Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 155

Search results for: implants

155 Stress Study in Implants Dental

Authors: M. Benlebna, B. Serier, B. Bachir Bouiadjra, S. Khalkhal

Abstract:

This study focuses on the mechanical behavior of a dental prosthesis subjected to dynamic loads chewing. It covers a three-dimensional analysis by the finite element method, the level of distribution of equivalent stresses induced in the bone between the implants (depending on the number of implants). The studied structure, consisting of a braced, implant and mandibular bone is subjected to dynamic loading of variable amplitude in three directions corrono-apical, mesial-distal and bucco-lingual. These efforts simulate those of mastication. We show that compared to the implantation of a single implant, implantology using two implants promotes the weakening of the bones. This weakness is all the more likely that the implants are located in close proximity to one another.

Keywords: stress, bone, dental implant, distribution, stress levels, dynamic, effort, interaction, prosthesis

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154 A Biomimetic Uncemented Hip Resurfacing Versus Various Biomaterials Hip Resurfacing Implants

Authors: Karima Chergui, Hichem Amrani, Hammoudi Mazouz, Fatiha Mezaache

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Cemented femoral resurfacings have experienced a revival for younger and more active patients. Future developments have shown that the uncemented version eliminates failures related to cementing implants. A three-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulation was carried out in order to exploit a new resurfacing prothesis design named MARMEL, proposed by a recent study with Co–Cr–Mo material, for comparing a hip uncemented resurfacing with a novel carbon fiber/polyamide 12 (CF/PA12) composite to other hip resurfacing implants with various bio materials. From FE analysis, the von Mises stress range for the Composite hip resurfacing was much lower than that in the other hip resurfacing implants used in this comparison. These outcomes showed that the biomimetic hip resurfacing had the potential to reduce stress shielding and prevent from bone fracture compared to conventional hip resurfacing implants.

Keywords: biomechanics, carbon–fibre polyamide 12, finite element analysis, hip resurfacing

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
153 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Titanium Alloy Dental Implants Coated by Bio-ceramic Apatite Wollastonite (Aw) and Hydroxyapatite (Ha) by Pulsed Laser Deposition

Authors: Betsy S. Thomas, Manjeet Marpara, K. M. Bhat

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Introduction: After the initial enthusiasm and interest in hydroxyapatite products subsided due to dissolution of the coating and failure at the coating interface, this was a unique attempt to create a next generation of dental implant. Materials and Methods: The adhesion property of AW and HA coatings at various temperature by pulsed laser deposition was assessed on titanium plates. Moreover, AW/HA coated implants implanted in the femur of the rabbits was evaluated at various intervals. Results: Decohesion load was more for AW in scratch test and more bone formation around AW coated implants on histological evaluation. Discussion: AW coating by pulsed laser deposition was more adherent to the titanium surface and led to faster bone formation than HA. Conclusion: This experiment opined that AW coated by pulsed laser deposition seems to be a promising method in achieving bioactive coatings on titanium implants.

Keywords: surface coating, dental implants, osseo integration, biotechnology

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152 An Innovative Non-Invasive Method To Improve The Stability Of Orthodontic Implants: A Pilot Study

Authors: Dr., Suchita Daokar

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Background: Successful orthodontic treatment has always relied on anchorage. The stability of the implants depends on bone quantity, mini-implant design, and placement conditions. Out of the various methods of gaining stability, Platelet concentrations are gaining popularity for various reasons. PRF is a minimally invasive method, and there are various studies that has shown its role in enhancing the stability of general implants. However, there is no literature found regarding the effect of PRF in enhancing the stability of the orthodontic implant. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate and assess the efficacy of PRF on the stability of the orthodontic implant. Methods: The study comprised of 9 subjects aged above 18 years of age. The split mouth technique was used; Group A (where implants were coated before insertion) and group B (implant were normally inserted). The stability of the implant was measured using resonance frequency analysis at insertion (T0), 24 hours (T1), 2 weeks (T2), at 4 weeks (T3), at 6 weeks (T4), and 8 weeks (T5) after insertion. Result: Statistically significant findings were found when group A was compared to group B using ANOVA test (p<0.05). The stability of the implant of group A at each time interval was greater than group B. The implant stability was high at T0 and reduces at T2, and increasing through T3 to T5. The stability was highest at T5. Conclusion: A chairside, minimally invasive procedure ofPRF coating on implants have shown promising results in improving the stability of orthodontic implants and providing scope for future studies.

Keywords: Orthodontic implants, stablity, resonance Frequency Analysis, pre

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
151 A Comparison of Implant Stability between Implant Placed without Bone Graft versus with Bone Graft Using Guided Bone Regeneration (GBR) Technique: A Resonance Frequency Analysis

