Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8318

Search results for: electrical properties

8318 Influence of Thickness on Electrical and Structural Properties of Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Thin Films Prepared by RF Sputtering Technique

Authors: M. Momoh, S. Abdullahi, A. U. Moreh


Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films were prepared on corning (7059) glass substrates at a thickness of 75.5 and 130.5 nm by RF sputtering technique. The deposition was carried out at room temperature after which the samples were annealed in open air at 150°C. The electrical and structural properties of these films were studied. The electrical properties of the films were monitored by four-point probe method while the structural properties were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was found that the electrical resistance of the films decreases with increase in the thickness of the films. The XRD analysis of the films showed that the films have a peak located at 34.31°-34.35° with hkl (002). Other parameters calculated include the stress (σ) and the grain size (D).

Keywords: electrical properties, film thickness, structural properties, zinc oxide

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8317 Prediction of Index-Mechanical Properties of Pyroclastic Rock Utilizing Electrical Resistivity Method

Authors: İsmail İnce


The aim of this study is to determine index and mechanical properties of pyroclastic rock in a practical way by means of electrical resistivity method. For this purpose, electrical resistivity, uniaxial compressive strength, point load strength, P-wave velocity, density and porosity values of 10 different pyroclastic rocks were measured in the laboratory. A simple regression analysis was made among the index-mechanical properties of the samples compatible with electrical resistivity values. A strong exponentially relation was found between index-mechanical properties and electrical resistivity values. The electrical resistivity method can be used to assess the engineering properties of the rock from which it is difficult to obtain regular shaped samples as a non-destructive method.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, index-mechanical properties, pyroclastic rocks, regression analysis

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8316 An Investigation on Viscoelastic and Electrical Properties of Biopolymer-Based Composites

Authors: K. Sever, Y. Seki, Z. Yenier, İ. Şen, M. Sarikanat


It is known that Chitosan, as a natural polymer, has many excellent properties such as bicompotability, biodegradability and nontoxicity. Besides it has some limitations such as poor solubility in water and low conductivity in electrical devices and sensor applications. In order to improve electrical conductivity properties grapheme loading was conducted into chitosan. For this aim, chitosan solution was prepared in acidic condition and Graphene at different ratios was mixed with chitosan solution by the help of homogenizator. After film formation electrical conductivity values of chitosan and graphene loaded chitosan were determined. After grapheme loading into chitosan,solution significant increases in surface resistivity value of chitosan were observed. Besides variations on viscoeleastic properties with graphene loading was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis. Storage and Loss moduli were obtained for chitosan and grapheme loaded chitosan samples.

Keywords: chitosan, graphene, viscoelastic properties, electrical conductivity

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8315 Properties of Hot-Pressed Alumina-Graphene Composites

Authors: P. Rutkowski, G. Górny, L. Stobierski, D. Zientara, W. Piekarczyk, K. Tran


The polycrystalline dense alumina shows thermal conductivity about 30 W/mK and very high electrical resistivity. These last two properties can be modified by introducing commercial relatively cheap graphene nanoparticles which, as two-dimensional flakes show very high thermal and electrical properties. The aim of this work is to show that it is possible to manufacture the anisotropic alumina-graphene material with directed multilayer graphene particles. Such materials can show the anisotropic properties mentioned before.

Keywords: alumina, composite, hot-pressed, graphene, properties

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8314 Effect of Hot Rolling Conditions on Magnetic Properties of Fe-3%Si Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Emre Alan, Yusuf Yamanturk, Gokay Bas


Non-grain oriented electrical steels are high silicon containing steels in which the direction of magnetism is intended the same in any direction of the material. Major applications of non-grain-oriented electrical steels are electrical motors, generators, etc. where low magnetic losses are required. Selection of proper hot rolling process parameters is an important factor in order to produce a material that has desired magnetic properties. In this study, the effect of finishing and coiling temperatures on magnetic properties of Fe-3%Si non-grain oriented electrical steels will be investigated. Additionally, the effect of slab reheating temperature at same entry finishing temperature will be investigated by means of reduction in roughing mill pass number from 1-5 to 1-3.

