Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 351

Search results for: titanium

351 Thermodynamics of Chlorination of Acid-Soluble Titanium Slag in Molten Salt for Preparation of TiCl4

Authors: Li Liang


Chinese titanium iron ore reserves with high calcium and magnesium accounted for more than 90% of the total reserves, and acid-soluble titanium slag which is produced by titanium iron ore always used to produce titanium dioxide through sulphate process. To broad the application range of acid-soluble titanium slag, the feasibility and thermodynamics of chlorinated reaction for preparation TiCl4 by titanium slag chlorination in molten slat were conducted in this paper. The analysis results show that TiCl4 can be obtained by chlorinate the acid-dissolved titanium slag with carbon. Component’s thermodynamics reaction trend is: CaO>MnO>FeO(FeCl2)>MgO>V2O5>Fe2O3>FeO(FeCl3)>TiO2>Al2O3>SiO2 in the standard state. Industrial experimental results are consistent with the thermodynamics analysis, the content of TiCl4 is more than 98% in the production. Fe, Si, V, Al, and other impurity content can satisfy the requirements of production.

Keywords: thermodynamics, acid-soluble titanium slag, preparation of TiCl4, chlorination

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
350 Chemical Stability of Ceramic Crucibles to Molten Titanium

Authors: Jong-Min Park, Hyung-Ki Park, Seok Hong Min, Tae Kwon Ha


Titanium is widely used due to its high specific strength, good biocompatibility, and excellent corrosion resistance. In order to produce titanium powders, it is necessary to melt titanium, and generally it is conducted by an induction heating method using Al₂O₃ ceramic crucible. However, since titanium reacts chemically with Al₂O₃, it is difficult to melt titanium by the induction heating method using Al₂O₃ crucible. To avoid this problem, we studied the chemical stability of the various crucibles such as Al₂O₃, MgO, ZrO₂, and Y₂O₃ crucibles to molten titanium. After titanium lumps (Grade 2, O(oxygen)<0.25wt%) were placed in each crucible, they were heated to 1800℃ with a heating rate of 5 ℃/min, held at 1800℃ for 30 min, and finally cooled to room temperature with a cooling rate of 5 ℃/min. All heat treatments were carried out in high purity Ar atmosphere. To evaluate the chemical stability, thermodynamic data such as Ellingham diagram were utilized, and also Vickers hardness test, microstructure analysis, and EPMA quantitative analysis were performed. As a result, Al₂O₃, MgO and ZrO₂ crucibles chemically reacted with molten titanium, but Y₂O₃ crucible rarely reacted with it.

Keywords: titanium, induction melting, crucible, chemical stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
349 Mechanical and Microstructural Properties of Rotary-Swaged Wire of Commercial-Purity Titanium

Authors: Michal Duchek, Jan Palán, Tomas Kubina


Bars made of titanium grade 2 and grade 4 were subjected to rotary forging with up to 2.2 true strain reduction in the cross-section from 10 to 3.81 mm. During progressive deformation, grain refinement in the transverse direction took place. In the longitudinal direction, ultrafine microstructure has not developed. It has been demonstrated that titanium grade 2 strengthens more than grade 4. The ultimate tensile strength increased from 650 MPa to 1040 MPa in titanium grade 4. Hardness profiles on the cross section in both materials show an increase in the centre of the wire.

Keywords: commercial-purity titanium, wire, rotary swaging, tensile test, hardness, modulus of elasticity, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
348 Titanium Dioxide Modified with Glutathione as Potential Drug Carrier with Reduced Toxic Properties

Authors: Olga Długosz, Jolanta Pulit-Prociak, Marcin Banach


The paper presents a process to obtain glutathione-modified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The processes were carried out in a microwave radiation field. The influence of the molar ratio of glutathione to titanium oxide and the effect of the fold of NaOH vs. stoichiometric amount on the size of the formed TiO₂ nanoparticles was determined. The physicochemical properties of the obtained products were evaluated using dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope- energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDS), low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method (BET), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) microscopy methods. The size of TiO₂ nanoparticles was characterized from 30 to 336 nm. The release of titanium ions from the prepared products was evaluated. These studies were carried out using different media in which the powders were incubated for a specific time. These were: water, SBF, and Ringer's solution. The release of titanium ions from modified products is weaker compared to unmodified titanium oxide nanoparticles. The reduced release of titanium ions may allow the use of such modified materials as substances in drug delivery systems.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, drug carrier, glutathione

