Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 580

Search results for: Seok Woo Chang

580 Measurements of Flow Mixing Behaviors Using a Wire-Mesh Sensor in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Pin Rod Assembly

Authors: Hyungmo Kim, Hwang Bae, Seok-Kyu Chang, Dong Won Lee, Yung Joo Ko, Sun Rock Choi, Hae Seob Choi, Hyeon Seok Woo, Dong-Jin Euh, Hyeong-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

Flow mixing characteristics in the wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle were measured by using a wire-mesh sensing system for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). The subchannel flow mixing in SFR core subchannels was an essential characteristic for verification of a core thermal design and safety analysis. A dedicated test facility including the wire-mesh sensor system and tracing liquid injection system was developed, and the conductivity fields at the end of 37-pin rod bundle were visualized in several different flow conditions. These experimental results represented the reasonable agreements with the results of CFD, and the uncertainty of the mixing experiments has been conducted to evaluate the experimental results.

Keywords: core thermal design, flow mixing, a wire-mesh sensor, a wire-wrap effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
579 A Corpus Based Study of Eileen Chang’s Self-Translating Style: A Case Study on The Rice Sprout Song

Authors: Yi-Wei Huang

Abstract:

Eileen Chang is a well-known writer of modern Chinese literature. She is also a translator that publishes her self-translation The Rice Sprout Song. The purpose of the study is to identify the style of Eileen Chang’s self-translations by corpora, especially in the case of The Rice Sprout Song. The Rice Sprout Song is first written in English and then translated into Chinese by the author herself. The procedure of translation is complicated due to the bilingual transition by the same person. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify Eileen Chang’s style on her self-translation by comparing her works The Old Man and the Sea, The Rice Sprout Song, and The Rouge of The North. The study uses computer-aided software like AntConc, Notepad++, StanfordCoreNLP, and Python to analyze the style of the works, especially focuses on reduplications and the composition of the sentences. Reduplications are commonly seen in Eileen Chang’s works, and they often appear with colors or onomatopoeia. With these criteria, the style of self-translating can be detected and analyzed.

Keywords: corpora, Eileen Chang, reduplications, self-translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
578 Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate

Authors: Dongjoo Kim, Chang-Sik Son, Won-Seok Kang

Abstract:

Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.

Keywords: sleep, sleep quality, heart rate, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
577 Activity Data Analysis for Status Classification Using Fitness Trackers

Authors: Rock-Hyun Choi, Won-Seok Kang, Chang-Sik Son

Abstract:

Physical activity is important for healthy living. Recently wearable devices which motivate physical activity are quickly developing, and become cheaper and more comfortable. In particular, fitness trackers provide a variety of information and need to provide well-analyzed, and user-friendly results. In this study, frequency analysis was performed to classify various data sets of Fitbit into simple activity status. The data from Fitbit cloud server consists of 263 subjects who were healthy factory and office workers in Korea from March 7th to April 30th, 2016. In the results, we found assumptions of activity state classification seem to be sufficient and reasonable.

Keywords: activity status, fitness tracker, heart rate, steps

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
576 Biocompatibilities of Various Calcium Silicate Cements

Authors: Seok Woo Chang, Kee Yeon Kum, Kwang Shik Bae, WooCheol Lee

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the biocompatibilities and mineralization potential of ProRoot MTA and newly developed calcium phosphate based cement, Capseal. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibilities and mineralization-related gene expressions (Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OCN)) of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were also compared by a methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis on 1, 3, and 7 days, respectively. Empty rings were used as control group. The results were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test with a Bonferroni correction. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The biocompatibilities of ProRoot MTA and Capseal were equally favorable. ProRoot MTA and Capseal affected the messenger RNA expression of osteocalcin and osteonectin. Conclusions: Based on the results, both ProRoot MTA and Capseal could be a useful biomaterial in clinical endodontics.