Authors: R. Janyaphadungpong, A. Pimkhaokham

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This prospective clinical study determined the insertion torque (IT) value and monitored the changes in implant stability quotient (ISQ) values during the 12 weeks healing period from implant placement without bone graft (control group) and with bone graft using the guided bone regeneration (GBR) technique (study group). The relationship between the IT and ISQ values of the implants was also assessed. The control and study groups each consisted of 6 patients with 8 implants per group. The ASTRA TECH Implant System™ EV 4.2 mm in diameter was placed in the posterior mandibular region. In the control group, implants were placed in bone without bone graft, whereas in the study group implants were placed simultaneously with the GBR technique at favorable bone defect. IT (Ncm) of each implant was recorded when fully inserted. ISQ values were obtained from the Osstell® ISQ at the time of implant placement, and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. No difference in IT was found between groups (P = 0.320). The ISQ values in the control group were significantly higher than in the study group at the time of implant placement and at 4 weeks. There was no significant association between IT and ISQ values either at baseline or after the 12 weeks. At 12 weeks of healing, the control and study groups displayed different trends. Mean ISQ values for the control group decreased over the first 2 weeks and then started to increase. ISQ value increases were statistically significant at 8 weeks and later, whereas mean ISQ values in the study group decreased over the first 4 weeks and then started to increase, with statistical significance after 12 weeks. At 12 weeks, all implants achieved osseointegration with mean ISQ values over the threshold value (ISQ>70). These results indicated that implants, in which guided bone regeneration technique was performed during implant placement for treating favorable bone defects, were as predictable as implants placed without bone graft. However, loading in implants placed with the GBR technique for correcting favorable bone defects should be performed after 12 weeks of healing to ensure implant stability and osseointegration.

Keywords: dental implant, favorable bone defect, guided bone regeneration technique, implant stability

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150 The Effect of Whole Word Method on Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) of 3 to 6 Years Old Children with Cochlear Implant Having Normal IQ

Authors: Elnaz Dabiri, Somayeh Hamidnezhad

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Background and Objective: This study aims at investigating the effect of whole word method on Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) of 3 to 6 years old children with cochlear implants having normal IQ. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental and interventional study, 20 children with cochlear implants, aged between 3and 6 years, and normal IQ were selected from Tabriz cochlear implants center using convenience sampling. Afterward, they were randomly bifurcated. The first group was educated by whole-word reading method along with traditional methods and the second group by traditional methods. Both groups had three sessions of 45-minutes each, every week continuously for a period of 3 months. Pre-test and post-test language abilities of both groups were assessed using the TOLD test. Results: Both groups before training have the same age, IQ, and MLU, but after training the first group shows a considerable improvement in MLU in comparison with the second group. Conclusions: Reading training by the whole word method have more effect on MLU of children with cochlear implants in comparison of the traditional method.

Keywords: cochlear implants, reading training, traditional methods, language therapy, whole word method, Mean Length of Utterance (MLU)

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
149 Neural Networks for Distinguishing the Performance of Two Hip Joint Implants on the Basis of Hip Implant Side and Ground Reaction Force

Authors: L. Parisi

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In this research work, neural networks were applied to classify two types of hip joint implants based on the relative hip joint implant side speed and three components of each ground reaction force. The condition of walking gait at normal velocity was used and carried out with each of the two hip joint implants assessed. Ground reaction forces’ kinetic temporal changes were considered in the first approach followed but discarded in the second one. Ground reaction force components were obtained from eighteen patients under such gait condition, half of which had a hip implant type I-II, whilst the other half had the hip implant, defined as type III by Orthoload®. After pre-processing raw gait kinetic data and selecting the time frames needed for the analysis, the ground reaction force components were used to train a MLP neural network, which learnt to distinguish the two hip joint implants in the abovementioned condition. Further to training, unknown hip implant side and ground reaction force components were presented to the neural networks, which assigned those features into the right class with a reasonably high accuracy for the hip implant type I-II and the type III. The results suggest that neural networks could be successfully applied in the performance assessment of hip joint implants.

Keywords: kinemic gait data, neural networks, hip joint implant, hip arthroplasty, rehabilitation engineering

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148 Tooth Fractures Following the Placement of Adjacent Dental Implants: A Case Series and a Systematic Review of the Literature

Authors: Eyal Rosen

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This study is aimed to report a possible effect of the presence of dental implants on the development of crown or root fractures in adjacent natural teeth. A series of 26 cases of teeth diagnosed with crown or root fractures following the placement of adjacent dental implants is presented. In addition, a comprehensive systematic review of the literature was performed to detect other studies that evaluated this possible complication. The case series analysis revealed that all crown-fractured teeth were non-endodontically treated teeth (n=18), and all root fractured teeth were endodontically treated teeth (n=8). The time from implant loading to the diagnosis of a fracture in an adjacent tooth was longer than 1 year in 78% of cases. The majority of crown or root fractures occurred in female patients, over 50 years of age, with an average age of 59 in the crown fractures group, and 54 in the root fractures group. Most of the patients received 2 or more implants. Nine (50%) of the teeth with crown fracture were molars, 7 (39%) were mandibular premolars, and 2 (11%) were incisor teeth. The majority of teeth with root fracture were premolar or mandibular molar teeth (6 (75%)). The systematic review of the literature did not reveal additional studies that reported on this possible complication. To the best of the author’s knowledge this case series, although limited in its extent, is the first clinical report of a possible serious complication of implants, associated fractures in adjacent endodontically and non-endodontically treated natural teeth. The most common patient profile found in this series was a woman over 50 years of age, having a fractured premolar tooth, which was diagnosed more than 1 year after reconstruction that was based on multiple adjacent implants. Additional clinical studies are required in order to shed light on this potential serious complication.