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
347 Biological Evaluation of Some Modern Titanium Alloys for Dental Implants

Authors: Roxana Maria Angelescu, Raluca Ion, Anişoara Cîmpean, Doina Răducanu, Mariana Lucia Angelescu


In an attempt to find titanium alloys that fulfill the requirements for mechanical and biological compatibility, laboratory and material related tests were performed during the years, as well as preclinical and clinical trials. The multidisciplinary scientific research facilitates the global evaluation of biocompatibility and osseointegration regarding the dental implant alloys. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro biocompatibility of three modern titanium alloys: Ti-31.7Nb-6.21Zr-1.4Fe-0.16O (wt%), Ti-36.5Nb-4.5Zr-3Ta-0.16O (wt%) and Ti-20Nb-5Ta (wt%), in order to establish whether the use of these titanium alloys can have any toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. The commonly used Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated as a reference material. The behavior of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts on all these four metallic surfaces was evaluated. The tests of immunofluorescence, cytotoxicity and cellular proliferation lead to the conclusion that the newly-developed titanium alloys elicit a good cellular response in terms of cellular survival, adhesion, morphology and proliferative potential as well.

Keywords: biocompatibility tests, dental implants, titanium alloys, biomedical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
346 Surface Modification of Titanium Alloy with Laser Treatment

Authors: Nassier A. Nassir, Robert Birch, D. Rico Sierra, S. P. Edwardson, G. Dearden, Zhongwei Guan


The effect of laser surface treatment parameters on the residual strength of titanium alloy has been investigated. The influence of the laser surface treatment on the bonding strength between the titanium and poly-ether-ketone-ketone (PEKK) surfaces was also evaluated and compared to those offered by titanium foils without surface treatment to optimize the laser parameters. Material characterization using an optical microscope was carried out to study the microstructure and to measure the mean roughness value of the titanium surface. The results showed that the surface roughness shows a significant dependency on the laser power parameters in which surface roughness increases with the laser power increment. Moreover, the results of the tensile tests have shown that there is no significant dropping in tensile strength for the treated samples comparing to the virgin ones. In order to optimize the laser parameter as well as the corresponding surface roughness, single-lap shear tests were conducted on pairs of the laser treated titanium stripes. The results showed that the bonding shear strength between titanium alloy and PEKK film increased with the surface roughness increment to a specific limit. After this point, it is interesting to note that there was no significant effect for the laser parameter on the bonding strength. This evidence suggests that it is not necessary to use very high power of laser to treat titanium surface to achieve a good bonding strength between titanium alloy and the PEKK film.

Keywords: bonding strength, laser surface treatment, PEKK, poly-ether-ketone-ketone, titanium alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
345 Effect of Texture of Orthorhombic Martensite on Thermal Expansion of Metastable Titanium Alloy

Authors: E. Stepanova, N. Popov, S. Demakov, S. Stepanov


This paper examines the so-called invar-type behavior of metastable titanium alloy subjected to cold rolling. The effect was shown to occur due to the anisotropy of thermal expansion of titanium orthorhombic martensite. By means of X-ray diffraction analysis and dilatometry analyses, the influence of crystallographic texture of orthorhombic martensite on the coefficient of thermal expansion of sheets of metastable titanium alloy VT23 was examined. Anisotropy of the coefficient of thermal expansion has been revealed. It was lower in the rolling plane and higher along the transverse direction of the cold-rolled sheet comparing to the coefficient of thermal expansion of the unprocessed alloy.