Keywords: biocompatibility, calcium silicate cement, MTT, RT-PCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
575 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Blade at High Temperature

Authors: Sung-Uk Wee, Chang-Sung Seok, Jae-Mean Koo, Jeong-Min Lee

Abstract:

Gas turbine blade is important part of power plant, so it is necessary to evaluate gas turbine reliability. For better heat efficiency, inlet temperature of gas turbine has been elevated more and more so gas turbine blade is exposed to high-temperature environment. Then, higher inlet temperature affects mechanical behavior of the gas turbine blade, so it is necessary that evaluation of mechanical property of gas turbine blade at high-temperature environment. In this study, tensile test and fatigue test were performed at various high temperature, and fatigue life was predicted by Coffin-Manson equation at each temperature. The experimental results showed that gas turbine blade has a lower elastic modulus and shorter fatigue life at higher temperature.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, tensile test, fatigue life, stress-strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 360
574 Analytical Model for Columns in Existing Reinforced Concrete Buildings

Authors: Chang Seok Lee, Sang Whan Han, Girbo Ko, Debbie Kim

Abstract:

Existing reinforced concrete structures are designed and built without considering seismic loads. The columns in such buildings generally exhibit widely spaced transverse reinforcements without using seismic hooks. Due to the insufficient reinforcement details in columns, brittle shear failure is expected in columns that may cause pre-mature building collapse mechanism during earthquakes. In order to retrofit those columns, the accurate seismic behavior of the columns needs to be predicted with proper analytical models. In this study, an analytical model is proposed for accurately simulating the cyclic behavior of shear critical columns. The parameters for pinching and cyclic deterioration in strength and stiffness are calibrated using test data of column specimens failed by shear.

Keywords: analytical model, cyclic deterioration, existing reinforced concrete columns, shear failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
573 The Biocompatibility and Osteogenic Potential of Experimental Calcium Silicate Based Root Canal Sealer, Capseal

Authors: Seok Woo Chang

Abstract:

Aim: Capseal I and Capseal II are calcium silicate and calcium phosphate based experimental root canal sealer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility and mineralization potential of Capseal I and Capseal II. Materials and Methods: The biocompatibility and mineralization-related gene expression (alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteocalcin (OCN)) of Capseal I and Capseal II were compared using methylthiazol tetrazolium assay and reverse transcription-polymerization chain reaction analysis, respectively. The results were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. P-value of < 0.05 was considered significant. Result: Both Capseal I and Capseal II were favorable in biocompatibility and influenced the messenger RNA expression of ALP and BSP. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, Capseal is biocompatible and have mineralization promoting potential, and thus could be a promising root canal sealer.

Keywords: biocompatibility, mineralization-related gene expression, Capseal I, Capseal II

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
572 A Performance Comparison between Conventional and Flexible Box Erecting Machines Using Dispatching Rules

Authors: Min Kyu Kim, Eun Young Lee, Dong Woo Son, Yoon Seok Chang

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce a flexible box erecting machine (BEM) that swiftly and automatically transforms cardboard into a three dimensional box. Recently, the parcel service and home-shopping industries have grown rapidly, and there is an increasing need for various box types to ship various products. However, workers cannot fold thousands of boxes manually in a day. As such, automatic BEMs are garnering greater attention. This study takes equipment operation into consideration as well as mechanical improvements in order to design a BEM that is able to outperform its conventional counterparts. We analyzed six dispatching rules – First In First Out (FIFO), Shortest Processing Time (SPT), Earliest Due Date (EDD), Setup Avoidance, EDD + SPT, and EDD + Setup Avoidance – to determine which one was most suitable for BEM operation. Consequently, SPT and Setup Avoidance were found to be the most critical rules, followed by EDD + Setup Avoidance, EDD + SPT, EDD, and FIFO. This hierarchy was valid for both our conventional BEM and our new flexible BEM from the viewpoint of processing time. We believe that this research can contribute to flexible BEM management, which has the potential to increase productivity and convenience.