Keywords: complications, dental implants, endodontics, fractured teeth

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147 Modeling and Design of Rectenna for Low Power Medical Implants

Authors: Madhav Pant, Khem N. Poudel

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Wireless power transfer is continuously becoming more powerful and compact in medical implantable devices and the wide range of applications. A rectenna is designed for wireless power transfer technique that can be applied to medical implant devices. The experiment is performed using ANSYS HFSS, a full wave electromagnetic simulation. The dipole antenna combinations operating at 2.4 GHz are used for wireless power transfer and the maximum DC voltage reception by the implant considering International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) regulation. The power receiving dipole antenna is placed inside the cylindrical geometry having the similar properties of the human body at the frequency of 2.4 GHz. Our design can provide the power at the depth of 5 mm skin and 5mm of bone for the implant. The voltage doubler/quadrupler rectifier in ANSYS Simplorer is used to calculate the exact DC current utilized by implant inside the human body. The qualitative design and analysis of this wireless power transfer method could also be used for other biomedical implants systems such as cardiac pacemaker, insulin pump, and retinal implants.

Keywords: dipole antenna, medical implants, wireless power transfer, rectifier

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
146 Enhancement and Characterization of Titanium Surfaces with Sandblasting and Acid Etching for Dental Implants

Authors: Busra Balli, Tuncay Dikici, Mustafa Toparli

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Titanium and its alloys have been used extensively over the past 25 years as biomedical materials in orthopedic and dental applications because of their good mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility. It is known that the surface properties of titanium implants can enhance the cellular response and play an important role in Osseo integration. The rate and quality of Osseo integration in titanium implants are related to their surface properties. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of sandblasting and acid etching on surface morphology, roughness, the wettability of titanium. The surface properties will be characterized by scanning electron microscopy and contact angle and roughness measurements. The results show that surface morphology, roughness, and wettability were changed and enhanced by these treatments.

Keywords: dental implant, etching, surface modifications, surface morphology, surface roughness

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145 A Seven Year Single-Centre Study of Dental Implant Survival in Head and Neck Oncology Patients

Authors: Sidra Suleman, Maliha Suleman, Stephen Brindley

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Oral rehabilitation of head and neck cancer patients plays a crucial role in the quality of life for such individuals post-treatment. Placement of dental implants or implant-retained prostheses can help restore oral function and aesthetics, which is often compromised following surgery. Conventional prosthodontic techniques can be insufficient in rehabilitating such patients due to their altered anatomy and reduced oral competence. Hence, there is a strong clinical need for the placement of dental implants. With an increasing incidence of head and neck cancer patients, the demand for such treatment is rising. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the survival rate of dental implants in head and neck cancer patients placed at the Restorative and Maxillofacial Department, Royal Stoke University Hospital (RSUH), United Kingdom. Methodology: All patients who received dental implants between January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2020 were identified. Patients were excluded based on three criteria: 1) non-head and neck cancer patients, 2) no outpatient follow-up post-implant placement 3) provision of non-dental implants. Scanned paper notes and electronic records were extracted and analyzed. Implant survival was defined as fixtures that had remained in-situ / not required removal. Sample: Overall, 61 individuals were recruited from the 143 patients identified. The mean age was 64.9 years, with a range of 35 – 89 years. The sample included 37 (60.7%) males and 24 (39.3%) females. In total, 211 implants were placed, of which 40 (19.0%) were in the maxilla, 152 (72.0%) in the mandible and 19 (9.0%) in autogenous bone graft sites. Histologically 57 (93.4%) patients had squamous cell carcinoma, with 43 (70.5%) patients having either stage IVA or IVB disease. As part of treatment, 42 (68.9%) patients received radiotherapy, which was carried out post-operatively for 29 (69.0%) cases. Whereas 21 (34.4%) patients underwent chemotherapy, 13 (61.9%) of which were post-operative. The Median follow-up period was 21.9 months with a range from 0.9 – 91.4 months. During the study, 23 (37.7%) patients died and their data was censored beyond the date of death. Results: In total, four patients who had received radiotherapy had one implant failure each. Two mandibular implants failed secondary to osteoradionecrosis, and two maxillary implants did not survive as a result of failure to osseointegrate. The overall implant survival rates were 99.1% at three years and 98.1% at both 5 and 7 years. Conclusions: Although this data shows that implant failure rates are low, it highlights the difficulty in predicting which patients will be affected. Future studies involving larger cohorts are warranted to further analyze factors affecting outcomes.

Keywords: oncology, dental implants, survival, restorative

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144 3D Medical Printing the Key Component in Future of Medical Applications

Authors: Zahra Asgharpour, Eric Renteria, Sebastian De Boodt

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There is a growing trend towards personalization of medical care, as evidenced by the emphasis on outcomes based medicine, the latest developments in CT and MR imaging and personalized treatment in a variety of surgical disciplines. 3D Printing has been introduced and applied in the medical field since 2000. The first applications were in the field of dental implants and custom prosthetics. According to recent publications, 3D printing in the medical field has been used in a wide range of applications which can be organized into several categories including implants, prosthetics, anatomical models and tissue bioprinting. Some of these categories are still in their infancy stage of the concept of proof while others are in application phase such as the design and manufacturing of customized implants and prosthesis. The approach of 3D printing in this category has been successfully used in the health care sector to make both standard and complex implants within a reasonable amount of time. In this study, some of the clinical applications of 3D printing in design and manufacturing of a patient-specific hip implant would be explained. In cases where patients have complex bone geometries or are undergoing a complex revision on hip replacement, the traditional surgical methods are not efficient, and hence these patients require patient-specific approaches. There are major advantages in using this new technology for medical applications, however, in order to get this technology widely accepted in medical device industry, there is a need for gaining more acceptance from the medical device regulatory offices. This is a challenge that is moving onward and will help the technology find its way at the end as an accepted manufacturing method for medical device industry in an international scale. The discussion will conclude with some examples describing the future directions of 3D Medical Printing.