Keywords: electrical steels, hot rolling, magnetic properties, roughing mill

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8313 Correlations Between Electrical Resistivity and Some Properties of Clayey Soils

Authors: F. A. Hassona, M. M. Abu-Heleika, M. A. Hassan, A. E. Sidhom


Application of electrical measurements to evaluate engineering properties of soils has gained a wide, promising field of research in recent years. So, understanding of the relation between in-situ electrical resistivity of clay soil, and their mechanical and physical properties consider a promising field of research. This would assist in introducing a new technique for the determination of soil properties based on electrical resistivity. In this work soil physical and mechanical properties of clayey soil have been determined by experimental tests and correlated with the in-situ electrical resistivity. The research program was conducted through measuring fifteen vertical electrical sounding stations along with fifteen selected boreholes. These samples were analyzed and subjected to experimental tests such as physical tests namely bulk density, water content, specific gravity, and grain size distribution, and Attereberg limits tests. Mechanical test was also conducted such as direct shear test. The electrical resistivity data were interpreted and correlated with each one of the measured experimental parameters. Based on this study mathematical relations were extracted and discussed. These results exhibit an excellent match with the results reported in the literature. This study demonstrates the utility of the developed methodology for determining the mechanical properties of soils easily and rapidly depending on their electrical resistivity measurements.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, clayey soil, physical properties, shear properties

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8312 Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of MnxZnO1-X Nanocrystals Synthesized by Sol-Gel Method

Authors: K. C. Gayithri, S. K. Naveen Kumar


ZnO is one of the most important semiconductor materials, non toxic, biocompatible, antibacterial properties for research and it is used in many biomedical applications. MnxZn1-xO nano thin films were prepared by a spin coating sol-gel method on silicon substrate. The structural, optical, electrical properties of Mn Doped ZnO are studied by using X-rd, FESEM, UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The X-rd reveals that the sample shows hexagonal wurtzits structure. Surface morphology and thickness of the sample are characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Absorption and transmission spectra are studied by UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The electrical properties are measured by TCR meter.

Keywords: transition metals, Mn doped ZnO, Sol-gel, x-ray diffraction

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8311 Microwave Assisted Growth of Varied Phases and Morphologies of Vanadium Oxides Nanostructures: Structural and Optoelectronic Properties

Authors: Issam Derkaoui, Mohammed Khenfouch, Bakang M. Mothudi, Malik Maaza, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio


Transition metal oxides nanoparticles with different morphologies have attracted a lot of attention recently owning to their distinctive geometries, and demonstrated promising electrical properties for various applications. In this paper, we discuss the time and annealing effects on the structural and electrical properties of vanadium oxides nanoparticles (VO-NPs) prepared by microwave method. In this sense, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible absorbance spectra (Uv-Vis) and electrical conductivity were investigated. Hence, the annealing state and the time are two crucial parameters for the improvement of the optoelectronic properties. The use of these nanostructures is promising way for the development of technological applications especially for energy storage devices.

Keywords: Vanadium oxide, Microwave, Electrical conductivity, Optoelectronic properties

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8310 Tuneability Sub-10-nm WO3 Nano-Flakes and Their Electrical Properties

Authors: S. Zhuiykov, E. Kats


Electrical properties and morphology of orthorhombic β–WO3 nano-flakes with thickness of ~7-9 nm were investigated at the nano scale using energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS) and current sensing force spectroscopy atomic force microscopy (CSFS-AFM, or PeakForce TUNATM). CSFS-AFM analysis established good correlation between the topography of the developed nano-structures and various features of WO3 nano-flakes synthesized via a two-step sol-gel-exfoliation method. It was determined that β–WO3 nano-flakes annealed at 550ºC possess distinguished and exceptional thickness-dependent properties in comparison with the bulk, micro- and nano-structured WO3 synthesized at alternative temperatures.

Keywords: electrical properties, layered semiconductors, nano-flake, sol-gel, exfoliation WO3

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8309 Effects of Biocompatible Substrates on the Electrical Properties of Graphene

Authors: M. Simchi, M. Amiri, E. Rezvani, I. Mirzaei, M. Berahman, A. Simchi, M. Fardmanesh


Graphene is a single-atomic two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms that has considerable properties due to its unique structure and physics with applications in different fields. Graphene has sensitive electrical properties due to its atomic-thin structure. Along with the substrate materials and their influence on the transport properties in graphene, design and fabrication of graphene-based devices for biomedical and biosensor applications are challenging. In this work, large-area high-quality graphene nanosheets were prepared by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using methane gas as carbon source on copper foil and transferred on the biocompatible substrates. Through deposition of titanium and gold contacts, current-voltage response of the transferred graphene on four biocompatible substrates, including PDMS, SU-8, Nitrocellulose, and Kapton (Fig. 2) were experimentally determined. The considerable effect of the substrate type on the electrical properties of graphene is shown. The sheet resistance of graphene is changed from 0.34 to 14.5 kΩ/sq, depending on the substrate.

