pores in the size range of 200-250 µm, yield stress of 220 MPa and Young’s modulus of 7.80 GPa, all of which are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Increasing the sintering temperature to 1300°C increased the Young’s modulus to 22.0 GPa while reducing the temperature to 1150°C reduced the yield stress to 120 MPa due to incomplete sintering. The residual potassium chloride was determined vs. sintering temperature. A comparison was also made between the porous titanium scaffolds fabricated in this study and the additively manufactured titanium lattices of similar porosity reported in the literature.

Keywords: titanium, metal injection moulding, mechanical properties, scaffolds

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
132 Preparation and Characterization of Silk/Diopside Composite Nanofibers via Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering Application

Authors: Abbas Teimouri, Leila Ghorbanian, Iren Dabirian


This work focused on preparation and characterizations of silk fibroin (SF)/nanodiopside nanoceramic via electrospinning process. Nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by combined techniques of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results confirmed that fabricated SF/diopside scaffolds improved cell attachment and proliferation. The results indicated that the electrospun of SF/nanodiopside nanofibrous scaffolds could be considered as ideal candidates for tissue engineering.

Keywords: electrospinning, nanofibers, silk fibroin, diopside, composite scaffold

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
131 Improved Mechanical Properties and Osteogenesis in Electrospun Poly L-Lactic Ultrafine Nanofiber Scaffolds Incorporated with Graphene Oxide

Authors: Weili Shao, Qian Wang, Jianxin He


Recently, the applications of graphene oxide in fabricating scaffolds for bone tissue engineering have been received extensive concern. In this work, poly l-lactic/graphene oxide composite nanofibers were successfully fabricated by electrospinning. The morphology structure, porosity and mechanical properties of the composite nanofibers were characterized using different techniques. And mouse mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on the composite nanofiber scaffolds to assess their suitability for bone tissue engineering. The results indicated that the composite nanofiber scaffolds had finer fiber diameter and higher porosity as compared with pure poly l-lactic nanofibers. Furthermore, incorporation of graphene oxide into the poly l-lactic nanofibers increased protein adsorptivity, boosted the Young’s modulus and tensile strength by nearly 4.2-fold and 3.5-fold, respectively, and significantly enhanced adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenesis in mouse mesenchymal stem cells. The results indicate that composite nanofibers could be excellent and versatile scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

Keywords: poly l-lactic, graphene oxide, osteogenesis, bone tissue engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
130 Fabrication of Cheap Novel 3d Porous Scaffolds Activated by Nano-Particles and Active Molecules for Bone Regeneration and Drug Delivery Applications

Authors: Mostafa Mabrouk, Basma E. Abdel-Ghany, Mona Moaness, Bothaina M. Abdel-Hady, Hanan H. Beherei


Tissue engineering became a promising field for bone repair and regenerative medicine in which cultured cells, scaffolds and osteogenic inductive signals are used to regenerate tissues. The annual cost of treating bone defects in Egypt has been estimated to be many billions, while enormous costs are spent on imported bone grafts for bone injuries, tumors, and other pathologies associated with defective fracture healing. The current study is aimed at developing a more strategic approach in order to speed-up recovery after bone damage. This will reduce the risk of fatal surgical complications and improve the quality of life of people affected with such fractures. 3D scaffolds loaded with cheap nano-particles that possess an osteogenic effect were prepared by nano-electrospinning. The Microstructure and morphology characterizations of the 3D scaffolds were monitored using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The physicochemical characterization was investigated using X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (IR). The Physicomechanical properties of the 3D scaffold were determined by a universal testing machine. The in vitro bioactivity of the 3D scaffold was assessed in simulated body fluid (SBF). The bone-bonding ability of novel 3D scaffolds was also evaluated. The obtained nanofibrous scaffolds demonstrated promising microstructure, physicochemical and physicomechanical features appropriate for enhanced bone regeneration. Therefore, the utilized nanomaterials loaded with the drug are greatly recommended as cheap alternatives to growth factors.

Keywords: bone regeneration, cheap scaffolds, nanomaterials, active molecules

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
129 UV-Reactive Electrospinning: Preparation, Characterization and Cell Culture Applications of Nanofiber Scaffolds Containing Keratin

Authors: Duygu Yüksel Deniz, Memet Vezir Kahraman, Serap Erdem Kuruca, Mediha Süleymanoğlu


Our first aim was to synthesize Hydroxy Apatite (HAP) and then modify its surface by adding 4-Vinylbenzene boronic acid (4-VBBA). The characterization was done by FT-IR. By adding Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to 4- VBBA-HAP, we obtained a suitable electrospinning solution. PVA solution which was also modified by using alkoxy silanes, in order to prevent the scaffolds from being damaged by aqueous cell medium, was added. Keratin was dissolved and then added into the electrospinning solution. Keratin containing 4-VBBA- HAP/PVA composite was used to fabricate nanofiber scaffolds with the simultaneous UV-reactive electrospinning technique. The structural characterization was done by FT-IR. Thermal gravimetric analysis was also performed by using TGA. The morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. Our second aim was to create a scaffold where cells could grow. With this purpose, suitable nanofibers were choosen according to their SEM analysis. Keratin containing nanofibers were seeded with 3T3, ECV and SAOS cells and their cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were investigated by using MTT assay. After cell culturing process morphological characterization was determined by SEM analyses. These scaffolds were designed to be nontoxic biomaterials. Here, a comparision was made between keratin containing 3T3, ECV and SAOS seeded nanofiber scaffolds and the results were presented and discussed.