Keywords: CT/MRI, image processing, 3D printing, medical devices, patient specific implants

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143 Healthcare in COVID-19 and It’s Impact on Children with Cochlear Implants

Authors: Amirreza Razzaghipour, Mahdi Khalili

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References from the World Health Organization and the Center for Disease Control for deceleration the spread of the Novel COVID-19, comprises social estrangement, frequent handwashing, and covering your mouth when around others. As hearing healthcare specialists, the influence of existenceinvoluntary to boundary social interactions on persons with hearing impairment was significant for us to understand. We found ourselves delaying cochlear implant (CI) surgeries. All children, and chiefly those with hearing loss, are susceptible to reductions in spoken communication. Hearing plans, such as cochlear implants, provide children with hearing loss access to spoken communication and provision language development. when provided early and used consistently, these supplies help children with hearing loss to engage in spoken connections. Cochlear implant (CI) is a standard medical-surgical treatment for bilateral severe to profound hearing loss with no advantage with the hearing aid. Hearing is one of the most important senses in humans. Pediatric hearing loss establishes one of the most important public health challenges. Children with hearing loss are recognized early and habilitated via hearing aids or with cochlear implants (CIs). Suitable care and maintenance as well as continuous auditory verbal therapy (AVT) are also essential in reaching for the successful attainment of language acquisition. Children with hearing loss posture important challenges to their parents, particularly when there is limited admission to their hearing care providers. The disruption in the routine of their hearing and therapy follow-up services has had substantial effects on the children as well as their parents.

Keywords: healthcare, covid-19, cochlear implants, spoken communication, hearing loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
142 Rutin C Improve Osseointegration of Dental Implant and Healing of Soft Tissue

Authors: Noha Mohammed Ismael Awad Eladal, Aala Shoukry Emara

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Background: Wound healing after dental implant surgery is critical to the procedure's success. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of rutin+vitamin C supplementation in wound healing following the placement of dental implants. Methodology: There were 20 participants in this randomized controlled clinical trial who needed dental implants to replace missing teeth. Patients were divided into two groups, and group A received dental implants. Group B received dental implants with vitamin C administration. Follow-up appointments were performed on day 3, day 7, and day 14 post-surgery, during which soft tissue healing and pain response scores were evaluated using the visual analog scale. Postoperative digital panoramas were taken immediately after surgery, 3 months and 6 months postoperatively. Changes in bone density along with the bone-implant interface at the mesial, distal and apical sides were assessed using the digora software. Results: An independent t-test was used to compare the means of variables between the two groups. At the same time, repeated measures were employed to compare the means of variables between two groups. ANOVA was used to compare bone density for the same group at different dates. Significant increased differences were observed at the mesial, distal and apical sides Surrounding the implants of both groups per time. However, the rate of increase was significantly higher in group B The mean difference at the mesial side after 6 months was 21.99 ± 5.48 in the group B and 14.21 ± 4.95 in group A, while it read 21.74 ± 3.56 in the group B and 10.78 ± 3.90 in group A at the distal side and was 18.90 ± 5.91 in the group B and 10.39 ± 3.49 group A at the apical side. Significance was recorded at P = 0.004, P = 0.0001, and 0.001 at the mesial, distal and apical sides respectively. The mean pain score and wound healing were significantly higher in group A as compared to group B, respectively. Conclusion: The rutin c + vitamin c group significantly promoted bone healing and speeded up the osseointegration process and improved soft tissue healing.

Keywords: osseointegration, soft tissue, rutin c, dental implant

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141 The Predictability of Three Implants to Support a Fixed Prosthesis in the Edentulous Mandible

Authors: M. Hirani, M. Devine, O. Obisesan, C. Bryant

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Introduction: The use of four or more implants to support a fixed prosthesis in the edentulous mandible is well documented, with high levels of clinical outcomes recorded. Despite this, the use of three implant-supported fixed prostheses offers the potential to deliver a more cost-effective method of oral rehabilitation in the lower arch, an important consideration given that edentulism is most prevalent in low-income subpopulations. The purpose of this study aimed to evaluate the implant and prosthetic survival rate, changes in marginal bone level, and patient satisfaction associated with a three-implant-supported fixed prosthesis for rehabilitation of the edentulous mandible over a follow-up period of at least one year. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed to evaluate studies that met the selection criteria. The information extracted included the study design and population, participant demographics, observation period, loading protocol, and the number of implants placed together with the required outcome measures. Mean values and standard deviations (SD) were calculated using SPSS® (IBM Corporation, New York, USA), and the level of statistical significance across all comparative studies described was set at P < 0.05. Results: The eligible studies included a total of 1968 implants that were placed in 652 patients. The subjects ranged in age from 33-89 years, with a mean of 63.2 years. The mean cumulative implant and prosthetic survival rates were 95.5% and 96.2%, respectively, over a mean follow-up period of 3.25 years. The mean marginal bone loss recorded was 1.04 mm, and high patient satisfaction rates were reported across the studies. Conclusion: Current evidence suggests that a three implant-supported fixed prosthesis for the edentulous mandible is a successful treatment strategy presenting high implant and prosthetic survival rates over the short-to-medium term. Further well-designed controlled clinical trials are required to evaluate longer-term outcomes, with supplemental data correlating implant dimensions and prosthetic design.