Keywords: automation, box erecting machine, dispatching rule, setup time

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
571 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputtering

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
570 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating According to Temperature and Curvature

Authors: Hyunwoo Song, Jeong-Min Lee, Yongseok Kim, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok

Abstract:

To avoid the damage of gas turbine blade from high-temperature, thermal barrier coating (TBC) is applied on the blade. However, it is damaged by thermal fatigue during the operation of gas turbine, and this damage lead to delamination of TBC between top coat and bond coat. The blade can be damaged after the failure of TBC, so durability evaluation of TBC should be performed. The durability of thermal barrier coating was decreased according to the increase of temperature, because thermal stress according to increase of temperature. Also, the curvature can be affect to durability of TBC, because the stress is determined by the shape of the TBC. Therefore, the effect of temperature and curvature on the stress should be evaluated. In this study, finite element analysis according to temperature and curvature were performed in the same condition of Kim et al. Finally, the stress was evaluated from the finite element analysis results according to temperature and curvature.

Keywords: curvature, finite element analysis, thermal barrier coating, thermal fatigue, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 467
569 Evaluation of Thermal Barrier Coating Applied to the Gas Turbine Blade According to the Thermal Gradient

Authors: Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Yonseok Kim, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok

Abstract:

The Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) prevents heat directly transferring from the high-temperature flame to the substrate. Top coat and bond coat compose the TBC and top coat consists of a ceramic and bond coat increases adhesion between the top coat and the substrate. The TBC technology drops the substrate surface temperature by about 150~200°C. In addition, the TBC system has a cooling system to lower the blade temperature by the air flow inside the blade. Then, as a result, the thermal gradient occurs inside the blade by cooling. Also, the internal stress occurs due to the difference in thermal expansion. In this paper, the finite element analyses (FEA) were performed and stress changes were derived according to the thermal gradient of the TBC system. The stress was increased due to the cooling, but difference of the stress between the top coat and bond coat was decreased. So, delamination in the interface between top coat and bond coat.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC), thermal gradient, Finite Element Analysis (FEA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
568 Comparison of the Hydration Products of Commercial and Experimental Calcium Silicate Cement: The Preliminary Observational Study

Authors: Seok Woo Chang

Abstract:

Aim: The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the hydration products of commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement. Materials and Methods: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA, Dentsply) and experimental calcium silicate cement (n=10) were mixed with distilled water (water/powder ratio = 20 w/w) and stirred at room temperature for 10 hours. These mixtures were dispersed on wafer and dried for 12 hours at room temperature. Thereafter, the dried specimens were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) was also carried out. Results: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA) and experimental calcium silicate cement both showed precipitation of rod-like and globule-like crystals. Based on EDS analysis, these precipitates were supposed to be calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrates. The degree of formation of these precipitates was higher in commercial MTA. Conclusions: Based on the results, both commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement had ability to produce calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrate precipitates.

Keywords: calcium silicate cement, ProRoot MTA, precipitation, calcium hydroxide, calcium silicate hydrate

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
567 Estimating Solar Irradiance on a Tilted Surface Using Artificial Neural Networks with Differential Outputs

Authors: Hsu-Yung Cheng, Kuo-Chang Hsu, Chi-Chang Chan, Mei-Hui Tseng, Chih-Chang Yu, Ya-Sheng Liu

Abstract:

Photovoltaics modules are usually not installed horizontally to avoid water or dust accumulation. However, the measured irradiance data on tilted surfaces are rarely available since installing pyranometers with various tilt angles induces high costs. Therefore, estimating solar irradiance on tilted surfaces is an important research topic. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANN) are utilized to construct the transfer model to estimate solar irradiance on tilted surfaces. Instead of predicting tilted irradiance directly, the proposed method estimates the differences between the horizontal irradiance and the irradiance on a tilted surface. The outputs of the ANNs in the proposed design are differential values. The experimental results have shown that the proposed ANNs with differential outputs can substantially improve the estimation accuracy compared to ANNs that estimate the titled irradiance directly.