Keywords: invar-type, cold rolling, metastable titanium alloy, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
344 One-Step Synthesis of Titanium Dioxide Porous Microspheres by Picosecond Pulsed Laser Welding

Authors: Huiwu Yu, Xiangyou Li, Xiaoyan Zeng


Porous spheres have been widely used in many fields due to their attractive features. In this work, an approach for fabricating porous spheres of nanoparticles was presented, in which the nanoparticles were welded together to form micro spheres by simply irradiating the nanoparticles in liquid medium by a picosecond laser. As an example, anatase titanium dioxide was chosen as a typical material on account of its metastability. The structure and morphologies of the products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), respectively. The results showed that, anatase titanium dioxide micro spheres (2-10 μm) with macroporous (10-100 nm) were prepared from nano-anatase titanium dioxide nanoparticles (10-100 nm). The formation process of polycrystalline anatase titanium dioxide microspheres was investigated with different liquid mediums and the input laser fluences. Thus, this facile laser irradiation approach might provide a way for the fabrication of porous microspheres without phase-transition.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, porous microspheres, picosecond laser, nano-welding

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
343 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli


Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.

Keywords: dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
342 An Experimental Study on Ultrasonic Machining of Pure Titanium Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Jatinder Kumar


Ultrasonic machining is one of the most widely used non-traditional machining processes for machining of materials that are relatively brittle, hard and fragile such as advanced ceramics, refractories, crystals, quartz etc. There is a considerable lack of research on its application to the cost-effective machining of tough materials such as titanium. In this investigation, the application of USM process for machining of titanium (ASTM Grade-I) has been explored. Experiments have been conducted to assess the effect of different parameters of USM process on machining rate and tool wear rate as response characteristics. The process parameters that were included in this study are: abrasive grit size, tool material and power rating of the ultrasonic machine. It has been concluded that titanium is fairly machinable with USM process. Significant improvement in the machining rate can be realized by manipulating the process parameters and obtaining the optimum combination of these parameters.

Keywords: abrasive grit size, tool material, titanium, ultrasonic machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
341 Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of New Developed Titanium Alloys in Ringer’s Solution

Authors: Yasser M. Abd-elrhman, Mohamed A. Gepreel, Kiochi Nakamura, Ahmed Abd El-Moneim, Sengo Kobayashi, Mervat M. Ibrahim


Titanium alloys are known as highly bio compatible metallic materials due to their high strength, low elastic modulus, and high corrosion resistance in biological media. Besides other important material features, the corrosion parameters and corrosion products are responsible for limiting the biological and chemical bio compatibility of metallic materials that produce undesirable reactions in implant-adjacent and/or more distant tissues. Electrochemical corrosion behaviors of novel beta titanium alloys, Ti-4.7Mo-4.5Fe, Ti-3Mo-0.5Fe, and Ti-2Mo-0.5Fe were characterized in naturally aerated Ringer’s solution at room temperature compared with common used biomedical titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V. The corrosion resistance of titanium alloys were investigated through open circuit potential (OCP), potentiodynamic polarization measurements and optical microscope (OM). A high corrosion resistance was obtained for all alloys due to the stable passive film formed on their surfaces. The new present alloys are promising metallic biomaterials for the future, owing to their very low elastic modulus and good corrosion resistance capabilities.

Keywords: titanium alloys, corrosion resistance, Ringer’s solution, electrochemical corrosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 517
340 Biocompatible Beta Titanium Alloy Ti36Nb6Ta as a Suitable Material for Bone Regeneration

Authors: Vera Lukasova, Eva Filova, Jana Dankova, Vera Sovkova, Matej Daniel, Michala Rampichova


Proper bone implants should promote fast adhesion of cells, stimulate cell differentiation and support the formation of bone tissue. Nowadays titanium is used as a biocompatible material capable of bone tissue integration. This study was focused on comparison of bioactive properties of two titanium alloys - beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta and standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. The advantage of beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta is mainly that this material does not contain adverse elements like vanadium or aluminium. Titanium alloys were sterilized in ethanol, placed into 48 well plates and seeded with porcine mesenchymal stem cells. Cells were cultivated for 14 days in standard growth cultivation media with osteogenic supplements. Cell metabolic activity was quantified using MTS assay (Promega). Cell adhesion on day 1 and cell proliferation on further days were verified immunohistochemically using beta-actin monoclonal antibody and secondary antibody conjugated with AlexaFluor®488. Differentiation of cells was evaluated using alkaline phosphatase assay. Additionally, gene expression of collagen I was measured by qRT-PCR. Porcine mesenchymal stem cells adhered and spread well on beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta on day 1. During the 14 days’ time period the cells were spread confluently on the surface of the beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta. The metabolic activity of cells increased during the whole cultivation period. In comparison to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V, we did not observe any differences. Moreover, the expression of collagen I gene revealed no statistical differences between both titanium alloys. Therefore, a beta titanium alloy Ti36Nb6Ta promotes cell adhesion, metabolic activity, proliferation and collagen I expression equally to standard medical titanium alloy Ti6A14V. Thus, beta titanium is a suitable material that provides sufficient biocompatible properties. This project was supported by the Czech Science Foundation: grant No. 16-14758S.