Keywords: implants, mandible, fixed, prosthesis

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140 Host Responses in Peri-Implant Tissue in Comparison to Periodontal Tissue

Authors: Raviporn Madarasmi, Anjalee Vacharaksa, Pravej Serichetaphongse

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The host response in peri-implant tissue may differ from that in periodontal tissue in a healthy individual. The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of inflammatory cytokines in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) from single implant with different abutment types in comparison to healthy periodontal tissue. 19 participants with healthy implants and teeth were recruited according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. PICF and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected using sterile paper points. The expression level of inflammatory cytokines including IL-1α, IL-1β, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-6, and IL-8 was assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Paired t test was used to compare the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines around natural teeth and peri-implant in PICF and GCF of the same individual. The Independent t-test was used to compare the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in PICF from titanium and UCLA abutment. Expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in PICF was not statistically different from GCF among titanium and UCLA abutment group. However, the level of IL-1α in the PICF from the implants with UCLA abutment was significantly higher than GCF (P=0.030). In addition, the level of IL-1β in PICF from the implants with titanium abutment was significantly higher than GCF (P=0.032). When different abutment types was compared, IL-8 expression in PICF from implants with UCLA abutment was significantly higher than titanium abutment (P=0.003).

Keywords: abutment, dental implant, gingival crevicular fluid and peri-implant crevicular fluid

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139 Implantology Failure: Epidemiological Survey among Tunisian Dentists

Authors: Faten Khanfir, Mohamed Tlili, Ali Medeb Hamrouni, Raki Selmi, M. S. Khalfi, Faten Ben Amor

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Introduction: dental implant failure is a major concern for the clinician and the patient. Objectives: The aim of our study is to investigate the way in which 100 Tunisian dentists carried implant treatment for their patients from the early phase of planning and selection of patients to the placement of the implant in order to look for the implant failure factors. Results: significant correlations were found between failure rates > 5 and their corresponding factors as the number of implants placed (p = 0.001<0, 05), smoking (0.046 <0.05), unbalanced diabetes (0.03<0.05), aseptic protocol (= 0.004< 0.05) and the drilling speed (0,002<0.05) Conclusion: It seems that the number of implant placed, smoking, diabetes, aseptic protocol, and the drilling speed may contribute to dental implant failure.

Keywords: failure, implants, survey, risk, osseointegration

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138 Synthesis and Characterization of Silver/Graphene Oxide Co-Decorated TiO2 Nanotubular Arrays for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Alireza Rafieerad, Bushroa Abd Razak, Bahman Nasiri Tabrizi, Jamunarani Vadivelu

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Recently, reports on the fabrication of nanotubular arrays have generated considerable scientific interest, owing to the broad range of applications of the oxide nanotubes in solar cells, orthopedic and dental implants, photocatalytic devices as well as lithium-ion batteries. A more attractive approach for the fabrication of oxide nanotubes with controllable morphology is the electrochemical anodization of substrate in a fluoride-containing electrolyte. Consequently, titanium dioxide nanotubes (TiO2 NTs) have been highly considered as an applicable material particularly in the district of artificial implants. In addition, regarding long-term efficacy and reasons of failing and infection after surgery of currently used dental implants required to enhance the cytocompatibility properties of Ti-based bone-like tissue. As well, graphene oxide (GO) with relevant biocompatibility features in tissue sites, osseointegration and drug delivery functionalization was fully understood. Besides, the boasting antibacterial ability of silver (Ag) remarkably provided for implantable devices without infection symptoms. Here, surface modification of Ti–6Al–7Nb implants (Ti67IMP) by the development of Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs was examined. Initially, the anodic TiO2 nanotubes obtained at a constant potential of 60 V were annealed at 600 degree centigrade for 2 h to improve the adhesion of the coating. Afterward, the Ag/GO co-decorated TiO2 NTs were developed by spin coating on Ti67IM. The microstructural features, phase composition and wettability behavior of the nanostructured coating were characterized comparably. In a nutshell, the results of the present study may contribute to the development of the nanostructured Ti67IMP with improved surface properties.

Keywords: anodic tio2 nanotube, biomedical applications, graphene oxide, silver, spin coating

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137 Apatite-Forming Ability of Doped-Ceria Coatings for Orthopedic Implants

Authors: Ayda Khosravanihaghighi, Pramod Koshy, Bill Walsh, Vedran Lovric, Charles Christopher Sorrell

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There is an increasing demand for orthopedic implants owing to the increasing numbers of the aging population. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) is a common material used for orthopedic implants owing to its advantageous properties in terms of good corrosion resistance, minimal elastic modulus mismatch with bone, bio-inertness, and high mechanical strength. However, it is important to improve the bioactivity and osseointegration of the titanium alloy and this can be achieved by coating the implant surface with suitable ceramic materials. In the present work, pure and doped-ceria (CeO₂) coatings were deposited by spin coating on the titanium alloy surface in order to enhance the biological interactions between the surface of the implant and the surrounding tissue. In order to examine the bone-binding ability of an implant, simulated body fluid (SBF) tests were conducted in order to assess the capability of apatite layer formation on the surface and thus predict in vivo bone bioactivity. Characterization was done using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses to determine the extent of apatite formation. Preliminary tests showed that the CeO₂ coatings were biocompatible and that the extent of apatite formation and its characteristics can be enhanced by doping with suitable metal ions.