Keywords: cell culture, keratin, nanofibers, UV-reactive electrospinning

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128 Polymeric Microspheres for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Yamina Boukari, Nashiru Billa, Andrew Morris, Stephen Doughty, Kevin Shakesheff


Poly (lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) is a synthetic polymer that can be used in bone tissue engineering with the aim of creating a scaffold in order to support the growth of cells. The formation of microspheres from this polymer is an attractive strategy that would allow for the development of an injectable system, hence avoiding invasive surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to develop a microsphere delivery system for use as an injectable scaffold in bone tissue engineering and evaluate various formulation parameters on its properties. Porous and lysozyme-containing PLGA microspheres were prepared using the double emulsion solvent evaporation method from various molecular weights (MW). Scaffolds were formed by sintering to contain 1 -3mg of lysozyme per gram of scaffold. The mechanical and physical properties of the scaffolds were assessed along with the release of lysozyme, which was used as a model protein. The MW of PLGA was found to have an influence on microsphere size during fabrication, with increased MW leading to an increased microsphere diameter. An inversely proportional relationship was displayed between PLGA MW and mechanical strength of formed scaffolds across loadings for low, intermediate and high MW respectively. Lysozyme release from both microspheres and formed scaffolds showed an initial burst release phase, with both microspheres and scaffolds fabricated using high MW PLGA showing the lowest protein release. Following the initial burst phase, the profiles for each MW followed a similar slow release over 30 days. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that lysozyme can be successfully incorporated into porous PLGA scaffolds and released over 30 days in vitro, and that varying the MW of the PLGA can be used as a method of altering the physical properties of the resulting scaffolds.

Keywords: bone, microspheres, PLGA, tissue engineering

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127 Biocompatible Porous Titanium Scaffolds Produced Using a Novel Space Holder Technique

Authors: Yunhui Chen, Damon Kent, Matthew Dargusch


Synthetic scaffolds are a highly promising new approach to replace both autografts and allografts to repair and remodel damaged bone tissue. Biocompatible porous titanium scaffold was manufactured through a powder metallurgy approach. Magnesium powder was used as space holder material which was compacted with titanium powder and removed during sintering. Evaluation of the porosity and mechanical properties showed a high level of compatibility with human bone. Interconnectivity between pores is higher than 95% for porosity as low as 30%. The elastic moduli are 39 GPa, 16 GPa and 9 GPa for 30%, 40% and 50% porosity samples which match well to that of natural bone (4-30 GPa). The yield strengths for 30% and 40% porosity samples of 315 MPa and 175 MPa are superior to that of human bone (130-180 MPa). In-vitro cell culture tests on the scaffold samples using Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) demonstrated their biocompatibility and indicated osseointegration potential. The scaffolds allowed cells to adhere and spread both on the surface and inside the pore structures. With increasing levels of porosity/interconnectivity, improved cell proliferation is obtained within the pores. It is concluded that samples with 30% porosity exhibit the best biocompatibility. The results suggest that porous titanium scaffolds generated using this manufacturing route have excellent potential for hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: scaffolds, MG-63 cell culture, titanium, space holder

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126 Aspirin Loaded Poly-L-Lactic Acid Nanofibers and Their Potentials as Small Diameter Vascular Grafts

Authors: Mahboubeh Kabiri, Saba Aslani


Among various approaches used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, the occlusion of the small-diameter vascular graft (SDVG) is still an unresolved problem which seeks further research to address them. Though autografts are now the gold standards to be replaced for blocked coronary arteries, they suffer from inadequate quality and quantity. On the other hand, the major problems of the tissue engineered grafts are thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia. Provision of a suitable spatiotemporal release pattern of anticoagulant agents such as heparin and aspirin can be a step forward to overcome such issues . Herein, we fabricated electrospun scaffolds from FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approved poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) with aspirin loaded into the nanofibers. Also, we surface coated the scaffolds with Amniotic Membrane lysate as a source for natural elastic polymers and a mimic of endothelial basement membrane. The scaffolds were characterized thoroughly structurally and mechanically for their morphology, fiber orientation, tensile strength, hydrophilicity, cytotoxicity, aspirin release and cell attachment support. According to the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images, the size of fibers ranged from 250 to 500 nm. The scaffolds showed appropriate tensile strength expected for vascular grafts. Cellular attachment, growth, and infiltration were proved using SEM and MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-Yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide) assay. Drug-loaded scaffolds showed a sustained release profile of aspirin in 7 days. An enhanced cytocompatibility was observed in AM-coated electrospun PLLA fibers compared to uncoated scaffolds. Our results together indicated that AM lysate coated ASA releasing scaffolds have promising potentials for development of a biocompatible SDVG.

Keywords: vascular tissue engineering, vascular grafts, anticoagulant agent, aspirin, amniotic membrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
125 Safety Conditions Analysis of Scaffolding on Construction Sites

Authors: M. Pieńko, A. Robak, E. Błazik-Borowa, J. Szer


This paper presents the results of analysis of 100 full-scale scaffolding structures in terms of compliance with legal acts and safety of use. In 2016 and 2017, authors examined scaffolds in Poland located at buildings which were at construction or renovation stage. The basic elements affecting the safety of scaffolding use such as anchors, supports, platforms, guardrails and toe-boards have been taken into account. All of these elements were checked in each of considered scaffolding. Based on the analyzed scaffoldings, the most common errors concerning assembly process and use of scaffolding were collected. Legal acts on the scaffoldings are not always clear, and this causes many issues. In practice, people realize how dangerous the use of incomplete scaffolds is only when the accident occurs. Despite the fact that the scaffolding should ensure the safety of its users, most accidents on construction sites are caused by fall from a height.

Keywords: façade scaffolds, load capacity, practice, safety of people

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124 Effect of the Hardness of Spacer Agent on Structural Properties of Metallic Scaffolds

Authors: Mohammad Khodaei, Mahmood Meratien, Alireza Valanezhad, Serdar Pazarlioglu, Serdar Salman, Ikuya Watanabe


Pore size and morphology plays a crucial role on mechanical properties of porous scaffolds. In this research, titanium scaffold was prepared using space holder technique. Sodium chloride and ammonium bicarbonate were utilized as spacer agent separately. The effect of the hardness of spacer on the cell morphology was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical stereo microscopy. Image analyzing software was used to interpret the microscopic images quantitatively. It was shown that sodium chloride, due to its higher hardness, maintain its morphology during cold compaction, and cause better replication in porous scaffolds.