Keywords: beta titanium alloy, biocompatibility, differentiation, mesenchymal stem cells

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339 Laser Welding of Titanium Alloy Ti64 to Polyamide 6.6: Effects of Welding Parameters on Temperature Profile Evolution

Authors: A. Al-Sayyad, P. Lama, J. Bardon, P. Hirchenhahn, L. Houssiau, P. Plapper


Composite metal–polymer materials, in particular titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) to polyamide (PA6.6), fabricated by laser joining, have gained cogent interest among industries and researchers concerned with aerospace and biomedical applications. This work adopts infrared (IR) thermography technique to investigate effects of laser parameters used in the welding process on the three-dimensional temperature profile at the rear-side of titanium, at the region to be welded with polyamide. Cross sectional analysis of welded joints showed correlations between the morphology of titanium and polyamide at the weld zone with the corresponding temperature profile. In particular, spatial temperature profile was found to be correlated with the laser beam energy density, titanium molten pool width and depth, and polyamide heat affected zone depth.

Keywords: laser welding, metals to polymers joining, process monitoring, temperature profile, thermography

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338 Titanium-Aluminium Oxide Coating on Aluminized Steel

Authors: Fuyan Sun, Guang Wang, Xueyuan Nie


In this study, a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process was used to form titanium-aluminium oxide coating on aluminized steel. The present work was mainly to study the effects of treatment time of PEO process on properties of the titanium coating. A potentiodynamic polarization corrosion test was employed to investigate the corrosion resistance of the coating. The friction coefficient and wear resistance of the coating were studied by using pin-on-disc test. The thermal transfer behaviours of uncoated and PEO-coated aluminized steels were also studied. It could be seen that treatment time of PEO process significantly influenced the properties of the titanium oxide coating. Samples with a longer treatment time had a better performance for corrosion and wear protection. This paper demonstrated different treatment time could alter the surface behaviour of the coating material.

Keywords: titanium-aluminum oxide, plasma electrolytic oxidation, corrosion, wear, thermal property

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
337 Porous Titanium Scaffolds Fabricated by Metal Injection Moulding Using Potassium-Chloride and Space Holder

Authors: Ali Dehghan Manshadi, David H. StJohn, Matthew S. Dargusch, M. Qian


Biocompatible, highly porous titanium scaffolds were manufactured by metal injection moulding of spherical titanium powder (powder size: -45 µm) with potassium chloride (powder size: -250 µm) as a space holder. Property evaluation of scaffolds confirmed a high level of compatibility between their mechanical properties and those of human cortical bone. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be 1250°C producing scaffolds with more than 90% interconnected pores in the size range of 200-250 µm, yield stress of 220 MPa and Young’s modulus of 7.80 GPa, all of which are suitable for bone tissue engineering. Increasing the sintering temperature to 1300°C increased the Young’s modulus to 22.0 GPa while reducing the temperature to 1150°C reduced the yield stress to 120 MPa due to incomplete sintering. The residual potassium chloride was determined vs. sintering temperature. A comparison was also made between the porous titanium scaffolds fabricated in this study and the additively manufactured titanium lattices of similar porosity reported in the literature.