Keywords: apatite layer, biocompatibility, ceria, orthopaedic implant, SBF, spin coater, Ti-implant

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136 The Effect of Implant Design on the Height of Inter-Implant Bone Crest: A 10-Year Retrospective Study of the Astra Tech Implant and Branemark Implant

Authors: Daeung Jung

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Background: In case of patients with missing teeth, multiple implant restoration has been widely used and is inevitable. To increase its survival rate, it is important to understand the influence of different implant designs on inter-implant crestal bone resorption. There are several implant systems designed to minimize loss of crestal bone, and the Astra Tech and Brånemark Implant are two of them. Aim/Hypothesis: The aim of this 10-year study was to compare the height of inter-implant bone crest in two implant systems; the Astra Tech and the Brånemark implant system. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, 40 consecutively treated patients were utilized; 23 patients with 30 sites for Astra Tech system and 17 patients with 20 sites for Brånemark system. The implant restoration was comprised of splinted crown in partially edentulous patients. Radiographs were taken immediately after 1st surgery, at impression making, at prosthetics setting, and annually after loading. Lateral distance from implant to bone crest, inter-implant distance was gauged, and crestal bone height was measured from the implant shoulder to the first bone contact. Calibrations were performed with known length of thread pitch distance for vertical measurement, and known diameter of abutment or fixture for horizontal measurement using ImageJ. Results: After 10 years, patients treated with Astra Tech implant system demonstrated less inter-implant crestal bone resorption when implants had a distance of 3mm or less between them. In cases of implants that had a greater than 3 mm distance between them, however, there appeared to be no statistically significant difference in crestal bone loss between two systems. Conclusion and clinical implications: In the situation of partially edentulous patients planning to have more than two implants, the inter-implant distance is one of the most important factors to be considered. If it is impossible to make sure of having sufficient inter-implant distance, the implants with less micro gap in the fixture-abutment junction, less traumatic 2nd surgery approach, and the adequate surface topography would be choice of appropriate options to minimize inter-implant crestal bone resorption.

Keywords: implant design, crestal bone loss, inter-implant distance, 10-year retrospective study

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135 Cranioplasty with Custom Implant Realized Using 3D Printing Technology

Authors: Trad Khodja Rafik, Mahtout Amine, Ghoul Rachid, Benbouali Amine, Boulahlib Amine, Hariza Abdelmalik

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Cranioplasty with custom implant realized using 3D printing technology. Cranioplasty is a surgical act that aims restoring cranial bone losses in order to protect the brain from external aggressions and to improve the patient aesthetic appearance. This objective can be achieved with taking advantage of the current technological development in computer science and biomechanics. The objective of this paper it to present an approach for the realization of high precision biocompatible cranial implants using new 3D printing technologies at the lowest cost. The proposed method is to reproduce the missing part of the skull by referring to its healthy contralateral part. Once the model is validated by the neurosurgeons, a mold is 3D printed for the production of a biocompatible implant in Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate (PMMA) acrylic cement. Using this procedure four patients underwent this procedure with excellent aesthetic results.

Keywords: cranioplasty, cranial bone loss, 3D printing technology, custom-made implants, PMMA

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134 Biological Evaluation of Some Modern Titanium Alloys for Dental Implants

Authors: Roxana Maria Angelescu, Raluca Ion, Anişoara Cîmpean, Doina Răducanu, Mariana Lucia Angelescu

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In an attempt to find titanium alloys that fulfill the requirements for mechanical and biological compatibility, laboratory and material related tests were performed during the years, as well as preclinical and clinical trials. The multidisciplinary scientific research facilitates the global evaluation of biocompatibility and osseointegration regarding the dental implant alloys. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro biocompatibility of three modern titanium alloys: Ti-31.7Nb-6.21Zr-1.4Fe-0.16O (wt%), Ti-36.5Nb-4.5Zr-3Ta-0.16O (wt%) and Ti-20Nb-5Ta (wt%), in order to establish whether the use of these titanium alloys can have any toxic or injurious effects on biological systems. The commonly used Ti-6Al-4V alloy was investigated as a reference material. The behavior of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts on all these four metallic surfaces was evaluated. The tests of immunofluorescence, cytotoxicity and cellular proliferation lead to the conclusion that the newly-developed titanium alloys elicit a good cellular response in terms of cellular survival, adhesion, morphology and proliferative potential as well.