Keywords: Spacer, Titanium Scaffold, Pore Morphology, Space Holder Technique

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123 Electrospun Nanofibrous Scaffolds Modified with Collagen-I and Fibronectin with LX-2 Cells to Study Liver Fibrosis in vitro

Authors: Prativa Das, Lay Poh Tan


Three-dimensional microenvironment is a need to study the event cascades of liver fibrosis in vitro. Electrospun nanofibers modified with essential extracellular matrix proteins can closely mimic the random fibrous structure of native liver extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we fabricate a series of 3D electrospun scaffolds by wet electrospinning process modified with different ratios of collagen-I to fibronectin to achieve optimized distribution of these two ECM proteins on the fiber surface. A ratio of 3:1 of collagen-I to fibronectin was found to be optimum for surface modification of electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) fibers by chemisorption process. In 3:1 collagen-I to fibronectin modified scaffolds the total protein content increased by ~2 fold compared to collagen-I modified and ~1.5 fold compared to 1:1/9:1 collagen-I to fibronectin modified scaffolds. We have cultured LX-2 cells on this scaffold over 14 days and found that LX-2 cells acquired more quiescent phenotype throughout the culture period and shown significantly lower expression of alpha smooth muscle actin and collagen-I. Thus, this system can be used as a model to study liver fibrosis by using different fibrogenic mediators in vitro.

Keywords: electrospinning, collagen-I and fibronectin, surface modification of fiber, LX-2 cells, liver fibrosis

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122 Numerical Simulation of Bio-Chemical Diffusion in Bone Scaffolds

Authors: Masoud Madadelahi, Amir Shamloo, Seyedeh Sara Salehi


Previously, some materials like solid metals and their alloys have been used as implants in human’s body. In order to amend fixation of these artificial hard human tissues, some porous structures have been introduced. In this way, tissues in vicinity of the porous structure can be attached more easily to the inserted implant. In particular, the porous bone scaffolds are useful since they can deliver important biomolecules like growth factors and proteins. This study focuses on the properties of the degradable porous hard tissues using a three-dimensional numerical Finite Element Method (FEM). The most important studied properties of these structures are diffusivity flux and concentration of different species like glucose, oxygen, and lactate. The process of cells migration into the scaffold is considered as a diffusion process, and related parameters are studied for different values of production/consumption rates.

Keywords: bone scaffolds, diffusivity, numerical simulation, tissue engineering

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121 Optimizing the Morphology and Flow Patterns of Scaffold Perfusion Systems for Effective Cell Deposition Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: Vineeth Siripuram, Abhineet Nigam


A bioreactor is an engineered system that supports a biologically active environment. Along the years, the advancements in bioreactors have been widely accepted all over the world for varied applications ranging from sewage treatment to tissue cloning. Driven by tissue and organ shortage, tissue engineering has emerged as an alternative to transplantation for the reconstruction of lost or damaged organs. In this study, Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has been used to model porous medium flow in scaffolds (taken from the literature) with different flow patterns. A detailed analysis of different scaffold geometries and their influence on cell deposition in the perfusion system is been carried out using Computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Considering the fact that, the scaffold should mimic the organs or tissues structures in a three-dimensional manner, certain assumptions were made accordingly. The research on scaffolds has been extensively carried out in different bioreactors. However, there has been less focus on the morphology of the scaffolds and the flow patterns in which the perfusion system is laid upon. The objective of this paper is to employ a computational approach using CFD simulation to determine the optimal morphology and the anisotropic measurements of the various samples of scaffolds. Using predictive computational modelling approach, variables which exert dominant effects on the cell deposition within the scaffold were prioritised and corresponding changes in morphology of scaffold and flow patterns in the perfusion systems are made. A Eulerian approach was carried on in multiple CFD simulations, and it is observed that the morphological and topological changes in the scaffold perfusion system are of great importance in the commercial applications of scaffolds.

Keywords: cell seeding, CFD, flow patterns, modelling, perfusion systems, scaffold

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120 Two-Component Biocompartible Material for Reconstruction of Articular Hyaline Cartilage

Authors: Alena O. Stepanova, Vera S. Chernonosova, Tatyana S. Godovikova, Konstantin A. Bulatov, Andrey Y. Patrushev, Pavel P. Laktionov


Trauma and arthrosis, not to mention cartilage destruction in overweight and elders put hyaline cartilage lesion among the most frequent diseases of locomotor system. These problems combined with low regeneration potential of the cartilage make regeneration of articular cartilage a high-priority task of tissue engineering. Many types of matrices, the procedures of their installation and autologous chondrocyte implantation protocols were offered, but certain aspects including adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage/bone, prevention of the ossification and fibrosis were not resolved. Simplification and acceleration of the procedures resulting in restoration of normal cartilage are also required. We have demonstrated that human chondroblasts can be successfully cultivated at the surface of electrospun scaffolds and produce extracellular matrix components in contrast to chondroblasts grown in homogeneous hydrogels. To restore cartilage we offer to use stacks of electrospun scaffolds fixed with photopolymerized solution of prepared from gelatin and chondroitin-4-sulfate both modified by glycidyl methacrylate and non-toxic photoinitator Darocur 2959. Scaffolds were prepared from nylon 6, polylactide-co-glicolide and their mixtures with modified gelatin. Illumination of chondroblasts in photopolymerized solution using 365 nm LED light had no effect on cell viability at compressive strength of the gel less than0,12 MPa. Stacks of electrospun scaffolds provide good compressive strength and have the potential for substitution with cartilage when biodegradable scaffolds are used. Vascularization can be prevented by introduction of biostable scaffolds in the layers contacting the subchondral bone. Studies of two-component materials (2-3 sheets of electrospun scaffold) implanted in the knee-joints of rabbits and fixed by photopolymerization demonstrated good crush resistance, biocompatibility and good adhesion of the implant with surrounding cartilage. Histological examination of the implants 3 month after implantation demonstrates absence of any inflammation and signs of replacement of the biodegradable scaffolds with normal cartilage. The possibility of intraoperative population of the implants with autologous cells is being investigated.