Keywords: photovoltaics, artificial neural networks, tilted irradiance, solar energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
566 Study on Effect of Reverse Cyclic Loading on Fracture Resistance Curve of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Jaegu Choi, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok, Byungwoo Moon

Abstract:

Since massive earthquakes in the world have been reported recently, the safety of nuclear power plants for seismic loading has become a significant issue. Seismic loading is the reverse cyclic loading, consisting of repeated tensile and compression by longitudinal and transverse wave. Up to this time, the study on characteristics of fracture toughness under reverse cyclic loading has been unsatisfactory. Therefore, it is necessary to obtain the fracture toughness under reverse cyclic load for the integrity estimation of nuclear power plants under seismic load. Fracture resistance (J-R) curves, which are used for determination of fracture toughness or integrity estimation in terms of elastic-plastic fracture mechanics, can be derived by the fracture resistance test using single specimen technique. The objective of this paper is to study the effects of reverse cyclic loading on a fracture resistance curve of ESG specimen, having a similar stress gradient compared to the crack surface of the real pipe. For this, we carried out the fracture toughness test under the reverse cyclic loading, while changing incremental plastic displacement. Test results showed that the J-R curves were decreased with a decrease of the incremental plastic displacement.

Keywords: reverse cyclic loading, j-r curve, ESG specimen, incremental plastic displacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
565 Study on Hydrophilicity of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates with TiO2-NTs

Authors: Yu-Wei Chang, Hsuan-Yu Ku, Jo-Shan Chiu, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen

Abstract:

This paper aims to discuss the hydrophilicity about the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with titania nanotubes (NTs). The AAO templates with pore size diameters of 20-250 nm were generated by anodizing 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in acid solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), oxalic acid (COOH)2, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4), respectively. TiO2-NTs were grown on AAO templates by the sol-gel deposition process successfully. The water contact angle on AAO/TiO2-NTs surface was lower compared to the water contact angle on AAO surface. So, the characteristic of hydrophilicity was significantly associated with the AAO pore size and what kinds of materials were immersed variables.

Keywords: AAO, nanotube, sol-gel, anodization, hydrophilicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
564 A Study on Prediction Model for Thermally Grown Oxide Layer in Thermal Barrier Coating

Authors: Yongseok Kim, Jeong-Min Lee, Hyunwoo Song, Junghan Yun, Jungin Byun, Jae-Mean Koo, Chang-Sung Seok

Abstract:

Thermal barrier coating(TBC) is applied for gas turbine components to protect the components from extremely high temperature condition. Since metallic substrate cannot endure such severe condition of gas turbines, delamination of TBC can cause failure of the system. Thus, delamination life of TBC is one of the most important issues for designing the components operating at high temperature condition. Thermal stress caused by thermally grown oxide(TGO) layer is known as one of the major failure mechanisms of TBC. Thermal stress by TGO mainly occurs at the interface between TGO layer and ceramic top coat layer, and it is strongly influenced by the thickness and shape of TGO layer. In this study, Isothermal oxidation is conducted on coin-type TBC specimens prepared by APS(air plasma spray) method. After the isothermal oxidation at various temperature and time condition, the thickness and shape(rumpling shape) of the TGO is investigated, and the test data is processed by numerical analysis. Finally, the test data is arranged into a mathematical prediction model with two variables(temperature and exposure time) which can predict the thickness and rumpling shape of TGO.

Keywords: thermal barrier coating, thermally grown oxide, thermal stress, isothermal oxidation, numerical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
563 Impact of the Simplification of Licensing Procedures for Industrial Complexes on Supply of Industrial Complexes and Regional Policies

Authors: Seung-Seok Bak, Chang-Mu Jung

Abstract:

An enough amount supply of industrial complexes is an important national policy in South Korea, which is highly dependent on foreign trade. A development process of the industrial complex can distinguish between the planning stage and the construction stage. The planning stage consists of the process of consulting with many stakeholders on the contents of the development of industrial complex, feasibility study, compliance with the Regional policies, and so on. The industrial complex planning stage, including licensing procedure, usually takes about three years in South Korea. The government determined that the appropriate supply of industrial complexes have been delayed, due to the long licensing period and drafted a law to shorten the license period in 2008. The law was expected to shorten the period of licensing, which was about three years, to six months. This paper attempts to show that the shortening of the licensing period does not positively affect the appropriate supply of industrial complexes. To do this, we used Interrupted Time Series Designs. As a result, it was found that the supply of industrial complexes was influenced more by other factors such as actual industrial complex demand of private sector and macro-level economic variables. In addition, the specific provisions of the law conflict with local policy and cause some problems such as damage to nature and agricultural land, traffic congestion.