Keywords: biocompatibility tests, dental implants, titanium alloys, biomedical engineering

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133 Development and Characterization of Controlled Release Photo Cross-Linked Implants for Ocular Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide

Authors: Ravi Sheshala, Annie Lee, Ai Lin Ong, Ling Ling Cheu, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Thankur R. R. Singh

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The objectives of the present research work were to develop and characterize biodegradable controlled release photo cross-linked implants of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) for the treatment of chronic ocular diseases. The photo cross-linked implants were prepared using film casting technique by mixing TA (2.5%) polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA 700), pore formers (mannitol, maltose, and gelatin) and the photoinitiator (Irgacure 2959). The resulting mixture was injected into moulds using 21 G and subjected to photocrosslinking at 365 nm. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that more pores were formed in the films with the increase in the concentration of pore formers from 2%-10%. The maximum force required to break the films containing 2-10% of pore formers were determined in both dry and wet conditions using texture analyzer and found that films in a dry condition required a higher force to break compared to wet condition and blank films. In vitro drug release from photo cross-linked films were determined by incubating samples in 50 ml PBS pH 7.4 at 37 C and the samples were analyzed for drug release by HPLC. The films demonstrated a biphasic release profile i.e. an initial burst release (<20%) on the first day followed by a constant and continuous drug release in a controlled manner for 42 days. The drug release from all formulations followed the first-order release pattern and the combination of diffusion and erosion release mechanism. In conclusion, the developed formulations were able to provide controlled drug delivery to treat the chronic ocular diseases.

Keywords: controlled release, ophthalmic, PEGDA, photocrosslinking, pore formers

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132 Influence of Coenzyme as a Corrosion Barrier for Biodegradable Magnesium

Authors: Minjung Park, Jimin Park, Youngwoon Kim, Hyungseop Han, Myoungryul Ok, Hojeong Jeon, Hyunkwang Seok, Yuchan Kim

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Magnesium is an essential element in human body and has unique characteristics such as bioabsorbable and biodegradable properties. Therefore, there has been much attention on studies on the implants based on magnesium to avoid subsequent surgery. However, high amount of hydrogen gas is generated by relatively severe corrosion of magnesium especially in aqueous condition with chloride ions. And it contributes to the causes of swelling of skin and causes consequent inflammation of soft tissue where is directly in contact with implants. Therefore, there is still concern about the safety of the using biodegradable magnesium alloys, which is limited to various applications. In this study, we analyzed the influence of coenzyme on corrosion behavior of magnesium. The analysis of corrosion rate was held by using Hanks’ balanced salt solution (HBSS) as a body stimulated fluid and in condition of 37°C. Thus, with deferring the concentration of the coenzyme used in this study, corrosion rates from 0.0654ml/ cm² to 0.0438ml/cm² were observed in immersion tests. Also, comparable results were obtained in electrochemical tests. Results showed that hydrogen gas produced from corrosion of magnesium can be controlled.

Keywords: biodegradable magnesium, biomaterials, coenzyme, corrosion

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131 Influence of Ligature Tightening on Bone Fracture Risk in Interspinous Process Surgery

Authors: Dae Kyung Choi, Won Man Park, Kyungsoo Kim, Yoon Hyuk Kim

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The interspinous process devices have been recently used due to its advantages such as minimal invasiveness and less subsidence of the implant to the osteoporotic bone. In this paper, we have analyzed the influences of ligature tightening of several interspinous process devices using finite element analysis. Four types of interspinous process implants were inserted to the L3-4 spinal motion segment based on their surgical protocols. Inferior plane of L4 vertebra was fixed and 7.5 Nm of extension moment were applied on superior plane of L3 vertebra with 400N of compressive load along follower load direction and pretension of the ligature. The stability of the spinal unit was high enough than that of intact model. The higher value of pretension in the ligature led the decrease of dynamic stabilization effect in cases of the WallisTM, DiamTM, Viking, and Spear®. The results of present study could be used to evaluate surgical option and validate the biomechanical characteristics of the spinal implants.

Keywords: interspinous process device, bone fracture risk, lumbar spine, finite element analysis

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130 Biomechanics of Ceramic on Ceramic vs. Ceramic on Xlpe Total Hip Arthroplasties During Gait

Authors: Athanasios Triantafyllou, Georgios Papagiannis, Vassilios Nikolaou, Panayiotis J. Papagelopoulos, George C. Babis

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In vitro measurements are widely used in order to predict THAs wear rate implementing gait kinematic and kinetic parameters. Clinical tests of materials and designs are crucial to prove the accuracy and validate such measurements. The purpose of this study is to examine the affection of THA gait kinematics and kinetics on wear during gait, the essential functional activity of humans, by comparing in vivo gait data to in vitro results. Our study hypothesis is that both implants will present the same hip joint kinematics and kinetics during gait. 127 unilateral primary cementless total hip arthroplasties were included in the research. Independent t-tests were used to identify a statistically significant difference in kinetic and kinematic data extracted from 3D gait analysis. No statistically significant differences observed at mean peak abduction, flexion and extension moments between the two groups (P.abduction= 0,125, P.flexion= 0,218, P.extension= 0,082). The kinematic measurements show no statistically significant differences too (Prom flexion-extension= 0,687, Prom abduction-adduction= 0,679). THA kinematics and kinetics during gait are important biomechanical parameters directly associated with implants wear. In vitro studies report less wear in CoC than CoXLPE when tested with the same gait cycle kinematic protocol. Our findings confirm that both implants behave identically in terms of kinematics in the clinical environment, thus strengthening in vitro results of CoC advantage. Correlated to all other significant factors that affect THA wear could address in a complete prism the wear on CoC and CoXLPE.