Keywords: biocompatible substrates, electrical properties, graphene, sheet resistance

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8308 Photodetector Engineering with Plasmonic Properties

Authors: Hasan Furkan Kurt, Tugba Nur Atabey, Onat Cavit Dereli, Ahmad Salmanogli, H. Selcuk Gecim


In the article, the main goal is to study the effect of the plasmonic properties on the photocurrent generated by a photodetector. Fundamentally, a typical photodetector is designed and simulated using the finite element methods. To utilize the plasmonic effect, gold nanoparticles with different shape, size and morphology are buried into the intrinsic region. Plasmonic effect is arisen through the interaction of the incoming light with nanoparticles by which electrical properties of the photodetector are manipulated. In fact, using plasmonic nanoparticles not only increases the absorption bandwidth of the incoming light, but also generates a high intensity near-field close to the plasmonic nanoparticles. Those properties strongly affect the generated photocurrent. The simulation results show that using plasmonic nanoparticles significantly enhances the electrical properties of the photodetectors. More importantly, one can easily manipulate the plasmonic properties of the gold nanoparticles through engineering the nanoparticles' size, shape and morphology. Another important phenomenon is plasmon-plasmon interaction inside the photodetector. It is shown that plasmon-plasmon interaction improves the electron-hole generation rate by which the rate of the current generation is severely enhanced. This is the key factor that we want to focus on, to improve the photodetector electrical properties.

Keywords: plasmonic photodetector, plasmon-plasmon interaction, Gold nanoparticle, electrical properties

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8307 Properties of Rhizophora Charcoal for Product Design

Authors: Tanutpong Phriwanrat


This research investigated the properties of Rhizophora charcoal for product design on 3 aspects: electrical conductor, impurity absorption, and fresh fruit shelf life. After the study, the properties of Rhizophora charcoal were applied to produce local product model at Ban Yisarn, Ampawa District, Samudsongkram Province which can add value to the Rhizophora charcoal as one of the OTOP (One-Tambon-One product). The results showed that the Rhizophora charcoal is not an electrical conductor but good liquid impurity absorber and it can extend fresh fruit shelf life.

Keywords: design, product design, properties of rhizophora, rhizophora charcoal

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8306 Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Neodymium and Erbium Doped Bismuth Ferrite Multifunctional Materials for Spintronic Devices

Authors: Ravinder Dachepalli, Naveena Gadwala, K. Vani


Nd and Er substituted bismuth nano crystalline multifunctional materials were prepared by citrate gel autocombution technique. The structural characterization was carried out by XRD and SEM. Electrical properties such are electrical conductivity and dielectric properties have been measured. Plots of electrical conductivity versus temperature increases with increasing temperature and shown a transition near Curie temperature. Dielectric properties such are dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent have been measured from 20Hz to 2 MHz at room temperature. Plots of dielectric constant versus frequency show a normal dielectric behaviour of multifunctional materials. Temperature dependence of magnetic properties of Bi-Nd and Bi-Er multi-functional materials were carried out by using Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The magnetization as a function of an applied field ±100 Oe was carried out at 3K and 360 K. Zero field Cooled (ZFC) and Field Cooled (FC) magnetization measurements under an applied field of 100Oe a in the temperature range of 5-375K. The observed results can be explained for spintronic devices.