Keywords: development of industrial complexes, industrial complexes, interrupted time series designs, simplification of licensing procedures for industrial complexes, time series regression

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
562 Stray Light Reduction Methodology by a Sinusoidal Light Modulation and Three-Parameter Sine Curve Fitting Algorithm for a Reflectance Spectrometer

Authors: Hung Chih Hsieh, Cheng Hao Chang, Yun Hsiang Chang, Yu Lin Chang

Abstract:

In the applications of the spectrometer, the stray light that comes from the environment affects the measurement results a lot. Hence, environment and instrument quality control for the stray reduction is critical for the spectral reflectance measurement. In this paper, a simple and practical method has been developed to correct a spectrometer's response for measurement errors arising from the environment's and instrument's stray light. A sinusoidal modulated light intensity signal was incident on a tested sample, and then the reflected light was collected by the spectrometer. Since a sinusoidal signal modulated the incident light, the reflected light also had a modulated frequency which was the same as the incident signal. Using the three-parameter sine curve fitting algorithm, we can extract the primary reflectance signal from the total measured signal, which contained the primary reflectance signal and the stray light from the environment. The spectra similarity between the extracted spectra by this proposed method with extreme environment stray light is 99.98% similar to the spectra without the environment's stray light. This result shows that we can measure the reflectance spectra without the affection of the environment's stray light.

Keywords: spectrometer, stray light, three-parameter sine curve fitting, spectra extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
561 A Study on Effect of Dynamic Loading Speed on the Fracture Toughness of Equivalent Stress Gradient (ESG) Specimen

Authors: Moon Byung Woo, Seok Chang-Sung, Koo Jae-Mean, Kim Sang-Young, Choi Jae Gu, Huh Nam-Su

Abstract:

Recently, the occurrence of the earthquake has increased sharply and many of the casualties have occurred worldwide, due to the influence of earthquakes. Especially, the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident which was caused by the earthquake in 2011 has significantly increased the fear of people and the demand for the safety of the nuclear power plant. Thus, in order to prevent the earthquake accident at nuclear power plant, it is important to evaluate the fracture toughness considering the seismic loading rate. To obtain fracture toughness for the safety evaluation of nuclear power plant, it is desirable to perform experiments with a real scale pipe which is expensive and hard to perform. Therefore, many researchers have proposed various test specimens to replicate the fracture toughness of a real scale pipe. Since such specimens have several problems, the equivalent stress gradient (ESG) specimen has been recently suggested. In this study, in order to consider the effects of the dynamic loading speed on fracture toughness, the experiment was conducted by applying five different kinds of test speeds using an ESG specimen. In addition, after we performed the fracture toughness test under dynamic loading with different speeds using an ESG specimen and a standard specimen, we compared them with the test results under static loading.

Keywords: dynamic loading speed, fracture toughness, load-ratio-method, equivalent stress gradient (ESG) specimen

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
560 Derivative Usage, Ownership Structure, and Bank Value in European Countries

Authors: Chuang-Chang Chang, Keng-Yu Ho, Yu-Jen Hsiao, Hsin-Ni Yang

Abstract:

Using a sample of detailed ownership data of 1,032 listed commercial bank observations in 30 European countries from 2004 to 2010, we explore what categories of shareholder are more likely to use derivatives and how different types of owners affect the bank value. We find that a shift in equity from bank investors to either non-financial companies or institutional investors have increase incentives to use derivatives. Moreover, we have significant evidence that a shift in equity from bank investors to either family or manager shareholders who attend derivative activities will decrease bank value. However, a shift in equity from bank investors to non-financial companies who use derivative instrument will increase the bank value. Our results are also robustness to address for the potential endogeneity problems.