Keywords: total hip arthroplasty biomechanics, THA gait analysis, ceramic on ceramic kinematics, ceramic on XLPE kinetics, total hip replacement wear

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129 Design and Fabrication of Stiffness Reduced Metallic Locking Compression Plates through Topology Optimization and Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Abdulsalam A. Al-Tamimi, Chris Peach, Paulo Rui Fernandes, Paulo J. Bartolo

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Bone fixation implants currently used to treat traumatic fractured bones and to promote fracture healing are built with biocompatible metallic materials such as stainless steel, cobalt chromium and titanium and its alloys (e.g., CoCrMo and Ti6Al4V). The noticeable stiffness mismatch between current metallic implants and host bone associates with negative outcomes such as stress shielding which causes bone loss and implant loosening leading to deficient fracture treatment. This paper, part of a major research program to design the next generation of bone fixation implants, describes the combined use of three-dimensional (3D) topology optimization (TO) and additive manufacturing powder bed technology (Electron Beam Melting) to redesign and fabricate the plates based on the current standard one (i.e., locking compression plate). Topology optimization is applied with an objective function to maximize the stiffness and constraint by volume reductions (i.e., 25-75%) in order to obtain optimized implant designs with reduced stress shielding phenomenon, under different boundary conditions (i.e., tension, bending, torsion and combined loads). The stiffness of the original and optimised plates are assessed through a finite-element study. The TO results showed actual reduction in the stiffness for most of the plates due to the critical values of volume reduction. Additionally, the optimized plates fabricated using powder bed techniques proved that the integration between the TO and additive manufacturing presents the capability of producing stiff reduced plates with acceptable tolerances.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, locking compression plate, finite element, topology optimization

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128 Modification and Surface Characterization of the Co20Cr15W10Ni Alloy for Application as Biomaterial

Authors: Fernanda A. Vechietti, Natália O. B. Muniz, Laura C. Treccani, Kurosch. Rezwan, Luis Alberto dos Santos

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CoCr alloys are widely used in prosthetic implants due to their excellent mechanical properties, such as good tensile strength, elastic modulus and wear resistance. Their biocompatibility and lack of corrosion are also prominent features of this alloy. One of the most effective and simple ways to protect metal’s surfaces are treatments, such as electrochemical oxidation by passivation, which is used as a protect release of metallic ions. Another useful treatment is the electropolishing, which is used to reduce the carbide concentration and protrusion at the implanted surface. Electropolishing is a cheap and effective method for treatment of implants, which generally has complex geometries. The purpose of this study is surface modification of the alloy CoCr(ASTM F90-09) by different methods: polishing, electro polishing, passivation and heat treatment for application as biomaterials. The modification of the surface was studied and characterized by SEM, profilometry, wettability and compared to the surface of the samples untreated. The heat treatment and of passivation increased roughness (0.477 µm and 0.825 µm) the samples in relation the sample electropolished and polished(0.131 µm and 0.274 µm) and were observed the improve wettability’s with the increase the roughness.

Keywords: biomaterial, CoCr, surface treatment, heat treatment, roughness

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127 Effects of Insulin on Osseointegration around Implant in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-Diabetic Rats

Authors: Xing Wang, Lin Feng, Lingling E., Hongchen Liu

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In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) there is poorer quality osseointegration than in non-diabetic (n-DM) patients, and the success of dental implants is less. Recent studies have demonstrated that insulin could stimulate bone cells to produce and accelerate implant osseointegration in DM patients.This raised the question whether insulin could provide local bone anabolic effects in non-diabetic patients. In this study,48 SD rats were divided into four groups randomly: DM group, DM+insulin group, n-DM group, n-DM + insulin group. All rats were implanted the titanium implant near the epiphyseal end of tibia, then the DM + insulin and n-DM + insulin group received twice-daily subcutaneous injections of insulin (10U/day).Two,four and eight weeks after implantation, rats were killed in batches. Histomorphometry and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate bone formation and osseointegration. The amount of newly formed bone, Implant–bone contact and the expression of OCN,RUNX2 in the DM+insulin, n-DM and n-DM+insulin group were significantly more than in the DM group (p<0.05). Compared with the n-DM group,the Implant–bone contact and expression of OCN,RUNX2 were significantly increased in n-DM+insulin group (p< 0.05). Taken together,these observations provide evidence that insulin has the potential to increase bone formation and osseointegration around implant not only in diabetic subjects but also in non-diabetic subject.

Keywords: insulin, diabetes mellitus, osseointegration, dental implants

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126 Biological Activity of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Surface of Implants

Authors: Saimir Heta, Ilma Robo, Dhimiter Papakozma, Eduart Kapaj, Vera Ostreni

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Introduction: The biocompatible materials applied to the implant surfaces are the target of recent literature studies. Methodologies: Modification of implant surfaces in different ways such as application of additional ions, surface microstructure change, surface or laser ultrasound alteration, or application of various substances such as recombinant proteins are among the most affected by articles published in the literature. The study is of review type with the main aim of finding the different ways that the mesenchymal cell reaction to these materials is, according to the literature, in the same percentage positive to the osteointegration process. Results: It is emphasized in the literature that implant success as a key evaluation key has more to implement implant treatment protocol ranging from dental health amenity and subsequent of the choice of implant type depending on the alveolar shape of the ridge level. Conclusions: Osteointegration is a procedure that should initially be physiologically independent of the type of implant pile material. With this physiological process, it can not "boast" for implant success or implantation depending on the brand of the selected implant, as the breadth of synthetic or natural materials that promote osteointegration is relatively large.

Keywords: mesenchymal cells, implants, review, biocompatible materials

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