Keywords: titanium, metal injection moulding, mechanical properties, scaffolds

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
336 The High Strength Biocompatible Wires of Commercially Pure Titanium

Authors: J. Palán, M. Zemko


COMTES FHT has been active in a field of research and development of high-strength wires for quite some time. The main material was pure titanium. The primary goal of this effort is to develop a continuous production process for ultrafine and nanostructured materials with the aid of severe plastic deformation (SPD). This article outlines mechanical and microstructural properties of the materials and the options available for testing the components made of these materials. Ti Grade 2 and Grade 4 wires are the key products of interest. Ti Grade 2 with ultrafine to nano-sized grain shows ultimate strength of up to 1050 MPa. Ti Grade 4 reaches ultimate strengths of up to 1250 MPa. These values are twice or three times as higher as those found in the unprocessed material. For those fields of medicine where implantable metallic materials are used, bulk ultrafine to nanostructured titanium is available. It is manufactured by SPD techniques. These processes leave the chemical properties of the initial material unchanged but markedly improve its final mechanical properties, in particular, the strength. Ultrafine to nanostructured titanium retains all the significant and, from the biological viewpoint, desirable properties that are important for its use in medicine, i.e. those properties which made pure titanium the preferred material also for dental implants.

Keywords: CONFORM, ECAP, rotary swaging, titanium

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
335 Preparation of Catalyst-Doped TiO2 Nanotubes by Single Step Anodization and Potential Shock

Authors: Hyeonseok Yoo, Kiseok Oh, Jinsub Choi


Titanium oxide nanotubes have attracted great attention because of its photocatalytic activity and large surface area. For enhancing electrochemical properties, catalysts should be doped into the structure because titanium oxide nanotubes themselves have low electroconductivity and catalytic activity. It has been reported that Ru and Ir doped titanium oxide electrodes exhibit high efficiency and low overpotential in the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) for water splitting. In general, titanium oxide nanotubes with high aspect ratio cannot be easily doped by conventional complex methods. Herein, two types of facile routes, namely single step anodization and potential shock, for Ru doping into high aspect ratio titanium oxide nanotubes are introduced in detail. When single step anodization was carried out, stability of electrodes were increased. However, onset potential was shifted to anodic direction. On the other hand, when high potential shock voltage was applied, a large amount of ruthenium/ruthenium oxides were doped into titanium oxide nanotubes and thick barrier oxide layers were formed simultaneously. Regardless of doping routes, ruthenium/ ruthenium oxides were homogeneously doped into titanium oxide nanotubes. In spite of doping routes, doping in aqueous solution generally led to incorporate high amount of Ru in titanium oxide nanotubes, compared to that in non-aqueous solution. The amounts of doped catalyst were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The optimum condition for water splitting was investigated in terms of the amount of doped Ru and thickness of barrier oxide layer.

Keywords: doping, potential shock, single step anodization, titanium oxide nanotubes

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
334 Effect of Structure on Properties of Incrementally Formed Titanium Alloy Sheets

Authors: Lucie Novakova, Petr Homola, Vaclav Kafka


Asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) could significantly reduce costs incurred by the fabrication of complex industrial components with a minimal environmental impact. The AISF experiments were carried out on commercially pure titanium (Ti-Gr2), Timetal (15-3-3-3) alloy, and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-Gr5) alloy. A special testing geometry was used to characterize the titanium alloys properties from the point of view of the forming zone and titanium structure effect. The structure and properties of the materials were assessed by means of metallographic analyses and microhardness measurements.The highest differences in the parameters assessed as a function of the sampling zone were observed in the case of alpha-phase Ti-Gr2at the expense of the most substantial sheet thinning occurrence. A springback causes a smaller stored deformation in Timetal (β alloy) resulting in less pronounced microstructure refinement and microhardness increase. Ti-6Al-4V alloy exhibited early failure due to its poor formability at ambient temperature.