Keywords: derivative usage, ownership structure, bank value

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
559 Fatigue Life Estimation of Spiral Welded Waterworks Pipelines

Authors: Suk Woo Hong, Chang Sung Seok, Jae Mean Koo

Abstract:

Recently, the welding is widely used in modern industry for joining the structures. However, the waterworks pipes are exposed to the fatigue load by cars, earthquake and etc because of being buried underground. Moreover, the residual stress exists in weld zone by welding process and it is well known that the fatigue life of welded structures is degraded by residual stress. Due to such reasons, the crack can occur in the weld zone of pipeline. In this case, The ground subsidence or sinkhole can occur, if the soil and sand are washed down by fluid leaked from the crack of water pipe. These problems can lead to property damage and endangering lives. For these reasons, the estimation of fatigue characteristics for water pipeline weld zone is needed. Therefore, in this study, for fatigue characteristics estimation of spiral welded waterworks pipe, ASTM standard specimens and Curved Plate specimens were collected from the spiral welded waterworks pipe and the fatigue tests were performed. The S-N curves of each specimen were estimated, and then the fatigue life of weldment Curved Plate specimen was predicted by theoretical and analytical methods. After that, the weldment Curved Plate specimens were collected from the pipe and verification fatigue tests were performed. Finally, it was verified that the predicted S-N curve of weldment Curved Plate specimen was good agreement with fatigue test data.

Keywords: spiral welded pipe, prediction fatigue life, endurance limit modifying factors, residual stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
558 Performance Variation of the TEES According to the Changes in Cold-Side Storage Temperature

Authors: Young-Jin Baik, Minsung Kim, Junhyun Cho, Ho-Sang Ra, Young-Soo Lee, Ki-Chang Chang

Abstract:

Surplus electricity can be converted into potential energy via pumped hydroelectric storage for future usage. Similarly, thermo-electric energy storage (TEES) uses heat pumps equipped with thermal storage to convert electrical energy into thermal energy; the stored energy is then converted back into electrical energy when necessary using a heat engine. The greatest advantage of this method is that, unlike pumped hydroelectric storage and compressed air energy storage, TEES is not restricted by geographical constraints. In this study, performance variation of the TEES according to the changes in cold-side storage temperature was investigated by simulation method.

Keywords: energy storage system, heat pump, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
557 The Comparison Study of Human Microbiome in Chronic Rhinosinusitis between Adults and Children

Authors: Il Ho Park, Joong Seob Lee, Sung Hun Kang, Jae-Min Shin, Il Seok Park, Seok Min Hong, Seok Jin Hong

Abstract:

Introduction: The human microbiota is the aggregate of microorganisms, and the bacterial microbiome of the human digestive tract contributes to both health and disease. In health, bacteria are key components in the development of mucosal barrier function and in innate and adaptive immune responses, and they also work to suppress the establishment of pathogens. In human upper airway, the sinonasal microbiota might play an important role in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The purpose of this study is to investigate the human upper airway microbiome in CRS patients and to compare the sinonasal microbiome of adults with children. Materials and methods: A total of 19 samples from 19 patients (Group1; 9 CRS in children, aged 5 to 14 years versus Group 2; 10 CRS in adults aged 21 to 59 years) were examined. Swabs were collected from the middle meatus and/or anterior ethmoid region under general anesthesia during endoscopic sinus surgery or tonsillectomy. After DNA extraction from swab samples, we analysed bacterial microbiome consortia using 16s rRNA gene sequencing approach (the Illumina MiSeq platform). Results: In this study, relatively abundance of the six bacterial phyla and tremendous genus and species found in substantial amounts in the individual sinus swab samples, include Corynebacterium, Hemophilus, Moraxella, and Streptococcus species. Anaerobes like Fusobacterium and Bacteroides were abundantly present in the children group, Bacteroides and Propionibacterium were present in adults group. In genus, Haemophilus was the most common CRS microbiome in children and Corynebacterium was the most common CRS microbiome in adults. Conclusions: Our results show the diversity of human upper airway microbiome, and the findings will suggest that CRS is a polymicrobial infection. The Corynebacterium and Hemophilus may live as commensals on mucosal surfaces of sinus in the upper respiratory tract. The further study will be needed for analysis of microbiome-human interactions in upper airway and CRS.