Keywords: Bi-Nd and Bi-Er Multifunctional Materia, Citrate Gel Auto combustion Technique, FC-ZFC magnetization, Dielectric constant

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8305 Preparation and Properties of PP/EPDM Reinforced with Graphene

Authors: M. Haghnegahdar, G. Naderi, M. H. R. Ghoreishy


Polypropylene(PP)/Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) samples (80/20) containing 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 (expressed in mass fraction) graphene were prepared using melt compounding method to investigate microstructure, mechanical properties, and thermal stability as well as electrical resistance of samples. X-Ray diffraction data confirmed that graphene platelets are well dispersed in PP/EPDM. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, impact strength and hardness demonstrated increasing trend by graphene loading which exemplifies substantial reinforcing nature of this kind of nano filler and it's good interaction with polymer chains. At the same time it is found that thermo-oxidative degradation of PP/EPDM nanocomposites is noticeably retarded with the increasing of graphene content. Electrical surface resistivity of the nanocomposite was dramatically changed by forming electrical percolation threshold and leads to change electrical behavior from insulator to semiconductor. Furthermore, these results were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy(SEM), dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

Keywords: nanocomposite, graphene, microstructure, mechanical properties

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8304 Investigation of Electrical, Thermal and Structural Properties on Polyacrylonitrile Nano-Fiber

Authors: N. Demirsoy, N. Uçar, A. Önen, N. Kızıldağ, Ö. F. Vurur, O. Eren, İ. Karacan


Polymer composite nano-fibers including (1, 3 wt %) silver nano-particles have been produced by electrospinning method. Polyacrylonitrile/N,N-dimethylformamide (PAN/DMF) solution has been prepared and the amount of silver nitrate has been adjusted to PAN weight. Silver nano-particles were obtained from reduction of silver ions into silver nano-particles by chemical reduction by hydrazine hydroxide (N2H5OH). The different amount of silver salt was loaded into polymer matrix to obtain polyacrylonitrile composite nano-fiber containing silver nano-particles. The effect of the amount of silver nano-particles on the properties of composite nano-fiber web was investigated. Electrical conductivity, mechanical properties, thermal properties were examined by Microtest LCR Meter 6370 (0.01 mΩ-100 MΩ), tensile tester, differential scanning calorimeter DSC (Q10) and SEM, respectively. Also, antimicrobial efficiency test (ASTM E2149-10) was done against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It has been seen that breaking strength, conductivity, antimicrobial effect, enthalpy during cyclization increase by use of silver nano-particles while the diameter of nano-fiber decreases.

Keywords: composite polyacrylonitrile nanofiber, electrical conductivity, electrospinning, mechanical properties, thermal properties, silver nanoparticles

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8303 Effects of Li2O Doping on Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Bovine Hydroxyapatite Composites (BHA)

Authors: Sibel Daglilar, Isil Kerti, Murat Karagoz, Fatih Dumludag, Oguzhan Gunduz, Faik Nuzhet Oktar


Hydroxyapatite (HA) materials have common use in bone repairing due to its ability to accelerate the bone growth around the implant. In spite of being a biocompatible and bioactive material, HA has a limited usage as an implant material because of its weak mechanical properties. HA based composites are required to improve the strength and toughness properties of the implant materials without compromising of biocompatibility. The excellent mechanical properties and higher biocompatibilities are expected from each of biomedical composites. In this study, HA composites were synthesized by using bovine bone reinforced doped with different amount of (wt.%) Li2O. The pressed pellets were sintered at various sintering temperatures between 1000ºC and 1300°C, and mechanical, electrical properties of the obtained products were characterized. In addition to that, in vitro stimulated body fluid (SBF) tests for these samples were conducted. The most suitable composite composition for biomedical applications was discussed among the composites studied.

Keywords: biocomposites, sintering temperature, biocompatibility, electrical property, conductivity, mechanical property

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8302 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Cr Doped Ni-Zn Nanoferrites Prepared by Co-Precipitation Method

Authors: E. Ateia, L. M. Salah, A. H. El-Bassuony


Physical properties of nanocrystalline Ni1-xZnxCryFe2-yO4, (x=0.3, 0.5 and y=0.0, 0.1) with estimated crystallite size of 16.4 nm have been studied. XRD pattern of all prepared systems shows that, the nanosamples without Cr3+ have a cubic spinel structure with the appearance of small peaks designated as a secondary phase. Magnetic constants such as saturation magnetization, (MS) remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercive field (Hc) were obtained and reported. The obtained data shows that, the addition of Cr3+ (0.1mol) decreases the saturation magnetization. This is due to the decrease of magnetic moment of Cr3+ ion (3.0 μB) with respect to Fe3+ ion (5.85 μB). The electrical properties of the investigated samples were also investigated.