Keywords: chondroblasts, electrospun scaffolds, hyaline cartilage, photopolymerized gel

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119 Poly(ε-Caprolactone)-Based Bilayered Scaffolds Prepared by Electrospinning for Tissue Engineering of Small-Diameter Vascular Grafts

Authors: Mohammed Fayez Al Rez


Nowadays, there is an unmet clinical need for new small-diameter vascular grafts to overcome the drawbacks of traditional methods used for treatment of widespread cardiovascular diseases. Vascular tissue engineering (VTE) is a promising approach that can be utilized to develop viable vascular grafts by in vitro seeding of functional cells onto a scaffold allowing them to attach, proliferate and differentiate. To achieve this purpose, the scaffold should provide cells with the initial necessary extracellular matrix environment and structure until being able to reconstruct the required vascular tissue. Therefore, producing scaffolds with suitable features is crucial for guiding cells properly to develop the desired tissue-engineered vascular grafts for clinical applications. The main objective of this work is fabrication and characterization of tubular small-diameter ( < 6 mm) bilayered scaffolds for VTE. The scaffolds were prepared via mixing electrospinning approach of biodegradable poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) polymer – due to its favorable physicochemical properties – to mimic the natural environment-extracellular matrix. Firstly, tubular nanofibrous construct with inner diameter of 3, 4 or 5 mm was electrospun as inner layer, and secondly, microfibrous construct was electrospun as outer layer directly on the first produced inner layer. To improve the biological properties of PCL, a group of the electrospun scaffolds was immersed in type-1 collagen solution. The morphology and structure of the resulting fibrous scaffolds were investigated by scanning electron microscope. The electrospun nanofibrous inner layer contained fibers measuring 219±35 nm in diameter, while the electrospun microfibrous outer layer contained fibers measuring 1011 ± 150 nm. Furthermore, mechanical, thermal and physical tests were conducted with both electrospun bilayered scaffold types where revealed improved properties. Biological investigations using endothelial, smooth muscle and fibroblast cell line showed good biocompatibility of both tested electrospun scaffolds. Better attachment and proliferation were obviously found when cells were cultured on the scaffolds immersed with collagen due to increasing the hydrophilicity of the PCL. The easy, inexpensive and versatile electrospinning approach used in this work was able to successfully produce double layered tubular elastic structures containing both nanofibers and microfibers to imitate the native vascular structure. The PCL – as a suitable and approved biomaterial for many biomedical and tissue engineering applications – can ensure favorable mechanical properties of scaffolds used for VTE. The VTE approach using electrospun bilayered scaffolds offers optimal solutions and holds significant promises for treatment of many cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: electrospinning, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), tissue-engineered vascular graft, tubular bilayered scaffolds, vascular cells

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118 Fabrication of Hybrid Scaffolds Consisting of Cell-laden Electrospun Micro/Nanofibers and PCL Micro-structures for Tissue Regeneration

Authors: MyungGu Yeo, JongHan Ha, Gi-Hoon Yang, JaeYoon Lee, SeungHyun Ahn, Hyeongjin Lee, HoJun Jeon, YongBok Kim, Minseong Kim, GeunHyung Kim


Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing interdisciplinary research area that may provide options for treating damaged tissues and organs. As a promising technique for regenerating various tissues, this technology requires biomedical scaffolds, which serve as an artificial extracellular matrix (ECM) to support neotissue growth. Electrospun micro/nanofibers have been used widely in tissue engineering because of their high surface-area-to-volume ratio and structural similarity to extracellular matrix. However, low mechanical sustainability, low 3D shape-ability, and low cell infiltration have been major limitations to their use. In this work, we propose new hybrid scaffolds interlayered with cell-laden electrospun micro/nano fibers and poly(caprolactone) microstructures. Also, we applied various concentrations of alginate and electric field strengths to determine optimal conditions for the cell-electrospinning process. The combination of cell-laden bioink (2 ⅹ 10^5 osteoblast-like MG63 cells/mL, 2 wt% alginate, 2 wt% poly(ethylene oxide), and 0.7 wt% lecithin) and a 0.16 kV/mm electric field showed the highest cell viability and fiber formation in this process. Using these conditions and PCL microstructures, we achieved mechanically stable hybrid scaffolds. In addition, the cells embedded in the fibrous structure were viable and proliferated. We suggest that the cell-embedded hybrid scaffolds fabricated using the cell-electrospinning process may be useful for various soft- and hard-tissue regeneration applications.

Keywords: bioink, cell-laden scaffold, micro/nanofibers, poly(caprolactone)

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117 Poly(L-Lactic Acid) Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Authors: Aleksandra BužArovska, Gordana Bogoeva Gaceva


Biodegradable polymers have received significant scientific attention in tissue engineering (TE) application, in particular their composites consisting of inorganic nanoparticles. In the last 15 years, they are subject of intensive research by many groups, aiming to develop polymer scaffolds with defined biodegradability, porosity and adequate mechanical stability. The most important characteristic making these materials attractive for TE is their biodegradability, a process that could be time controlled and long enough to enable generation of a new tissue as a replacement for the degraded polymer scaffold. In this work poly(L-lactic acid) scaffolds, filled with TiO2 nanoparticles functionalized with oleic acid, have been prepared by thermally induced phase separation method (TIPS). The functionalization of TiO2 nanoparticles with oleic acid was performed in order to improve the nanoparticles dispersibility within the polymer matrix and at the same time to inhibit the cytotoxicity of the nanofiller. The oleic acid was chosen as amphiphilic molecule belonging to the fatty acid family because of its non-toxicity and possibility for mediation between the hydrophilic TiO2 nanoparticles and hydrophobic PLA matrix. The produced scaffolds were characterized with thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mechanical compression measurements. The bioactivity for bone tissue engineering application was tested in supersaturated simulated body fluid. The degradation process was followed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed anisotropic morphology with elongated open pores (100 µm), high porosity (around 92%) and perfectly dispersed nanofiller. The compression moduli up to 10 MPa were identified independent on the nanofiller content. Functionalized TiO2 nanoparticles induced formation of hydroxyapatite clusters as much as unfunctionalized TiO2. The prepared scaffolds showed properties ideal for scaffold vascularization, cell attachment, growth and proliferation.