Keywords: microbiome, upper airway, chronic rhinosinusitis, adult and children

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
556 Color Image Enhancement Using Multiscale Retinex and Image Fusion Techniques

Authors: Chang-Hsing Lee, Cheng-Chang Lien, Chin-Chuan Han

Abstract:

In this paper, an edge-strength guided multiscale retinex (EGMSR) approach will be proposed for color image contrast enhancement. In EGMSR, the pixel-dependent weight associated with each pixel in the single scale retinex output image is computed according to the edge strength around this pixel in order to prevent from over-enhancing the noises contained in the smooth dark/bright regions. Further, by fusing together the enhanced results of EGMSR and adaptive multiscale retinex (AMSR), we can get a natural fused image having high contrast and proper tonal rendition. Experimental results on several low-contrast images have shown that our proposed approach can produce natural and appealing enhanced images.

Keywords: image enhancement, multiscale retinex, image fusion, EGMSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
555 Evaluation of Duncan-Chang Deformation Parameters of Granular Fill Materials Using Non-Invasive Seismic Wave Methods

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu

Abstract:

Characterizing the deformation properties of fill materials in a wide stress range always has been an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The hyperbolic Duncan-Chang model is a very popular model of stress-strain relationship that captures the nonlinear deformation of granular geomaterials in a very tractable manner. It consists of a particular set of the model parameters, which are generally measured from an extensive series of laboratory triaxial tests. This practice is both time-consuming and costly, especially in large projects. In addition, undesired effects caused by soil disturbance during the sampling procedure also may yield a large degree of uncertainty in the results. Accordingly, non-invasive geophysical seismic approaches may be utilized as the appropriate alternative surveys for measuring the model parameters based on the seismic wave velocities. To this end, the conventional seismic refraction profiles were carried out in the test sites with the granular fill materials to collect the seismic waves information. The acquired shot gathers are processed, from which the P- and S-wave velocities can be derived. The P-wave velocities are extracted from the Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) technique while S-wave velocities are obtained by the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. The velocity values were then utilized with the equations resulting from the rigorous theories of elasticity and soil mechanics to evaluate the Duncan-Chang model parameters. The derived parameters were finally compared with those from laboratory tests to validate the reliability of the results. The findings of this study may confidently serve as the useful references for determination of nonlinear deformation parameters of granular fill geomaterials. Those are environmentally friendly and quite economic, which can yield accurate results under the actual in-situ conditions using the surface seismic methods.

Keywords: Duncan-Chang deformation parameters, granular fill materials, seismic waves velocity, multichannel analysis of surface waves, seismic refraction tomography

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
554 Monitoring and Analysis of Bridge Crossing Ground Fissures

Authors: Zhiqing Zhang, Xiangong Zhou, Zihan Zhou

Abstract:

Ground fissures can be seen in some cities all over the world. As a special urban geological disaster, ground fissures in Xi'an have caused great harm to infrastructure. Chang'an Road Interchange in Xi'an City is a bridge across ground fissures. The damage to Chang'an Road interchange is the most serious and typical. To study the influence of ground fissures on the bridge, we established a bridge monitoring system. The main monitoring items include elevation monitoring, structural displacement monitoring, etc. The monitoring results show that the typical failure is mainly reflected in the bridge deck damage caused by horizontal tension and vertical dislocation. For the construction of urban interchange spanning ground fissures, the interchange should be divided reasonably, a simple support structure with less restriction should be adopted, and the monitoring of supports should be strengthened to prevent the occurrence of beam falling.