Keywords: incremental forming, metallography, hardness, titanium alloys

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
333 Diffusion Treatment of Niobium and Molybdenum on Pur Titanium and Titanium Alloy Ti-64al and Their Properties

Authors: Kaouka Alaeddine, K. Benarous


This study aims to obtain a surface of pure titanium and titanium alloy Ti-64Al with high performance by the diffusion process. Two agents metal alloy have been used in this treatment, niobium (Nb) and molybdenum (Mo), spread on elemental titanium and Ti-64Al alloy. Nb and Mo are used as powder form to increase the contact surface and to improve the distribution. Both Mo and Nb are distributed on samples of Ti and Ti-64Al at 1100 °C and 1200 °C for 3 h. They were performed to effect different experiments objectives. This work was achieved to improve some properties and microstructure of Ti and Ti-64Al surface, using optical microscopy and SEM and study some mechanical properties. The effects of temperature and the powder contents on the microstructure of Ti and Ti-64Al alloy, different phases and hardness value of Ti and Ti-64Al alloy were determined. Experimental results indicate that increasing the powder contents and/or the temperature, the α + β phases change to the equiaxed β lamellar structure. In particular, experiments in 1200 °C were created by diffusion α + β phases both equiaxed β phase laminar and α + β phase, thus meeting the objectives were established in the work. In addition, simulation results are used for comparison with the experimental results by DICTRA software.

Keywords: diffusion, powder metallurgy, titanium alloy, molybdenum, niobium

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
332 Dry High Speed Orthogonal Turning of Ti-6Al-4V Titanium Alloy

Authors: M. Benghersallah, G. List, G. Sutter


The present work is an experimental study on the dry high speed turning of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy. The objective of this study is to see for high cutting speeds, how wear occurs on the face of insert and how to evolve cutting forces and chip formation. Cutting speeds tested is 600, 800, 1000, and 1200 m/min in orthogonal turning with a carbide insert tool H13A uncoated on a cylindrical titanium alloy part. Investigation on the wear inserts with 3D scanning microscope revered the crater formation is instantaneous and a chip adhesion (welded chip) causes detachment of carbide particles. Cutting forces increase and stabilize before removing the tool. The chip reaches a very high temperature.

Keywords: titanium alloy, dry hjgh speed turning, wear insert, MQL technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
331 Effect of Machining Induced Microstructure Changes on the Edge Formability of Titanium Alloys at Room Temperature

Authors: James S. Kwame, E. Yakushina, P. Blackwell


The challenges in forming titanium alloys at room temperature are well researched and are linked both to the limitations imposed by the basic crystal structure and their ability to form texture during plastic deformation. One major issue of concern for the sheet forming of titanium alloys is their high sensitivity to surface inhomogeneity. Various machining processes are utilised in preparing sheet hole edges for edge flanging applications. However, the response of edge forming tendencies of titanium to different edge surface finishes is not well investigated. The hole expansion test is used in this project to elucidate the impact of abrasive water jet (AWJ) and electro-discharge machining (EDM) cutting techniques on the edge formability of CP-Ti (Grade 2) and Ti-3Al-2.5V alloys at room temperature. The results show that the quality of the edge surface finish has a major effect on the edge formability of the materials. The work also found that the variations in the edge forming performance are mainly the result of the influence of machining induced edge surface defects.

Keywords: titanium alloys, hole expansion test, edge formability, non-conventional machining

Procedia PDF Downloads 25
330 Effect of Gas-Diffusion Oxynitriding on Microstructure and Hardness of Ti-6Al-4V Alloys

Authors: Dong Bok Lee, Min Jung Kim


The commercially available titanium alloy, Ti-6Al-4V, was oxynitrided in the deoxygenated nitrogen gas at high temperatures followed by cooling in oxygen-containing nitrogen in order to analyze the influence of oxynitriding parameters on the phase modification, hardness, and the microstructural evolution of the oxynitrided coating. The surface microhardness of the oxynitrided alloy increased due to the strengthening effect of the formed titanium oxynitrides, TiNxOy. The maximum microhardness was obtained, when TiNxOy had near equiatomic composition of nitrogen and oxygen. It could be attained under the optimum oxygen partial pressure and temperature-time condition.

Keywords: titanium alloy, oxynitriding, gas diffusion, surface treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
329 Synthesis of Bimetallic Ti-Fe-SBA-15 Using Silatrane

Authors: Ratchadaporn Kaewmuang, Hussaya Maneesuwan, Thanyalak Chaisuwan, Sujitra Wongkasemjit


Mesoporous materials have been used in many applications, such as adsorbent and catalyst. SBA-15, a 2D hexagonal ordered mesoporous silica material, has not only high specific surface area, but also thicker wall, larger pore size, better hydrothermal stability, and mechanical properties than M41s. However, pure SBA-15 still lacks of redox properties. Therefore, bimetallic incorporation into framework is of interest since it can create new active sites. In this work, Ti-Fe-SBA-15 is studied and successfully synthesized via sol-gel process, using silatrane, FeCl3, and titanium (VI) isopropoxide as silica, iron, and titanium sources, respectively. The products are characterized by SAXD, FE-SEM, and N2 adsorption/desorption, DR-UV, and XRF.