Keywords: biodegradation, bone tissue engineering, mineralization, PLA scaffolds

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116 Methane Plasma Modified Polyvinyl Alcohol Scaffolds for Melanocytes Cultivation

Authors: B. Kodedova, E. Filova, M. Kralovic, E. Amler


Vitiligo is the most common depigmentation disorder of the skin characterized by loss of melanocyte in the epidermis that leads to white lesions. One of the possible treatments is autologous transplantation of melanocytes. Biodegradable electrospun polymeric nanofibers provide good mechanical properties and could serve as suitable scaffold for epithelial cells cultivation and follow up transplantation. Moreover the microarchitecture of nanofibers mimics the structure of extracellular matrix and its porosity allows nutrients and waste exchange. The aim of this work was to develop biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric scaffolds suitable for autologous melanocytes transplantation. Electrospun polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were modified by cold methane plasma to lower their hydrofility and to achieve better adhesion, proliferation and viability of the murine melanocyte (Melan-a). Cells were seeded on the modified scaffolds and their adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and melanin synthesis was evaluated and compared to non-modified scaffolds. Results clearly indicate that cold methane plasma modified PVA nanofibers are suitable for melanocyte cultivation and may be future candidate for vitiligo treatment. Furthermore, the nanofibers can be functionalized with various bioactive substances, for enhancement of the melanocyte proliferation, melanogenesis or healing and regenerative processes. The project was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports NPU I: LO1309 and by Grant Agency of Charles University (grant No. 1228214).

Keywords: melanocyte, nanofibers, polyvinyl alcohol, plasma modification

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115 Treatment of Neuronal Defects by Bone Marrow Stem Cells Differentiation to Neuronal Cells Cultured on Gelatin-PLGA Scaffolds Coated with Nano-Particles

Authors: Alireza Shams, Ali Zamanian, Atefehe Shamosi, Farnaz Ghorbani


Introduction: Although the application of a new strategy remains a remarkable challenge for treatment of disabilities due to neuronal defects, progress in Nanomedicine and tissue engineering, suggesting the new medical methods. One of the promising strategies for reconstruction and regeneration of nervous tissue is replacing of lost or damaged cells by specific scaffolds after Compressive, ischemic and traumatic injuries of central nervous system. Furthermore, ultrastructure, composition, and arrangement of tissue scaffolds are effective on cell grafts. We followed implantation and differentiation of mesenchyme stem cells to neural cells on Gelatin Polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds coated with iron nanoparticles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of stem cells to differentiate into motor neuron-like cells under topographical cues and morphogenic factors. Methods and Materials: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) was obtained by primary cell culturing of adult rat bone marrow got from femur bone by flushing method. BMMSCs were incubated with DMEM/F12 (Gibco), 15% FBS and 100 U/ml pen/strep as media. Then, BMMSCs seeded on Gel/PLGA scaffolds and tissue culture (TCP) polystyrene embedded and incorporated by Fe Nano particles (FeNPs) (Fe3o4 oxide (M w= 270.30 gr/mol.). For neuronal differentiation, 2×10 5 BMMSCs were seeded on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffolds was cultured for 7 days and 0.5 µ mol. Retinoic acid, 100 µ mol. Ascorbic acid,10 ng/ml. Basic fibroblast growth factor (Sigma, USA), 250 μM Iso butyl methyl xanthine, 100 μM 2-mercaptoethanol, and 0.2 % B27 (Invitrogen, USA) added to media. Proliferation of BMMSCs was assessed by using MTT assay for cell survival. The morphology of BMMSCs and scaffolds was investigated by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Expression of neuron-specific markers was studied by immunohistochemistry method. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, and statistical significance was determined by Turkey’s test. Results: Our results revealed that differentiation and survival of BMMSCs into motor neuron-like cells on Gel/PLGA/FeNPs as a biocompatible and biodegradable scaffolds were better than those cultured in Gel/PLGA in absence of FeNPs and TCP scaffolds. FeNPs had raised physical power but decreased capacity absorption of scaffolds. Well defined oriented pores in scaffolds due to FeNPs may activate differentiation and synchronized cells as a mechanoreceptor. Induction effects of magnetic FeNPs by One way flow of channels in scaffolds help to lead the cells and can facilitate direction of their growth processes. Discussion: Progression of biological properties of BMMSCs and the effects of FeNPs spreading under magnetic field was evaluated in this investigation. In vitro study showed that the Gel/PLGA/FeNPs scaffold provided a suitable structure for motor neuron-like cells differentiation. This could be a promising candidate for enhancing repair and regeneration in neural defects. Dynamic and static magnetic field for inducing and construction of cells can provide better results for further experimental studies.