Keywords: bridge monitoring, ground fissures, typical disease, structural displacement

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553 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia: The Major Carbapenem Resistance Bacteria from Waste Water Treatment Plant of Pig Farm

Authors: Young-Ji Kim, Jin-Hyeong Park, Hong-Seok Kim, Jung-Whan Chon, Kwang-Yeop Kim, Dong-Hyeon Kim, Il-Byeong Kang, Da-Na Jeong, Jin-Hyeok Yim, Ho-Seok Jang, Kwang-Young Song, Kun-Ho Seo

Abstract:

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is one of the emerging opportunistic pathogens, and also known to have extensive drug resistance intrinsically including carbepenems which is last resort for most serious infections. One possible way for S. maltophilia to infect human is via wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). In the period between October 2016 and February 2017, effluent samples of WWTP from 3 different pig farms were collected once a month and screened for isolation of S. maltophilia. Total 16 strains of S. maltophilia were isolated and, the antibiotic susceptibility phenotypes were determined by Vitek 2 system for 16 antibiotics, ampicillin (AMP), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP), cefazolin (CZ), cefoxitin (FOX), cefotaxime (CTX), ceftazidime (CAZ), cefepime (FEP), aztreonam (AZT), ertapenem (ETP), imipenem (IMP), amikacin (AK), gentamicin (GN), ciprofloxacin (CIP), tigecycline (TGC) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT). All isolates showed high resistance to AMP (100%), CZ (100%), FOX (100%), CTX (100%), CAZ (100%), FEP (94%), AZT (100%), ETP (100%), IMP (100%), AK (100%), GN (100%) whereas were susceptible to CIP (0%), TGC (0%), SXT (6%). All strains harbored at least one of the antibiotic resistance determinant such as spgM, rmlA, and rpfF. Some isolates had similar MLST (multilocus sequence typing) types with clinical isolates, suggesting WWTP could have potential role in the transmission of S. maltophilia to aquatic environment and, possibly, to humans.

Keywords: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Carbapenem resistance, waste water treatment plant, pig farm

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552 Impact of Education on Levels of Physical Activity and Depression in Taiwanese Vegetarians and Omnivores

Authors: Ya-Lin Chang, Chia Chen Chang, Yu-Ru Liang, Joyce Chen, You-Kang Chang, Tina Chiu

Abstract:

Physical activity and mental health status are important for health. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activities and depression in Taiwanese vegetarians (VEG) and omnivores (OMNI). Sixty-three vegetarians (20 males) and 56 omnivores (23 males) with an average age of 51 years were recruited for a food frequency validation study at Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital from July to September in 2016. Participants filled out a validated Chinese version international physical activity questionnaire-short-form (IPAQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II-Chinese version (BDI), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a questionnaire on demographics and medical history upon recruitment. Total BDI scores were calculated for depression and the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) was calculated for physical activity levels. Mann-Whitney U tests and Chi-square test were used to compare demographics, physical activity levels and depression scores. VEG and OMNI did not differ significantly on MET (1441.9 ± 3387.3 vs. 1605.8 ± 2486.1. p=0.2652, respectively). VEG scored slightly lower on BDI compared to OMNI without statistical significance (5.6 ± 5.7 vs. 7.4 ± 6.3. p=0.06). In addition, we found that regardless of diet practice, those who held a college degree and above scored better on MET (1788.1 ± 2532.6 vs. 1215.5 ± 3425.5. p=0.0014) and BDI (5.2 ± 5.1 vs. 7.8 ± 6.7. p=0.03). In this cross-sectional study, Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores scored comparatively on physical activity levels and depression. However, education is a significant determinant of physical activity and depression.

Keywords: BDI, diet, education, physical activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
551 Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Systems in Taiwan

Authors: Chia-Ling Chang, Hao-Bo Chang

Abstract:

Global climate change alters rainfall characteristics, while the variation of these characteristics further influences environmental conditions, such as hydrologic responses, landslide areas, and the amounts of diffuse pollution. The variations of environmental conditions may impact the stability of water resource systems. The objective of this study is to assess the present conditions of major water resource systems in Taiwan. The impact of climate change on each system is also discussed herein. Compared to the water resource systems in northern Taiwan, the ratio of the precipitation during the rainy season to that during the dry season has a larger increase in southern Taiwan. This variation of hydrologic condition impacts the stability of water resource systems and increases the risk of normal water supply. The findings in this work can be important references for water resource management.

Keywords: basin management, climate change, water resource system, water resource management

Procedia PDF Downloads 269