Keywords: electrical conductivity, ferrites, grain size, sintering

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8301 Study of Electrical Properties of An-Fl Based Organic Semiconducting Thin Film

Authors: A.G. S. Aldajani, N. Smida, M. G. Althobaiti, B. Zaidi


In order to exploit the good electrical properties of anthracene and the excellent properties of fluorescein, new hybrid material has been synthesized (An-Fl). Current-voltage measurements were done on a new single-layer ITO/An-FL/Al device of typically 100 nm thickness. Atypical diode behavior is observed with a turn-on voltage of 4.4 V, a dynamic resistance of 74.07 KΩ and a rectification ratio of 2.02 due to unbalanced transport. Results show also that the current-voltage characteristics present three different regimes of the power-law (J~Vᵐ) for which the conduction mechanism is well described with space-charge-limited current conduction mechanism (SCLC) with a charge carrier mobility of 2.38.10⁻⁵cm2V⁻¹S⁻¹. Moreover, the electrical transport properties of this device have been carried out using a dependent frequency study in the range (50 Hz–1.4 MHz) for different applied biases (from 0 to 6 V). At lower frequency, the σdc values increase with bias voltage rising, supporting that the mobile ion can hop successfully to its nearest vacant site. From σac and impedance measurements, the equivalent electrical circuit is evidenced, where the conductivity process is coherent with an exponential trap distribution caused by structural defects and/or chemical impurities.

Keywords: semiconducting polymer, conductivity, SCLC, impedance spectroscopy

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8300 Effect of Al Contents on Magnetic Domains of {100} Grains in Electrical Steels

Authors: Hyunseo Choi, Jaewan Hong, Seil Lee, Yang Mo Koo


Non-oriented (NO) electrical steel is one of the most important soft magnetic materials for rotating machines. Si has usually been added to electrical steels to reduce eddy current loss by increasing the electrical resistivity. Si content more than 3.5 wt% causes cracks during cold rolling due to increase of brittleness. Al also increases the electrical resistivity of the materials as much as Si. In addition, cold workability of Fe-Al is better than Fe-Si, so that Al can be added up to 6.0 wt%. However, the effect of Al contents on magnetic properties of electrical steels has not been studied in detail. Magnetic domains of {100} grains in electrical steels, ranging from 1.85 to 6.54 wt% Al, were observed by magneto-optic Kerr microscopy. Furthermore, the correlation of magnetic domains with magnetic properties was investigated. As Al contents increased, the magnetic domain size of {100} grains decreased due to lowered domain wall energy. Reorganization of magnetic domain structure became more complex as domain size decreased. Therefore, the addition of Al to electrical steel caused hysteresis loss to increase. Anomalous loss decreased and saturated after 4.68% Al.

Keywords: electrical steel, magnetic domain structure, Al addition, core loss, rearrangement of domains

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8299 Characterization of Chemically Deposited CdS Thin Films Annealed in Different Atmospheres

Authors: J. Pantoja Enríquez, G. P. Hernández, G. I. Duharte, X. Mathew, J. Moreira, P. J. Sebastian


Cadmium sulfide films were deposited onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) from a bath containing cadmium acetate, ammonium acetate, thiourea, and ammonium hydroxide. The CdS thin films were annealed in air, argon, hydrogen and nitrogen for 1 h at various temperatures (300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 °C). The changes in optical and electrical properties of annealed treated CdS thin films were analyzed. The results showed that, the band-gap and resistivity depend on the post-deposition annealing atmosphere and temperatures. Thus, it was found that these properties of the films, were found to be affected by various processes with opposite effects, some beneficial and others unfavorable. The energy gap and resistivity for different annealing atmospheres was seen to oscillate by thermal annealing. Recrystallization, oxidation, surface passivation, sublimation and materials evaporation were found the main factors of the heat-treatment process responsible for this oscillating behavior. Annealing over 400 °C was seen to degrade the optical and electrical properties of the film.