Keywords: differentiation, mesenchymal stem cells, nano particles, neuronal defects, Scaffolds

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114 Developing Customizable Scaffolds With Antimicrobial Properties for Vascular Tissue Regeneration Using Low Temperature Plasma

Authors: Komal Vig, Syamala Soumyakrishnan, Yadav Baral


Bypass surgery, using the autologous vein has been one of the most effective treatments for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). More recently tissue engineering including engineered vascular grafts to synthesize blood vessels is gaining usage. Dacron and ePTFE has been employed for vascular grafts, however, these does not work well for small diameter grafts (<6 mm) due to intimal hyperplasia and thrombosis. In the present study PTFE was treated with LTP to improve the endothelialization of intimal surface of graft. Scaffolds were also modified with polyvinylpyrrolidone coated silver nanoparticles (Ag-PVP) and the antimicrobial peptides, p753 and p359. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were plated on the developed scaffolds and cell proliferation was determined by the MTT assay. Cells attachment on scaffolds was visualized by microscopy. mRNA expressions levels of different cell markers were investigated using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). X ray photoelectron spectroscopic confirmed the introduction of oxygenated functionalities from LTP air plasma. Microscopic and MTT assays indicated increase in cell viability in LTP treated scaffolds. Gene expression studies shows enhanced expression of cell adhesion marker Integrin- α 5 gene after LTP treatment. The KB test displayed a zone of inhibition for Ag-PVP, p753 and p359 of 19mm, 14mm, and 12mm respectively. To determine toxicity of antimicrobial agents to cells, MTT Assay was performed using HEK293 cells. MTT Assay exhibited that Ag-PVP and the peptides were non-toxic to cells at 100μg/mL and 50μg/mL, respectively. Live/dead analysis and plate count of treated bacteria exhibited bacterial inhibition on develop scaffold compared to non-treated scaffold. SEM was performed to analyze the structural changes of bacteria after treatment with antimicrobial agents. Gene expression studies were conducted on RNA from bacteria treated with Ag-PVP and peptides using qRT-PCR. Based on our initial results, more scaffolds alternatives will be developed and investigated for cell growth and vascularization studies.

Keywords: low temperature plasma, vascular graft, HUVEC cells, antimicrobial

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113 In Vivo Response of Scaffolds of Bioactive Glass-Ceramic

Authors: Ana Claudia Muniz Rennó, Karina Nogueira


This study aimed to investigate the in vivo tissue response of the introduction of the bioactive mesh (BM) scaffolds using a model of tibial bone defect implants in rats. Although a previous in vivo study demonstrated a highly positive response of particulate bioactive materials in the morphological and biomechanical properties of the bone callus, the effects of material with superior bioactivity, present in form of meshes have not been studied yet. Eighty male Wistar rats with 3 mm tibial defects were used. Animals were divided into four groups: intact group (IG) – tibia without any injury; bone defect day zero (0dD) – bone defects, sacrificed immediately after injury; bone defect control group (CG) – bone defects without any filler and bone defect filled with BM scaffold. The animals of BM and CG groups were sacrificed 15, 30 and 45 days post-injury to compare the temporal-special effects of the scaffolds on bone healing. The histological analysis revealed an organized newly formed bone at 30 and 45 days post-surgery in the BM. Also, this group presented an increased COX-2 expression on days 15 and 30 post-surgery. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that, BM presented a positive immunoexpression of RUNX-2 during all periods evaluated. The biomechanical analysis revealed that at 15 day after surgery, no significant statistically difference was observed between BM and CG and both groups had significantly higher values of maximal load compared to 0dG and significantly lower values than IG. On days 30 and 45 post-surgery, BM presented statistically lower values of maximal load compared to the CG. Nevertheless, at the same periods, BM did not show statistically significant difference compared to the IG maximal load values (p > 0, 05). Our results revealed that the implantation of the BM scaffolds was effective in stimulating newly bone formation.

Keywords: bone, biomaterials, scaffolds, cartilage

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112 Biocellulose Template for 3D Mineral Scaffolds

Authors: C. Busuioc, G. Voicu, S. I. Jinga


The field of tissue engineering brings new challenges in terms of proposing original solutions for ongoing medical issues, improving the biological performances of existing clinical systems and speeding the healing process for a faster recovery and a more comfortable life as patient. In this context, we propose the obtaining of 3D porous scaffolds of mineral nature, dedicated to bone repairing and regeneration purposes or employed as bioactive filler for bone cements. Thus, bacterial cellulose - calcium phosphates composite materials have been synthesized by successive immersing of the polymeric membranes in the precursor solution containing Ca2+ and [PO4]3- ions. The mineral phase deposited on the surface of biocellulose fibers was varied as amount through the number of immersing cycles. The intermediary composites were subjected to thermal treatments at different temperatures in order to remove the organic part and provide the formation of a self-sustained 3D architecture. The resulting phase composition consists of common phosphates, while the morphology largely depends on the preparation parameters. Thus, the aspect of the 3D mineral scaffolds can be tuned from a loose microstructure composed of large grains connected via monocrystalline nanorods to a trabecular pattern crossed by parallel internal channels, just like the natural bone. The bioactivity and biocompatibility of the obtained materials have been also assessed, with encouraging results in the clinical use direction. In conclusion, the compositional, structural, morphological and biological characterizations sustain the suitability of the reported biostructures for integration in hard tissue engineering applications.

Keywords: bacterial cellulose, bone reconstruction, calcium phosphates, mineral scaffolds

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111 Human Bone Marrow Stem Cell Behavior on 3D Printed Scaffolds as Trabecular Bone Grafts

Authors: Zeynep Busra Velioglu, Deniz Pulat, Beril Demirbakan, Burak Ozcan, Ece Bayrak, Cevat Erisken