Keywords: SBA-15, mesoporous silica, bimetallic, titanium, iron, silatrane

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
328 Production of Hard Nickel Particle Reinforced Ti6Al4V Matrix Composites by Hot Pressing

Authors: Ridvan Yamanoglu


In the current study, titanium based composites reinforced by hard nickel alloy particles were produced. Powder metallurgical hot pressing technique was used for the fabrication of composite materials. The composites containing different ratio of hard nickel particles were sintered at 900 oC for 15 and 30 minutes under 50 MPa pressure. All titanium based composites were obtained under a vacuum atmosphere of 10-4 mbar to prevent of oxidation of titanium due to its high reactivity to oxygen. The microstructural characterization of the composite samples was carried out by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of the samples were determined by means of hardness and wear tests. The results showed that when the nickel particle content increased the mechanical properties of the composites enhanced. The results are discussed in detail and optimum nickel particle content were determined.

Keywords: titanium, composite, nickel, hot pressing

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
327 Elaboration of Titania Nanotubes on Ti₆Al₄V Substrate by Electrochemical Anodization for Dental Application

Authors: Abdelghani Boucheham, Ahcene Karaali, Amar Manseri


Nanostructured Titania layers formed on the surface of titanium and titanium alloys by anodic oxidation play an important role in the enhancement of their biocompatibility and osseointegration in the human body. In the current work, highly ordered titania nanotube array films were elaborated on Ti₆Al₄V medical grade alloys in organic electrolyte containing ethylene glycol, 0.2 wt. % NH₄F and 4 vol. % H₂O at an applied potential of 60 V for different durations. The diameters, lengths and wall thicknesses of the obtained nanotubes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM).

Keywords: anodization, dental implants, titania nanotubes, titanium alloys, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
326 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Titanium Alloy Dental Implants Coated by Bio-ceramic Apatite Wollastonite (Aw) and Hydroxyapatite (Ha) by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Betsy S. Thomas, Manjeet Marpara, K. M. Bhat


Introduction: After the initial enthusiasm and interest in hydroxyapatite products subsided due to dissolution of the coating and failure at the coating interface, this was a unique attempt to create a next generation of dental implant. Materials and Methods: The adhesion property of AW and HA coatings at various temperature by pulsed laser deposition was assessed on titanium plates. Moreover, AW/HA coated implants implanted in the femur of the rabbits was evaluated at various intervals. Results: Decohesion load was more for AW in scratch test and more bone formation around AW coated implants on histological evaluation. Discussion: AW coating by pulsed laser deposition was more adherent to the titanium surface and led to faster bone formation than HA. Conclusion: This experiment opined that AW coated by pulsed laser deposition seems to be a promising method in achieving bioactive coatings on titanium implants.

Keywords: surface coating, dental implants, osseo integration, biotechnology

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
325 Deformability of the Rare Earth Metal Modified Metastable-β Alloy Ti-15Mo

Authors: F. Brunke, L. Waalkes, C. Siemers


Due to reduced stiffness, research on second generation titanium alloys for implant applications, like the metastable β-titanium alloy Ti-15Mo, become more and more important in the recent years. The machinability of these alloys is generally poor leading to problems during implant production and comparably large production costs. Therefore, in the present study, Ti 15Mo was alloyed with 0.8 wt.-% of the rare earth metals lanthanum (Ti-15Mo+0.8La) and neodymium (Ti-15Mo+0.8Nd) to improve its machinability. Their microstructure consisted of a titanium matrix and micrometer-size particles of the rare earth metals and two of their oxides. The particles stabilized the micro structure as grain growth was minimized. As especially the ductility might be affected by the precipitates, the behavior of Ti-15Mo+0.8La and Ti-15Mo+0.8Nd was investigated during static and dynamic deformation at elevated temperature to develop a processing route. The resulting mechanical properties (static strength and ductility) were similar in all investigated alloys.