Keywords: cds, thin films, annealing, optical, electrical properties

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8298 Electrical Properties of Nanocomposite Fibres Based On Cellulose and Graphene Nanoplatelets Prepared Using Ionic Liquids

Authors: Shaya Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza Sazegar, Nazanin Afshari


Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms in a hexagonal lattice, has recently attracted great attention due to its unique mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. The high aspect ratio and unique surface features of graphene resulted in significant improvements of the nano composites properties. In this study, nano composite fibres made of cellulose and graphene nano platelets were wet spun from solution by using ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) as solvent. The effect of graphene loading on the thermal and electrical properties of the nanocomposite fibres was investigated. The nano composite fibres characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. XRD analysis revealed a cellulose II crystalline structure for regenerated cellulose and the nano composite fibres. SEM images showed a homogenous morphology and round cross section for the nano composite fibres along with well dispersion of graphene nano platelets in regenerated cellulose matrix. The incorporation of graphene into cellulose matrix generated electrical conductivity. At 6 wt. % of graphene, the electrical conductivity was 4.7 × 10-4 S/cm. The nano composite fibres also showed considerable improvements in thermal stability and char yield compared to pure regenerated cellulose fibres. This work provides a facile and environmentally friendly method of preparing nano composite fibres based on cellulose and graphene nano platelets that can find several applications in cellulose-based carbon fibres, conductive fibres, apparel, etc.

Keywords: nanocomposite, graphene nanoplatelets, regenerated cellulose, electrical properties

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8297 Nano-Filled Matrix Reinforced by Woven Carbon Fibers Used as a Sensor

Authors: K. Hamdi, Z. Aboura, W. Harizi, K. Khellil


Improving the electrical properties of organic matrix composites has been investigated in several studies. Thus, to extend the use of composites in more varied application, one of the actual barrier is their poor electrical conductivities. In the case of carbon fiber composites, organic matrix are in charge of the insulating properties of the resulting composite. However, studying the properties of continuous carbon fiber nano-filled composites is less investigated. This work tends to characterize the effect of carbon black nano-fillers on the properties of the woven carbon fiber composites. First of all, SEM observations were performed to localize the nano-particles. It showed that particles penetrated on the fiber zone (figure1). In fact, by reaching the fiber zone, the carbon black nano-fillers created network connectivity between fibers which means an easy pathway for the current. It explains the noticed improvement of the electrical conductivity of the composites by adding carbon black. This test was performed with the four points electrical circuit. It shows that electrical conductivity of 'neat' matrix composite passed from 80S/cm to 150S/cm by adding 9wt% of carbon black and to 250S/cm by adding 17wt% of the same nano-filler. Thanks to these results, the use of this composite as a strain gauge might be possible. By the way, the study of the influence of a mechanical excitation (flexion, tensile) on the electrical properties of the composite by recording the variance of an electrical current passing through the material during the mechanical testing is possible. Three different configuration were performed depending on the rate of carbon black used as nano-filler. These investigation could lead to develop an auto-instrumented material.

Keywords: carbon fibers composites, nano-fillers, strain-sensors, auto-instrumented

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8296 Investigation on Properties and Applications of Graphene as Single Layer of Carbon Atoms

Authors: Ali Ashjaran


Graphene is undoubtedly emerging as one of the most promising materials because of its unique combination of superb properties, which opens a way for its exploitation in a wide spectrum of applications ranging from electronics to optics, sensors, and biodevices. In addition, Graphene-based nanomaterials have many promising applications in energy-related areas. Graphene a single layer of carbon atoms, combines several exceptional properties, which makes it uniquely suited as a coating material: transparency, excellent mechanical stability, low chemical reactivity, Optical, impermeability to most gases, flexibility, and very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Graphene is a material that can be utilized in numerous disciplines including, but not limited to: bioengineering, composite materials, energy technology and nanotechnology, biological engineering, optical electronics, ultrafiltration, photovoltaic cells. This review aims to provide an overiew of graphene structure, properties and some applications.