Bone tissue has the ability to perform a wide array of functions including providing posture, load-bearing capacity, protection for the internal organs, initiating hematopoiesis, and maintaining the homeostasis of key electrolytes via calcium/phosphate ion storage. The most common cause for bone defects is extensive trauma and subsequent infection. Bone tissue has the self-healing capability without a scar tissue formation for the majority of the injuries. However, some may result with delayed union or fracture non-union. Such cases include reconstruction of large bone defects or cases of compromised regenerative process as a result of avascular necrosis and osteoporosis. Several surgical methods exist to treat bone defects, including Ilizarov method, Masquelete technique, growth factor stimulation, and bone replacement. Unfortunately, these are technically demanding and come with noteworthy disadvantages such as lengthy treatment duration, adverse effects on the patient’s psychology, repeated surgical procedures, and often long hospitalization times. These limitations associated with surgical techniques make bone substitutes an attractive alternative. Here, it was hypothesized that a 3D printed scaffold will mimic trabecular bone in terms of biomechanical properties and that such scaffolds will support cell attachment and survival. To test this hypothesis, this study aimed at fabricating poly(lactic acid), PLA, structures using 3D printing technology for trabecular bone defects, characterizing the scaffolds and comparing with bovine trabecular bone. Capacity of scaffolds on human bone marrow stem cell (hBMSC) attachment and survival was also evaluated. Cubes with a volume of 1 cm³ having pore sizes of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.25 mm were printed. The scaffolds/grafts were characterized in terms of porosity, contact angle, compressive mechanical properties as well cell response. Porosities of the 3D printed scaffolds were calculated based on apparent densities. For contact angles, 50 µl distilled water was dropped over the surface of scaffolds, and contact angles were measured using ‘Image J’ software. Mechanical characterization under compression was performed on scaffolds and native trabecular bone (bovine, 15 months) specimens using a universal testing machine at a rate of 0.5mm/min. hBMSCs were seeded onto the 3D printed scaffolds. After 3 days of incubation with fully supplemented Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium, the cells were fixed using 2% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde mixture. The specimens were then imaged under scanning electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was determined by using EZQuant dsDNA Quantitation kit. Fluorescence was measured using microplate reader Spectramax M2 at the excitation and emission wavelengths of 485nm and 535nm, respectively. Findings suggested that porosity of scaffolds with pore dimensions of 0.5mm, 1.0mm and 1.25mm were not affected by pore size, while contact angle and compressive modulus decreased with increasing pore size. Biomechanical characterization of trabecular bone yielded higher modulus values as compared to scaffolds with all pore sizes studied. Cells attached and survived in all surfaces, demonstrating higher proliferation on scaffolds with 1.25mm pores as compared with those of 1mm. Collectively, given lower mechanical properties of scaffolds as compared to native bone, and biocompatibility of the scaffolds, the 3D printed PLA scaffolds of this study appear as candidate substitutes for bone repair and regeneration.

Keywords: 3D printing, biomechanics, bone repair, stem cell

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110 Magnetic SF (Silk Fibroin) E-Gel Scaffolds Containing bFGF-Conjugated Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Z. Karahaliloğlu, E. Yalçın, M. Demirbilek, E.B. Denkbaş


Critical-sized bone defects caused by trauma, bone diseases, prosthetic implant revision or tumor excision cannot be repaired by physiological regenerative processes. Current orthopedic applications for critical-sized bone defects are to use autologous bone grafts, bone allografts, or synthetic graft materials. However, these strategies are unable to solve completely the problem, and motivate the development of novel effective biological scaffolds for tissue engineering applications and regenerative medicine applications. In particular, scaffolds combined with a variety of bio-agents as fundamental tools emerge to provide the regeneration of damaged bone tissues due to their ability to promote cell growth and function. In this study, a magnetic silk fibroin (SF) hydrogel scaffold was prepared by electrogelation process of the concentrated Bombxy mori silk fibroin (8 %wt) aqueous solution. For enhancement of osteoblast-like cells (SaOS-2) growth and adhesion, basal fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were conjugated physically to the HSA-coated magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) and magnetic SF e-gel scaffolds were prepared by incorporation of Fe3O4, HSA (human serum albumin)=Fe3O4 and HSA=Fe3O4-bFGF nanoparticles. HSA=Fe3O4, HSA=Fe3O4-bFGF loaded and bare SF e-gels scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM.) For cell studies, human osteoblast-like cell line (SaOS-2) was used and an MTT assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of magnetic silk fibroin e-gel scaffolds and cell density on these surfaces. For the evaluation osteogenic activation, ALP (alkaline phosphatase), the amount of mineralized calcium, total protein and collagen were studied. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were successfully synthesized and bFGF was conjugated to HSA=Fe3O4 nanoparticles with %97.5 of binding yield which has a particle size of 71.52±2.3 nm. Electron microscopy images of the prepared HSA and bFGF incorporated SF e-gel scaffolds showed a 3D porous morphology. In terms of water uptake results, bFGF conjugated HSA=Fe3O4 nanoparticles has the best water absorbability behavior among all groups. In the in-vitro cell culture studies realized using SaOS-2 cell line, the coating of Fe3O4 nanoparticles surface with a protein enhance the cell viability and HSA coating and bFGF conjugation, the both have an inductive effect in the cell proliferation. One of the markers of bone formation and osteoblast differentiation, according to the ALP activity and total protein results, HSA=Fe3O4-bFGF loaded SF e-gels had significantly enhanced ALP activity. Osteoblast cultured HSA=Fe3O4-bFGF loaded SF e-gels deposited more calcium compared with SF e-gel. The proposed magnetic scaffolds seem to be promising for bone tissue regeneration and used in future work for various applications.

Keywords: basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), e-gel, iron oxide nanoparticles, silk fibroin

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109 Micromechanical Compatibility Between Cells and Scaffold Mediates the Efficacy of Regenerative Medicine

Authors: Li Yang, Yang Song, Martin Y. M. Chiang


Objective: To experimentally substantiate the micromechanical compatibility between cell and scaffold, in the regenerative medicine approach for restoring bone volume, is essential for phenotypic transitions Methods: Through nanotechnology and electrospinning process, nanofibrous scaffolds were fabricated to host dental follicle stem cells (DFSCs). Blends (50:50) of polycaprolactone (PCL) and silk fibroin (SF), mixed with various content of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC, up to 5% in weight), were electrospun to prepare nanofibrous scaffolds with heterogeneous microstructure in terms of fiber size. Colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) and conventional uniaxial tensile tests measured the scaffold stiffness at the micro-and macro-scale, respectively. The cell elastic modulus and cell-scaffold adhesive interaction (i.e., a chemical function) were examined through single-cell force spectroscopy using AFM. The quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to determine if the mechanotransduction signal (i.e., Yap1, Wwr2, Rac1, MAPK8, Ptk2 and Wnt5a) is upregulated by the scaffold stiffness at the micro-scale (cellular scale). Results: The presence of CNC produces fibrous scaffolds with a bimodal distribution of fiber diameter. This structural heterogeneity, which is CNC-composition dependent, remarkably modulates the mechanical functionality of scaffolds at microscale and macroscale simultaneously, but not the chemical functionality (i.e., only a single material property is varied). In in vitro tests, the osteogenic differentiation and gene expression associated with mechano-sensitive cell markers correlate to the degree of micromechanical compatibility between DFSCs and the scaffold. Conclusion: Cells require compliant scaffolds to encourage energetically favorable interactions for mechanotransduction, which are converted into changes in cellular biochemistry to direct the phenotypic evolution. The micromechanical compatibility is indeed important to the efficacy of regenerative medicine.