Keywords: Ti 15Mo, titanium alloys, rare earth metals, free machining alloy

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
324 Optimization of Titanium Leaching Process Using Experimental Design

Authors: Arash Rafiei, Carroll Moore


Leaching process as the first stage of hydrometallurgy is a multidisciplinary system including material properties, chemistry, reactor design, mechanics and fluid dynamics. Therefore, doing leaching system optimization by pure scientific methods need lots of times and expenses. In this work, a mixture of two titanium ores and one titanium slag are used for extracting titanium for leaching stage of TiO2 pigment production procedure. Optimum titanium extraction can be obtained from following strategies: i) Maximizing titanium extraction without selective digestion; and ii) Optimizing selective titanium extraction by balancing between maximum titanium extraction and minimum impurity digestion. The main difference between two strategies is due to process optimization framework. For the first strategy, the most important stage of production process is concerned as the main stage and rest of stages would be adopted with respect to the main stage. The second strategy optimizes performance of more than one stage at once. The second strategy has more technical complexity compared to the first one but it brings more economical and technical advantages for the leaching system. Obviously, each strategy has its own optimum operational zone that is not as same as the other one and the best operational zone is chosen due to complexity, economical and practical aspects of the leaching system. Experimental design has been carried out by using Taguchi method. The most important advantages of this methodology are involving different technical aspects of leaching process; minimizing the number of needed experiments as well as time and expense; and concerning the role of parameter interactions due to principles of multifactor-at-time optimization. Leaching tests have been done at batch scale on lab with appropriate control on temperature. The leaching tank geometry has been concerned as an important factor to provide comparable agitation conditions. Data analysis has been done by using reactor design and mass balancing principles. Finally, optimum zone for operational parameters are determined for each leaching strategy and discussed due to their economical and practical aspects.

Keywords: titanium leaching, optimization, experimental design, performance analysis

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323 Effect of Incremental Forming Parameters on Titanium Alloys Properties

Authors: P. Homola, L. Novakova, V. Kafka, M. P. Oscoz


Shear spinning is closely related to the asymmetric incremental sheet forming (AISF) that could significantly reduce costs incurred by the fabrication of complex aeronautical components with a minimal environmental impact. The spinning experiments were carried out on commercially pure titanium (Ti-Gr2) and Ti-6Al-4V (Ti-Gr5) alloy. Three forming modes were used to characterize the titanium alloys properties from the point of view of different spinning parameters. The structure and properties of the materials were assessed by means of metallographic analyses and micro-hardness measurements. The highest value wall angle failure limit was achieved using spinning parameters mode for both materials. The feed rate effect was observed only in the samples from the Ti-Gr2 material, when a refinement of the grain microstructure with lower feed rate and higher tangential speed occurred. Ti-Gr5 alloy exhibited a decrease of the micro-hardness at higher straining due to recovery processes.

Keywords: incremental forming, metallography, shear spinning, titanium alloys

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322 Characterization of Iron Doped Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Its Photocatalytic Degradation Ability for Congo Red Dye

Authors: Vishakha Parihar


This study reports the preparation of iron metal-doped nanoparticles of Titanium dioxide by the sol-gel process and the photocatalytic degradation of dye. Nano-particles were characterized by SEM, EDX, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The detailed study confirmed that nanoparticles have grown in high density and have good optical properties. The photocatalytic batch experiment was performed in an aqueous solution where congo red dye was used as a dye pollutant under the irradiation of ultraviolet rays created by using a mercury lamp source. Total degradation efficiency achieved was approximately 85% to 93% in the duration of 100-120 minutes of irradiation under an ultraviolet light source. The decolorization ability of this process was measured by absorbance at a maximum wavelength of 498nm. The results indicated that the iron-doped Titanium dioxide nanoparticles showed an excellent photocatalytic response to the degradation of dye under the ultraviolet light source within a very short period of time.

Keywords: titanium dioxide, nano-particles iron dope, photocatalytic degradation, Congo red dye, sol-gel process

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