Keywords: graphene, carbon, anti corrosion, optical and electrical properties, sensors

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8295 Microstructure, Mechanical, Electrical and Thermal Properties of the Al-Si-Ni Ternary Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


In recent years, the use of the aluminum based alloys in the industry and technology are increasing. Alloying elements in aluminum have further been improving the strength and stiffness properties that provide superior compared to other metals. In this study, investigation of physical properties (microstructure, microhardness, tensile strength, electrical conductivity and thermal properties) in the Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Ni ternary alloy were investigated. Al-Si-Ni alloy was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate (V) at constant temperature gradient G (7.73 K/mm). The microstructures (flake spacings, λ), microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength, electrical resistivity and thermal properties enthalpy of fusion and specific heat and melting temperature) of the samples were measured. Influence of the growth rate and flake spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. According to results, λ values decrease with increasing V, but microhardness, ultimate tensile strength, electrical resistivity values increase with increasing V. Variations of electrical resistivity for cast samples with the temperature in the range of 300-1200 K were also measured by using a standard dc four-point probe technique. The enthalpy of fusion and specific heat for the same alloy was also determined by means of differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) from heating trace during the transformation from liquid to solid. The results obtained in this work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, enthalpy, microhardness, solidification, tensile stress

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8294 Template-less Self-Assembled Morphologically Cubic BiFeO₃ for Improved Electrical Properties

Authors: Jenna Metera, Olivia Graeve


Ceramic capacitor technologies using lead based materials is being phased out for its environmental and handling hazards. Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO₃) is the next best replacement for those lead-based technologies. Unfortunately, the electrical properties in bismuth systems are not as robust as the lead alternatives. The improvement of electrical properties such as charge density, charge anisotropy, relative permittivity, and dielectric loss are the parameters that will make BiFeO₃ a competitive alternative to lead-based ceramic materials. In order to maximize the utility of these properties, we propose the ordering and an evaporation-induced self-assembly of a cubic morphology powder. Evaporation-induced self-assembly is a template-less, bottom-up, self-assembly option. The capillary forces move the particles closer together when the solvent evaporates, promoting organized agglomeration at the particle faces. The assembly of particles into organized structures can lead to enhanced properties compared to unorganized structures or single particles themselves. The interactions between the particles can be controlled based on the long-range order in the organized structure. The cubic particle morphology is produced through a hydrothermal synthesis with changes in the concentration of potassium hydroxide, which changes the morphology of the powder. Once the assembly materializes, the powder is fabricated into workable substrates for electrical testing after consolidation.

Keywords: evaporation, lead-free, morphology, self-assembly

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8293 Influence of the Growth Rate on Eutectic Microstructures and Physical Properties of Aluminum–Silicon-Cobalt Alloy

Authors: Aynur Aker, Hasan Kaya


Al-12.6wt.%Si-%2wt.Co alloy was prepared in a graphite crucible under vacuum atmosphere. The samples were directionally solidified upwards with different growth rate at constant temperature gradient using by Bridgman–type growth apparatus. The values of microstructures (λ) was measured from transverse sections of the samples. The microhardness (HV), ultimate tensile strength (σ) and electrical resistivity (ρ) of the directional solidification samples were also measured. Influence of the growth rate and spacings on microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and electrical resistivity were investigated and the relationships between them were experimentally obtained by using regression analysis. The results obtained in present work were compared with the previous similar experimental results obtained for binary and ternary alloys.

Keywords: directional solidification, Al-Si-Co alloy, mechanical properties, electrical properties

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8292 Hafnium Doped Zno Nanostructures: An Eco-Friendly Synthesis for Optoelectronic Applications

Authors: Mohamed Achehboune, Mohammed Khenfouch, Issam Boukhoubza, Bakang Mothudi, Izeddine Zorkani, Anouar Jorio


Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanostructures have been attracting growing interest in recent years; their optical and electrical properties make them useful as attractive and promising materials for optoelectronic applications. In this study, pure and Hafnium doped ZnO nanostructures were synthesized using a green processing method. The structural, optical and electrical properties of samples were investigated structural and optical spectroscopies and electrical measurements. The synthesis and chemical composition of pure and Hafnium doped ZnO were confirmed by SEM observation. The XRD studies of Hafnium doped ZnO demonstrate the formation of wurtzite structure with preferred c-axis orientation. Moreover, the optical and electrical properties of doped material have improved after the doping process. The experimental results obtained for our material show that Hf doped ZnO nanostructures could be a promising material in optoelectronic applications such as photovoltaic cell and light emitting diode devices.