Keywords: phenotype transition, scaffold stiffness, electrospinning, cellulose nanocrystals, single-cell force spectroscopy

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108 Fabrication of 3D Scaffold Consisting of Spiral-Like Micro-Sized PCL Struts and Selectively Deposited Nanofibers as a Tissue Regenerative Material

Authors: Gi-Hoon Yang, JongHan Ha, MyungGu Yeo, JaeYoon Lee, SeungHyun Ahn, Hyeongjin Lee, HoJun Jeon, YongBok Kim, Minseong Kim, GeunHyung Kim


Tissue engineering scaffolds must be biocompatible and biodegradable, provide adequate mechanical strength and cell attachment site for proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, the scaffold morphology (such as pore size, porosity and pore interconnectivity) plays an important role. The electrospinning process has been widely used to fabricate micro/nano-sized fibres. Electrospinning allows for the fabrication of non-woven meshes containing micro- to nano-sized fibers providing high surface-to-volume area for cell attachment. Due to its advantageous characteristics, electrospinning is a useful method for skin, cartilage, bone, and nerve regeneration. In this study, we fabricated PCL scaffolds (SP) consisting of spiral-like struts using 3D melt-plotting system and micro/nanofibers using direct electrospinning writing. By altering the conditions of the conventional melt-plotting method, spiral-like struts were generated. Then, micro/nanofibers were deposited selectively. The control scaffold composed of perpendicular PCL struts was fabricated using the conventional melt-plotting method to compare the cellular activities. The effect on the attached cells (osteoblast-like cells (MG63)) was evaluated depending on the bending instability of the struts. The SP scaffolds showed enhanced biological properties such as initial cell attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. These results suggest that the SP scaffolds has potential as a bioengineered substitute for soft and hard tissue regeneration.

Keywords: cell attachment, electrospinning, mechanical strength, melt-plotting

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107 Experimental Research of Canine Mandibular Defect Construction with the Controlled Meshy Titanium Alloy Scaffold Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting Combined with BMSCs-Encapsulating Chitosan Hydrogel

Authors: Wang Hong, Liu Chang Kui, Zhao Bing Jing, Hu Min


Objection We observed the repairment effection of canine mandibular defect with meshy Ti6Al4V scaffold fabricated by electron beam melting (EBM) combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) encapsulated in chitosan hydrogel. Method Meshy titanium scaffolds were prepared by EBM of commercial Ti6Al4V power. The length of scaffolds was 24 mm, the width was 5 mm and height was 8mm. The pore size and porosity were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel was prepared by chitosan, β- sodium glycerophosphate and Bio-Oss power. BMMSCs were harvested from canine iliac crests. BMMSCs were seeded in titanium scaffolds and encapsulated in Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel. The validity of BMMSCs was evaluated by cell count kit-8 (CCK-8). The osteogenic differentiation ability was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and gene expression of OC, OPN and CoⅠ. Combination were performed by injecting BMMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel into the meshy Ti6Al4V scaffolds and solidified. 24 mm long box-shaped bone defects were made at the mid-portion of mandible of adult beagles. The defects were randomly filled with BMMSCs/ Chitosan/Bio-Oss + titanium, Chitosan /Bio-Oss+titanium, titanium alone. Autogenous iliac crests graft as control group in 3 beagles. Radionuclide bone imaging was used to monitor the new bone tissue at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. CT examination was made on the surgery day and 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 24 weeks after surgery. The animals were sacrificed in 4, 12 and 24 weeks after surgery. The bone formation were evaluated by histology and micro-CT. Results: The pores of the scaffolds was interconnected, the pore size was about 1 mm, the average porosity was about 76%. The pore size of the hydrogel was 50-200μm and the average porosity was approximately 90%. The hydrogel were solidified under the condition of 37℃in 10 minutes. The validity and the osteogenic differentiation ability of BMSCs were not affected by titanium scaffolds and hydrogel. Radionuclide bone imaging shown an increasing tendency of the revascularization and bone regeneration was observed in all the groups at 2, 4, 8 weeks after operation, and there were no changes at 12weeks.The tendency was more obvious in the BMMSCs/ Chitosan/Bio-Oss +titanium group and autogenous group. CT, Micro-CT and histology shown that new bone formed increasingly with the time extend. There were more new bone regenerated in BMMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss + titanium group and autogenous group than the other two groups. At 24 weeks, the autogenous group was achieved bone union. The BMSCs/ Chitosan /Bio-Oss group was seen extensive new bone formed around the scaffolds and more new bone inside of the central pores of scaffolds than Chitosan /Bio-Oss + titanium group and titanium group. The difference was significantly. Conclusion: The titanium scaffolds fabricated by EBM had controlled porous structure, good bone conduction and biocompatibility. Chitosan /Bio-Oss hydrogel had injectable plasticity, thermosensitive property and good biocompatibility. The meshy Ti6Al4V scaffold produced by EBM combined BMSCs encapsulated in chitosan hydrogel had good capacity on mandibular bone defect repair.

Keywords: mandibular reconstruction, tissue engineering, electron beam melting, titanium alloy

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