Keywords: green synthesis, hafnium-doped-zinc oxide, nanostructures, optoelectronic

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8291 Structural, Magnetic, Electrical and Dielectric Properties of Pr0.8Na0.2MnO3 Manganite

Authors: H. Ben Khlifa, W. Cheikhrouhou, R. M'nassri


The Orthorhombic Pr0.8Na0.2MnO3 ceramic was prepared in Polycrystalline form by a Pechini sol–gel method and its structural, magnetic, electrical, and dielectric properties were investigated experimentally. A structural study confirms that the sample is a single phase. Magnetic measurements show that the sample is a charge ordered Manganite. The sample undergoes two successive magnetic phase transitions with the variation of temperature: a charge ordering transition occurred at TCO = 212 K followed by a Paramagnetic (PM) to ferromagnetic (FM) transition around TC = 115 K. From an electrical point of view, a saturation region was marked in the conductivity as a function of Temperature s(T) curves at a specific temperature. The dc-conductivity (sdc) reaches a maximum value at 240 K. The obtained results are in good agreement with the temperature dependence of the average normalized change (ANC). We found that the conduction mechanism was governed by small polaron hopping (SPH) in the high-temperature region and by variable range hopping (VRH) in the low-temperature region. Complex impedance analysis indicates the presence of a non-Debye relaxation phenomenon in the system. Also, the compound was modeled by an electrical equivalent circuit. Then, the contribution of the grain boundary in the transport properties was confirmed.

Keywords: manganites, preparation methods, magnetization, magnetocaloric effect, electrical and dielectric

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8290 Preparation, Characterisation and Electrical Properties of Metal/polymer-DNA Nanohybrids

Authors: Mahdi Almaky


Conducting polymer of N-(3-pyrrol-1-yl-propyl)-2,2`-bipyridinium hexafluoro-phosphate (PPBH) was prepared via chemical and electrochemical polymerization methods. The bulk polymer showed conductivity in the order of 10-12 S cm-1. DNA-templated polymer nano wires of PPBH (PolyPPBH-DNA) have been chemically prepared then used as templates to direct the formation of metal nanowires (Cu) in order to enhance the electrical properties of the polymer/DNA wires. The chemical structures, morphology and the electrical characterisation of the as obtained structures have been characterized through spectroscopic (FTIR, UV-vis and XPS), single-crystal X-ray diffraction and microscopic (AFM, EFM and c-AFM) techniques. The morphology of the nanomaterials has been observed by AFM; showing the nanowires are uniform and continuous. The polymer conductivity was slightly improved after metallization. The conductivity of Cu-PolyPPBH-DNA nanowires was estimated to be 7.1x10-2 S cm-1. This conductivity is slightly higher than the conductivity of PolyPPBH-DNA nano wires (2.0 x 10-2 S cm-1), but it is lower than the measurements for PPy/DNA nano wires (2.1 x 10-1 S cm-1) prepared and measured by using c-AFM probe. These results reflect the large effect of the chemical structure (N-substitution) on the electrical properties of these polymers by reducing the extended conjugation.

Keywords: DNA, template, nano wires, N-Alkylatedpyrrole, copper

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8289 Electrical Resistivity of Solid and Liquid Pt: Insight into Electrical Resistivity of ε-Fe

Authors: Innocent C. Ezenwa, Takashi Yoshino


Knowledge of the transport properties of Fe and its alloys at extreme high pressure (P), temperature (T) conditions are essential for understanding the generation and sustainability of the magnetic field of the rocky planets with a metallic core. Since Pt, an unfilled d-band late transition metal with an electronic structure of Xe4f¹⁴5d⁹6s¹, is paramagnetic and remains close-packed structure at ambient conditions and high P-T, it is expected that its transport properties at these conditions would be similar to those of ε-Fe. We investigated the T-dependent electrical resistivity of solid and liquid Pt up to 8 GPa and found it constant along its melting curve both on the liquid and solid sides in agreement with theoretical prediction and experimental results estimated from thermal conductivity measurements. Our results suggest that the T-dependent resistivity of ε-Fe is linear and would not saturate at high P, T conditions. This, in turn, suggests that the thermal conductivity of liquid Fe at Earth’s core conditions may not be as high as previously suggested by models employing saturation resistivity. Hence, thermal convection could have powered the geodynamo before the birth of the inner core. The electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity on the liquid and solid sides of the inner core boundary of the Earth would be significantly different in values.

Keywords: electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity, transport properties, geodynamo and geomagnetic field

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